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In mass communication, media are the
communication Communication (from Latin Latin (, or , ) is a classical language belonging to the Italic languages, Italic branch of the Indo-European languages. Latin was originally spoken in the area around Rome, known as Latium. Through the power of th ...

communication
outlets or tools used to
store
store
and deliver
information Information is processed, organised and structured data Data (; ) are individual facts, statistics, or items of information, often numeric. In a more technical sense, data are a set of values of qualitative property, qualitative or quant ...

information
or
data Data (; ) are individual facts, statistics, or items of information, often numeric. In a more technical sense, data are a set of values of qualitative property, qualitative or quantity, quantitative variable (research), variables about one or ...

data
. The term refers to components of the
mass media Mass media refers to a diverse array of media Media may refer to: Physical means Communication * Media (communication), tools used to deliver information or data ** Advertising media, various media, content, buying and placement fo ...
communications industry, such as
print media Mass media refers to a diverse array of media technologies that reach a large audience via mass communication Mass communication is the process of imparting and exchanging information Information can be thought of as the resolution ...
,
publishing Publishing is the activity of making information, literature, music, software and other content available to the public for sale or for free. Traditionally, the term refers to the creation and distribution of printed works, such as s, s, and s. ...
, the
news media The news media or news industry are forms of mass media Mass media refers to a diverse array of media Media may refer to: Physical means Communication * Media (communication), tools used to deliver information or data ** Adverti ...
,
photography Photography is the art Art is a diverse range of (products of) human activities involving creative imagination to express technical proficiency, beauty, emotional power, or conceptual ideas. There is no generally agreed definition of ...

photography
,
cinema Cinema may refer to: Film * Cinematography Cinematography (from ancient Greek Ancient Greek includes the forms of the Greek language used in ancient Greece and the classical antiquity, ancient world from around 1500 BC to 300 BC. It ...

cinema
,
broadcasting Broadcasting is the distributionDistribution may refer to: Mathematics *Distribution (mathematics) Distributions, also known as Schwartz distributions or generalized functions, are objects that generalize the classical notion of functi ...

broadcasting
(radio and television),
digital media Digital media means any that operate with the use of any of various encoded formats. Digital media can be created, viewed, distributed, modified, listened to, and preserved on a s device. ''Digital'' can be defined as any data represented by a ...
, and
advertising Advertising is a marketing Marketing is the process of intentionally stimulating demand for and purchases of goods and services; potentially including selection of a target audience; selection of certain attributes or themes to emphasize ...

advertising
. The development of early writing and paper enabling longer-distance communication systems such as
mail The mail or post is a system for physically transporting postcard A postcard or post card is a piece of thick paper or thin Card stock, cardboard, typically rectangular, intended for writing and mailing without an envelope. Non-rectangular s ...

mail
, including in the
Persian Empire The Achaemenid Empire (; peo, , translit=Xšāça, translation=The Empire), also called the First Persian Empire, was an ancient based in founded by . Ranging at its greatest extent from the and proper in the west to the in the east, it ...

Persian Empire
(
Chapar Khaneh "Chapar Khaneh" ( fa, چاپارخانه, , ''courier-house'') is a Persian term for the postal service The mail or post is a system for physically transporting postcards, letters, and parcels. A postal service can be private or public, tho ...
and
AngariumThe Angarium (Latin; from Ancient Greek, Greek ''angareion'') was the institution of the royal mounted couriers in ancient Persia. The messengers, called ''angaros'' (), alternated in stations that had a day's ride distance along the Royal Road. The ...
) and
Roman Empire The Roman Empire ( la, Imperium Rōmānum ; grc-gre, Βασιλεία τῶν Ῥωμαίων, Basileía tôn Rhōmaíōn) was the post- period of . As a it included large territorial holdings around the in , , and ruled by . From the t ...

Roman Empire
, which can be interpreted as early forms of media. Writers such as
Howard Rheingold Howard Rheingold (born 1947) is an American critic, writer, and teacher, known for his specialties on the cultural, social and political implications of modern communication media Media may refer to: Physical means Communication * Media ( ...

Howard Rheingold
have framed early forms of human
communication Communication (from Latin Latin (, or , ) is a classical language belonging to the Italic languages, Italic branch of the Indo-European languages. Latin was originally spoken in the area around Rome, known as Latium. Through the power of th ...

communication
as early forms of media, such as the
Lascaux cave paintings
Lascaux cave paintings
and early
writing Writing is a medium of human communication Communication (from Latin ''communicare'', meaning "to share" or "to be in relation with") is "an apparent answer to the painful divisions between self and other, private and public, and inner tho ...

writing
. Another framing of the history of media starts with the
Chauvet Cave The Chauvet-Pont-d'Arc Cave (french: Grotte Chauvet-Pont d'Arc, ) in the Ardèche department of southeastern France is a cave that contains some of the best-preserved figurative cave paintings in the world, as well as other evidence of Upper Paleo ...
paintings and continues with other ways to carry human communication beyond the short range of voice:
smoke signal The smoke signal is one of the oldest forms of long-distance communication. It is a form of visual communication used over a long distance. In general smoke signals are used to transmit news, signal danger, or to gather people to a common area. ...
s, trail markers, and
sculpture ''lamassu 300px, ''Lamassu'' from Dur-Sharrukin. University of Chicago Oriental Institute. Syrian limestone Neo-Assyrian Period, c. 721–705 BCE ''Lama'', ''Lamma'' or ''Lamassu'' (Cuneiform: , ; Sumerian language, Sumerian: lammař; late ...

sculpture
. The Term ''media'' in its modern application relating to communication channels was first used by Canadian communications theorist
Marshall McLuhan Herbert Marshall McLuhan (July 21, 1911 – December 31, 1980) was a Canadian philosopher, whose work is among the cornerstones of the study of media theory. . . Retrieved 24 June 2020. . . Retrieved 24 June 2020. Born in Edmonton, Alberta, an ...

Marshall McLuhan
, who stated in ''Counterblast'' (1954): "The media are not toys; they should not be in the hands of Mother Goose and Peter Pan executives. They can be entrusted only to new artists because they are art forms." By the mid-1960s, the term had spread to general use in North America and the United Kingdom. The phrase "mass media" was, according to
H.L. Mencken Henry Louis Mencken (September 12, 1880 – January 29, 1956) was an American journalist, essayist, satirist, cultural critic, and scholar of American English. He commented widely on the social scene, literature, music, prominent politicians ...
, used as early as 1923 in the United States. The term "medium" (the singular form of "media") is defined as "one of the means or channels of general communication, information, or entertainment in society, as newspapers, radio, or television."


Regulations

The role of regulatory authorities (license broadcaster institutions, content providers, platforms) and the resistance to political and commercial interference in the autonomy of the media sector are both considered as significant components of media independence. In order to ensure media independence, regulatory authorities should be placed outside of governments' directives. this can be measured through legislation, agency statutes and rules.


Government regulations


Licensing

The process of issuing licenses in many regions still lacks transparency and is considered to follow procedures that are obscure and concealing. In many countries, regulatory authorities stand accused of political bias in favor of the government and
ruling party The ruling party or governing party in a democratic Democrat, Democrats, or Democratic may refer to: *A proponent of democracy Democracy ( gr, δημοκρατία, ''dēmokratiā'', from ''dēmos'' 'people' and ''kratos'' 'rule') is a fo ...
, whereby some prospective broadcasters have been denied licenses or threatened with the withdrawal of licenses. In many countries, diversity of content and views have diminished as
monopolies A monopoly (from Greek language, Greek el, μόνος, mónos, single, alone, label=none and el, πωλεῖν, pōleîn, to sell, label=none) is as described by Irving Fisher, a market with the "absence of competition", creating a situation whe ...

monopolies
, fostered directly or indirectly by States. This not only impacts on
competition Competition is a rivalry A rivalry is the state of two people or groups engaging in a lasting competitive relationship. Rivalry is the "against each other" spirit between two competing sides. The relationship itself may also be called "a riv ...
but leads to a concentration of power with potentially excessive influence on
public opinion Public opinion is the collective opinion on a specific topic or voting intention relevant to a society. Etymology The term "public opinion" was derived from the French ', which was first used in 1588 by Michel de Montaigne Image:ArmoiriesMi ...
. Buckley et al. cite failure to renew or retain licenses for editorially critical media; folding the regulator into government ministries or reducing its competences and mandates for action; and lack of due process in the adoption of regulatory decisions, among others, as examples in which these regulators are formally compliant with sets of legal requirements on independence, but their main task in reality is seen to be that of enforcing
political agenda In politics Politics (from , ) is the set of activities that are associated with making decisions in groups, or other forms of power relations between individuals, such as the distribution of resources or status. The branch of social sci ...
s.


Government endorsed appointments

State control is also evident in the increasing politicization of regulatory bodies operationalized through transfers and appointments of party-aligned individuals to senior positions in regulatory authorities.


Internet regulation

Governments worldwide have sought to extend regulation to internet companies, whether connectivity providers or
application service provider An application service provider (ASP) is a business providing computer-based services to customers over a network; such as access to a particular software application (such as customer relationship management) using a standard protocol (such as HT ...
s, and whether domestically or foreign-based. The impact on journalistic content can be severe, as internet companies can err too much on the side of caution and take down news reports, including algorithmically, while offering inadequate opportunities for redress to the affected news producers.


Self-regulation


At the regional level

In
Western Europe Western Europe is the western region of Europe. The region's countries and territories vary depending on context. Beginning with foreign exploration during the Age of Discovery, roughly from the 15th century, the concept of ''Europe'' as "the W ...

Western Europe
, self-regulation provides an alternative to state regulatory authorities. In such contexts,
newspaper A newspaper is a periodical Periodical literature (also called a periodical publication or simply a periodical) is a category of Serial (publishing), serial published, publications that appear in a new edition on a regular schedule. The most ...

newspaper
s have historically been free of licensing and regulation, and there has been repeated pressure for them to self-regulate or at least to have in-house
ombudsmen An ombudsman (, also , ), ombudsperson, ombud, ombuds, or public advocate is an official who is charged with representing the interests of the public In public relations and communication science, publics are groups of individual people, ...
. However, it has often been difficult to establish meaningful self-regulatory entities. In many cases, self-regulations exists in the shadow of state regulation, and is conscious of the possibility of
state intervention Economic interventionism, sometimes also called state interventionism, is an economic policy position favouring government intervention in the market process to correct market failure In neoclassical economics, market failure is a situation ...
. In many countries in
Central and Eastern Europe Central and Eastern Europe is a term encompassing the countries in Central Europe Central Europe is the central region of Europe. Central Europe includes contiguous territories that are sometimes also considered parts of Western Europe, Southe ...
, self-regulatory structures seems to be lacking or have not historically been perceived as efficient and effective. The rise of satellite delivered channels, delivered directly to viewers, or through cable or online systems, renders much larger the sphere of unregulated programing. There are, however, varying efforts to regulate the access of
programmer A computer programmer, sometimes called a software developer, a programmer or more recently a coder (especially in more informal contexts), is a person who creates computer software Software is a collection of Instruction (computer science) ...

programmer
s to satellite transponders in parts of the
Western Europe Western Europe is the western region of Europe. The region's countries and territories vary depending on context. Beginning with foreign exploration during the Age of Discovery, roughly from the 15th century, the concept of ''Europe'' as "the W ...

Western Europe
and
North America North America is a continent A continent is any of several large landmasses. Generally identified by convention (norm), convention rather than any strict criteria, up to seven geographical regions are commonly regarded as continen ...

North America
n region, the and in
Asia and the Pacific Image:Asia-Pacific.png, 300px, Map showing the general definition of Asia-Pacific. Dark green refers to the core Asia-Pacific countries, while light green refers to regions that may be included. The Asia-Pacific is the part of the Earth, world in o ...

Asia and the Pacific
. The Arab Satellite Broadcasting Charter was an example of efforts to bring formal standards and some regulatory authority to bear on what is transmitted, but it appears to not have been implemented.


International organizations and NGOs

Self-regulation is expressed as a preferential system by journalists but also as a support for media freedom and development organizations by intergovernmental organizations such as
UNESCO The United Nations Educational, Scientific and Cultural Organization (UNESCO) (french: Organisation des Nations unies pour l'éducation, la science et la culture) is a List of specialized agencies of the United Nations, specialised agency of th ...

UNESCO
and
non-governmental organization A non-governmental organization, or simply an NGO, is an that is, generally, formed independent from . They are typically s, and many of them are active in or the ; they can also include and that provide services to their members and other ...
s. There has been a continued trend of establishing self-regulatory bodies, such as press councils, in conflict and post-conflict situations. Major internet companies have responded to pressure by governments and the public by elaborating self-regulatory and complaints systems at the individual company level, using principles they have developed under the framework of the
Global Network Initiative The Global Network Initiative (GNI) is a non-governmental organization File:Europe in a suitcase - UK.jpg, upright=1.3, alt=A roomful of people, Europe-Georgia Institute head George Melashvili addresses the audience at the launch of the "Europe ...
. The Global Network Initiative has grown to include several large telecom companies alongside internet companies such as
Google Google LLC is an American multinational Multinational may refer to: * Multinational corporation, a corporate organization operating in multiple countries * Multinational force, a military body from multiple countries * Multinational stat ...

Google
,
Facebook Facebook is an American online social media Social media are interactive technologies that allow the creation or sharing/exchange of information, ideas, career interests, and other forms of expression via virtual communities and Network ...

Facebook
and others, as well as civil society organizations and academics. The
European Commission The European Commission (EC) is the executive branch The executive is the branch of government exercising authority in and holding Moral responsibility, responsibility for the governance of a State (polity), state. The executive executes a ...

European Commission
’s 2013 publication, ICT Technology Sector Guide on Implementing the
United Nations Guiding Principles on Business and Human Rights The United Nations Guiding Principles on Business and Human Rights (UNGPs) is an instrument consisting of 31 principles implementing the United Nations The United Nations (UN) is an intergovernmental organization that aims to maintain intern ...
, impacts on the presence of independent journalism by defining the limits of what should or should not be carried and prioritized in the most popular digital spaces.


Private sector

Public pressure on technology giants has motivated the development of new strategies aimed not only at identifying ‘
fake news Fake news is false or misleading information presented as . It often has the aim of damaging the reputation of a person or entity, or making money through revenue.Schlesinger, Robert (April 14, 2017)"Fake news in reality" '. However, the term ...

fake news
’, but also at eliminating some of the structural causes of their emergence and proliferation. Facebook has created new buttons for users to report content they believe is false, following previous strategies aimed at countering hate speech and harassment online. These changes reflect broader transformations occurring among tech giants to increase their transparency. As indicated by the Ranking Digital Rights Corporate Accountability Index, most large internet companies have reportedly become relatively more forthcoming in terms of their policies about transparency in regard to third party requests to remove or access content, especially in the case of requests from governments.Ranking Digital Rights. 2015. Corporate Accountability Index. Available at https://rankingdigitalrights.org/index2015/.Ranking Digital Rights. 2017. Corporate Accountability Index. Available at https://rankingdigitalrights.org/index2017/. At the same time, however, the study signaled a number of companies that have become more opaque when it comes to disclosing how they enforce their own terms of service, in restricting certain types of content and account.


Fact-checking and news literacy

In addition to responding to pressure for more clearly defined self-regulatory mechanisms, and galvanized by the debates over so-called ‘fake news’, internet companies such as Facebook have launched campaigns to educate users about how to more easily distinguish between ‘fake news’ and real news sources. Ahead of the United Kingdom national election in 2017, for example, Facebook published a series of advertisements in newspapers with ‘Tips for Spotting False News’ which suggested 10 things that might signal whether a story is genuine or not. There have also been broader initiatives bringing together a variety of donors and actors to promote
fact-checking Fact-checking is a process that seeks to verify sometimes factual information, in order to promote the veracity and correctness of reporting. Fact-checking can be conducted before (''ante hoc'') or after (''post hoc'') the text is published or ot ...
and news literacy, such as the News Integrity Initiative at the
City University of New York The City University of New York (CUNY ) is the public In public relations and communication science, publics are groups of individual people, and the public (a.k.a. the general public) is the totality of such groupings. This is a different ...
’s School of Journalism. This 14 million USD investment by groups including the
Ford Foundation The Ford Foundation is an American private foundation A private foundation is a charitable organization that, while serving a good cause, might or might not qualify as a public charity by government standards. The Bill & Melinda Gates Foundation ...
and Facebook was launched in 2017 so its full impact remains to be seen. It will, however, complement the offerings of other networks such as the International Fact-Checking Network launched by the
Poynter Institute The Poynter Institute for Media Studies is a non-profit journalism school and research organization located in St. Petersburg, Florida. The school is the owner of the ''Tampa Bay Times'' newspaper and the International Fact-Checking Network, and ...
in 2015 which seeks to outline the parameters of the field.


Social impact

Media technology has made viewing increasingly easier as time has passed. Children today are encouraged to use media tools in school and are expected to have a general understanding of the various technologies available. The internet is arguably one of the most effective tools in media.
E-mail upThe email_address.html"_;"title="at_sign,_a_part_of_every_SMTP_email_address">at_sign,_a_part_of_every_SMTP_email_address Electronic_mail_(email_or_e-mail)_is_a_method_of_exchanging_messages_("mail")_between_people_using_electronic_dev ...

E-mail
,
Skype Skype () is a Proprietary software, proprietary telecommunications application that specializes in providing VoIP-based videotelephony, videoconferencing and voice calls. It also has instant messaging, file transfer, debit and credit, debit-base ...

Skype
,
Facebook Facebook is an American online social media Social media are interactive technologies that allow the creation or sharing/exchange of information, ideas, career interests, and other forms of expression via virtual communities and Network ...

Facebook
and other services have brought people closer together and created new
online communities An online community, also called an internet community or web community, is a community whose members interact with each other primarily via the Internet. Members of the community usually share common interests. For many, online communities may feel ...
. However, some argue that certain types of media can hinder face-to-face communication. In a large consumer-driven society, electronic media such as television and
print media Mass media refers to a diverse array of media technologies that reach a large audience via mass communication Mass communication is the process of imparting and exchanging information Information can be thought of as the resolution ...
such as newspapers are important for distributing
advertisements Advertising is a marketing Marketing refers to activities a company A company, abbreviated as co., is a Legal personality, legal entity representing an association of people, whether Natural person, natural, Legal personality, legal ...

advertisements
. More technologically advanced societies have access to goods and services through newer media than less technologically advanced societies. In addition to this advertising role, media are nowadays tools for sharing knowledge around the world. Analysing the evolution of media within the society, Popkin assesses their role in building connections between politics, culture, economic life and society. For instance, newspapers have provided opportunities to advertisers and to readers seeking up-to-date information on foreign affairs or the economy. Willinsky promotes the potential of modern technology to cross cultural, gender or national barriers. He sees the internet as offering an opportunity to establish a fair and equal system of knowledge: as the internet is (in theory) accessible to anyone, any information on it may be read and consulted by anyone. Willinsky argues that the internet is a sustainable way to overcome the gap between developed and developing countries, as both will get a chance to learn from each other. Canagarajah addresses the issue of unbalanced relations between the North and South countries, asserting that Western countries tend to impose their own ideas on developing countries. Therefore, internet is way to re-establish balance, by for instance enhance publication of newspaper, academic journal from developing countries. Christen is the one who created a system that provide access to knowledge and protect people's customs and culture. Indeed, in some traditional societies, some genders cannot have access to a certain type of knowledge therefore respecting these customs limit the scope of dissemination but still allow the diffusion of knowledge. Within this process of dissemination, media would play a role of "intermediaries", that is say translation an academic research into a journalistic format, accessible by lay audience ( Levin). Consequently, media is a modern form of communication aiming at spreading knowledge within the whole world, regardless any form of discrimination. Media, through media and communications psychology, has helped to connect diverse people from far and near a geographical location. It has also helped in the aspect of on-line or Internet businesses and other activities that have an on-line version. All media intended to affect human behavior is initiated through communication and the intended behavior is couched in psychology. Therefore, understanding media and communications psychology is fundamental in understanding the social and individual effects of media. The expanding field of media and communications psychology combines these established disciplines in a new way. Timing change based on innovation and efficiency may not have a direct correlation with technology. The
information revolution The term information revolution describes current economic, social and technological trends beyond the Industrial Revolution The Industrial Revolution was the transition to new manufacturing processes in Europe and the United States, in the p ...
is based on modern advancements. During the 19th century, the information "boom" rapidly advanced because of postal systems, an increase in newspaper accessibility, as well as schools "modernizing". These advancements were made due to the increase of people becoming literate and educated. The methodology of communication although has changed and dispersed in numerous directions based on the source of its
sociocultural Sociocultural evolution, sociocultural evolutionism or cultural evolution are theories of cultural and social evolution that describe how cultures and Society, societies change over time. Whereas sociocultural development traces processes that te ...
impact. Biases in the media that affect religious or ethnic minorities take the form of racism in the media and religious bias in the media.


Electronic media

In the last century, a revolution in
telecommunications Telecommunication is the transmission of information by various types of technologies over , radio, , or other systems. It has its origin in the desire of humans for communication over a distance greater than that feasible with the , but with ...
has greatly altered communication by providing new media for long-distance communication. The first transatlantic two-way radio broadcast occurred in 1906 and led to common communication via analog and
digital media Digital media means any that operate with the use of any of various encoded formats. Digital media can be created, viewed, distributed, modified, listened to, and preserved on a s device. ''Digital'' can be defined as any data represented by a ...
: * telecommunications include some
radio Radio is the technology of signaling and communicating Communication (from Latin ''communicare'', meaning "to share") is the act of developing Semantics, meaning among Subject (philosophy), entities or Organization, groups through the use ...

radio
systems, historical
telephony Telephony ( ) is the field of technology involving the development, application, and deployment of telecommunication Telecommunication is the transmission of information by various types of technologies over wire A wire is a single usual ...
systems, and historical
television Television, sometimes shortened to TV or telly, is a telecommunication Media (communication), medium used for transmitting moving images in grayscale, black-and-white or in color, and in two or 3D television, three dimensions and sound. The ...

television
broadcasts. * Digital telecommunications allow for
computer-mediated communication Computer-mediated communication (CMC) is defined as any human communication that occurs through the use of two or more Consumer electronics, electronic devices. While the term has traditionally referred to those communications that occur via comp ...
,
telegraphy Telegraphy is the long-distance transmission of messages where the sender uses symbolic codes, known to the recipient, rather than a physical exchange of an object bearing the message. Thus is a method of telegraphy, whereas is not. Ancien ...
,
computer network A computer network is a set of s sharing resources located on or provided by . The computers use common s over to communicate with each other. These interconnections are made up of technologies, based on physically wired, optical, and wire ...
s,
digital radio Digital radio is the use of digital technology to transmit or receive across the radio spectrum The radio spectrum is the part of the electromagnetic spectrum The electromagnetic spectrum is the range of frequencies (the spectrum A spec ...
,
digital telephony Telephony ( ) is the field of technology involving the development, application, and deployment of telecommunication Telecommunication is the transmission of information by various types of technologies over wire A wire is a single usual ...
and
digital television Digital television (DTV) is the transmission of television audiovisual Audiovisual (AV) is electronic media possessing both a sound and a visual component, such as slide-tape presentations, films, television programs, corporate conferencing, c ...
. Modern communication media now allow for intense long-distance exchanges between larger numbers of people (
many-to-manyMany-to-many communication is a product of the Modern age, age of modernization that captures the increased role of the public in society. Scholar, Damien Pfister, addresses this paradigm's ability for interlocutors to sustain "large-scale, interlink ...
communication via
e-mail upThe email_address.html"_;"title="at_sign,_a_part_of_every_SMTP_email_address">at_sign,_a_part_of_every_SMTP_email_address Electronic_mail_(email_or_e-mail)_is_a_method_of_exchanging_messages_("mail")_between_people_using_electronic_dev ...

e-mail
,
Internet forum An Internet forum, or message board, is an online In computer technology and telecommunications Telecommunication is the transmission of information by various types of technologies over wire, radio, Optical system, optical, or other El ...
s, and
teleportation Teleportation is the hypothetical transfer of matter In classical physics and general chemistry, matter is any substance that has mass and takes up space by having volume. All everyday objects that can be touched are ultimately composed of ...
). On the other hand, many traditional
broadcast Broadcasting is the distributionDistribution may refer to: Mathematics *Distribution (mathematics) Distributions, also known as Schwartz distributions or generalized functions, are objects that generalize the classical notion of functi ...

broadcast
media and mass media favor one-to-many communication (television,
cinema Cinema may refer to: Film * Cinematography Cinematography (from ancient Greek Ancient Greek includes the forms of the Greek language used in ancient Greece and the classical antiquity, ancient world from around 1500 BC to 300 BC. It ...

cinema
, radio,
newspaper A newspaper is a periodical Periodical literature (also called a periodical publication or simply a periodical) is a category of Serial (publishing), serial published, publications that appear in a new edition on a regular schedule. The most ...

newspaper
,
magazine A magazine is a periodical publication Periodical literature (also called a periodical publication or simply a periodical) is a category of serial publications that appear in a new edition on a regular schedule. The most familiar example i ...

magazine
s, and also
social media Social media are interactive technologies that facilitate the creation Creation may refer to: Religion * Creation ''ex nihilo'', the concept that matter was created by God out of nothing * Creation myth A creation myth (or cosmogonic myth) ...

social media
). Electronic media usage is growing, although concern has arisen that it distracts youth from face-to-face contact with friends and family. Research on the
social engagementSocial engagement (also social involvement, social participation) refers to one's degree of participation in a community or society. Definitions Prohaska, Anderson and Binstock (2012) noted that the term social engagement is commonly used to refe ...
effect is mixed. One study by Wellman found that "33% of Internet users said that the Internet had improved their connections to friends 'a lot', and 23% said it had increased the quality of their communication with family members by a similar amount. Young people in particular took advantage of the social side of the Internet. Nearly half (49%) of the 18- to 29-year-olds said that the Internet had improved their connections to friends a lot. On the other hand, 19% of employed Internet users said that the Internet had increased the amount of time they spent working in home". Electronic media now comes in the forms of
computers A computer is a machine that can be programmed to Execution (computing), carry out sequences of arithmetic or logical operations automatically. Modern computers can perform generic sets of operations known as Computer program, programs. These p ...

computers
( tablets,
laptops A laptop or laptop computer is a small, portable personal computer File:Crystal Project computer.png, upright=0.9, An artist's depiction of a 2000s-era desktop-style personal computer, which includes a metal case with the computing compone ...

laptops
and
desktops A desktop traditionally refers to: * The surface of a desk (often to distinguish office appliances that fit on a desk, such as photocopiers and printers, from larger equipment covering its own area on the floor) Desktop may refer to various comput ...
),
cell phones A mobile phone, cellular phone, cell phone, cellphone, handphone, or hand phone, sometimes shortened to simply mobile, cell or just phone, is a portable telephone that can make and receive telephone call, calls over a radio frequency link wh ...

cell phones
,
MP3 players An MP3 player is an electronic device that can play MP3 digital audio Digital audio is a representation of sound recorded in, or converted into, Digital signal (signal processing), digital form. In digital audio, the sound wave of the audi ...
,
DVDs The DVD (common abbreviation for Digital Video Disc or Digital Versatile Disc) is a digital Digital usually refers to something using digits, particularly binary digits. Technology and computing Hardware *Digital electronics Digital elect ...

DVDs
, video game systems, radios, and television. Technology has spiked to record highs within the last decade, thus changing the dynamic of communication. The spike in electronic media really started to grow in 2007 when the release of the first iPhone came out. The meaning of electronic media, as it is known in various spheres, has changed with the passage of time. The term ''media'' has achieved a broader meaning nowadays as compared to that given it a decade ago. Earlier, there was multimedia, once only a piece of software (application software) used to play audio (sound) and video (visual object with or without sound). Following this, it was CD (Compact Disc) and DVD (Digital Versatile Disc), then camera of 3G (third generation) applications in the field. In modern terms, the term "media" includes all the software which are used in PC (personal computer) or laptop or mobile phone installed for normal or better performance of the system; today, however, hard discs (used to increase the installation capacity of data) of computer are an example of electronic media. This type of hard disc is becoming increasingly smaller in physical size. The latest inclusion in the field is magnetic media (magnetic stripe) whose application is common in the fastest growing information technology field. Modern day IT media is commonly used in the banking sector and by the Income Tax Department for the purpose of providing the easiest and fastest possible services to consumers. In this Magnetic stripe card, magnetic strip, account information linking to all the data relating to a particular consumer is stored. The main features of these types of media are prepared unrecorded (blank form), and data is normally stored at a later stage as per the requirement of its user or consumer.


Games as a medium for communication

Games are a medium used to transfer messages. Apart from the usual graphic, auditory and narrative elements in video games, the game mechanics make it unique in the media field. Following Marshal McLuhan's quote "the medium is the message", Earnest Adams and Joris Dormans make a point in their book ''Game Mechanics: Advanced Game Design'' that: The players interact with the game and infer the message by observing the game's output. The game mechanics can discriminate against particular actions while encouraging others, thus leading the players to conclude that a certain behavior is more likely to produce the desired outcomes. Although this is commonly and successfully used for entertainment purposes it can also be used as a tool for public relations – for example as advergaming.} Gamification has been used to communicate in other areas as well. The game design video lessons show Extra Credits has criticized China's Sesame Credit for gamifying the act of "being an obedient citizen", using tools that are commonly used in games can incentivize a specific behavior to increase one's credit.


See also

*Distributed presence *Media manipulation *Media psychology *Media and gender *Press conference


Sources


References


Further reading

* McQuail, Denis (2001) ''McQuail's'' * ''Mass Communication Theory'' (fourth edition), Sage, London, pp. 16–34. MAS * Biagi, S. (2004). Media Impact. Wadsworth Pub Co, 7th edition. * Caron, A. H. and Caronia, L. (2007). Moving cultures: mobile communication in everyday life. McGill-Queen's University Press. {{Authority control Communication