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In organized
sport Sport pertains to any form of competitive Competition is a rivalry A rivalry is the state of two people or groups engaging in a lasting competitive relationship. Rivalry is the "against each other" spirit between two competing sides. ...

sport
s, match fixing is the act of playing or officiating a match with the intention of achieving a pre-determined result, violating the rules of the game and often the law. There are many reasons why match fixing might take place, including receiving
bribes Bribery is defined by ''Black's Law Dictionary ''Black's Law Dictionary'' is the most widely used law dictionary Image:Legal Dictionaries.jpg, 300px, Several English and Russian legal dictionaries A law dictionary (also known as legal dictionary) ...

bribes
from
bookmaker A bookmaker, bookie, or turf accountant is an organization or a person that accepts and pays off bets A gambling stand in Paris Gambling (also known as betting) is the wagering of money Image:National-Debt-Gillray.jpeg, In a 1786 Jam ...
s or sports bettors, and
blackmail Blackmail is an act of coercion Coercion () is compelling a party to act in an involuntary manner by use of threats, including force. It involves a set of various types of forceful actions that violate the free will of an individual to induce ...
. Competitors may also intentionally perform poorly to gain a future advantage, such as a better
draft pick A draft is a process used in some countries (especially in North America North America is a continent entirely within the Northern Hemisphere and almost all within the Western Hemisphere. It can also be described as the northern subconti ...
or to face an easier opponent in a later round of competition. A player might also play poorly to rig a
handicap The term is derived from Hand-in-cap, an old English method for evaluating the relative worth of two items in a trade. Today Handicapped or handicap may refer to: In sports and games *Handicapping, various methods of levelling the outcome in a compe ...
system. Match fixing, when motivated by
gambling Gambling (also known as betting) is the wagering something of ("the stakes") on an with an uncertain outcome with the intent of winning something else of value. Gambling thus requires three elements to be present: (an amount wagered), (cha ...
, requires contacts (and normally money transfers) between gamblers, players, team officials, and/or referees. These contacts and transfers can sometimes be discovered, and lead to prosecution by the law or the sports league(s). In contrast, losing for future advantage is internal to the team and very difficult to prove. Often, substitutions made by a
coach Coach may refer to: Guidance/instruction * Coach (sport), a director of athletes' training and activities ** Coach (basketball) * Coaching, the practice of guiding an individual through a process ** Acting coach, a teacher who trains performers T ...
designed to deliberately increase the team's chances of losing (such as having key players sit out, using minimal or phantom injuries as an excuse), rather than ordering the players actually on the field to intentionally underperform, are cited as the main factor in cases where this has been alleged. Match fixing includes
point shaving In organized sports, point shaving is a type of match fixing where the perpetrators try to prevent a team from covering a published spread betting, point spread. Unlike other forms of sports betting, spread betting invariably motivates point shavin ...
and
spot-fixing Spot-fixing is illegal activity in a sport in which a specific aspect of a game, unrelated to the final result but upon which a betting market exists, is fixed in an attempt to ensure a certain result in a proposition bet. Examples include somethi ...
, which center on smaller events within a match that can be wagered upon, but which are unlikely to prove decisive in determining the final result of the game. According to
Sportradar Sportradar AG is a multinational corporation with headquarters in St. Gallen, Switzerland, that collects and analyzes sports data. Sportradar provides services to bookmakers, national and international sports federations, and media companies. As ...
, a company that monitors the integrity of sports events on behalf of sports federations, as many as one percent of the matches they monitor show suspicious betting patterns that may be indicative of match fixing. Other names for match fixing include "game fixing", "race fixing", or more generally "sports fixing". Games that are deliberately lost are sometimes called "thrown games", especially when a team has nothing to play for (either having already qualified for the next stage of competition or in the process of being eliminated.) In contrast, when a team intentionally loses a game, or does not score as high as it can, to obtain a perceived future competitive advantage, the team is often said to have "
tanked ''Tanked'' is an American reality television series that airs on Animal Planet and premiered in August 2011. The series follows the operations of the Las Vegas Valley, Las Vegas-based aquarium manufacturer Acrylic Tank Manufacturing, owned by brothe ...
" the game instead of having thrown it. In sports where a handicap or ranking system exists and is capable of being abused (including sports such as
racing In sport, racing is a competition of speed, against an objective criterion, usually a clock or to a specific point. The competitors in a race try to complete a given task in the shortest amount of time. Typically this involves :wikt:traverse, tra ...
,
grappling Grappling, in hand-to-hand combat Hand-to-hand combat (sometimes abbreviated as HTH or H2H) is a physical confrontation between two or more persons at very short range (grappling distance, or within the physical reach of a handheld weapon) th ...
and
golf Golf is a club-and-ball sport Sport pertains to any form of Competition, competitive physical activity or game that aims to use, maintain or improve physical ability and skills while providing enjoyment to participants and, in some cases ...
), tanking is known as "sandbagging".
Hustling Hustling is the deceptive act of disguising one's skill in a sport Sport pertains to any form of Competition, competitive physical activity or game that aims to use, maintain or improve physical ability and skills while providing enjoyment ...
, where a player disguises his abilities until he can play for large amounts of money, is a common practice in many
cue sports Cue sports (sometimes written cuesports), also known as billiard sports, are a wide variety of generally played with a , which is used to strike s and thereby cause them to move around a -covered bounded by elastic bumpers known as . Histor ...
, such as nine-ball pool.


Motivations and causes

Some major motivations behind match fixing are gambling and future team advantage. According to investigative journalist
Declan Hill Declan Hill is a journalist, academic and consultant. He is one of the world’s foremost experts on match-fixing and corruption in international sports. In 2008, Hill, as a Chevening Scholar, obtained his doctorate in Sociology at the University o ...
it has also been linked to
corruption Corruption is a form of dishonesty Dishonesty is to act without honesty. It is used to describe a lack of probity, cheating, lying, or deliberately withholding information, or being deliberately deceptive or a lack in integrity, knavishness, ...

corruption
,
violence Violence is the use of physical force so as to injure, abuse, damage, or destroy. Other definitions are also used, such as the World Health Organization The World Health Organization (WHO) is a list of specialized agencies of the United Na ...

violence
and
tax avoidance Tax avoidance is the legal usage of the tax A tax is a compulsory financial charge or some other type of levy imposed on a taxpayer (an individual or legal entity In law, a legal person is any person A person (plural people or persons ...
. In Eastern Europe,
organized crime Organized crime is a category of , national, or local groupings of highly centralized enterprises run by criminals to engage in illegal activity, most commonly for profit. While organized crime is generally thought of as a form of illegal busines ...
is linked to illegal gambling and score fixing. In Russia, people have disappeared or been murdered after acting against bribery in sports.


Agreements with gamblers

There may be financial gain through agreements with
gamblers File:A photo of a gambling stand in Paris.jpg, A gambling stand in Paris Gambling (also known as betting) is the wagering of money or something of Value (economics), value (referred to as "the stakes") on an Event (probability theory), event wi ...
. The
Black Sox Scandal The Black Sox Scandal was a Major League Baseball Major League Baseball (MLB) is a professional baseball organization and the oldest major professional sports league in the world. , a total of 30 teams play in Major League Baseball—15 ...
of 1919, in which several members of the
Chicago White Sox The Chicago White Sox are an American professional baseball Baseball is a bat-and-ball games, bat-and-ball game played between two opposing teams who take turns batting (baseball), batting and fielding. The game proceeds when a pla ...
conspired with gamblers to fix that years
World Series The World Series is the annual championship series of (MLB) in the and , contested since between the champion teams of the (AL) and the (NL). The winner of the World Series championship is determined through a , and the winning team is aw ...

World Series
for monetary gain. One of the best-known examples of gambling-related race fixing (in motorsports) is the 1933
Tripoli Grand Prix 250px, 1937 Tripoli Grand Prix. The Tripoli Grand Prix (Italian language, Italian: ''Gran Premio di Tripoli'') was a motor racing event first held in 1925 on a racing circuit outside Tripoli, the capital of what was then Italian Tripolitania, now ...
, in which the winning number of the lottery was determined by the number of the race-winning car. One ticket holder held the number belonging to
Achille Varzi Achille Varzi (8 August 1904 – 1 July 1948) was an Italian Grand Prix driver. Career Born in Galliate, province of Novara Novara (It. ''Provincia di Novara'') is a province A province is almost always an administrative division withi ...
, contacted him and agreed to share the winning should he win. Varzi contacted other drivers who agreed to share the money if they deliberately lost. Despite a poor start, Varzi won the race after his opponents deliberately underperformed throughout the race.


Better playoff chances

Many sports have tournaments where the result of one round determines their opponent in the next round. As a result, by losing a match, a team can face an easier opponent in the next round, making them more likely to win. The
National Basketball Association The National Basketball Association (NBA) is a professional basketball Professional sports, as opposed to amateur sports, are sport Sport pertains to any form of Competition, competitive physical activity or game that aims to use, m ...
(NBA) is the only one of the four major professional sports leagues of the
United States The United States of America (U.S.A. or USA), commonly known as the United States (U.S. or US) or America, is a country in . It consists of 50 , a , five major , 326 , and some . At , it is the world's . The United States shares significan ...

United States
and
Canada Canada is a country in the northern part of . Its extend from the to the and northward into the , covering , making it the world's . Its southern and western , stretching , is the world's longest bi-national land border. Canada's capital ...

Canada
in which home advantage in the playoffs is based strictly on regular-season record without regard to seeding. This led to (unproven) allegations of late-season tanking by the 2005–06 Los Angeles Clippers in order to finish sixth instead of fifth in their conference; because of the league's playoff hosting rules, the Clippers would have home advantage in the 3–6 matchup but not the 4–5 matchup. Following that season, the NBA changed its playoff format so that the best second-place team in each conference would be able to obtain up to the #2 seed should it have the second-best conference record. The NBA has since changed its playoff format again, now awarding playoff berths to the top eight teams in each conference without regard to divisional alignment. On occasion, a
National Football League The National Football League (NFL) is a professional American football American football, referred to simply as football in the United States and also known as gridiron, is a team sport played by two teams of eleven players on a rect ...
(NFL) team has also been accused of throwing its final regular-season game in an attempt to "choose" its possible opponent in the subsequent playoffs. An alleged example of this was when the
San Francisco 49ers The San Francisco 49ers (also written as the San Francisco Forty Niners) are a professional American football team based in the San Francisco Bay Area. The 49ers compete in the National Football League (NFL) as a member of the league's National ...
, who had clinched a playoff berth, lost their regular-season finale in 1988 to the
Los Angeles Rams The Los Angeles Rams are a professional American football American football, referred to simply as football in the United States and also known as gridiron, is a team sport played by two teams of eleven players on a rectangular American ...
, thereby knocking the
New York Giants The New York Giants are a professional American football American football, referred to simply as football in the United States and also known as gridiron, is a team sport played by two teams of eleven players on a rectangular American ...

New York Giants
(who had defeated the 49ers in the playoffs in both 1985 and 1986, moreover injuring 49ers quarterback
Joe Montana Joseph Clifford Montana Jr. (born June 11, 1956) is a former American football American football, referred to simply as football in the United States and Canada and also known as gridiron, is a team sport played by two teams of eleven pl ...
in the latter) out of the postseason on tiebreakers; after the game, Giants quarterback
Phil Simms Phillip Martin Simms (born November 3, 1955) is a former American football American football, referred to simply as football in the United States and also known as gridiron, is a team sport played by two teams of eleven players on a rect ...
angrily accused the 49ers of "laying down like dogs." It is also not uncommon for NFL teams to rest starting players in late-season games once their playoff positions are assured, either by placing them on the inactive list for that game or by pulling them out early in the game, regardless of the score. This is done mainly to prevent injuries to key players in meaningless games. However, this is not considered match fixing as the players that remain in the game are still trying their best to win, and more often than not the team that rests their starters ends up winning anyway. In the
Canadian Football League The Canadian Football League (CFL; french: Ligue canadienne de football, LCF, links=no) is a professional sports league A sports league is a group of sports team A sports team is a group of individuals who play sport Sport pertains ...
, since the introduction of the ''cross-over rule'',
Western Western may refer to: Places *Western, Nebraska, a village in the US *Western, New York, a town in the US *Western Creek, Tasmania, a locality in Australia *Western Junction, Tasmania, a locality in Australia *Western world, countries that ide ...
teams have been occasionally accused of tanking near the end of the season in situations where a loss would cause them to finish fourth place in their division and where such a finish was still good enough to secure a berth in the league's East Division playoffs. In recent years, the East has often been viewed to be a weaker division than the West; however, if any Western team has actually attempted such a strategy, it has not paid significant dividends for them in view of the fact that, up to and including the 2014 season, Western cross-over teams have only won a single Eastern playoff game, and have never advanced to the
Grey Cup The Grey Cup (french: Coupe Grey) is both the championship game of the Canadian Football League The Canadian Football League (CFL; french: Ligue canadienne de football, LCF, links=no) is a professional sports league A sports league is a grou ...
championship game from the Eastern bracket. A more recent example of possible tanking occurred in the ice hockey competition at the
2006 Winter Olympics The 2006 Winter Olympics, officially known as the XX Olympic Winter Games ( it, XX Giochi olimpici invernali) and commonly known as or Turin 2006, was a winter multi-sport event A multi-sport event is an organized sporting Sporting may refer ...
. In Pool B,
Sweden Sweden ( sv, Sverige ), officially the Kingdom of Sweden ( sv, links=no, Konungariket Sverige ), is a Nordic countries, Nordic country in Northern Europe.The United Nations Group of Experts on Geographical Names states that the country's fo ...
was to face
Slovakia Slovakia (; sk, Slovensko ), officially the Slovak Republic ( sk, Slovenská republika, links=no ), is a landlocked country A landlocked country is a country A country is a distinct territory, territorial body or political entity ...
in the last pool match for both teams. Sweden coach
Bengt-Åke Gustafsson Bengt-Åke Gustafsson (born 23 March 1958) is a Sweden, Swedish ice hockey coach and former ice hockey player. Gustafsson is a former head coach of the Sweden men's national ice hockey team, a post he held from February 2005 to May 2010. During h ...
publicly contemplated tanking against Slovakia, knowing that if his team won, their quarterfinal opponent would either be
Canada Canada is a country in the northern part of North America. Its Provinces and territories of Canada, ten provinces and three territories extend from the Atlantic Ocean, Atlantic to the Pacific Ocean, Pacific and northward into the Arctic Oce ...
, the 2002 gold medalists, or the
Czech Republic The Czech Republic, also known by its short-form name Czechia and formerly known as Bohemia, is a landlocked country A landlocked country is a country A country is a distinct territory, territorial body or political entity. It ...
,
1998 1998 was designated as the ''International Year of the Ocean''. Events January * January 2 – Russia begins to Monetary reform in Russia, 1998, circulate new rubles to stem inflation and promote confidence. * January 4 – Wilaya of Reliza ...
gold medalists. Gustafsson would tell Swedish television "One is
cholera Cholera is an infection An infection is the invasion of an organism's body tissues by disease-causing agents, their multiplication, and the reaction of host A host is a person responsible for guests at an event or for providing hospit ...

cholera
, the other
the plague ''The Plague'' (French: ''La Peste'') is a novel by Albert Camus Albert Camus ( , ; ; 7 November 1913 – 4 January 1960) was a French philosopher, author, and journalist. He won the Nobel Prize in Literature at the age of 44 in 1957, the ...
." Sweden lost the match 3–0; the most obvious sign of tanking was when Sweden had a five-on-three powerplay with five
NHL The National Hockey League (NHL; french: Ligue nationale de hockey—LNH) is a professional ice hockey league in North America, currently comprising 31 teams: 24 in the United States and 7 in Canada. The NHL is considered to be the premier p ...
stars –
Peter Forsberg Peter Mattias Forsberg (; born 20 July 1973) is a Swedish former professional ice hockey player and was for a time assistant general manager of Modo Hockey. Known for his on-ice vision and physical play, Forsberg is considered one of the greatest ...

Peter Forsberg
,
Mats Sundin Mats Johan Sundin (; born 13 February 1971) is a Swedish former professional ice hockey player who played the majority of his career in the National Hockey League The National Hockey League (NHL; french: Ligue nationale de hockey—LNH) i ...
,
Daniel Alfredsson Daniel Alfredsson (; born 11 December 1972) is a Swedish-Canadian Canadians (french: Canadiens) are people identified with the country of Canada. This connection may be residential, legal, historical or cultural. For most Canadians, many ( ...

Daniel Alfredsson
, Nicklas Lidström, and
Fredrik Modin Jan Fredrik "Freddy" Modin (born 8 October 1974) is a Swedish former professional ice hockey Winger (ice hockey), left winger who played 14 seasons in the National Hockey League (NHL) and most notably won the Stanley Cup with the Tampa Bay Lightni ...

Fredrik Modin
– on the ice, and failed to put a shot on goal. (''
Sports Illustrated ''Sports Illustrated'' (''SI'') is an American sports magazine owned by Authentic Brands Group, and was first published in August 1954. It was the first magazine with circulation over one million to win the National Magazine Award for General ...
'' writer Michael Farber would say about this particular powerplay, "If the Swedes had passed the puck any more, their next opponent would have been the
Washington Generals The Washington Generals are an American basketball Basketball is a team sport in which two teams, most commonly of five players each, opposing one another on a rectangular Basketball court, court, compete with the primary objective of #Shoo ...
.") If he was seeking to tank, Gustafsson got his wish; Sweden would face a much less formidable quarterfinal opponent in
Switzerland , french: Suisse(sse), it, svizzero/svizzera or , rm, Svizzer/Svizra , government_type = Federalism, Federal semi-direct democracy under an assembly-independent Directorial system, directorial republic , leader_title1 = Fe ...
. Canada would lose to
Russia Russia ( rus, link=no, Россия, Rossiya, ), or the Russian Federation, is a country spanning Eastern Europe Eastern Europe is the eastern region of . There is no consistent definition of the precise area it covers, partly because th ...
in a quarterfinal in the opposite bracket, while Sweden went on to win the gold medal, defeating the Czechs in the semifinals. The 1998 Tiger Cup – an international
football Football is a family of s that involve, to varying degrees, a to score a . Unqualified, normally means the form of football that is the most popular where the word is used. Sports commonly called ''football'' include (known as ''soccer'' ...
tournament contested by countries in
Southeast Asia Southeast Asia, also spelled South East Asia and South-East Asia, and also known as Southeastern Asia or SEA, is the geographical United Nations geoscheme for Asia#South-eastern Asia, southeastern subregion of Asia, consisting of the regions ...

Southeast Asia
– saw an example of two teams trying to lose a match. The tournament was hosted by
Vietnam Vietnam ( vi, Việt Nam, ), officially the Socialist Republic of Vietnam,, group="n" is a country in Southeast Asia Southeast Asia, also spelled South East Asia and South-East Asia, and also known as Southeastern Asia or SEA, is the ...

Vietnam
, with the eight countries competing split into two groups of four. The top two in each group advanced to the semi-finals with the winners playing the runners-up of the other group. In the first group,
Singapore Singapore (), officially the Republic of Singapore, is a sovereign state, sovereign island city-state in maritime Southeast Asia. It lies about one degree of latitude () north of the equator, off the southern tip of the Malay Peninsula, bor ...
finished on top with
Vietnam Vietnam ( vi, Việt Nam, ), officially the Socialist Republic of Vietnam,, group="n" is a country in Southeast Asia Southeast Asia, also spelled South East Asia and South-East Asia, and also known as Southeastern Asia or SEA, is the ...
finishing second; this meant that the winners of the second group would have to travel to
Hanoi , population_total = 8,053,663 ( 2nd) , population_as_of = 2019 , population_demonym = Hanoian , population_density_km2 = auto , population_urban = 3,962,310 , population_density_urban_km2 = 14708.8 , popula ...

Hanoi
to play the host nation in the national stadium on their national day, while the runners-up would face Singapore in
Ho Chi Minh City , population_density_km2 = 4292 , population_density_metro_km2 = 697.2 , population_demonym = Saigonese , demographics_type1 = List of ethnic groups in Vietnam, Ethnic groups , demographics1_footnotes = , demographics1_title ...

Ho Chi Minh City
where the final group match was taking place. As the two teams involved –
Thailand Thailand ( th, ประเทศไทย), historically known as Siam, () officially the Kingdom of Thailand, is a country in Southeast Asia. It is located at the centre of the Mainland Southeast Asia, Indochinese Peninsula, spanning , wi ...
and
Indonesia Indonesia ( ), officially the Republic of Indonesia ( id, Republik Indonesia, links=yes ), is a country in Southeast Asia Southeast Asia, also spelled South East Asia and South-East Asia, and also known as Southeastern Asia or SEA, is t ...
– had both already qualified for the semi-finals, it was in both teams' interest to lose the match and finish in second place. As the game progressed, neither side seemed particularly concerned with scoring, while the defending was lackadaisical. As the match entered stoppage time, Indonesian defender Mursyid Effendi scored an
own goal An own goal is an event in competitive goal-scoring sports (such as association football Association football, more commonly known as simply football or soccer, is a team sport played with a sphere, spherical Ball (association football), ba ...
, overcoming the efforts of several Thai players and the goalkeeper to stop him. Both teams were fined $40,000, and Effendi was banned from international football for life. The
2012 Summer Olympics The 2012 Summer Olympics (officially known as the Games of the XXX Olympiad and commonly known as London 2012) was an international multi-sport event A multi-sport event is an organized sporting Sporting may refer to: *Sport, recreational ...
saw two examples of tanking of this type: * Members of four
badminton Badminton is a racquet sport played using racquets to hit a shuttlecock Plastic shuttlecock A shuttlecock (also called a bird or birdie) is a high-drag projectile used in the sport of badminton Badminton is a racquet sport played ...
teams from
China China (), officially the People's Republic of China (PRC; ), is a country in East Asia East Asia is the eastern region of Asia Asia () is Earth's largest and most populous continent, located primarily in the Eastern Hemisphere ...
,
Indonesia Indonesia ( ), officially the Republic of Indonesia ( id, Republik Indonesia, links=yes ), is a country in Southeast Asia Southeast Asia, also spelled South East Asia and South-East Asia, and also known as Southeastern Asia or SEA, is t ...
and
South Korea South Korea, officially the Republic of Korea (ROK), is a country in East Asia, constituting the southern part of the Korea, Korean Peninsula and sharing a Korean Demilitarized Zone, land border with North Korea. Its western border is for ...
were ejected from the women's doubles tournament for intentionally losing matches to allow better pairings in the knockout stages of the competition. In what the BBC called a “night of shame,” players made simple errors throughout the match, despite booing and jeering from the crowd, and warnings from the match umpire and tournament referee to cease and desist. The
Badminton World Federation The Badminton World Federation (BWF) is the international governing body for the sport Sport pertains to any form of Competition, competitive physical activity or game that aims to use, maintain or improve physical ability and skills w ...
found the four pairs guilty of “not using one’s best efforts to win a match” and “conducting oneself in a manner that is clearly abusive or detrimental to the sport.” * In the women's football tournament,
Japan Japan ( ja, 日本, or , and formally ) is an island country An island country or an island nation is a country A country is a distinct territory, territorial body or political entity. It is often referred to as the land of an in ...
intentionally played a draw with
South Africa South Africa, officially the Republic of South Africa (RSA), is the southernmost country in Africa. With over 60 million people, it is the world's 23rd-most populous nation and covers an area of . South Africa has three capital citie ...
in
Cardiff Cardiff (; cy, Caerdydd ) is the capital city of Wales and a Local government in Wales, county. Officially known as the City and County of Cardiff, it is the United Kingdom's eleventh-largest city and the main commercial centre of Wales. Cardi ...

Cardiff
, allowing it to finish second in its group so it would not have to travel to
Glasgow Glasgow ( ; sco, Glesga; gd, Glaschu) is the most populous city A city is a large .Goodall, B. (1987) ''The Penguin Dictionary of Human Geography''. London: Penguin.Kuper, A. and Kuper, J., eds (1996) ''The Social Science Encyclopedia'' ...

Glasgow
, more than 300 miles away, for the first round of the knockout stage. Instead, Japan remained in Cardiff and defeated
Brazil Brazil ( pt, Brasil; ), officially the Federative Republic of Brazil (Portuguese: ), is the largest country in both South America and Latin America. At 8.5 million square kilometers (3.2 million square miles) and with over 211 mill ...
in their quarterfinal en route to the gold medal match. In February 2015, two girls' basketball teams representing
Nashville Nashville is the Capital city, capital and List of municipalities in Tennessee, most populous city of the U.S. state of Tennessee. The city is the county seat of Davidson County, Tennessee, Davidson County and is located on the Cumberland River. ...
-area Riverdale and Smyrna High Schools were found to be tanking during a consolation match of their district tournament. The winner of the game would enter the same side of the regional tournament bracket as defending state champion Blackman High School (ranked as one of the country's top 10 teams by some national publications), setting up a potential match in the regional semifinals. The loser would thus avoid Blackman until the regional final, a game whose participants would both advance to the sectional tournament (one step short of the state tournament). During the game both teams pulled their starters early, missed shots on purpose, intentionally turned over the ball and deliberately committed fouls. The
Tennessee Secondary School Athletic Association The Tennessee Secondary School Athletic Association (TSSAA), along with the affiliated Tennessee Middle School Athletic Association (TMSAA), is an organization which administers junior and senior high school sporting events in Tennessee. The TSSAA ...
, which governs high school sports in the state, ejected both teams from the postseason, fined the two schools (Riverdale $1,000 and Smyrna $500), and placed both teams on probation through the 2015–16 school year. On the other hand, the practice of coaches on a playoff-bound team deliberately benching a team's best players for some or all of the final match(es) of the regular season is often defended as a common sense measure to avoid unnecessarily risking injuries and fatigue to the team's star players. Some argue that a coach should not only have the right to select a starting lineup for a match that gives the team the best chances of winning titles in the long should this be a different lineup than the one that gives the team the best chances of winning the game at but that doing so is the smartest course of action. For example, during
Euro 2004 The 2004 UEFA European Football Championship, commonly referred to as UEFA Euro 2004 or simply Euro 2004, was the 12th edition of the UEFA European Championship The UEFA European Football Championship, commonly known as the UEFA European Cha ...
the
Czech Republic The Czech Republic, also known by its short-form name Czechia and formerly known as Bohemia, is a landlocked country in Central Europe. It is bordered by Austria to the south, Germany to the west, Poland to the northeast, and Slovakia to ...
rested nearly all of its starters from the first two group matches for the final group match against
Germany ) , image_map = , map_caption = , map_width = 250px , capital = Berlin Berlin (; ) is the Capital city, capital and List of cities in Germany by population, largest city of Germany by both area and population. Its 3,769,495 inh ...
. Since the Czechs had already clinched first place in the group, this move was seen to have the potential to allow Germany a better chance get the win they needed to advance at the expense of the winner of the
Netherlands ) , national_anthem = ( en, "William of Nassau") , image_map = EU-Netherlands.svg , map_caption = , image_map2 = BES islands location map.svg , map_caption2 = , image_map3 ...
Latvia Latvia ( or ; lv, Latvija ; ltg, Latveja; liv, Leţmō), officially known as the Republic of Latvia ( lv, Latvijas Republika, links=no, ltg, Latvejas Republika, links=no, liv, Leţmō Vabāmō, links=no), is a country in the Baltic re ...
game. As it happened, the Czechs' decision to field a "weaker" side did not matter since the Czechs won the match anyway to eliminate the Germans.


Better draft position

Most top-level sports leagues in
North America North America is a continent A continent is any of several large landmasses. Generally identified by convention (norm), convention rather than any strict criteria, up to seven geographical regions are commonly regarded as continen ...
and
Australia Australia, officially the Commonwealth of Australia, is a Sovereign state, sovereign country comprising the mainland of the Australia (continent), Australian continent, the island of Tasmania, and numerous List of islands of Australia, sma ...
hold
drafts Draft, The Draft, or Draught may refer to: Watercraft dimensions * Draft (hull) The draft or draught of a ship's Hull (watercraft), hull is the vertical distance between the waterline and the bottom of the hull (keel). Draft determines the mi ...
to allocate young players to the league's teams. The order in which teams select players is often the inverse of their standings in the previous season. As a result, a team may have a significant incentive to tank games to secure a higher pick in the league's next draft, and a number of leagues have changed their draft rules to remove (or at least limit) potential incentives to tank. From
1966 In February, Luna 9 Luna 9 (Луна-9), internal designation Ye-6 No.13, was an of the 's . On 3 February 1966, the Luna 9 spacecraft became the first spacecraft to achieve a survivable landing on a . Spacecraft The lander had a mass ...
to
1984 Events January * January 1 January 1 or 1 January is the first day of the year in the Gregorian Calendar. There are 364 days remaining until the end of the year (365 in leap years). This day is known as New Year's Day since the day m ...
, the
NBA The National Basketball Association (NBA) is a professional basketball Professional sports, as opposed to amateur sports, are sport Sport pertains to any form of Competition, competitive physical activity or game that aims to use, ...
used a coin flip between the teams with the worst records in each of the league's two conferences to determine the recipient of the top pick. In the , several teams were accused of deliberately losing games in an attempt to gain a top position in the 1984 draft, which would eventually produce four Hall of Fame players. As a result of this, the NBA established a draft lottery in advance of the 1985 draft, involving all teams that did not make the playoffs in the previous season. This lottery system prevented teams from receiving fixed draft positions based on record place, which the league hoped would discourage them from deliberately losing. Even though the lottery in place through the 2018 draft gave the team with the worst record only the same chance at the top pick as the 2nd and 3rd worst teams (with that team guaranteed no worse than the fourth pick), there was still perceived incentive for a team to tank. Responding to these perceived incentives, the NBA further tweaked its lottery rules shortly before the start of the 2017–18 season. Effective with the 2019 draft, the teams with the three worst records have equal odds of landing the #1 pick (barring one of these teams also owning another lottery team's pick), and the top four picks are allocated in the lottery instead of the top three. The
Australian Football League The Australian Football League (AFL) is the pre-eminent and only fully professional A professional is a member of a profession or any person who earns a living from a specified professional activity. The term also describes the standards of ...
, the main competition of
Australian rules football Australian rules football, officially known as Australian football, or simply called "Aussie rules", "football Football is a family of team sport A team is a roup (disambiguation), group of individuals (human or non-human) working ...
, has used a system of priority draft picks since 1993 AFL Draft, 1993, with poorly performing teams receiving extra selections at or near the start of the draft. Prior to 2012, a team automatically received a priority pick if its win-loss record met pre-defined eligibility criteria. However, that system led to accusations of tanking by several clubs—most notably by Melbourne Football Club tanking scandal, Melbourne in 2009 (the club was found not guilty, but the head coach and general manager were found guilty on related charges). Since 2012, priority picks are awarded at the discretion of the AFL Commission, the governing body of both the AFL and the overall sport. Until the 2014–15 NHL season, the National Hockey League assured the last place team of at least the second position in its entry draft, with the first overall pick being subject to a draft lottery among the five worst teams. As NHL drafts typically include only one NHL-ready prospect, if any at all, in any given year (most others must continue developing in junior ice hockey or the minor leagues for several years before reaching the NHL), this rudimentary lottery has historically been enough of a deterrent to avoid deliberate tanking. However, in 2014–15, two elite prospects widely considered to be “generational talents,” Connor McDavid and Jack Eichel, were projected to enter the 2015 NHL Entry Draft, thus ensuring the last place team at least one of the two prospects. This was most prominent with the Buffalo Sabres, whose fans openly rooted against their team in the hopes they would clinch last place in the league for much of the season (the Sabres themselves denied they were tanking and openly criticized their fans for suggesting the notion). Beginning in 2015–16, the top three picks in the draft will be subject to lottery, with all fourteen teams that did not qualify for the playoffs eligible to win the picks.


More favorable schedule next year

NFL teams have been accused of tanking games to obtain a more favorable schedule the following season; this was especially true between 1977 and 1993, when a team finishing last in a five-team division would get to play four of its eight non-division matches the next season against other last-place teams. In the current scheduling formula which has been in place since 2002, only two games in a schedule are based on a team's placement the previous season. Each team will play the same-placed teams based on the previous standings from two of the other divisions in its conference. The remaining eight non-division games are the same for all teams in a division.


Match fixing by referees

In addition to the match fixing that is committed by players, coaches and/or team officials, it is not unheard of to have results manipulated by corrupt referees. Since 2004, separate scandals have erupted in prominent sports leagues in Portugal, Germany (Bundesliga scandal (2005), Bundesliga scandal), Brazil (Brazilian football match-fixing scandal) and the United States (see 2007 NBA betting scandal, Tim Donaghy scandal), all of which concerned referees who fixed matches for gamblers. Many sports writers have speculated that in leagues with high player salaries, it is far more likely for a referee to become corrupt since their pay in such competitions is usually much less than that of the players. On December 2, 1896, former American frontier, Old West lawman Wyatt Earp refereed the Fitzsimmons vs. Sharkey boxing match, promoted as the List of heavyweight boxing champions, Heavyweight Championship of the World. Earp was chosen as referee by the National Athletic Association the afternoon of the match after both managers refused to agree on a choice. In the eighth round of a fight dominated by Fitzsimmons, Sharkey suddenly went down, clutching his groin, yelling foul. Referee Earp conferred with both corners for a few seconds before he disqualified Fitzsimmons for a foul that virtually no one saw. Fitzsimmons went to court to attempt to stop Sharkey from taking the purse, but failed when the court ruled that the match was illegal and it had no jurisdiction. Eight years later, Dr. B. Brookes Lee was arrested in Portland, Oregon. He had been accused of treating Sharkey to make it appear that he had been fouled by Fitzsimmons. Lee said, "I fixed Sharkey up to look as if he had been fouled. How? Well, that is something I do not care to reveal, but I will assert that it was done—that is enough. There is no doubt that Fitzsimmons was entitled to the decision and did not foul Sharkey. I got $1,000 for my part in the affair."


Match fixing to a draw or a fixed score

Match fixing does not necessarily involve deliberately losing a match. Occasionally, teams have been accused of deliberately playing to a draw or a fixed score where this ensures some mutual benefit (e.g. both teams advancing to the next stage of a competition.) One of the earliest examples of this sort of match fixing in the modern era occurred in 1897–98 Football League#Test matches 1898, 1898 when Stoke City F.C., Stoke City and Burnley F.C., Burnley intentionally drew in that year's final "test match" so as to ensure they were both in the First Division the next season. In response, English Football League, the Football League expanded the divisions to 18 teams that year, thus permitting the intended victims of the fix (Newcastle United F.C., Newcastle United and Blackburn Rovers F.C., Blackburn Rovers) to remain in the First Division. The "test match" system was abandoned and replaced with automatic relegation. A more recent example occurred in the 1982 FIFA World Cup, Germany national football team, West Germany played Austria national football team, Austria in Disgrace of Gijón, the last match of group B. A West German victory by 1 or 2 goals would result in both teams advancing; any less and Germany was out; any more and Austria was out (and replaced by Algeria national football team, Algeria, who had just beaten Chile). West Germany attacked hard and scored after 10 minutes. Afterwards, the players then proceeded to just kick the ball around aimlessly for the remainder of the match. Algerian supporters were so angered that they waved banknotes at the players, while a German fan burned his German flag in disgust. By the second half, the ARD commentator :de:Eberhard Stanjek, Eberhard Stanjek refused any further comment on the game, while the Austrian television commentator :de:Robert Seeger, Robert Seeger advised viewers to switch off their sets. As a result, FIFA changed its tournament scheduling for subsequent FIFA World Cup, World Cups so that the final pair of matches in each group are played simultaneously. Another example took place on the next-to-last weekend of the 1992–93 Serie A season. A.C. Milan, Milan entered their match with Brescia Calcio, Brescia needing only a point to secure the title ahead of crosstown rivals Inter Milan, Inter, while Brescia believed a point would be enough for them to avoid relegation. In a 2004 retrospective on the "dodgiest games" in football history, two British journalists said about the match, "For over 80 minutes, the two teams engaged in a shameful game of cat-and-mouse, in which the cat appeared to have fallen asleep and the mouse was on tranquilisers." Milan scored in the 82nd minute, but Brescia "mysteriously found themselves with a huge overlap" and equalised two minutes later. The 1–1 draw gave Milan their title, but in the end did not help Brescia; other results went against them and they suffered the drop. In knockout competitions where the rules require drawn matches to be replay (sports), replayed, teams have sometimes been accused of intentionally playing one or more draws so as to ensure (a) replay(s). In this case, the motive is usually financial since the ensuing replay(s) would typically be expected to generate additional revenue for the participating teams. One notorious example of this particular type of alleged fix was the 1909 Scottish Cup Final, which sparked a riot after being played twice to a draw.


Intentional loss to prejudice third-party rival

A team may deliberately lose a match, giving a victory to the opposing team that damages a third-party rival. An example of this occurred in Seville, Sevilla, Spain, during the 1999–2000 La Liga. Sevilla FC were in last place and were already officially relegation, relegated. In their thirty-fifth match of the season (out of 38), Sevilla faced Real Oviedo of Asturias, which was itself fighting to avoid relegation. An Oviedo victory would put Sevilla's Seville derby, fierce cross-town rival, Real Betis, in the relegation zone. Sevilla performed poorly, while their fans showed support for Oviedo and expressed concern for missed scoring chances by the Asturian side. Oviedo defeated Sevilla 3–2, contributing to the eventual relegation of Betis. Twelve years later, former Sevilla goalkeeper Frode Olsen admitted the team had lost intentionally in order to relegate Betis.


Increased gate receipts

In addition to the aforementioned incidents of alleged fixing of drawn matches to ensure replays, mutual fixes have sometimes been alleged in "best of X" knockout series where draws are either not possible or very uncommon. Early versions of baseball's World Series were a common target of such allegations. Because the players received a percentage of the gate receipts for postseason games (a privilege they did not enjoy in the regular season), there was a perception that the players had an incentive to fix an equal number of early games in favor of each team so as to ensure the series would run the maximum number of games (or very close thereto). Partly as an effort to avoid this sort of controversy, early World Series sometimes saw all scheduled games played even if the Series winner was already determined. That did not prove satisfactory since few fans were willing to pay to watch wikt:lame duck, lame duck contests. Eventually, following the controversy at the conclusion of the 1904 season in which the
New York Giants The New York Giants are a professional American football American football, referred to simply as football in the United States and also known as gridiron, is a team sport played by two teams of eleven players on a rectangular American ...

New York Giants
boycotted the World Series in part because of dissatisfaction with the financial arrangements surrounding the Series, Major League Baseball agreed to a number of reforms proposed by Giants owner John T. Brush. Among other things, the so-called "Brush Rules" stipulated that the players would only receive a share of ticket revenue from the first four games, thus eliminating any financial incentive for the players to deliberately prolong the World Series.


Abuse of tie-breaking rules

On several occasions, creative use of tie-breaking rules have allegedly led teams to play less than their best. An example occurred in the 2004 European Football Championship. Unlike FIFA, UEFA takes the result of the game between the two tied teams (or in a three-way tie, the overall records of the games played with the teams in question only) into consideration before overall goal difference when ranking teams level on points. A situation arose in Group C where Sweden national football team, Sweden and Denmark national football team, Denmark played to a 2–2 draw, which was a sufficiently high scoreline to eliminate Italy national football team, Italy (which had lower-scoring draws with the Swedes and Danes) regardless of Italy's result with already-eliminated Bulgaria national football team, Bulgaria. Although Italy beat Bulgaria by only one goal to finish level with Sweden and Denmark on five points and would hypothetically have been eliminated using the FIFA tie-breaker too, some Italian fans bitterly contended that the FIFA tie-breaker would have motivated their team to play harder and deterred their Scandinavian rivals from, in their view, at the very least half-heartedly playing out the match after the score became 2–2. The same situation happened to Italy in 2012, leading to many pre-game complaints from Italy, who many commentators suggested were right to be concerned because of their own extensive experience in this area. However, Spain-Croatia ended in a 1–0 win for Spain, and the Italians went through. The FIFA tie-breaker, or any goal-differential scheme, can cause problems, too. There have been incidents (especially in basketball) where players on a favored team have won the game but deliberately ensured the quoted point spread was not covered (see
point shaving In organized sports, point shaving is a type of match fixing where the perpetrators try to prevent a team from covering a published spread betting, point spread. Unlike other forms of sports betting, spread betting invariably motivates point shavin ...
). Conversely, there are cases where a team not only lost (which might be honest) but lost by some large amount, perhaps to ensure a point spread was covered, or to grant some non-gambling related favor to the victor. Perhaps the most famous alleged example was the match between Argentina and Peru in the 1978 FIFA World Cup. Argentina needed a four-goal victory over Peru in order to advance over Brazil, a large margin at this level of competition, yet Argentina won 6–0. Much was made over possible political collusion, that the Peruvian goalkeeper was born in Argentina, and that Peru was dependent on Argentinian grain shipments, but nothing was ever proven. Although the Denmark–Sweden game above led to calls for UEFA to adopt FIFA's tiebreaking formula for future tournaments, it is not clear if this solves the problem; the Argentina-Peru game shows a possible abuse of the FIFA tie-breaker. Proponents of the UEFA tie-breaker argue that it reduces the value of ''blow-outs'', whether these be the result of a much stronger team ''running up the score'' or an already-eliminated side allowing an unusually large number of goals. Perhaps the most infamous incident occurred in December 1983 when Spain national football team, Spain, needing to win by eleven goals to qualify for the 1984 European Football Championship, Euro 1984 ahead of the
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, defeated Malta national football team, Malta by a score of 12–1 on the strength of ''nine'' second half goals. Especially in association football, international football, such lopsided results are seen as unsavoury, even if they are honest. If anything, these incidents serves as evidence that the FIFA tie-breaker can cause incentives to perpetrate a fix in some circumstances, the UEFA tie-breaker in others. Tie-breaking rules played the central role in one of cricket's more notorious matches. In a 1979 Benson & Hedges Cup, 1979 Worcestershire v Somerset, 1979, match in England's now-defunct Benson & Hedges Cup, a Limited overs cricket, one-day league, Worcestershire County Cricket Club, Worcestershire hosted Somerset County Cricket Club, Somerset in the final group match for both sides. Going into that match, Somerset led their group with three wins from three matches, but would end in a three-way tie for the top spot if they lost to Worcestershire and Glamorgan County Cricket Club, Glamorgan defeated the then-winless Minor counties of English and Welsh cricket, Minor Counties South. In that event, the tie-breaker would be bowling strike rate. The Somerset players calculated that a large enough loss could see them miss the quarter-finals. Accordingly, Somerset captain Brian Rose (cricketer), Brian Rose determined that if Somerset batted first and declared their innings closed after one over, they would protect their strike rate advantage, assuring advancement to the quarter-finals. When Somerset won the toss, Rose implemented the plan, batting in the first partnership and declaring at the close of the first over after Somerset scored only one run on a no-ball. Worcestershire won during their second over. Rose's strategy, although not against the letter of the rules, was condemned by media and cricket officials, and the Test and County Cricket Board (predecessor to the current England and Wales Cricket Board) voted to expel Somerset from that season's competition.


Prize sharing

A player can concede with the understanding that the opponent will share the prize equally with him or her. Depending on the game, this can lead to disqualification.


Protest action

On occasion, teams tank games as a protest against actions in earlier games. The most lopsided professional football match in history, AS Adema 149–0 SO l'Emyrne, was a result of SO l'Emyrne intentionally losing the game in protest against the referee's action in a previous game.


Individual performance in team sports

Bookmakers in the early 21st century accept bets on a far wider range of sports-related propositions than ever before. Thus, a gambling-motivated fix might not necessarily involve any direct attempt to influence the outright result, especially in team sports in which such a fix would require the co-operation (and prerequisitely the knowledge) of many people and/or perhaps would be more likely to arouse suspicion. Fixing the result of a more-particular proposition might be seen as less likely to be noticed. For example, the disgraced former
National Basketball Association The National Basketball Association (NBA) is a professional basketball Professional sports, as opposed to amateur sports, are sport Sport pertains to any form of Competition, competitive physical activity or game that aims to use, m ...
referee Tim Donaghy has been alleged to have perpetrated some of his fixes by calling games in such a manner as to ensure more points than expected were scored by both teams, thus affecting "over-under" bets on the games whilst also ensuring that Donaghy at least did not look to be outright biased. Also, bets are increasingly being taken on individual performances in team sporting events, which, in turn, has seen the rise of a phenomenon known as spot fixing although it is now unlikely that enough is bet on average players to allow someone to place a substantial wager on them without being noticed. One such attempt was described by retired footballer Matthew Le Tissier, who in 2009 admitted that while he was playing with Southampton FC back in 1995, he tried (and failed) to kick the ball out of play right after the kick-off of a Premier League match against Wimbledon FC so that a group of associates would collect on a wager made on an early throw-in. Similarly, Pakistan cricket spot-fixing scandal, in 2010, Pakistani cricket players were accused of committing specific no-ball penalties for the benefit of gamblers. The scandal centred on three Pakistani players accepting bribes from a bookmaker, Mazhar Majeed, during the Lord's test match against England. Following investigations by the News of the World and Scotland Yard, on 1 November 2011, Majeed, Pakistan's captain, Salman Butt, Mohammad Asif (cricketer), Mohammad Asif and Mohammad Amir were found guilty of conspiracy to cheat at gambling and to accept corrupt payments. As a result, all three of the players were banned by the International Cricket Council (ICC): Butt for ten years, Asif for seven and Amir for five. On 3 November 2011, jail terms were handed down of 30 months for Butt, one year for Asif, six months for Amir and two years eight months for Majeed.


Effect of non-gambling-motivated fixing on wagering

Whenever any serious motivation for teams to manipulate results becomes apparent to the general public, there can be a corresponding effect on betting markets as honest gamblers speculate in good faith as to the chance such a fix might be attempted. Some bettors might choose to avoid wagering on such a fixture while others will be motivated to wager on it, or alter the bet they would otherwise place. Such actions will invariably affect odds and point spreads even if there is no contact whatsoever between teams and the relevant gambling interests. The rise of betting exchanges has allowed such speculation to play out in real time.


History

Evidence of match fixing has been found throughout recorded history, and the history of match fixing is closely related to the history of illegal gambling. The ancient Olympic Games were almost constantly dealing with allegations of sportsperson, athletes accepting bribery, bribes to lose a competition and city-states which often tried to manipulate the outcome with large amounts of money. These activities went on despite the oath each athlete took to protect the integrity of the events and the severe punishment sometimes inflicted on those who were caught. Chariot racing was also dogged by race fixing throughout its history. By the end of the 19th century gambling was illegal in most jurisdictions, but that did not stop its widespread practice. Boxing soon became rife with fighters "taking a dive", likely due to boxing being a sport involving individual competitors, which makes its matches much easier to fix without getting caught. Baseball also became plagued by match fixing despite efforts by the National League to stop gambling at its games. Matters finally came to a head in 1919 when eight members of the Chicago White Sox threw the World Series (see
Black Sox Scandal The Black Sox Scandal was a Major League Baseball Major League Baseball (MLB) is a professional baseball organization and the oldest major professional sports league in the world. , a total of 30 teams play in Major League Baseball—15 ...
). In an effort to restore confidence, Major League Baseball established the office of the Commissioner of Baseball, and one of Kenesaw Mountain Landis's first acts was to ban all involved players for life. MLB Rule 21 prohibits players from participating in any form of betting on baseball games, and a lifetime ban for betting on a player's own games. A poster with Rule 21 must be posted on all professional baseball clubhouses. In the 1990s, match fixing in Asia was especially common. In Malaysia, authorities suggested that 70% of football matches were being manipulated, and corruption scandals in China resulted in gamblers choosing to bet on overseas matches.


Japan

is a Japanese language, Japanese word meaning a cheating activity which is committed at places where a match, fight, game, competition, or other contest, is held, where the winner and loser are decided in advance by agreement of the competitors or related people. It is believed that the word ''Yaocho'' came from the name ("Chobei") of the owner of a vegetable stand (''yaoya'') during the Meiji period. Created from the first syllable of ''Yaoya'' and ''chobei'', the word ''yaocho'' was created for a nickname of Chobei. Chobei had a friend called "Isenoumi Godayu" (7th Isenoumi stable, Isenoumi stablemaster) with whom he played the game Go (board game), Igo, who had once been a sumo wrestler "Kashiwado Sogoro" (former ''shikona'': "Kyonosato") and now was a "''toshiyori''" (a stablemaster of sumo). Although Chobei was a better Igo player than Isenoumi, he sometimes lost games on purpose to please Isenoumi so that Isenoumi would continue to buy merchandise from his shop. Afterward, once people knew of his cheating, they started to use ''yaocho'' as a word meaning any decision to win/lose a match in advance by negotiation etc. with the expectation of secondary profit, even though the match seems to be held seriously and fairly. Economists using statistical analysis have shown very strong evidence of bout fixing in sumo wrestling. Most of the motive for match fixing is helping each other's ranking to keep their salary higher, according to Keisuke Itai. For example, wrestlers in ''jūryō'' (the second tier) desperately try to avoid finishing the tournament makekoshi, with a losing record (7–8 or worse) and exchange or buy the match result, or their salary would be nothing, 0 yen, with the participation wage of 150,000 yen every two months if they finish the tournament with a losing record, and their ranking would go down to ''makushita'' (third level) and only participate in seven matches, the lesser ranking from ''jūryō'' in which one can earn 1,036,000 yen monthly with some prizes and a full 15-match tournament. The sumo association appears to make a distinction between ''yaocho'' (the payment of money to secure a result) and ''koi-ni-yatta mukiryoku zumo'' (the deliberate performance of underpowered sumo in which an opponent simply lays a match down without exchange of money). The intricacies of Japanese culture, which include subordination of individual gain to the greater good and knowing how to read a situation without the exchange of words (I know my opponent's score, he needs help, and I should automatically give it to him) mean that the latter is almost readily accepted in the sumo world and is also nearly impossible to prove.


Cricket

Some of the most notorious instances of match fixing have been observed in international cricket. In 2000 the Delhi police intercepted a conversation between a blacklisted bookie and the South African cricket team, South African cricket captain Hansie Cronje in which they learnt that Cronje accepted money to throw matches. A court of inquiry was set up and Cronje admitted to throwing matches. He was immediately banned from all cricket. He also named Saleem Malik (Pakistani cricket team, Pakistan), Mohammed Azharuddin and Ajay Jadeja (Indian cricket team, India) as fellow match fixers. Jadeja was banned for 4 years. Although Cronje was a kingpin of betting, following untimely death in 2002 most of his fixing partners escaped law enforcement agencies. Earlier in 1998, Australian cricket team, Australian players Mark Waugh and Shane Warne were fined for revealing information about the 'weather' to John the bookmaker controversy, a bookmaker. The fourth Test cricket, Test of Pakistan national cricket team, Pakistan's Pakistani cricket team in England in 2010, summer 2010 cricket tour of England contained several incidents of spot fixing, involving members of Pakistan team deliberately bowling no-balls at specific points to facilitate betting through bookmakers. Following investigation, three Pakistani players were banned from cricket and sentenced to prison terms. Similarly, in Indian Premier League in 2013, S. Sreesanth and two other players were banned by the Board of Control for Cricket in India for alleged match fixing. Sreesanth's ban was briefly lifted, but the Kerala High Court upheld the ban in 2017. In July 2017, ex-Sri Lanka national cricket team, Sri Lanka cricket captain Arjuna Ranatunga alleged that the 2011 Cricket World Cup Final match between India and Sri Lanka had been fixed. The investigation was dropped by Sri Lankan authorities and the International Cricket Council in 2020 due to a lack of evidence.


Football

In 2006 the European football powerhouse Juventus F.C. drew a match against Underdog, minnows Rimini in a fixed encounter. Following investigation, Juventus Manager Luciano Moggi, Italian Football President Franco Carraro and Vice-president Innocenzo Mazzini had to resign In 2010 several Korean footballers were punished by FIFA with a lifelong ban from all sports for fixing several matches in the Korean League Cup. During the subsequent investigation, many top Korean players were also found to be involved in match fixing after the initial discovery.


Professional wrestling

In professional wrestling, most matches have predetermined results; however, as it is an open secret that professional wrestling is staged, it is not considered match fixing. Up until the 1920s, professional wrestling was considered a legitimate sport. This did not endure as professional wrestling became identified with modern theatrics or ''admitted fakery'', moving away from actual competition. The "worked", known as "kayfabe" nature of wrestling led critics to deem it an illegitimate sport, particularly in comparison to boxing, amateur wrestling, and, more recently, mixed martial arts. Many individuals began to doubt the legitimacy of wrestling after the retirement of Frank Gotch in 1913. As wrestling's popularity was diving around the same time that Major League Baseball Black Sox Scandal, had its own legitimacy issues, wrestling started to take on a more worked approach while still appearing as a legitimate sport, beginning with the Gold Dust Trio of the 1920s. Even after the formation of the National Wrestling Alliance in 1948, wrestling continued to have legitimacy issues. Nevertheless, wrestling was still regulated by state athletic commissions in the
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United States
well into the 1980s, until Vince McMahon, owner of the WWE, World Wrestling Federation, convinced the state of New Jersey in 1989 that wrestling was considered a form of entertainment (or "sports entertainment", as McMahon used) rather than as a legitimate sport, and that it should not be regulated by state athletic commissions. The move was seen as more of a relief to those who had questioned wrestling's legitimacy, since at least one major company (in this case, the WWF) was now publicly willing to admit that wrestling was staged; however, the move did anger many wrestling purists. Due to the lingering legitimacy issues that surrounded wrestling from the 1910s until the 1980s, gambling was generally not allowed on wrestling matches while it was still considered a legitimate sport. Despite wrestling having openly acknowledged that the results are predetermined for years, since the late 2000s gambling has increased on wrestling events, though the maximum bets are kept low due to the matches being predetermined. By contrast, when the WWF co-founded an American football league with NBC known as the XFL (2001), XFL (which played for a single season in 2001), the league had to emphasize that its games were not staged in this manner (despite drawing upon wrestling, and in particular the WWF's "Attitude Era", in its overall image and presentation), and specifically promoted the willingness of Las Vegas
bookmaker A bookmaker, bookie, or turf accountant is an organization or a person that accepts and pays off bets A gambling stand in Paris Gambling (also known as betting) is the wagering of money Image:National-Debt-Gillray.jpeg, In a 1786 Jam ...
s to take wagers on the games as evidence of its legitimacy.


Quiz shows

In the 1950s, the producers of several televised quiz shows in the United States were found to have engaged in match fixing, as part of an effort to boost viewer interest and Audience measurement, ratings. Geritol, the sponsor of the new quiz show ''Twenty-One (game show), Twenty-One'', showed concerns over the poor performance of its early contestants—which they felt were causing the show to trail behind its main competitor, ''The $64,000 Question''. At the time, the majority of television programs were effectively controlled by their single sponsors, with broadcasters only providing studios and airtime. Geritol demanded that Barry & Enright Productions make changes to the show, which included the outright choreography of contestants around pre-determined outcomes. The most infamous example of this strategy came when champion Herbert Stempel was to be replaced by Charles Van Doren—a Columbia University English teacher whom the producers felt would be more popular with viewers. To build anticipation for the episode where Van Doren would defeat Stempel, the first episode of their match was played to three tie games. Winners of matches received $500 for every point within their margin of victory, but this pot increased by $500 after every tie game. Promotions for the ensuing episode emphasized that they would be playing for $2,000 per-point. After one more tie game, Stempel threw the match to Van Doren by answering specific questions incorrectly. Among them, he incorrectly guessed that ''On the Waterfront'' was the winner of the Academy Award for Best Picture, Best Picture award at the 28th Academy Awards. The correct answer was ''Marty (film), Marty'', which was also one of Stempel's favorite films. The cancellation of the competing quiz ''Dotto'' under similar allegations prompted a U.S. government investigation into both it and ''Twenty-One''. The investigation similarly revealed that Revlon—the sponsor of ''The $64,000 Question''—had instructed the show's producers to Game balance, balance its questions more favorably towards contestants they felt would be more popular among viewers (although it stopped short of outright rigging games to the same extent as ''Twenty-One''). The scandal resulted in regulations being implemented to prohibit the rigging of game shows and other contests by broadcasters.


Esports

Match fixing controversies have also emerged in Esports, including in particular ''Counter-Strike: Global Offensive'', ''Dota 2'', ''League of Legends'', ''Overwatch (video game), Overwatch'', and ''StarCraft''. Major scandals have included those of the Counter-Strike match fixing scandal, iBuyPower and NetcodeGuides.com ''Counter-Strike'' teams, where it was found that the iBuyPower team had received around $10,000 worth of items via skin gambling—the practice of wagering ''CS:GO'' weapon Skin (computing)#Video gaming, skins in a similar manner to sports betting, based on real-world market values—after they threw matches in a major tournament. South Korean ''StarCraft II'' player Life (gamer), Life was also convicted of having partaken in match fixing.


Protection against manipulation

By monitoring the pre-match betting markets it is sometimes possible to detect planned match fixing. It is also possible to detect on-going match manipulation by looking at the in-game betting markets. Several federations have employed services that provide such systems for detecting match manipulation. Prior to the 2016 MLB season, Major League Baseball (MLB) hired Genius Sports, a sports technology company specialising in integrity, to monitor the betting patterns on all of their games. In addition, several federations run integrity tours where players and officials participate in educational workshops on how match fixing work and how they are prevented.


See also

* Bookmaker * Convention on the Manipulation of Sports Competitions * List of match fixing incidents * Match fixing in association football * Betting controversies in cricket, Match fixing in cricket ** List of cricketers banned for match fixing * Organized crime * Over–under (both teams combined score betting) * Point shaving (attempts to manipulate a match score based on the point spread) * Sports betting * Spot-fixing (attempts to manipulate certain portions of a match) * Team orders


Notes


References

{{DEFAULTSORT:Match Fixing Match fixing, Organized crime activity Sports law