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The mast of a
sailing vessel A sailing ship is a sea-going vessel that uses sails mounted on Mast (sailing), masts to harness the power of wind and propel the vessel. There is a variety of sail plans that propel sailing ships, employing Square rig, square-rigged or Fore-and ...

sailing vessel
is a tall spar, or arrangement of spars, erected more or less vertically on the centre-line of a ship or boat. Its purposes include carrying
sail A sail is a tensile structure by Vladimir Shukhov (during construction), Nizhny Novgorod, 1895 in Kings Domain, Melbourne A tensile structure is a construction of elements carrying only tension (physics), tension and no compression (physical ...
s, spars, and
derrick A derrick is a lifting device composed at minimum of one guyed mast, as in a gin pole, which may be articulated over a load by adjusting its guys. Most derricks have at least two components, either a guyed mast or self-supporting tower A t ...

derrick
s, and giving necessary height to a
navigation light A navigation light, also known as a running or position light, is a source of illumination on a vessel, aircraft An aircraft is a vehicle that is able to flight, fly by gaining support from the Atmosphere of Earth, air. It counters the forc ...
, look-out position,
signal In signal processing Signal processing is an electrical engineering subfield that focuses on analysing, modifying, and synthesizing signals such as audio signal processing, sound, image processing, images, and scientific measurements. Sig ...
yard 300px, Bronze Yard No.11, the official standard of length for the Treasury Department A treasury is either *A government department related to finance and taxation, a Finance minister, finance ministry. *A place or location where treasure, s ...
, control position, radio aerial or
signal lamp Signal lamp training during World War II A signal lamp (sometimes called an Aldis lamp or a Morse lamp) is a semaphore Semaphore is the use of an apparatus with telegraphy Telegraphy is the long-distance transmission of textual messa ...
. Large ships have several masts, with the size and configuration depending on the style of ship. Nearly all sailing masts are guyed. Until the mid-19th century, all vessels' masts were made of wood formed from a single or several pieces of timber which typically consisted of the trunk of a
conifer Conifers are a group of conifer cone, cone-bearing Spermatophyte, seed plants, a subset of gymnosperms. Scientifically, they make up the phylum, division Pinophyta (), also known as Coniferophyta () or Coniferae. The division contains a single ex ...
tree. From the 16th century, vessels were often built of a size requiring masts taller and thicker than could be made from single tree trunks. On these larger vessels, to achieve the required height, the masts were built from up to four sections (also called masts). From lowest to highest, these were called: lower, top, topgallant, and royal masts. Giving the lower sections sufficient thickness necessitated building them up from separate pieces of wood. Such a section was known as a ''made mast'', as opposed to sections formed from single pieces of timber, which were known as ''pole masts''. Those who specialised in making masts were known as mastmakers.


Nomenclature

For square-sail carrying
ships A ship is a large watercraft Watercraft, also known as water vessels or waterborne vessels, are vehicles A vehicle (from la, vehiculum) is a machine A machine is any physical system with ordered structural and functional propertie ...
, masts in their standard names in
bow Bow often refers to: * Bow and arrow The bow and arrow is a ranged weapon A ranged weapon is any weapon A weapon, arm or armament is any implement or device that can be used with the intent to inflict physical damage or harm. Weapons ar ...
to
stern The stern is the back or aft Aft :''For the acronym, see AFT (disambiguation).'' Aft, in naval A navy, naval force, or maritime force is the branch of a Nation's armed forces A military, also known collectively as armed forces, ...

stern
(front to back) order, are: * ''
Sprit topmast A sprit topmast is a small topmast that was sometimes carried on the end of the bowsprit of a large European warship A warship or combatant ship is a naval ship that is built and primarily intended for naval warfare. Usually they belong to t ...
'': a small mast set on the end of the
bowsprit The bowsprit of a sailing Sailing employs the wind—acting on sails, wingsails or kites—to propel a craft on the surface of the ''water'' (sailing ship, sailboat, Windsurfing, windsurfer, or Kitesurfing, kitesurfer), on ''ice'' (iceboat) ...
(discontinued after the early 18th century); not usually counted as a mast, however, when identifying a ship as "two-masted" or "three-masted" * ''Fore-mast'': the mast nearest the bow, or the mast forward of the main-mast. As it is the furthest afore, it may be rigged to the
bowsprit The bowsprit of a sailing Sailing employs the wind—acting on sails, wingsails or kites—to propel a craft on the surface of the ''water'' (sailing ship, sailboat, Windsurfing, windsurfer, or Kitesurfing, kitesurfer), on ''ice'' (iceboat) ...
. ** Sections: fore-mast lower—fore topmast—fore topgallant mast * ''Main-mast'': the tallest mast, usually located near the center of the ship ** Sections: main-mast lower—main topmast—main topgallant mast—royal mast (if fitted) * ''Mizzen-mast'': the aft-most mast. Typically shorter than the fore-mast. ** Sections: mizzen-mast lower—mizzen topmast—mizzen topgallant mast Some names given to masts in
ships A ship is a large watercraft Watercraft, also known as water vessels or waterborne vessels, are vehicles A vehicle (from la, vehiculum) is a machine A machine is any physical system with ordered structural and functional propertie ...
carrying other types of rig (where the naming is less standardised) are: * ''Bonaventure mizzen'': the fourth mast on larger sixteenth-century galleons, typically
lateen A lateen (from French ''latine'', meaning "Latin") or latin-rig is a triangular set on a long mounted at an angle on the , and running in a direction. Dating back to navigation, the lateen became the favorite sail of the Age of European invas ...
-rigged and shorter than the main mizzen. * ''Jigger-mast'': typically, where it is the shortest, the aftmost mast on vessels with more than three masts. ** Sections: jigger-mast lower—jigger topmast—jigger topgallant mast When a vessel has two masts, as a general rule, the main mast is the one setting the largest sail. Therefore, in a
brig A brig is a sailing vessel with two square-rigged Square rig is a generic type of Sail-plan, sail and rigging arrangement in which the primary driving sails are carried on horizontal spar (sailing), spars which are perpendicular, or wikt:sq ...

brig
, the forward mast is the foremast and the after mast is the mainmast. In a
schooner A schooner () is a type of sailing vessel A sailing ship is a sea-going vessel that uses sails mounted on Mast (sailing), masts to harness the power of wind and propel the vessel. There is a variety of sail plans that propel sailing ships, em ...

schooner
with two masts, even if the masts are of the same height, the after one usually carries a larger sail (because a longer boom can be used), so the after mast is the mainmast. This contrasts with a
ketch A ketch is a two-Mast (sailing), masted sailboat whose mainmast is taller than the mizzen, mizzen mast (or aft-mast), generally in a 40-foot or bigger boat. The name ketch is derived from ''catch''. The ketch's main mast is usually stepped in ...

ketch
or a
yawl YAWL (Yet Another Workflow Language) is a workflow A workflow consists of an orchestrated and repeatable of activity, enabled by the atic organization of s into es that transform materials, provide services, or process information. It can be ...

yawl
, where the after mast, and its principle sail, is clearly the smaller of the two - so the terminology is (from forward) mainmast and mizzen. (In a yawl, the term "jigger" is occasionally used for the after mast.) Some two-masted
luggers A lugger is a sailing vessel A sailing ship is a sea-going vessel that uses sails mounted on Mast (sailing), masts to harness the power of wind and propel the vessel. There is a variety of sail plans that propel sailing ships, employing Squ ...
have a fore-mast and a mizzen-mast - there is no main-mast. This is because these traditional types used to have three masts, but it was found convenient to dispense with the main-mast and carry larger sails on the remaining masts. This gave more working room, particularly on fishing vessels. On
square-rig Square rig is a generic type of sail and rigging arrangement in which the primary driving sails are carried on horizontal spars which are perpendicular, or square In Euclidean geometry, a square is a regular The term regular can mean norm ...
ged vessels, each mast carries several horizontal
yard The yard (symbol: yd) is an English unit English units are the units of measurement A unit of measurement is a definite magnitude (mathematics), magnitude of a quantity, defined and adopted by convention or by law, that is used ...
s from which the individual sails are rigged. Folding mast ships use a ''tabernacle'' anchor point. Definitions include: "the partly open socket or double post on the deck, into which a mast is fixed, with a pivot near the top so that the mast can be lowered"; "large bracket attached firmly to the deck, to which the foot of the mast is fixed; it has two sides or cheeks and a bolt forming the pivot around which the mast is raised and lowered"; "substantial fitting for mounting the mast on deck, so that it can be lowered easily for trailering or for sailing under bridges", "hinged device allowing for the easy folding of a mast 90 degrees from perpendicular, as for transporting the boat on a trailer, or passing under a bridge"


History

In the West, the concept of a ship carrying more than one mast, to give it more speed under sail and to improve its sailing qualities, evolved in northern
Mediterranean The Mediterranean Sea is a sea connected to the Atlantic Ocean, surrounded by the Mediterranean Basin and almost completely enclosed by land: on the north by Western Europe, Western and Southern Europe and Anatolia, on the south by North Africa ...

Mediterranean
waters: The earliest foremast has been identified on an
Etruscan__NOTOC__ Etruscan may refer to: Ancient civilisation *The Etruscan language, an extinct language in ancient Italy *Something derived from or related to the Etruscan civilization **Etruscan architecture **Etruscan art **Etruscan cities **Etruscan ...

Etruscan
pyxis Pyxis is a small and faint constellation in the southern sky. Abbreviated from Pyxis Nautica, its name is Latin for a mariner's compass (contrasting with Circinus, which represents a draftsman's compasses). Pyxis was introduced by Nicolas-Louis ...
from
Caere : Caere (also Caisra and Cisra) is the Latin name given by the Romans Roman or Romans usually refers to: *Rome , established_title = Founded , established_date = 753 BC , founder = King Romulus , image_map = ...
,
Italy Italy ( it, Italia ), officially the Italian Republic ( it, Repubblica Italiana, links=no ), is a country consisting of a peninsula delimited by the Alps The Alps ; german: Alpen ; it, Alpi ; rm, Alps; sl, Alpe ) are the highest ...

Italy
, dating to the mid-7th century BC: a warship with a furled
mainsail A mainsail is a sail rigged on the main mast Mast, MAST or MASt may refer to: Engineering * Mast (sailing) , a vertical spar on a sailing ship * Flagmast, a pole for flying a flag * Guyed mast , a structure supported by guy-wires * Mooring mas ...
is engaging an enemy vessel, deploying a
foresail A foresail is one of a few different types of sail set on the bow (ship), foremost mast (sailing), mast (''foremast'') of a sailing ship, sailing vessel: * A fore-and-aft sail set on the foremast of a schooner or similar vessel. * The lowest squar ...
. A two-masted
merchant vessel A merchant ship, merchant vessel, trading vessel, or merchantman is a watercraft Watercraft, also known as water vessels or waterborne vessels, are vehicles A vehicle (from la, vehiculum) is a machine A machine is any physical syst ...
with a sizable foresail rigged on a slightly inclined foremast is depicted in an Etruscan
tomb A tomb ( grc-gre, τύμβος ''tumbos'') is a repository for the remains of the dead. It is generally any structurally enclosed interment space or burial chamber, of varying sizes. Placing a corpse into a tomb can be called ''immuremen ...

tomb
painting from 475–450 BC. An ''artemon'' (
Greek#REDIRECT Greek Greek may refer to: Greece Anything of, from, or related to Greece Greece ( el, Ελλάδα, , ), officially the Hellenic Republic, is a country located in Southeast Europe. Its population is approximately 10.7 million as of ...
for foresail) almost the same size as the
galley A galley is a type of ship A ship is a large watercraft that travels the world's oceans and other sufficiently deep Sea lane, waterways, carrying goods or passengers, or in support of specialized missions, such as defense, research, and fis ...

galley
's mainsail can be found on a
Corinth Corinth ( ; el, Κόρινθος, Kórinthos, ) is the successor to an ancient city, and is a former municipality A municipality is usually a single administrative division Administrative division, administrative unitArticle 3(1). ...

Corinth
ian
krater A krater or crater ( grc-gre, , ''kratēr'', literally "mixing vessel") was a large vase in Ancient Greece, used for the dilution of wine with water. Form and function At a Greek symposium, kraters were placed in the center of the room. They ...

krater
as early as the late 6th century BC; apart from that
Greek#REDIRECT Greek Greek may refer to: Greece Anything of, from, or related to Greece Greece ( el, Ελλάδα, , ), officially the Hellenic Republic, is a country located in Southeast Europe. Its population is approximately 10.7 million as of ...
longships are uniformly shown without it until the 4th century BC. Casson, Lionel (1980): "Two-masted Greek ships", ''
The International Journal of Nautical Archaeology The Nautical Archaeology Society (NAS) is a charity registered in England and WalesCharity Commission
...
'', Vol. 9, No. 1, pp. 68–69 (69)
The foremast became fairly common on Roman galleys, where, inclined at an angle of 45°, it was more akin to a
bowsprit The bowsprit of a sailing Sailing employs the wind—acting on sails, wingsails or kites—to propel a craft on the surface of the ''water'' (sailing ship, sailboat, Windsurfing, windsurfer, or Kitesurfing, kitesurfer), on ''ice'' (iceboat) ...
, and the foresail set on it, reduced in size, seems to be used rather as an aid to steering than for propulsion. While most of the ancient evidence is iconographic, the existence of foremasts can also be deduced
archaeologically Archaeology or archeology is the study of human activity through the recovery and analysis Analysis is the process of breaking a complex topic or substance into smaller parts in order to gain a better understanding of it. The technique h ...

archaeologically
from slots in foremast-feets located too close to the
prow The bow () is the forward part of the hull (watercraft), hull of a ship or boat, the point that is usually most forward when the vessel is underway. The aft end of the boat is the stern. Function Image:PénicheRecyclageFerrailles2008Deûle2.jp ...
for a mainsail. ''Artemon'', along with mainsail and
topsail A topsail ("tops'l") is a sail A sail is a tensile structure by Vladimir Shukhov (during construction), Nizhny Novgorod, 1895 in Kings Domain, Melbourne A tensile structure is a construction of elements carrying only tension (physics), ten ...

topsail
, developed into the standard rig of seagoing vessels in , complemented by a
mizzen The mast of a sailing vessel A sailing ship is a sea-going vessel that uses sails mounted on Mast (sailing), masts to harness the power of wind and propel the vessel. There is a variety of sail plans that propel sailing ships, employing Squar ...

mizzen
on the largest freighters. Casson, Lionel (1995): "Ships and Seamanship in the Ancient World", Johns Hopkins University Press, , pp. 239–243 The earliest recorded three-masters were the giant ''
Syracusia ''Syracusia'' ( el, Συρακουσία, ''syrakousía'', literally "of Syracuse, Sicily, Syracuse") was an ancient Greeks, ancient Greek ship sometimes claimed to be the List of world's largest wooden ships, largest transport ship of antiquity. S ...
'', a prestige object commissioned by king
Hiero II of Syracuse Zeus' sacrificial altar built by Hiëro II in Syracuse Hiero II ( el, Ἱέρων Β΄; c. 308 BC – 215 BC) was the Greek tyrant of Syracuse Syracuse may refer to: Places Italy *Syracuse, Sicily Syracuse ( ; it, Siracusa , or scn, Sera ...
and devised by the polymath
Archimedes Archimedes of Syracuse (; grc, ; ; ) was a Greek#REDIRECT Greek Greek may refer to: Greece Anything of, from, or related to Greece Greece ( el, Ελλάδα, , ), officially the Hellenic Republic, is a country located in Southeast Eu ...

Archimedes
around 240 BC, and other
Syracusan Syracuse ; scn, Sarausa or scn, Seragusa, label=none ; lat, Syrācūsae ; grc-att, Συράκουσαι, Syrákousai ; grc-dor, Συράκοσαι, Syrā́kosai ; grc-x-medieval, Συρακοῦσαι, Syrakoûsai is a historic ci ...
merchant ships of the time. Casson, Lionel (1995): "Ships and Seamanship in the Ancient World", Johns Hopkins University Press, , p. 242, fn. 75 The imperial grain freighters travelling the routes between
Alexandria Alexandria ( or ; ar, الإسكندرية ; arz, اسكندرية ; Coptic language, Coptic: Rakodī; el, Αλεξάνδρεια ''Alexandria'') is the List of cities and towns in Egypt, third-largest city in Egypt after Cairo and Giza, ...

Alexandria
and
Rome , established_title = Founded , established_date = 753 BC , founder = King Romulus , image_map = Map of comune of Rome (metropolitan city of Capital Rome, region Lazio, Italy).svg , map_caption = The te ...

Rome
also included three-masted vessels. A mosaic in (c. 200 AD) depicts a freighter with a three-masted rig entering Rome's harbour. Special craft could carry many more masts:
Theophrastus Theophrastus (; grc-gre, Θεόφραστος ; c. 371c. 287 BC), a Greek native of Eresos in Lesbos Island, Lesbos,Gavin Hardy and Laurence Totelin, ''Ancient Botany'', Routledge, 2015, p. 8. was the successor to Aristotle in the Peripatetic ...

Theophrastus
(''Hist. Plant.'' 5.8.2) records how the
Romans Roman or Romans usually refers to: *Rome , established_title = Founded , established_date = 753 BC , founder = King Romulus , image_map = Map of comune of Rome (metropolitan city of Capital Rome, region Lazio, ...
imported
Corsica Corsica (, Upper , Southern , ; french: link=no, Corse ; lij, link=no, Còrsega) is an island in the Mediterranean Sea The Mediterranean Sea is a connected to the , surrounded by the and almost completely enclosed by land: on the north ...

Corsica
n timber by way of a huge
raft A raft is any flat structure for support or transportation over water. It is usually of basic design, characterized by the absence of a hull Hull may refer to: Structures * Chassis, of an armored fighting vehicle * Fuselage, of an aircraft * H ...
propelled by as many as fifty masts and sails. Throughout
antiquity Antiquity or Antiquities may refer to Historical objects or periods Artifacts * Antiquities, objects or artifacts surviving from ancient cultures Eras Any period before the European Middle Ages In the history of Europe, the Middle Ages ...
, both foresail and mizzen remained secondary in terms of canvas size, although large enough to require full
running rigging Running rigging is the rigging Bermuda rigged sloop at Convict Bay, Bermuda, circa 1879 Rigging comprises the system of ropes, cables and chains, which support a sailing ship or sail boat's masts—''standing rigging'', including Shroud (sa ...
. In
late antiquity Late antiquity is a periodization Periodization is the process or study of categorizing the past into discrete, quantified named blocks of time.Adam Rabinowitz. It’s about time: historical periodization and Linked Ancient World Data'. Inst ...
, the foremast lost most of its tilt, standing nearly upright on some ships. By the onset of the
Early Middle Ages The Early Middle Ages or Early Medieval Period, sometimes referred to as the Dark Ages, is typically regarded by historians as lasting from the late 5th or early 6th century to the 10th century. They marked the start of the Middle Ages ...
, rigging had undergone a fundamental transformation in Mediterranean navigation: the
lateen A lateen (from French ''latine'', meaning "Latin") or latin-rig is a triangular set on a long mounted at an angle on the , and running in a direction. Dating back to navigation, the lateen became the favorite sail of the Age of European invas ...
which had long evolved on smaller
Greco-Roman The term "Greco-Roman world" (also "Greco-Roman culture" or ; spelled Graeco-Roman in the Commonwealth), as understood by modern scholars and writers, refers to geographical regions and countries that culturally—and so historically—were ...
craft replaced the
square rig Square rig is a generic type of sail and rigging arrangement in which the primary driving sails are carried on horizontal spars which are perpendicular, or square In Euclidean geometry Euclidean geometry is a mathematical system attri ...
, the chief sail type of the ancients, that practically disappeared from the record until the 14th century (while it remained dominant in northern Europe). The
dromon A dromon (from Greek#REDIRECT Greek Greek may refer to: Greece Anything of, from, or related to Greece Greece ( el, Ελλάδα, , ), officially the Hellenic Republic, is a country located in Southeast Europe. Its population is approximate ...
, the lateen-rigged and oared
bireme A bireme (, ) is an ancient oared warship (galley A galley is a type of ship that is propelled mainly by oars. The galley is characterized by its long, slender hull, shallow draft (hull), draft, and low freeboard (nautical), freeboard (clearance ...
of the
Byzantine navy The Byzantine navy was the navy, naval force of the East Roman or Byzantine Empire. Like the empire it served, it was a direct continuation from its Roman navy, Imperial Roman predecessor, but played a far greater role in the defence and survival o ...
, almost certainly had two masts, a larger foremast and one midships. Their length has been estimated at about 12 m and 8 m respectively, somewhat smaller than the Sicilian war galleys of the time. Multiple-masted ''sailing'' ships were reintroduced into the Mediterranean Sea by the
Late Middle Ages The Late Middle Ages or Late Medieval Period was the period Period may refer to: Common uses * Era, a length or span of time * Full stop (or period), a punctuation mark Arts, entertainment, and media * Period (music), a concept in musical com ...
. Large vessels were coming more and more into use and the need for additional masts to control these ships adequately grew with the increase in tonnage. Unlike in antiquity, the mizzen-mast was adopted on medieval two-masters earlier than the foremast, a process which can be traced back by pictorial evidence from
Venice Venice ( ; it, Venezia ; vec, Venesia or ) is a city in northeastern Italy Italy ( it, Italia ), officially the Italian Republic ( it, Repubblica Italiana, links=no ), is a country consisting of delimited by the and surrounding ...

Venice
and
Barcelona Barcelona ( , , ) is a city on the coast of northeastern Spain. It is the capital and largest city of the autonomous community of Catalonia, as well as the second most populous municipality of Spain. With a population of 1.6 million within ci ...

Barcelona
to the mid-14th century. To balance out the sail plan the next obvious step was to add a mast fore of the main-mast, which first appears in a
Catalan Catalan may refer to: Catalonia From, or related to Catalonia: * Catalan language, a Romance language * Catalans, an ethnic group formed by the people from, or with origins in, Catalonia * Països Catalans, territories where Catalan is spoken * C ...

Catalan
ink drawing from 1409. With the three-masted ship established, propelled by square rig and lateen, and guided by the
pintle Image:Pintle and gudgeon rudder system scheme.svg, 200px, Pintle and gudgeon rudder system. Part 2 is the pintle, and part 3 is the gudgeon. A pintle is a pin or bolt, usually inserted into a gudgeon, which is used as part of a pivot or hinge. Ot ...
-and-
gudgeon A gudgeon is a socket-like, cylindrical (i.e., ''female Female (symbol: ♀) is the sex Sex is either of two divisions, typically male Male (♂) is the sex of an organism that produces the gamete known as sperm. A male gamete can ...
rudder A rudder is a primary control surface used to steer a ship A ship is a large watercraft Watercraft, also known as water vessels or waterborne vessels, are vehicles A vehicle (from la, vehiculum) is a machine A machine is any ...

rudder
, all advanced ship design technology necessary for the great transoceanic voyages was in place by the beginning of the 15th century.


Hollow masts

The first hollow mast was fitted on the American sloop Maria in 1845, long and built of staves bound with iron hoops like a barrel. Other hollow masts were made from two tapered timbers hollowed and glued together. Nearly a century later, the simple box form of mast was arrived at.


Modern masts

Although sailing ships were superseded by engine-powered ships in the 19th century, recreational sailing ships and yachts continue to be designed and constructed. In the 1930s aluminum masts were introduced on large
J-class yacht A J-Class yacht (sometimes called a "J-boat") is a single-masted racing yacht A yacht is a sailing or power vessel used for pleasure, cruising, or racing. There is no standard definition, so the term applies to such vessels that have a cabin ...
s. An aluminum mast has considerable advantages over a wooden one: it is lighter and slimmer than a wooden one of the same strength, is impervious to rot, and can be produced as a single extruded length. During the 1960s wood was eclipsed by aluminum. Aluminum alloys, generally 6000 series, are commonly utilised. Recently some sailing yachts (particularly home-built yachts) have begun to use steel masts. Whilst somewhat heavier than aluminum, steel has its own set of advantages. It is significantly cheaper, and a steel mast of an equivalent strength can be smaller in diameter than an aluminum mast, allowing less turbulence and a better airflow onto the sail. From the mid-1990s racing yachts introduced the use of
carbon fibre Carbon fiber reinforced polymer (American English), Carbon fibre reinforced polymer (English in the Commonwealth of Nations, Commonwealth English), or carbon fiber reinforced plastic, or carbon fiber reinforced thermoplastic (CFRP, CRP, CFRTP, ...
and other
composite material A composite material (also called a composition material or shortened to composite, which is the common name) is a material Material is a substance Substance may refer to: * Substance (Jainism), a term in Jain ontology to denote the base or o ...

composite material
s to construct masts with even better strength-to-weight ratios. Carbon fibre masts could also be constructed with more precisely engineered aerodynamic profiles. Modern masts form the leading edge of a sail's
airfoil An airfoil (American English American English (AmE, AE, AmEng, USEng, en-US), sometimes called United States English or U.S. English, is the set of varieties of the English language native to the United States. Currently, American Englis ...

airfoil
and tend to have a teardrop-shaped cross-section. On smaller racing yachts and catamarans, the mast rotates to the optimum angle for the sail's airfoil. If the mast has a long, thin cross-section and makes up a significant area of the airfoil, it is called a wing-mast; boats using these have a smaller sail area to compensate for the larger mast area. There are many manufacturers of modern masts for sailing yachts of all sizes, a few notable companies are Hall Spars, Offshore Spars, and Southern Spars. After the end of the
age of sail Age or AGE may refer to: Time and its effects * Age, the amount of time something has been alive Alive may refer to: *Life Life is a characteristic that distinguishes physical entities that have biological processes, such as signaling a ...

age of sail
, warships retained masts, initially as observation posts and to observe
fall of shot Indirect fire is aiming and firing a projectile without relying on a direct line of sight between the gun and its target, as in the case of direct fire. Aiming is performed by calculating azimuth and inclination, and may include correcting aim by ...
, also holding fire control equipment such as
rangefinder The rangefinding telemeter (or simply telemeter or rangefinder, depending on the context), is a device used to measure distances to remote objects, that is, a type of rangefinder The rangefinding telemeter (or simply telemeter or rangef ...

rangefinder
s, and later as a mounting point for
radar Radar (radio detection and ranging) is a detection system that uses radio waves to determine the distance (''ranging''), angle, or velocity of objects. It can be used to detect aircraft, Marine radar, ships, spacecraft, guided missiles, motor ...

radar
and
telecommunication Telecommunication is the transmission of information by various types of technologies over wire A wire is a single usually cylindrical A cylinder (from Greek Greek may refer to: Greece Anything of, from, or related to Greece Gr ...
antennas, which need to be mounted high up to increase range. Simple pole, lattice, and
tripod mast The tripod mast is a type of mast used on warships from the Edwardian era onwards, replacing the pole mast. Tripod masts are distinctive using two large (usually cylindrical) support column A column or pillar in architecture and structural e ...
s have been used—also, on some past Japanese warships, complex
pagoda mast The pagoda mast was a type of superstructure A superstructure is an upward extension of an existing structure above a baseline. This term is applied to various kinds of physical structures such as buildings, bridges, or ships having the Degr ...
s. File:USS Nevada 1925 SLV Green.jpg, with lattice masts File:HMS Invincible (1907) British Battleship.jpg, with tripod masts File:SMS Scharnhorst by Arthur Renard.jpg, with pole masts File:Japanese Battleship Nagato 1944.jpg, with pagoda mast


See also

* Dismasting *
Sail-plan A sail plan is a description of the specific ways that a sailing craft is rigged. Also, the term "sail plan" is a graphic depiction of the arrangement of the sails for a given sailing craft.> Introduction A well-designed sail plan should b ...


References


External links


Rigging

Boatdesign
* In-Arch.net

{{Authority control Sailing rigs and rigging Windsurfing equipment Wood products History of forestry