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A menagerie is a collection of captive animals, frequently exotic, kept for display; or the place where such a collection is kept, a precursor to the modern
zoological garden A zoo (short for zoological garden; also called an animal park or menagerie) is a facility in which animals are housed within enclosures, cared for, displayed to the public, and in some cases bred. The term "zoological garden" refers to zoology, ...

zoological garden
. The term was first used in 17th-century
France France (), officially the French Republic (french: link=no, République française), is a transcontinental country This is a list of countries located on more than one continent A continent is one of several large landmasses ...

France
, in reference to the management of household or domestic stock. Later, it came to be used primarily in reference to
aristocratic Aristocracy ( grc-gre, ἀριστοκρατία , from 'excellent', and , 'rule') is a form of government that places strength in the hands of a small, privileged ruling class, the aristocrats. The term derives from the Greek ''aristokrat ...
or royal animal collections. The French-language ''Methodical Encyclopaedia'' of 1782 defines a menagerie as an "establishment of luxury and curiosity". Later on, the term referred also to travelling animal collections that exhibited wild animals at fairs across
Europe Europe is a continent A continent is any of several large landmass A landmass, or land mass, is a large region In geography Geography (from Greek: , ''geographia'', literally "earth description") is a field of scienc ...

Europe
and the
Americas The Americas (also collectively called America) is a landmass comprising the totality of North America, North and South America. The Americas make up most of the land in Earth's Western Hemisphere and comprise the New World. Along with th ...

Americas
.


Aristocratic menageries

A menagerie was mostly connected with an aristocratic or royal court and was situated within a garden or park of a palace. These aristocrats wanted to illustrate their power and wealth, because exotic animals, alive and active, were less common, more difficult to acquire, and more expensive to maintain. The aristocratic menageries are distinguished from the later zoological garden (zoos) since they were founded and owned by aristocrats whose intentions were not primarily of scientific and educational interest.


Medieval period and Renaissance

During the
Middle Ages In the history of Europe The history of Europe concerns itself with the discovery and collection, the study, organization and presentation and the interpretation of past events and affairs of the people of Europe since the beginning of ...
, several sovereigns across Europe maintained menageries at their royal courts. An early example is that of the Emperor
Charlemagne Charlemagne ( , ) or Charles the Great ( la, Carolus Magnus; 2 April 748 – 28 January 814) was King of the Franks The Franks—Germanic-speaking peoples that invaded the Western Roman Empire in the 5th century—were first led by i ...

Charlemagne
in the 8th century. His three menageries, at
Aachen Aachen ( ; Aachen dialect: ''Oche'' ; French language, French and traditional English language, English: Aix-la-Chapelle ; Latin: ''Aquae Granni'' or ''Aquisgranum''; nl, Aken) is, with around 249,000 inhabitants, the 13th-largest city of No ...

Aachen
,
Nijmegen Nijmegen ( , ;; Spanish language, Spanish and it, Nimega. South Guelderish, Nijmeegs: ''Nimwèège'' ) is a city in the Dutch province of Gelderland, on the Waal (river), Waal river close to the Germany–Netherlands border, German border ...

Nijmegen
and
Ingelheim Ingelheim (), officially Ingelheim am Rhein ( en, Ingelheim upon Rhine ), Surselva Surselva Region is one of the eleven administrative districts Administrative division, administrative unitArticle 3(1). , country subdivision, administrat ...
, located in present-day
Netherlands ) , national_anthem = ( en, "William of Nassau") , image_map = EU-Netherlands.svg , map_caption = , image_map2 = BES islands location map.svg , map_caption2 = , image_map3 ...

Netherlands
and
Germany ) , image_map = , map_caption = , map_width = 250px , capital = Berlin Berlin (; ) is the Capital city, capital and List of cities in Germany by population, largest city of Germany by both area and population. Its 3,769,495 inh ...

Germany
, housed the first elephants seen in Europe since the
Roman Empire The Roman Empire ( la, Imperium Rōmānum ; grc-gre, Βασιλεία τῶν Ῥωμαίων, Basileía tôn Rhōmaíōn) was the post-Republican Republican can refer to: Political ideology * An advocate of a republic, a type of governme ...

Roman Empire
, along with monkeys, lions, bears, camels, falcons, and many exotic birds. Charlemagne received exotic animals for his collection as gifts from rulers of Africa and Asia. Fisher, James, ''Zoos of the World: The Story of Animals in Captivity'', Aldus Book, London, 1966, p. 40. In 797, the
caliph A caliphate ( ar, خِلَافَة, ) is an Islamic state {{Infobox war faction , name = Islamic State , anthem = '' Dawlat al-Islam Qamat'' {{small, ("My Ummah ' ( ar, أمة ) is an Arabic Arabic (, ' ...
of
Baghdad Baghdad (; ar, بَغْدَاد ) is the capital of Iraq Iraq ( ar, الْعِرَاق, translit=al-ʿIrāq; ku, عێراق, translit=Êraq), officially the Republic of Iraq ( ar, جُمْهُورِيَّة ٱلْعِرَاق '; ku, ...

Baghdad
,
Harun al-Rashid Harun al-Rashid (; ar, هَارُون الرَشِيد ''Hārūn Ar-Rašīd'', "Aaron the Just" or "Aaron the Rightly-Guided"; 17 March 763 or February 766 – 24 March 809 Common Era, CE / 148–193 Hijri year, AH) was the fifth Abbasid C ...
, presented Charlemagne with an Asian elephant named
Abul-Abbas Abul-Abbas was an Asian elephant brought back to Carolingian emperor Charlemagne by his diplomat Isaac the Jew. The gift was from the Abbasid caliph Harun al-Rashid and symbolizes the beginning of Abbasid–Carolingian relations. The elephant ...
. The pachyderm arrived on July 1, 802 to the Emperor's residence in
Aachen Aachen ( ; Aachen dialect: ''Oche'' ; French language, French and traditional English language, English: Aix-la-Chapelle ; Latin: ''Aquae Granni'' or ''Aquisgranum''; nl, Aken) is, with around 249,000 inhabitants, the 13th-largest city of No ...

Aachen
. He died in June 810.
William the Conqueror William I (c. 1028Bates ''William the Conqueror'' p. 33 – 9 September 1087), usually known as William the Conqueror and sometimes William the Bastard, was the first House of Normandy, Norman List of English monarchs, monarch of Engl ...

William the Conqueror
had a small royal menagerie. At his manor, Woodstock, he began a collection of exotic animals. Around the year 1100 his son, Henry I, enclosed Woodstock and enlarged the collection. At the beginning of the 12th century,
Henry I of England Henry I (c. 1068 – 1 December 1135), also known as Henry Beauclerc, was King of England This list of kings and queens of the begins with , who initially ruled , one of the which later made up modern England. Alfred styled himself ...

Henry I of England
is known to have kept a collection of animals at his palace in
Woodstock Woodstock was a music festival held August 15–18, 1969, on Max Yasgur's dairy farm in Bethel, New York, southwest of the town of Woodstock. Billed as "an Aquarian Exposition: 3 Days of Peace & Music" and alternatively referred to as t ...
,
Oxfordshire Oxfordshire is a landlocked county A county is a geographical region of a country used for administrative or other purposesChambers Dictionary The ''Chambers Dictionary'' (''TCD'') was first published by William Chambers (publisher), ...

Oxfordshire
, reportedly including
lion The lion (''Panthera leo'') is a large Felidae, cat of the genus ''Panthera'' native to Africa and India. It has a muscular, deep-chested body, short, rounded head, round ears, and a hairy tuft at the end of its tail. It is sexually dimorphic; ...

lion
s,
leopard The leopard (''Panthera pardus'') is one of the five extant in the ', a member of the cat , . It occurs in a wide range in , in some parts of and , , and on the to and . It is listed as on the because leopard populations are threatened ...

leopard
s,
lynx A lynx (; plural lynx or lynxes) is any of the four species (the Canada lynx, Iberian lynx, Eurasian lynx, or bobcat The bobcat (''Lynx rufus''), also known as the red lynx, is a medium-sized cat The cat (''Fel ...

lynx
es,
camel A camel is an even-toed ungulate The even-toed ungulates (Artiodactyla , ) are ungulates—hoofed animals—which bear weight equally on two (an even number) of their five toes: the third and fourth. The other three toes are either present, ...

camel
s,
owl Owls are bird Birds are a group of warm-blooded vertebrate Vertebrates () comprise all species of animal Animals (also called Metazoa) are multicellular eukaryotic organisms that form the Kingdom (biology), biological k ...

owl
s and a
porcupine Porcupines are large rodent Rodents (from Latin , 'to gnaw') are mammals of the Order (biology), order Rodentia (), which are characterized by a single pair of continuously growing incisors in each of the upper and lower jaws. About 40% o ...

porcupine
.Blunt, Wilfrid, ''The Ark in the Park: The Zoo in the Nineteenth Century'', Hamish Hamilton, 1976, pp. 15–17. . The most prominent animal collection in medieval England was the Tower Menagerie in London that began as early as 1204. It was established by King
John John is a common English name and surname: * John (given name) John is a common English name and surname: * John (given name) * John (surname), including a list of people who have the name John John may also refer to: New Testament Works ...

John
, who reigned in England from 1199 to 1216 and is known to have held
lion The lion (''Panthera leo'') is a large Felidae, cat of the genus ''Panthera'' native to Africa and India. It has a muscular, deep-chested body, short, rounded head, round ears, and a hairy tuft at the end of its tail. It is sexually dimorphic; ...

lion
s and
bear Bears are carnivoran mammals of the family (biology), family Ursidae. They are classified as caniforms, or doglike carnivorans. Although only eight species of bears are extant, they are widespread, appearing in a wide variety of habitats thr ...

bear
s.
Henry IIIHenry III may refer to: * Henry III, Duke of Bavaria (940–989) * Henry III, Holy Roman Emperor (1017–1056) * Henry III, Count of Louvain (died 1095) * Henry III, Count of Luxembourg (died 1096) * Henry III, Duke of Carinthia (1050–1122) * Henr ...

Henry III
received a wedding gift in 1235 of three
leopard The leopard (''Panthera pardus'') is one of the five extant in the ', a member of the cat , . It occurs in a wide range in , in some parts of and , , and on the to and . It is listed as on the because leopard populations are threatened ...

leopard
s from
Frederick II, Holy Roman Emperor Frederick II (German German(s) may refer to: Common uses * of or related to Germany * Germans, Germanic ethnic group, citizens of Germany or people of German ancestry * For citizens of Germany, see also German nationality law * German la ...

Frederick II, Holy Roman Emperor
. The most spectacular arrivals in the early years were a white bear and an elephant, gifts from the kings of
Norway Norway, officially the Kingdom of Norway,Names in the official and recognised languages: Bokmål Bokmål (, ; literally "book tongue") is an official written standard for the Norwegian language Norwegian (Norwegian: ''norsk'') is a Nort ...

Norway
and
France France (), officially the French Republic (french: link=no, République française), is a transcontinental country This is a list of countries located on more than one continent A continent is one of several large landmasses ...

France
in 1251 and in 1254 respectively. In 1264, the animals were moved to the Bulwark, which was renamed the Lion Tower, near the main western entrance of the Tower. This building was constituted by rows of
cage A cage is an enclosure often made of mesh A mesh is a barrier made of connected strands of metal A metal (from Ancient Greek, Greek μέταλλον ''métallon'', "mine, quarry, metal") is a material that, when freshly prepared, poli ...
s with arched entrances, enclosed behind grilles. They were set in two storeys, and it appears that the animals used the upper cages during the day and were moved to the lower storey at night.O'Regan, Hannah,
From bear pit to zoo
, British Archaeology, No. 68, December 2002, pp. 13–19.
The menagerie was opened to the public during the reign of
Elizabeth I Elizabeth I (7 September 153324 March 1603) was Queen of England and Ireland Ireland ( ; ga, Éire ; Ulster-Scots: ) is an island upright=1.15, Great_Britain.html"_;"title="Ireland_(left)_and_Great_Britain">Ireland_(left)_an ...

Elizabeth I
in the 16th century. During the 18th century, the price of admission was three half-pence, or the supply of a cat or dog to be fed to the
lion The lion (''Panthera leo'') is a large Felidae, cat of the genus ''Panthera'' native to Africa and India. It has a muscular, deep-chested body, short, rounded head, round ears, and a hairy tuft at the end of its tail. It is sexually dimorphic; ...

lion
s. Animals recorded here at the end of the 18th century included lions, tigers,
hyaena The striped hyena (''Hyaena hyaena'') is a species of hyena Hyenas, or hyaenas (from Ancient Greek , ), are feliformia, feliform carnivoran mammals of the family Hyaenidae . With only four extant species (each in their own genus), it is the f ...

hyaena
s and bears. Most of the animals were transferred in 1831 to the newly opened
London Zoo London Zoo is the world's oldest scientific zoo A zoo (short for zoological garden; also called an animal park or menagerie) is a facility in which animal Animals (also called Metazoa) are multicellular eukaryotic organisms that form ...
at Regent's Park, which did not receive all the animals but rather shared them with
Dublin Zoo Dublin Zoo ( ga, Zú Bhaile Átha Cliath), in Phoenix Park, Dublin, is a zoo in Ireland, and one of Dublin's most popular attractions. Established and designed in 1830 by Decimus Burton, it opened the following year. The zoo describes its role ...
.Mullan, Bob and Marvin, Garry, ''Zoo Culture: The Book about Watching People Watch Animals'', Weidenfeld and Nicolson, London, 1987, p. 109. . The Tower Menagerie was finally closed in 1835, on the orders of the
Duke of Wellington Field Marshal Arthur Wellesley, 1st Duke of Wellington, (1 May 1769 – 14 September 1852) was an Anglo-Irish people, Anglo-Irish soldier and Tories (British political party), Tory statesman who was one of the leading military and political fi ...

Duke of Wellington
."Big cats prowled London's tower"
BBC News BBC News is an operational business division of the British Broadcasting Corporation The British Broadcasting Corporation (BBC) is a public service broadcaster Public broadcasting involves radio Radio is the technology of signali ...

BBC News
, October 24, 2005.
The Tower Menagerie in London can be considered to have been the royal menagerie of England for six centuries. In the first half of the thirteenth century, Emperor Frederick II had three permanent menageries in Italy, at
Melfi Melfi (: ) is a town and ' in the of the , in the Southern Italian region of . Geographically, it is midway between and . In 2015 it had a population of 17,768. Geography On a hill at the foot of , Melfi is the most important town in Basilicat ...

Melfi
in
Basilicata Basilicata (, , ), also known by Lucania, its ancient name Lucania (, also , ), is an administrative Regions of Italy, region in Southern Italy, bordering on Campania to the west, Apulia to the north and east, and Calabria to the south. It has two ...
, at
Lucera Lucera ( Lucerino: ) is an Italian city of 34,243 inhabitants in the province of Foggia The Province of Foggia ( it, Provincia di Foggia ; Neapolitan language, Foggiano: ) is a Provinces of Italy, province in the Apulia (Puglia) region of south ...

Lucera
in
Apulia it, Pugliese , population_note = , population_blank1_title = , population_blank1 = , demographics_type1 = , demographics1_footnotes = , demographics1_title1 = , demographics1_info1 = , demographics1_titl ...

Apulia
and at
Palermo Palermo ( , ; scn, Palermu , locally also or ; la, Panormus, from grc, Πάνορμος, Pánormos; older ar, بَلَرْم‎, Balarm) is a city in southern Italy Southern Italy ( it, Sud Italia; nap, 'o Sudde; scn, Italia dû Sud), ...

Palermo
in
Sicily (man) it, Siciliana (woman) , population_note = , population_blank1_title = , population_blank1 = , demographics_type1 = Ethnicity , demographics1_footnotes = , demographi ...

Sicily
. Fisher, James, ''Zoos of the World: The Story of Animals in Captivity'', Aldus Book, London, 1966, p. 41. In 1235, the Holy Roman Emperor
Frederick IIFrederick II, Frederik II or Friedrich II may refer to: * Frederick II, Holy Roman Emperor (1194–1250), King of Sicily from 1198; Holy Roman Emperor from 1220 * Frederick II of Denmark (1534–1588), king of Denmark and Norway 1559–1588 * Freder ...

Frederick II
established at his court in southern
Italy Italy ( it, Italia ), officially the Italian Republic ( it, Repubblica Italiana, links=no ), is a country consisting of a peninsula delimited by the Alps The Alps ; german: Alpen ; it, Alpi ; rm, Alps; sl, Alpe ) are the highest ...

Italy
the "first great menagerie" in western
Europe Europe is a continent A continent is any of several large landmass A landmass, or land mass, is a large region In geography Geography (from Greek: , ''geographia'', literally "earth description") is a field of scienc ...

Europe
. An elephant, a white bear, a giraffe, a leopard, hyenas, lions, cheetahs, camels and monkeys were all exhibited; but the emperor was particularly interested in
bird Birds are a group of warm-blooded vertebrate Vertebrates () comprise all species of animal Animals (also called Metazoa) are multicellular eukaryotic organisms that form the Kingdom (biology), biological kingdom Animalia. With ...

bird
s, and studied them sufficiently to write a number of authoritative books on them.Hoage, Robert J., Roskell, Anne and Mansour, Jane, "Menageries and Zoos to 1900", in ''New World, New Animals: From Menagerie to Zoological Park in the Nineteenth Century'', Hoage, Robert J. and Deiss, William A. (ed.), Johns Hopkins University Press, Baltimore, 1996, pp. 8–18. . In the beginning of the 15th century, a royal menagerie was established in the Royal Palace of
Lisbon Lisbon (; pt, Lisboa ) is the capital and the largest city of Portugal, with an estimated population of 544,851 within its administrative limits in an area of 100.05 km2. Grande Lisboa, Lisbon's urban area extends beyond the city's admin ...

Lisbon
, located nearby the Castle of Saint George. Following the
conquest of Ceuta The conquest of Ceuta () by the Portuguese on 21 August 1415 marks an important step in the beginning of the Portuguese Empire The Portuguese Empire ( pt, Império Português), also known as the Portuguese Overseas (''Ultramar Português'' ...
in
1415 Year 1415 ( MCDXV) was a common year starting on Tuesday A common year starting on Tuesday is any non-leap year A leap year (also known as an intercalary year or wikt:bissextile, bissextile year) is a calendar year that contains an additiona ...

1415
, King
John I of Portugal John I ( pt, João WP:IPA for Portuguese, uˈɐ̃w̃ 11 April 1357 – 14 August 1433), also called John of Aviz, was List of Portuguese monarchs, King of Portugal from 1385 until his death in 1433. He is recognized chiefly for his role in ...
brought back to Lisbon two
Barbary lion The Barbary lion is an extinct Extinction is the termination of a kind of organism In biology, an organism (from Ancient Greek, Greek: ὀργανισμός, ''organismos'') is any individual contiguous system that embodies the Life#Bi ...

Barbary lion
s, and they were installed in a large room inside his Palace in the Citadel of Lisbon. This area of the Palace came to be known as ''Casa dos Leões'' (the "Lions' House"); today the area is occupied by a famed restaurant with the same name. Later that century, German
humanist Humanism is a philosophical Philosophy (from , ) is the study of general and fundamental questions, such as those about reason, existence, knowledge Knowledge is a familiarity, awareness, or understanding of someone or some ...

humanist
Hieronymus MünzerHieronymus Münzer or Monetarius (1437/47 – 27 August 1508) was a Renaissance humanist Renaissance humanism was a revival in the study of classical antiquity, at first Italian Renaissance, in Italy and then spreading across Western Europe in the ...
spent five days in Lisbon in
1494 Year 1494 (Roman numerals, MCDXCIV) was a common year starting on Wednesday (link will display the full calendar) of the Julian calendar. Events January–December * January 4 – The Cetinje Octoechos (Цетињски октои ...
, and learned about the lions, claiming to be the most beautiful wild beasts he had ever seen. Hengerer, Mark, and Weber, Nadir (eds.)
''Animals and Courts: Europe, c. 1200–1800''
Berlin: Walter de Gruyter GmbH & Co KG, 2019. .
Later on, the ménagerie of King Manuel I (1495-1521), inside the
Ribeira Palace Ribeira Palace (; pt, Paço da Ribeira) was the main residence of the List of Portuguese monarchs, Kings of Portugal, in Lisbon, for around 250 years. Its construction was ordered by King Manuel I of Portugal when he found the São Jorge Castle, R ...
, in , was appreciated in Europe due to its huge elephants that the king ordered to be brought from India. One of his elephants,
Hanno Hanno may refer to: People *Hanno ( xpu, 𐤇‬𐤍‬𐤀‬‬, '; , ''Hannōn''), common Carthaginian name :* Hanno the Navigator, Carthaginian explorer :* Hanno the Elder (died 204 BC), Carthaginian general :*Hanno I the Great (4th century ...
, as well as a
rhinoceros A rhinoceros (, , ), commonly abbreviated to rhino, is a member of any of the five extant Extant is the opposite of the word extinct Extinction is the termination of a kind of organism or of a group of kinds (taxon), usually a species. T ...
depicted by were famous gifts to
Pope Leo X Pope Leo X (born Giovanni di Lorenzo de' Medici, 11 December 14751 December 1521) was head of the Catholic Church and ruler of the Papal States from 9 March 1513 to his death in 1521. Born into the prominent political and banking Medici family ...

Pope Leo X
. However, the rhinoceros drowned as a result of a shipwreck suffered during the transport trip to Italy.Baratay, Eric and Hardouin-Fugier, Elisabeth, ''Zoos: Histoire des jardins zoologiques en Occident (XVIe-XXe siècle)''. Paris: Éditions La Découverte, 1998, p. 54-59. By the end of the 15th century, the aristocracy of
Renaissance Italy The Italian Renaissance ( it, Rinascimento ) was a period in Italian history The history of Italy covers the Ancient Period, the Middle Ages and the modern era. Since classical times, ancient Phoenicians, Magna Graecia, Greeks, Etruscan civil ...
began to collect exotic animals at their residences on the outskirts of the cities. The role played by animals within the gardens of Italian
villa with early terraced hillside landscape A landscape is the visible features of an area of land Land is the solid surface of Earth that is not permanently submerged in water. Most but not all land is situated at elevations above sea leve ...

villa
s expanded at the end of the 16th century and the beginning of the seventeenth century, and one prominent example was the
Villa Borghese{{short description, Wikipedia disambiguation page The Villa Borghese, Rome, houses the Galleria Borghese. Villa Borghese may refer to: *The Villa Borghese Pinciana ("Borghese villa on the Pincian Hill The Pincian Hill (; it, Pincio ; la, M ...

Villa Borghese
built 1608–1628 in
Rome , established_title = Founded , established_date = 753 BC , founder = King Romulus , image_map = Map of comune of Rome (metropolitan city of Capital Rome, region Lazio, Italy).svg , map_caption = The te ...

Rome
.Baratay, Eric and Hardouin-Fugier, Elisabeth, ''Zoo: A History of Zoological Gardens in the West'', Reaktion Books, London, 2002, pp. 43–46. .


Versailles and its legacy

During the seventeenth century, exotic birds and small animals provided diverting ornaments for the court of
France France (), officially the French Republic (french: link=no, République française), is a transcontinental country This is a list of countries located on more than one continent A continent is one of several large landmasses ...

France
; lions and other large animals were kept primarily to be brought out for staged fights. The collecting grew and attained more permanent lodgings in the 1660s, when Louis XIV constructed two new menageries: one at Vincennes, next to a palace on the eastern edge of Paris, and a more elaborate one, which became a model for menageries throughout Europe, at Versailles, the site of a royal hunting lodge two hours (by carriage) west of Paris. Around 1661, he had a menagerie of "ferocious" beasts built at Vincennes for the organization of fights. Surrounding a rectangular courtyard, a two-storey building with balconies allowed spectators to view the scene. The animals were housed on the ground floor in cells bordering the courtyard, with small yards on the outside where they could take a bit of exercise. At
Vincennes Vincennes (, ) is a Communes of France, commune in the Val-de-Marne Departments of France, department in the eastern suburbs of Paris, France. It is located from the Kilometre Zero, centre of Paris. It is one of the most densely populated municip ...

Vincennes
, lions, tigers, and leopards were kept in cages around an amphitheater where the king could entertain courtiers and visiting dignitaries with bloody battles. In 1682, for instance, the ambassador of Persia enjoyed the spectacle of a fight to the death between a royal tiger and an elephant. When the
palace of Versailles The Palace of Versailles ( ; french: Château de Versailles ) is a former royal residence located in Versailles, about west of Paris Paris () is the Capital city, capital and List of communes in France with over 20,000 inhabitants, mo ...

palace of Versailles
was built,
Louis XIV Louis XIV (Louis Dieudonné; 5 September 16381 September 1715), also known as Louis the Great () or the Sun King (), was King of France from 14 May 1643 until his death in 1715. His reign of 72 years and 110 days is the List of longest-reigning mo ...

Louis XIV
of
France France (), officially the French Republic (french: link=no, République française), is a transcontinental country This is a list of countries located on more than one continent A continent is one of several large landmasses ...

France
also erected a menagerie within the palace’s park. The menagerie at Versailles was to be something very different from the one at Vincennes. Most of it was constructed in 1664 when the first animals were introduced, although the interior fittings were not finished until 1668-70. Situated in the south-west of the park, it was Louis XIV’s first major project at Versailles and one of several pleasure houses that were gradually assembled around the palace.Baratay, Eric and Hardouin-Fugier, Elisabeth, ''Zoo: A History of Zoological Gardens in the West'', Reaktion Books, London, 2002, pp.48-49. It represented the first menagerie according to
Baroque The Baroque (, ; ) is a style Style is a manner of doing or presenting things and may refer to: * Architectural style, the features that make a building or structure historically identifiable * Design, the process of creating something * Fashi ...

Baroque
style. The prominent feature of Baroque menageries was the circular layout, in the middle of which stood a beautiful pavilion. Around this pavilion was a walking path and outside this path were the enclosures and cages. Each enclosure had a house or stable at the far end for the animals and was bounded on three sides with walls. There were bars only in the direction of the pavilion.Strehlow, Harro, "Zoological Gardens of Western Europe", in ''Zoo and Aquarium History: Ancient Collections to Zoological Gardens'', Vernon N. Kisling (ed.), CRC Press, Boca Raton, 2001, p.82. Animal fights were halted at
Vincennes Vincennes (, ) is a Communes of France, commune in the Val-de-Marne Departments of France, department in the eastern suburbs of Paris, France. It is located from the Kilometre Zero, centre of Paris. It is one of the most densely populated municip ...

Vincennes
around 1700, the site fell into disuse, and the animals were installed at Versailles with the others. At about this time, the lions, leopards, and tigers from the menagerie at Vincennes were transferred to Versailles, where they were housed in newly built enclosures fronted with iron bars.Robbins, Louise E., ''Elephant Slaves and Pampered Parrots: Exotic Animals in Eighteenth-Century Paris'', Johns Hopkins University Press, Baltimore, 2002, pp.37-67. This particular enterprise marked a decisive step in the creation of menageries of curiosities and was imitated to some extent throughout Europe after the late seventeenth century. Monarchs, princes and important lords built them in France (Chantilly from 1663), England (Kew, Osterley), the United Provinces (Het Loo from 1748), Portugal (Belém in 1726, Queluz around 1780), Spain (Madrid in 1774) and Austria (
BelvedereBelvedere (from Italian, meaning "beautiful sight") may refer to: Places Australia *Belvedere, Queensland, a locality in the Cassowary Coast Region, Australia Africa *Belvedere (Casablanca), a neighborhood in Casablanca, Morocco *Belvedere, Ha ...
in 1716, Schönbrunn in 1752) as well in the Germanic lands following the ravages of the
Thirty Years' War The Thirty Years' War was a conflict fought largely within the Holy Roman Empire The Holy Roman Empire ( la, Sacrum Romanum Imperium; german: Heiliges Römisches Reich) was a multi-ethnic complex of territories in Western Europe, Weste ...
(1618–1648) and the ensuing reconstruction. Frederick William, Elector of
Prussia Prussia, , Old Prussian Distribution of the Baltic tribes, circa 1200 CE (boundaries are approximate). Old Prussian was a Western Baltic language belonging to the Balto-Slavic branch of the Indo-European languages The Indo-Europ ...

Prussia
, equipped
Potsdam Potsdam () is the capital and largest city of the Germany, German States of Germany, state of Brandenburg. It directly borders the German capital, Berlin, and is part of the Berlin/Brandenburg Metropolitan Region. It is situated on the Havel, Ri ...

Potsdam
with a menagerie around 1680. The
Elector of the Palatinate Elector may refer to: * Prince-elector or elector, a member of the electoral college of the Holy Roman Empire, having the function of electing the Holy Roman Emperors * Elector, a member of an electoral college ** Confederate elector, a member of ...
, the Prince Regent of
Westphalia Westphalia (; german: Westfalen ; nds, Westfalen ) is a region of northwestern Germany and one of the three historic parts of the state of North Rhine-Westphalia. It has an area of and 7.9 million inhabitants. The territory of the region ...

Westphalia
and many others followed suit.Baratay, Eric and Hardouin-Fugier, Elisabeth, ''Zoo: A History of Zoological Gardens in the West'', Reaktion Books, London, 2002, pp.40-41. This design was adopted particularly by the
Habsburg The House of Habsburg (), alternatively spelled Hapsburg in English (german: Haus Habsburg ; es, Casa de Habsburgo ; hu, Habsburg-család), also known as the House of Austria (german: link=no, Haus Österreich; es, link=no, Casa de Austria), ...

Habsburg
monarchy in Austria. In 1752
Francis IFrancis I or Francis the First may refer to: * Francesco I Gonzaga (1366–1407) * Francis I, Duke of Brittany (1414–1450), reigned 1442–1450 * Francis I of France (1494–1547), reigned 1515–1547 * Francis I, Duke of Saxe-Lauenburg (1510–15 ...
erected his famous Baroque menagerie in the park of
Schönbrunn Palace Schönbrunn Palace (german: Schloss Schönbrunn ; Central Bavarian: ''Schloss Scheenbrunn'') was the main summer residence of the Habsburg rulers, located in Hietzing, Vienna en, Viennese , iso_code = AT-9 , regi ...

Schönbrunn Palace
near
Vienna Vienna ( ; german: Wien ; bar, Wean, label=Bavarian language, Austro-Bavarian ) is the Capital city, national capital, largest city, and one of States of Austria, nine states of Austria. Vienna is Austria's List of cities and towns in Austria, mos ...

Vienna
. Being at first a courtly menagerie with private character it was opened to the general public in 1779. Initially, it was only open for "respectably dressed persons". Another aristocratic menagerie was founded in 1774 by
Charles III of Spain it, Carlo Sebastiano di Borbone e Farnese , house = BourbonBourbon may refer to: Food and drink * Bourbon whiskey, an American whiskey made using a corn-based mash * Bourbon barrel aged beer, a type of beer aged in bourbon barrels * ...

Charles III of Spain
on grounds which were part of the gardens of the Palace in
Madrid Madrid ( , ) is the capital and most populous city of Spain , image_flag = Bandera de España.svg , image_coat = Escudo de España (mazonado).svg , national_motto = , national_anthem = , image_ ...

Madrid
. During two centuries, it was a predecessor institution of the modern facilities of the Madrid Zoo Aquarium, moved in 1972 to the
Casa de Campo The Casa de Campo (, for Spanish: ''Country House'') is the largest public park in Madrid. It is situated west of central Madrid Madrid ( , ) is the capital and most populous city of Spain , image_flag = Bandera de Españ ...
.Historic Madrid
The Wild Animal House in the Retiro Park
.
In the nineteenth century the aristocratic menageries were displaced by the modern
zoological garden A zoo (short for zoological garden; also called an animal park or menagerie) is a facility in which animals are housed within enclosures, cared for, displayed to the public, and in some cases bred. The term "zoological garden" refers to zoology, ...
s with their
scientific Science () is a systematic enterprise that Scientific method, builds and organizes knowledge in the form of Testability, testable explanations and predictions about the universe."... modern science is a discovery as well as an invention. ...

scientific
and
education Education is the process of facilitating learning, or the acquisition of knowledge, skills, value (ethics), values, morals, beliefs, habits, and personal development. Educational methods include teaching, training, storytelling, discussion ...

education
al approach. The last menagerie in Europe was the Tiergarten Schönbrunn in Vienna, which was known officially as a "menagerie" until 1924, before evolving into a modern zoological garden with a scientific, educational and conservationist orientation. Due to its local continuity, the former menagerie established in the medieval through baroque tradition of private wild-animal collections of princes and kings, is often seen as the oldest remaining zoo in the world. Although many of the old Baroque enclosures have been changed, one can still obtain a good impression of the symmetrical ensemble of the formerly imperial menagerie.


Travelling menageries

In
England England is a Countries of the United Kingdom, country that is part of the United Kingdom. It shares land borders with Wales to its west and Scotland to its north. The Irish Sea lies northwest of England and the Celtic Sea to the southwest. E ...

England
travelling menageries had first appeared at around 1700. In contrast to the aristocratic menageries, these travelling animal collections were run by
showmen Showman can have a variety of meanings, usually by context and depending on the country. Australia Travelling Funfair, showmen are people who run amusement and side show equipment at regional shows, state capital shows, events and festivals th ...

showmen
who met the craving for sensation of the ordinary population. These animal shows ranged in size but the largest was
George Wombwell George Wombwell, (24 December 1777 at Dudnorend, near Saffron Walden – 16 November 1850 at Northallerton), was a famous menagerie exhibitor in Regency era, Regency and early Victorian era, Victorian United Kingdom, Britain. He founded Womb ...
's. The earliest record of a fatality at one such travelling menagerie was the death of Hannah Twynnoy in 1703 who was killed by a tiger in
Malmesbury Malmesbury () is a town and civil parish in Wiltshire, England. As a market town it became prominent in the Middle Ages as a centre for learning focused on and around Malmesbury Abbey, the bulk of which forms a rare survival of the dissolution ...

Malmesbury
,
Wiltshire Wiltshire (; abbreviated Wilts) is a Ceremonial counties of England, county in South West England with an area of . It is landlocked and borders the counties of Dorset, Somerset, Hampshire, Gloucestershire, Oxfordshire and Berkshire. The count ...
. Also in
North America North America is a continent A continent is any of several large landmasses. Generally identified by convention (norm), convention rather than any strict criteria, up to seven geographical regions are commonly regarded as continen ...

North America
travelling menageries became even more popular during that time. The first exotic animal known to have been exhibited in America was a lion, in
Boston Boston (, ), officially the City of Boston, is the capital city, capital and List of municipalities in Massachusetts, most populous city of the Commonwealth (U.S. state), Commonwealth of Massachusetts in the United States and 21st List of Unit ...

Boston
in 1710, followed a year later in the same city by a camel. A sailor arrived in
Philadelphia Philadelphia (colloquially known simply as Philly) is the largest city in the Commonwealth A commonwealth is a traditional English term for a political community founded for the common good In philosophy Philosophy (from , ) is ...

Philadelphia
in August 1727 with another lion, which he exhibited in the city and surrounding towns for eight years.Hancocks, David, ''A different nature: The paradoxical world of zoos and their uncertain future'', University of California Press, Berkeley, 2001, pp.86-87. The first
elephant Elephants are the largest existing land animals. Three living species In biology, a species is the basic unit of biological classification, classification and a taxonomic rank of an organism, as well as a unit of biodiversity. A specie ...

elephant
was imported from
India India, officially the Republic of India (Hindi Hindi (Devanagari: , हिंदी, ISO 15919, ISO: ), or more precisely Modern Standard Hindi (Devanagari: , ISO 15919, ISO: ), is an Indo-Aryan language spoken chiefly in Hindi Belt, ...

India
to America by a ship’s captain, Jacob Crowninshield, in 1796. It was first displayed in
New York City New York, often called New York City to distinguish it from New York State New York is a state State may refer to: Arts, entertainment, and media Literature * ''State Magazine'', a monthly magazine published by the U.S. Department of ...

New York City
and travelled extensively up and down the East Coast.Kisling, Vernon N., "Zoological Gardens of the United States", in ''Zoo and Aquarium History: Ancient Collections to Zoological Gardens'', Vernon N. Kisling (ed.), CRC Press, Boca Raton, 2001, pp.147-150. In 1834 James and William Howes’ New York Menagerie toured
New England New England is a region comprising six states in the Northeastern United States The Northeastern United States (also referred to as the American Northeast, the Northeast, and the East Coast) is a geographical region In geography ...

New England
with an
elephant Elephants are the largest existing land animals. Three living species In biology, a species is the basic unit of biological classification, classification and a taxonomic rank of an organism, as well as a unit of biodiversity. A specie ...

elephant
, a
rhinoceros A rhinoceros (, , ), commonly abbreviated to rhino, is a member of any of the five extant Extant is the opposite of the word extinct Extinction is the termination of a kind of organism or of a group of kinds (taxon), usually a species. T ...

rhinoceros
, a
camel A camel is an even-toed ungulate The even-toed ungulates (Artiodactyla , ) are ungulates—hoofed animals—which bear weight equally on two (an even number) of their five toes: the third and fourth. The other three toes are either present, ...

camel
, two
tiger The tiger (''Panthera tigris'') is the largest extant taxon, living Felidae, cat species and a member of the genus ''Panthera''. It is most recognisable for its dark vertical stripes on orange fur with a white underside. An apex predator, i ...

tiger
s, a
polar bear The polar bear (''Ursus Ursus is Latin for bear. It may also refer to: Animals *Ursus (mammal), ''Ursus'' (mammal), a genus of bears People * Ursus of Aosta, 6th-century evangelist * Ursus of Auxerre, 6th-century bishop * Ursus of Soloth ...

polar bear
, and several
parrot Parrots, also known as psittacines , are birds of the roughly 398 species in 92 genus (biology), genera comprising the order (biology), order Psittaciformes , found mostly in tropics, tropical and subtropics, subtropical regions. The order is s ...

parrot
s and
monkey Monkey is a common name that may refer to most mammals of the infraorder In biological classification In biology Biology is the natural science that studies life and living organisms, including their anatomy, physical structur ...

monkey
s.Flint, Richard W., "American Showmen and European Dealers: Commerce in Wild Animals in Nineteenth Century", in ''New World, New Animals: From Menagerie to Zoological Park in the Nineteenth Century'', Hoage, Robert J. and Deiss, William A. (ed.), Johns Hopkins University Press, Baltimore, 1996, p.98. America’s touring menageries slowed to a crawl under the weight of the depression of the 1840s and then to a halt with the outbreak of the
Civil War A civil war, also known as an intrastate war in polemology, is a war War is an intense armed conflict between states State may refer to: Arts, entertainment, and media Literature * ''State Magazine'', a monthly magazine publis ...
. Only one travelling menagerie of any size existed after the war: The Van Amburgh menagerie travelled the
United States The United States of America (U.S.A. or USA), commonly known as the United States (U.S. or US) or America, is a country Continental United States, primarily located in North America. It consists of 50 U.S. state, states, a Washington, D.C., ...

United States
for nearly forty years. Unlike their
Europe Europe is a continent A continent is any of several large landmass A landmass, or land mass, is a large region In geography Geography (from Greek: , ''geographia'', literally "earth description") is a field of scienc ...

Europe
an counterparts, America’s menageries and
circus A circus is a company of performers who put on diverse entertainment shows that may include clown A clown is a person who wears a unique makeup-face and flamboyant costume, performing comedy Comedy (from the el, κωμῳδία, ...

circus
es had combined as single travelling shows, with one ticket to see both. This increased the size and the diversity of their collections. Ringling Bros. and Barnum & Bailey Circus advertised their shows as the “World’s Greatest Menagerie”.


See also

*
Anthrozoology Anthrozoology, also known as human–nonhuman-animal studies (HAS), is the subset of ethnobiology that deals with interactions between human Humans (''Homo sapiens'') are the most populous and widespread species of primates, characterized ...


References

* *


Notes


External links


Vienna Zoo
(French) * {{Authority control Cultural history European court festivities Zoos