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Marmalade is a
fruit preserve Fruit preserves are preparations of fruit In botany Botany, also called , plant biology or phytology, is the science of plant life and a branch of biology. A botanist, plant scientist or phytologist is a scientist who specialises i ...
made from the juice and peel of
citrus ''Citrus'' is a of trees and s in the family, . Plants in the genus produce citrus fruits, including important crops such as , , s, s, and . The genus ''Citrus'' is native to , , , , and . Various citrus species have been used and domesticat ...

citrus
fruits boiled with sugar and water. The well-known version is made from
bitter orange Bitter orange, Seville orange, sour orange, bigarade orange, or marmalade orange is the citrus tree ''Citrus'' × ''aurantium'' and its fruit. It is native to Southeast Asia and has been spread by humans to many parts of the world. It is probably ...
. It is also made from
lemon The lemon, ''Citrus limon'', is a species of small evergreen In botany Botany, also called , plant biology or phytology, is the science Science (from the Latin word ''scientia'', meaning "knowledge") is a systematic enterprise ...

lemon
s,
limes Limes is the plural of lime. It is also the Latin word for ''limit'' which refers to: * Limes (Roman Empire), a border marking and defense system of the ancient Roman Empire * Limes (magazine), ''Limes'' (magazine), an Italian geopolitical magazi ...
,
grapefruit The grapefruit (''Citrus'' × ''paradisi'') is a subtropical citrus ''Citrus'' is a genus Genus /ˈdʒiː.nəs/ (plural genera /ˈdʒen.ər.ə/) is a taxonomic rank used in the biological classification of extant taxon, living and fossil ...

grapefruit
s,
mandarins Mandarin may refer to: * Mandarin (bureaucrat), a bureaucrat of Imperial China (the original meaning of the word) ** by extension, any senior government bureaucrat Language * Mandarin Chinese, branch of Chinese spoken in northern and southwester ...
, sweet oranges, bergamots, and other citrus fruits, or a combination. Citrus is the most typical choice of fruit for marmalade, though historically the term has often been used for non-citrus preserves.Maguelonne-Samat, (Anthea Bell, tr.) ''A History of Food'' 2nd ed. 2009, p. 507 The preferred citrus fruit for marmalade production is the Spanish Seville or bitter orange, ''Citrus aurantium'' var. ''aurantium'', prized for its high
pectin Commercially produced powder of pectin, extracted from citrus fruits. Pectin (from grc, πηκτικός ', "congealed, curdled") is a structural acidic heteropolysaccharide contained in the primary and middle lamella and cell walls of terrestr ...

pectin
content, which sets readily to the thick consistency expected of marmalade. The peel imparts a bitter taste. The word "marmalade" is borrowed from the Galician-Portuguese , from '
quince The quince (; ''Cydonia oblonga'') is the sole member of the genus ''Cydonia'' in the family (biology), family Rosaceae (which also contains apples and pears, among other fruits). It is a tree that bears a deciduous pome fruit, similar in app ...

quince
'. Unlike
jam Fruit preserves are preparations of fruit In botany Botany, also called , plant biology or phytology, is the science of plant life and a branch of biology. A botanist, plant scientist or phytologist is a scientist who specialises ...

jam
, a large quantity of water is added to the fruit in a marmalade, the extra liquid being set by the high-pectin content of the fruit. In this respect it is like a
jelly
jelly
, but whereas the fruit pulp and peel is strained out of a jelly to give it its characteristic clarity, it is retained in a marmalade.


Origins

The Romans learned from the Greeks that
quince The quince (; ''Cydonia oblonga'') is the sole member of the genus ''Cydonia'' in the family (biology), family Rosaceae (which also contains apples and pears, among other fruits). It is a tree that bears a deciduous pome fruit, similar in app ...

quince
s slowly cooked with honey would "set" when cool. The ''
Apicius ''Apicius'', also known as ''De re culinaria'' or ''De re coquinaria'' (''On the Subject of Cooking'') is a collection of Roman Roman or Romans usually refers to: *Rome, the capital city of Italy *Ancient Rome, Roman civilization from 8th ce ...

Apicius
'' gives a recipe for preserving whole quinces, stems and leaves attached, in a bath of honey diluted with
defrutum Grape syrup is a condiment made with concentrated grape juice. It is thick and sweet because of its high ratio of sugar to water. Grape syrup is made by boiling grapes, removing their skins, squeezing them through a sieve to extract the juice, and ...
—Roman marmalade. Preserves of quince and lemon appear—along with rose, apple, plum and pear—in the ''Book of ceremonies'' of the Byzantine Emperor Constantine VII '. Medieval quince preserves, which went by the French name ', produced in a clear version and a fruit pulp version, began to lose their medieval seasoning of spices in the 16th century. In the 17th century, La Varenne provided recipes for both thick and clear '.C. Anne Wilson, ''The Book of Marmalade: its Antecedents, Its History, and Its Role in the World Today'', revised ed., 1999, p.32 & others In 1524,
Henry VIII Henry VIII (28 June 149128 January 1547) was King of England This list of kings and queens of the Kingdom of England The Kingdom of England was a sovereign state on the island of Great Britain from 12 July 927, when it emerged fro ...

Henry VIII
received a "box of marmalade" from Mr Hull of Exeter. As it was in a box, this was probably ', a solid quince paste from Portugal, still made and sold in southern Europe. "Marmalet" was served at the wedding banquet of the daughter of John Neville in
Yorkshire Yorkshire (; abbreviated Yorks), formally known as the County of York, is a historic county of Northern England Northern England, also known as the North of England or simply the North, is the most northern area of England England ...

Yorkshire
in 1530. Its Portuguese origins can be detected in the remarks in letters to Lord Lisle, from William Grett, 12 May 1534, "I have sent to your lordship a box of marmaladoo, and another unto my good lady your wife" and from Richard Lee, 14 December 1536, "He most heartily thanketh her Ladyship for her marmalado". It was a favourite treat of Anne Boleyn and her
ladies in waiting The word ''lady'' is a term of respect for a girl or woman, the equivalent of gentleman. Once used to describe only women of a high social class or status, the female equivalent of lord, now it may refer to any adult woman. Informal use of this ...
. The English recipe book of Eliza Cholmondeley, dated from 1677 and held at the Chester Record Office in the
Cheshire Cheshire ( ;), archaically the County Palatine of Chester, is a historic and ceremonial county in northwest England North West England is one of nine official regions of England The regions, formerly known as the government office re ...

Cheshire
county archivists, has one of the earliest marmalade recipes ("Marmelet of Oranges") which produced a firm, thick dark paste. The Scots are credited with developing marmalade as a spread, with Scottish recipes in the 18th century using more water to produce a less solid preserve.Diana Henry (2012). "Salt Sugar Smoke: How to preserve fruit, vegetables, meat and fish". Hachette UK, The first printed recipe for orange marmalade, though without the chunks typically used now, was in Mary Kettilby's 1714 cookery book, '' A Collection of above Three Hundred Receipts'' (pages 78–79). Kettilby called for whole oranges, lemon juice and sugar, with the acid in the lemon juice helping to create the pectin set of marmalade, by boiling the lemon and orange juice with the pulp. Kettilby then directs: "boil the whole pretty fast 'till it will jelly" – the first known use of the word "jelly" in marmalade making. Kettilby then instructs that the mixture is then poured into glasses, covered and left until set. As the acid would create a jelly, this meant that the mixture could be pulled from the heat before it had turned to a paste, keeping the marmalade much brighter and the appearance more translucent, as in modern-day marmalade. The Scots moved marmalade to the breakfast table, and in the 19th century the English followed the Scottish example and abandoned the eating of marmalade in the evening. Marmalade's place in British life appears in literature.
James Boswell James Boswell, 9th Laird of Auchinleck (; 29 October 1740 ( N.S.) – 19 May 1795), was a Scottish Scottish usually refers to something of, from, or related to Scotland, including: *Scottish Gaelic, a Celtic Goidelic language of the Indo-Eur ...

James Boswell
remarks that he and
Samuel Johnson Samuel Johnson (18 September 1709  – 13 December 1784), often called Dr Johnson, was an English writer who made lasting contributions as a poet, playwright, essayist, moralist, critic A critic is a person who communicates an asse ...
were offered it at breakfast in Scotland in 1773. When American writer
Louisa May Alcott Louisa May Alcott (; November 29, 1832March 6, 1888) was an American novelist, short story writer, and poet best known as the author of the novel ''Little Women'' (1868) and its sequels ''Little Men'' (1871) and ''Jo's Boys'' (1886). Raised in ...

Louisa May Alcott
visited Britain in the 1800s, she described "a choice pot of marmalade and a slice of cold ham" as "essentials of English table comfort".


Etymology

''Marmalade'' first appeared in the English language in 1480, borrowed from French which, in turn, came from the
Galician-Portuguese Galician-Portuguese ( gl, galego-portugués or ', pt, galego-português or ), also known as Old Portuguese or as Medieval Galician when referring to the history of each modern language, was a spoken in the , in the northwest area of the . Alte ...
word . According to José Pedro Machado's , the oldest known document where this Portuguese word is to be found is
Gil Vicente Gil Vicente (; c. 1465c. 1536), called the Trobadour, was a Portuguese people, Portuguese playwright and poet who acted in and Theatre director, directed his own plays. Considered the chief dramatist of Portugal he is sometimes called t ...

Gil Vicente
's play ''Comédia de Rubena'', written in 1521: : : The extension of ''marmalade'' in the English language to refer to a preserve made from citrus fruits occurred in the 17th century, when citrus first began to be plentiful enough in England for the usage to become common.
Greek#REDIRECT Greek Greek may refer to: Greece Anything of, from, or related to Greece Greece ( el, Ελλάδα, , ), officially the Hellenic Republic, is a country located in Southeast Europe. Its population is approximately 10.7 million as of ...
'sweet apple', from 'honey' + 'apple, round fruit', became
Galician-Portuguese Galician-Portuguese ( gl, galego-portugués or ', pt, galego-português or ), also known as Old Portuguese or as Medieval Galician when referring to the history of each modern language, was a spoken in the , in the northwest area of the . Alte ...
'quince'.Melimelon
Henry George Liddell, Robert Scott, ''A Greek–English Lexicon'', on Perseus Digital Library
In Portuguese, is a preserve made from quinces,
quince cheese Image:Cydonia oblonga - Köhler–s Medizinal-Pflanzen-049.jpg, 175px, The quince is a hard, golden yellow fruit. The fruit was known to the Akkadian language, Akkadians, who called it ''supurgillu''. Quince cheese (also known as quince paste) is ...
. There is an apocryphal story that
Mary, Queen of Scots Mary, Queen of Scots (8 December 1542 – 8 February 1587), also known as Mary Stuart, was List of Scottish monarchs, Queen of Scotland from 14 December 1542 until her forced abdication in 1567. Mary, the only surviving legitimate child of King ...

Mary, Queen of Scots
, ate it when she had a headache, and that the name is derived from her maids' whisper of ('Mary is ill'). In reality, the word's origin has nothing to do with Mary.


International usage

In much of Europe and Latin America, cognates for the English term ''marmalade'' are still used as a generic term for pulpy
preserves Fruit preserves are preparations of fruits whose main preserving agent is sugar and sometimes Acid#In food, acid, often stored in glass jars and used as a condiment or Spread (food), spread. There are many varieties of fruit preserves globally ...
of all fruits, whereas in Britain it refers solely to preserves typically of
citrus ''Citrus'' is a of trees and s in the family, . Plants in the genus produce citrus fruits, including important crops such as , , s, s, and . The genus ''Citrus'' is native to , , , , and . Various citrus species have been used and domesticat ...

citrus
peel, such as from
grapefruit The grapefruit (''Citrus'' × ''paradisi'') is a subtropical citrus ''Citrus'' is a genus Genus /ˈdʒiː.nəs/ (plural genera /ˈdʒen.ər.ə/) is a taxonomic rank used in the biological classification of extant taxon, living and fossil ...

grapefruit
,
orange Orange most often refers to: *Orange (colour), occurs between red and yellow in the visible spectrum *Orange (fruit), the fruit of the tree species '' Citrus'' × ''sinensis'' ** Orange blossom, its fragrant flower *Some other citrus or citrus-li ...
or
lemon The lemon, ''Citrus limon'', is a species of small evergreen In botany Botany, also called , plant biology or phytology, is the science Science (from the Latin word ''scientia'', meaning "knowledge") is a systematic enterprise ...

lemon
. The name originated in the
16th century The 16th century begins with the Julian calendar, Julian year 1501 (Roman numerals, MDI) and ends with either the Julian or the Gregorian calendar, Gregorian year 1600 (Roman numerals, MDC) (depending on the reckoning used; the Gregorian calend ...
from
Middle French Middle French (french: moyen français) is a historical division of the French language French ( or ) is a Romance language The Romance languages, less commonly Latin or Neo-Latin languages, are the modern languages that evolved from ...
and
Portuguese Portuguese may refer to: * anything of, from, or related to the country and nation of Portugal ** Portuguese cuisine, traditional foods ** Portuguese language, a Romance language *** Portuguese dialects, variants of the Portuguese language ** Portug ...

Portuguese
, where applied to quince jam.


Legal definitions


Canadian regulations

Under the Food and Drug Regulations (C.R.C., c. 870), marmalade is a standardized food and defined as a food of jelly-like composition that consists of at least 65% water-soluble solids. The regulations permit the use of pH adjusting agents to prevent the marmalade from
dehydration In physiology, dehydration is a lack of total body water In physiology Physiology (; ) is the scientific study of functions and mechanisms in a living system. As a sub-discipline of biology Biology is the natural science that studie ...

dehydration
, antifoaming agents to prevent blemishes on surface coatings and enable efficient filling of containers, and an acid ingredient to compensate for the natural acidity of the citrus fruit used. If
pectin Commercially produced powder of pectin, extracted from citrus fruits. Pectin (from grc, πηκτικός ', "congealed, curdled") is a structural acidic heteropolysaccharide contained in the primary and middle lamella and cell walls of terrestr ...

pectin
is added, the marmalade must contain at least 27% of peel, pulp, or juice of citrus fruit. Class II preservatives may also be used. The Canadian Food and Drug Regulations (C.R.C., c. 870) specify that
pineapple The pineapple (''Ananas comosus'') is a tropical plant with an edible fruit and is the most economically significant plant in the family Bromeliaceae. The pineapple is indigenous to South America, where it has been cultivated for many centurie ...

pineapple
or
fig The fig is the edible fruit of ''Ficus carica'', a species of small tree in the flowering plant family Moraceae. Native plant, Native to the Mediterranean and western Asia, it has been cultivated since ancient times and is now widely grown throug ...
marmalade must be of jelly-like consistency, achieved by boiling the pulp of juice of the fruit with water, and a sweetening ingredient. Pineapple or fig marmalade should contain at least 45% of the named fruit.


European regulation

Since 1979, the EU directive 79/693/CEE define marmalade as a jam made from citrus fruits. The directive was replaced on 20 December 2001 by the ruling 32001L0113.


Dundee

The Scottish city of
Dundee Dundee (; sco, Dundee; gd, Dùn Dè or ''Dùn Dèagh'' ) is Scotland's List of towns and cities in Scotland by population, fourth-largest city and the List of urban areas in the United Kingdom, 51st-most-populous built-up area in the United ...

Dundee
has a long association with marmalade. James Keiller and his wife Janet ran a small sweet and preserves shop in the Seagate area of Dundee. In 1797, they opened a factory to produce "Dundee Marmalade", a preserve distinguished by thick chunks of bitter Seville orange rind. The business prospered, and remains a signature marmalade producer today. According to a Scottish legend, the creation of orange marmalade in Dundee occurred by accident. The legend tells of a ship carrying a cargo of oranges that broke down in the
port A port is a maritime Maritime may refer to: Geography * Maritime Alps, a mountain range in the southwestern part of the Alps * Maritime Region, a region in Togo * Maritime Southeast Asia * The Maritimes, the Canadian provinces of ...

port
, resulting in some ingenious locals making marmalade out of the cargo. However, this legend was "decisively disproved by food historians", according to a ''
New York Times ''The New York Times'' is an American daily newspaper A newspaper is a periodical Periodical literature (also called a periodical publication or simply a periodical) is a category of Serial (publishing), serial published, publicatio ...
'' report.


In popular culture

Children's literature *
Paddington Bear Paddington Bear is a fictional character in children's literature Children's literature or juvenile literature includes stories, books, magazines, and poems that are created for children. Modern children's literature is classified in tw ...
is known for his liking of marmalade, particularly in sandwiches, and kept it in his briefcase wherever he went. Paddington Bear is now used on the label of the smaller peel ("shred") and clearer/milder Robertson's "Golden Shred" marmalade, in place of the previous icon, "
Golliwog The golliwog, also spelled golliwogg or shortened to golly, is a doll-like character – created by cartoonist and author Florence Kate Upton Florence Kate Upton (22 February 1873 – 16 October 1922) was an American-born English cartooni ...
", which is considered racially offensive. The 2014 movie ''
Paddington Paddington is an List of areas of London, area within the City of Westminster, in central London. First a medieval parish then a Metropolitan Borough of Paddington, metropolitan borough, it was integrated with Westminster and Greater London in 1 ...
'' led to a slight increase in marmalade sales in the UK. Literature * In
Jane Austen Jane Austen (; 16 December 1775 – 18 July 1817) was an English novelist known primarily for her six major novels, which interpret, critique and comment upon the British landed gentry The landed gentry, or the ''gentry'', is a l ...

Jane Austen
's 1811 novel ''
Sense and Sensibility ''Sense and Sensibility'' is a novel by Jane Austen, published in 1811. It was published anonymously; ''By A Lady'' appears on the title page where the author's name might have been. It tells the story of the Dashwood sisters, Elinor (age 19) a ...

Sense and Sensibility
'' an over-indulgent mother feeds apricot marmalade to her fussy three-year-old child who has been slightly scratched by a pin in the mother's hair. * In
Agatha Christie Dame Agatha Mary Clarissa Christie, Lady Mallowan, (née__NOTOC__ A birth name is the name of the person given upon their birth. The term may be applied to the surname In some cultures, a surname, family name, or last name is the porti ...

Agatha Christie
's 1953 detective novel ''
A Pocket Full of Rye ''A Pocket Full of Rye'' is a work of detective fiction Detective fiction is a subgenre of crime fiction and mystery fiction in which an criminal investigation, investigator or a detective—either professional, amateur or retired—investigat ...
'', the murder weapon is poisoned orange marmalade consumed at breakfast by the victim.


See also

*
Keiller's marmalade Keiller's marmalade is named after its creator James and Janet Keiller (nee Mathewson, 1737-1813), and is believed to have been the first commercial brand of marmalade in Great Britain. It was made by James Keiller in Dundee, Scotland, later c ...
*
List of spreads This is a list of spreads. A Spread (food), spread is a food that is literally spread, generally with a knife, onto food items such as bread or Cracker (food), crackers. Spreads are added to food to enhance the flavor or texture of the food, which ...
*
Succade Succade is the candied peel of any of the citrus ''Citrus'' is a genus Genus /ˈdʒiː.nəs/ (plural genera /ˈdʒen.ər.ə/) is a taxonomic rank In biological classification In biology, taxonomy () is the scientific study of ...

Succade
* ' (, yuzu marmalade) *
Zest (ingredient) Zest is a food ingredient that is prepared by scraping or cutting from the rind of unwaxed citrus fruits ''Citrus'' is a genus Genus (plural genera) is a taxonomic rank Taxonomy (general) is the practice and science of classification of ...


References

Notes Further reading * * * *


External links

* {{Authority control Citrus dishes Orange production Portuguese cuisine Scottish cuisine