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Manga (
Japanese Japanese may refer to: * Something from or related to Japan , image_flag = Flag of Japan.svg , alt_flag = Centered deep red circle on a white rectangle , image_coat = Imperial Seal of J ...

Japanese
: 漫画 ) are
comics a Media (communication), medium used to express ideas with images, often combined with text or other visual information. It typically the form of a sequence of Panel (comics), panels of images. Textual devices such as speech balloons, Glossa ...

comics
or
graphic novel A graphic novel is a book made up of comics content. Although the word "novel" normally refers to long fictional works, the term "graphic novel" is applied broadly and includes fiction, non-fiction, and anthologized work. It is, at least in the Un ...

graphic novel
s originating from Japan. Most manga conform to a style developed in Japan in the late 19th century, and the form has a long prehistory in earlier
Japanese art Japanese art covers a wide range of art styles and media, including ancient pottery Ancient history is the aggregate of past events
. The term ''manga'' is used in Japan to refer to both comics and
cartooning A cartoonist (also comic strip creator, comic book artist, graphic novel artist, or comic book illustrator) is a visual artist An artist is a person engaged in an activity related to creating art, practicing the arts, or demonstrating an art. T ...
. Outside of Japan, the word is typically used to refer to comics originally published in the country. In Japan, people of all ages read manga. The medium includes works in a broad range of genres:
action ACTION is a bus operator in Canberra Canberra ( ) is the capital city of Australia. Founded following the Federation of Australia, federation of the colonies of Australia as the seat of government for the new nation, it is Australia's l ...
,
adventure An adventure is an exciting experience that is typically bold, sometimes risk In simple terms, risk is the possibility of something bad happening. Risk involves uncertainty Uncertainty refers to Epistemology, epistemic situations involving i ...
, business and commerce,
comedy Comedy (from the el, wikt:κωμῳδία, κωμῳδία, ''kōmōdía'') is a genre of fiction that consists of discourses or works intended to be humorous or amusing by inducing laughter, especially in theatre, film, stand-up comedy, televi ...

comedy
,
detective A detective is an investigator, usually a member of a law enforcement agency A law enforcement agency (LEA), in North American English, is any government agency responsible for the enforcement of the laws. Outside North America No ...
,
drama Drama is the specific Mode (literature), mode of fiction Mimesis, represented in performance: a Play (theatre), play, opera, mime, ballet, etc., performed in a theatre, or on Radio drama, radio or television.Elam (1980, 98). Considered as a g ...

drama
,
historical History (from Ancient Greek, Greek , ''historia'', meaning "inquiry; knowledge acquired by investigation") is the study and the documentation of the past. Events before the History of writing#Inventions of writing, invention of writing systems ar ...
,
horror Horror may refer to: Arts, entertainment, and media Genres *Horror fiction, a genre of fiction **Japanese horror, Japanese horror fiction **Korean horror, Korean horror fiction *Horror film, a film genre *Horror comics, comic books focusing on h ...
,
mystery Mystery, The Mystery, Mysteries or The Mysteries may refer to: People * Mystery (pickup artist) Erik von Markovik (born September 24, 1971), more popularly known by his stage name, Mystery, is a Canadian pickup artist who developed a system of ...
,
romance Romance (from Vulgar Latin , "in the Roman language", i.e., "Latin") may refer to: Common meanings * Romance (love) Romance or Romantic love is an emotional feeling of love for, or a strong attraction towards another person, and the Court ...
,
science fiction Science fiction (sometimes shortened to sci-fi or SF) is a of which typically deals with and futuristic concepts such as advanced and , , , , and . It has been called the " of ", and it often explores the potential consequences of . Scien ...

science fiction
and
fantasy Fantasy is a genre Genre () is any form or type of communication in any mode (written, spoken, digital, artistic, etc.) with socially-agreed-upon conventions developed over time. In popular usage, it normally describes a Category of being, c ...

fantasy
,
erotica 200px, ''Fernande'' (1910–1917) French postcard by Jean Agélou Erotica is (in a broad sense) any literary or artistic work that deals substantively with subject matter that is eroticism, erotically sexual stimulation, stimulating or sexual aro ...
(''
hentai Hentai is anime is Traditional animation, hand-drawn and computer animation originating from Japan. In Japan and in Japanese, (a term derived from the English language, English word ''animation'') describes all animated works, regard ...
''),
sports Sport pertains to any form of competitive Competition arises whenever two or more parties strive for a common goal A goal is an idea of the future or desired result that a person or a group of people envision, Planning, plan and co ...
and games, and suspense, among others. Many manga are translated into other languages. Since the 1950s, manga has become an increasingly major part of the Japanese publishing industry. By 1995, the manga market in Japan was valued at (), with annual sales of 1.9billion manga books and
manga magazines This is a list of manga magazine Manga (Japanese: 漫画 ) are comics a Media (communication), medium used to express ideas with images, often combined with text or other visual information. It typically the form of a sequence of P ...
in Japan (equivalent to 15issues per person). In 2020 Japan's manga market value hit a new record of ¥612.6 billion due to the fast growth of digital manga sales. Manga have also gained a significant worldwide audience., Beginning with the late 2010s manga started massively outselling American comics. In 2020 the North American manga market was valued at almost $250 million. The fast growth of the North American manga market has been attributed to manga's wide availability on digital reading apps, book retailer chains such as
Barnes & Noble Barnes & Noble, Inc., is an American bookseller Image:Libraria Carturesti Carusel - Interior ziua.jpg, 250px, Cărturești Carusel, a bookshop in a historical building from Bucharest (Romania), built in 1860 as a bank. Its interior comb ...
and online retailers such as
Amazon Amazon usually refers to: * Amazons In Greek mythology, the Amazons (Ancient Greek: Ἀμαζόνες ''Amazónes'', singular Ἀμαζών ''Amazōn'') are portrayed in a number of ancient Greek, ancient epic poems and legends, such as the ...
. According to Jean-Marie Bouissou, Manga represented 38% of the French comics market in 2005. This is equivalent to approximately ten times that of the United States and was valued at about ($million). In Europe and the Middle East, the market was valued at $250 million in 2012. Manga stories are typically printed in
black-and-white Black-and-white (B/W or B&W) images combine black and white in a continuous spectrum In physics Physics (from grc, φυσική (ἐπιστήμη), physikḗ (epistḗmē), knowledge of nature, from ''phýsis'' 'nature'), , is ...
—due to time constraints, artistic reasons (as coloring could lessen the impact of the artwork) and to keep printing costs low—although some full-color manga exist (e.g., '' Colorful''). In Japan, manga are usually serialized in large manga magazines, often containing many stories, each presented in a single episode to be continued in the next issue. Collected chapters are usually republished in ''
tankōbon is the Japanese language, Japanese term for a book that is not part of an anthology or corpus. In modern Japanese, the term is most often used in reference to individual volumes of a manga series: most series first appear as individual chapters ...
'' volumes, frequently but not exclusively paperback books., A
manga artist A manga artist (or in Japanese Japanese may refer to: * Something from or related to Japan , image_flag = Flag of Japan.svg , alt_flag = Centered deep red circle on a white rectangle , image_coat ...
(''mangaka'' in Japanese) typically works with a few assistants in a small studio and is associated with a creative editor from a commercial publishing company. If a manga series is popular enough, it may be
animated Animation is a method in which Image, figures are manipulated to appear as moving images. In traditional animation, images are drawn or painted by hand on transparent cel, celluloid sheets to be photographed and exhibited on film. Today, most an ...

animated
after or during its run. Sometimes, manga are based on previous
live-action Live action (or live-action) is a form of cinematography Cinematography (from ancient Greek κίνημα, ''kìnema'' "movement" and γράφειν, ''gràphein'' "to write") is the art of Film, motion picture (and more recently, electronic ...
or animated films. Manga-influenced comics, among original works, exist in other parts of the world, particularly in those places that speak Chinese ("
manhua () are Chinese comics produced in China and in the Greater China region. Whilst Chinese comics and narrated illustrations have existed in China in some shape or form throughout its imperial history, the term first appeared in 1904 in a comic ...

manhua
"), Korean ("
manhwa (; ) is the general Korean language, Korean term for comics and print cartoons. Outside Korea, the term usually refers to South Korea, South Korean comics, ''Manhwa'' is a notable part of South Korean culture. History of the term Lingui ...
"), English (" OEL manga"), and French (" manfra"), as well as in the nation of Algeria ("DZ-manga").


Etymology

The word "manga" comes from the Japanese word 漫画, (
katakana is a Japanese , one component of the along with , and in some cases the (known as ). The word ''katakana'' means "fragmentary kana", as the katakana characters are derived from components or fragments of more complex kanji. Katakana and hi ...
: ;
hiragana is a Japanese Japanese may refer to: * Something from or related to Japan , image_flag = Flag of Japan.svg , alt_flag = Centered deep red circle on a white rectangle , image_coat ...

hiragana
: ) composed of the two
kanji are a set of from which forms a major part of the alongside with syllabic scripts ' and '. The Japanese term ''kanji'' for the Chinese characters literally means " characters". It is written with the same characters as in to refer to the ...

kanji
漫 (man) meaning "whimsical or impromptu" and 画 (ga) meaning "pictures". The same term is the root of the Korean word for comics, ''"manhwa"'', and the Chinese word ''"manhua"''. The word first came into common usage in the late 18th century, with the publication of such works as
Santō Kyōden 150px, Cover of the ''Komon gawa'' (小紋訝話; "Elegant chats on fabric design"), 1790 was a Japanese people, Japanese poet, writer and artist in the Edo period. His real name was , and he was also known popularly as . He is the brother of Sa ...
's picturebook ''Shiji no yukikai'' (1798), and in the early 19th century with such works as Aikawa Minwa's ''Manga hyakujo'' (1814) and the celebrated '' Hokusai Manga'' books (1814–1834) containing assorted drawings from the sketchbooks of the famous
ukiyo-e Ukiyo-e is a genre of Japanese art Japanese art covers a wide range of art styles and media, including ancient pottery Ancient history is the aggregate of past eventsRembrandt, ''Self-portrait'', etching, c.1630 Printma ...'s ''Th ...

ukiyo-e
artist
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Hokusai
.
Rakuten Kitazawa , better known by the pen name A pen name, also called a ''nom de plume'' () or a literary double, is a pseudonym (or, in some cases, a variant form of a real name) adopted by an author and printed on the title page or by-line of their works in p ...
(1876–1955) first used the word "manga" in the modern sense. In Japanese, "manga" refers to all kinds of cartooning, comics, and animation. Among English speakers, "manga" has the stricter meaning of "Japanese comics", in parallel to the usage of "
anime is hand-drawn and computer animation " technique Computer animation is the process used for digitally generating animated images. The more general term computer-generated imagery Computer-generated imagery (CGI) is the application of ...

anime
" in and outside Japan. The term " ani-manga" is used to describe comics produced from animation cels.


History and characteristics

The history of manga is said to originate from scrolls dating back to the 12th century, and it is believed they represent the basis for the right-to-left reading style. During the
Edo period The or is the period between 1603 and 1867 in the of , when Japan was under the rule of the and the country's 300 regional '. Emerging from the chaos of the , the Edo period was characterized by economic growth, strict social order, foreign ...
(1603–1867), ''Toba Ehon'' embedded the concept of manga. The word itself first came into common usage in 1798, with the publication of works such as
Santō Kyōden 150px, Cover of the ''Komon gawa'' (小紋訝話; "Elegant chats on fabric design"), 1790 was a Japanese people, Japanese poet, writer and artist in the Edo period. His real name was , and he was also known popularly as . He is the brother of Sa ...
's picturebook ''Shiji no yukikai'' (1798), and in the early 19th century with such works as Aikawa Minwa's ''Manga hyakujo'' (1814) and the '' Hokusai Manga'' books (1814–1834). Adam L. Kern has suggested that '' kibyoshi'', picture books from the late 18th century, may have been the world's first
comic book A comic book, also called comic book, comic magazine or (in the United Kingdom and Ireland) simply comic, is a publication that consists of comics art in the form of sequential juxtaposed panel (comics), panels that represent individual scenes ...
s. These graphical narratives share with modern manga humorous, satirical, and romantic themes. Some works were mass-produced as serials using
woodblock printing Woodblock printing or block printing is a technique for printing Printing is a process for mass reproducing text and images An Synthetic aperture radar, SAR radar imaging, radar image acquired by the SIR-C/X-SAR radar on board the S ...
. Writers on manga history have described two broad and complementary processes shaping modern manga. One view represented by other writers such as
Frederik L. Schodt Frederik L. Schodt (born January 22, 1950) is an American translator, interpreter and writer. Biography Schodt's father was in the US foreign service, and he grew up in Norway, Australia, and Japan. The family first went to Japan in 1965 whe ...
, Kinko Ito, and Adam L. Kern, stress continuity of Japanese cultural and aesthetic traditions, including pre-war,
MeijiMeiji, the Romanization of Japanese, romanization of the Japanese language, Japanese Japanese writing system, characters wiktionary:明, 明 wiktionary:治, 治 , may refer to: Japanese emperor and era * Emperor Meiji, the Emperor of Japan between ...
, and pre-Meiji
culture Culture () is an umbrella term which encompasses the social behavior Social behavior is behavior among two or more organisms within the same species, and encompasses any behavior in which one member affects the other. This is due to an int ...
and
art Art is a diverse range of (products of) human activities Humans (''Homo sapiens'') are the most populous and widespread species of primates, characterized by bipedality, opposable thumbs, hairlessness, and intelligence allowing the use o ...
. The other view, emphasizes events occurring during and after the
Allied occupation of Japan The Allied occupation of Japan at the end of World War II World War II or the Second World War, often abbreviated as WWII or WW2, was a World war, global war that lasted from 1939 to 1945. It involved World War II by country, the va ...

Allied occupation of Japan
(1945–1952), and stresses U.S. cultural influences, including U.S. comics (brought to Japan by the
GIs A geographic information system (GIS) is a conceptualized framework that provides the ability to capture and analyze spatial and geographic data. GIS applications (or GIS apps) are computer-based tools that allow the user to create interactive ...
) and images and themes from U.S. television, film, and cartoons (especially
Disney The Walt Disney Company, commonly known as Disney (), is an American diversified multinational mass media and entertainment conglomerate headquartered at the Walt Disney Studios complex in Burbank, California California is a U.S. st ...
). Regardless of its source, an explosion of artistic creativity occurred in the post-war period, involving manga artists such as
Osamu Tezuka Osamu Tezuka (, b. , ''Tezuka Osamu''; – 9 February 1989) was a Japanese manga artist, cartoonist, and animator. Born in Osaka Prefecture, his prolific output, pioneering techniques, and innovative redefinitions of genres earned him such ti ...
(''
Astro Boy ''Astro Boy'', known in Japan by its original name , is a Japanese manga Manga (Japanese Japanese may refer to: * Something from or related to Japan , image_flag = Flag of Japan.svg , alt_flag ...
'') and
Machiko Hasegawa was a Japanese manga artist Manga (Japanese: 漫画 ) are comics a Media (communication), medium used to express ideas with images, often combined with text or other visual information. It typically the form of a sequence of Panel ...
(''
Sazae-san is a Japanese yonkoma , a comic strip A comic strip is a sequence of drawings, often cartoon A cartoon is a type of illustration, sometimes animated, typically in a non- realistic or semi-realistic style. The specific meaning has ...
''). ''Astro Boy'' quickly became (and remains) immensely popular in Japan and elsewhere, and the
anime is hand-drawn and computer animation " technique Computer animation is the process used for digitally generating animated images. The more general term computer-generated imagery Computer-generated imagery (CGI) is the application of ...

anime
adaptation of ''Sazae-san'' drawing more viewers than any other anime on Japanese television in 2011. Tezuka and Hasegawa both made stylistic innovations. In Tezuka's "cinematographic" technique, the panels are like a motion picture that reveals details of action bordering on slow motion as well as rapid zooms from distance to close-up shots. This kind of visual dynamism was widely adopted by later manga artists. Hasegawa's focus on daily life and on women's experience also came to characterize later ''
shōjo manga , also as ''shojo'' or ''shoujo'', are aimed at a teen female - readership. The name romanizes the word (''shōjo''), literally meaning "young woman". ''Shōjo'' manga covers many subjects in a variety of narrative styles, from to , often w ...
''. Between 1950 and 1969, an increasingly large readership for manga emerged in Japan with the solidification of its two main marketing genres, ''
shōnen manga , also romanized Romanization or romanisation, in linguistics Linguistics is the science, scientific study of language. It encompasses the analysis of every aspect of language, as well as the methods for studying and modeling them. ...
'' aimed at boys and ''
shōjo manga , also as ''shojo'' or ''shoujo'', are aimed at a teen female - readership. The name romanizes the word (''shōjo''), literally meaning "young woman". ''Shōjo'' manga covers many subjects in a variety of narrative styles, from to , often w ...
'' aimed at girls. In 1969 a group of female manga artists (later called the ''
Year 24 Group The is a grouping of female Mangaka, manga artists who heavily influenced shōjo manga, ''shōjo'' manga (Japanese girls' comics) beginning in the 1970s. While ''shōjo'' manga of the 1950s and 1960s largely consisted of simple stories marketed ...
'', also known as ''Magnificent 24s'') made their ''shōjo'' manga debut ("year 24" comes from the Japanese name for the year 1949, the birth-year of many of these artists). The group included
Moto Hagio is a Japanese manga artist Manga (Japanese: 漫画 ) are comics a Media (communication), medium used to express ideas with images, often combined with text or other visual information. It typically the form of a sequence of Panel ...
,
Riyoko Ikeda is a Japanese manga artist Manga (Japanese: 漫画 ) are comics a Media (communication), medium used to express ideas with images, often combined with text or other visual information. It typically the form of a sequence of Panel ( ...
, Yumiko Ōshima,
Keiko Takemiya is a Japanese manga artist Manga (Japanese: 漫画 ) are comics a Media (communication), medium used to express ideas with images, often combined with text or other visual information. It typically the form of a sequence of Panel ...
, and
Ryoko Yamagishi is a Japanese manga artist. She is one of the Year 24 Group, a collection of female artists who innovated Shōjo manga, (girls') manga throughout the 1970s. Her major works include and ''Terpsichora, Terpsichora'', both of which have won mang ...
. Thereafter, primarily female manga artists would draw ''shōjo'' for a readership of girls and young women. In the following decades (1975–present), ''shōjo'' manga continued to develop stylistically while simultaneously evolving different but overlapping subgenres. Major subgenres include romance, superheroines, and "Ladies Comics" (in Japanese, ''redisu'' , ''redikomi'' , and ''josei'' ). Modern ''shōjo'' manga romance features love as a major theme set into emotionally intense narratives of
self-realization Self-realization is an expression used in Western psychology Psychology is the science of mind and behavior. Psychology includes the study of consciousness, conscious and Unconscious mind, unconscious phenomena, as well as feeling and ...
. With the superheroines, ''shōjo'' manga saw releases such as Pink Hanamori's ''
Mermaid Melody Pichi Pichi Pitch is a ''shōjo'' manga and anime is Traditional animation, hand-drawn and computer animation originating from Japan. In Japan and in Japanese, (a term derived from the English language, English word ''animation'') describes all ani ...
'',
Reiko Yoshida is a Japanese screenwriter. She has written and supervised numerous screenplays for anime series, live-action dramas and films. Her major works include ''Kaleido Star'', ''Aria (manga), Aria'', ''Maria-sama ga Miteru'', ''D.Gray-man'', ''K-On!'', ...
's ''
Tokyo Mew Mew is a Japanese manga Manga (Japanese: 漫画 ) are comics a Media (communication), medium used to express ideas with images, often combined with text or other visual information. It typically the form of a sequence of Panel ...
'', and
Naoko Takeuchi , known by her maiden name , is a Japanese manga artist Manga (Japanese: 漫画 ) are comics a Media (communication), medium used to express ideas with images, often combined with text or other visual information. It typically th ...
's ''
Pretty Soldier Sailor Moon is a Japanese Shōjo manga, ''shōjo'' manga series written and illustrated by Naoko Takeuchi. It was originally serialized in ''Nakayoshi'' from 1991 to 1997; the 60 individual chapters were published in 18 ''tankōbon'' volumes. The serie ...

Pretty Soldier Sailor Moon
'', which became internationally popular in both manga and anime formats. Groups (or ''
sentai In Japanese language, Japanese, is a military unit and may be literally translated as "wikt:squadron, squadron", "task force", "Division (naval), division (of ships)", "group (air force unit), group" or "wing (air force unit), wing". The terms " ...
s'') of girls working together have also been popular within this genre. Like Lucia, Hanon, and Rina singing together, and Sailor Moon, Sailor Mercury, Sailor Mars, Sailor Jupiter, and Sailor Venus working together. Manga for male readers sub-divides according to the age of its intended readership: boys up to 18 years old (''shōnen'' manga) and young men 18 to 30 years old (''
seinen are Japanese comics Manga (Japanese Japanese may refer to: * Something from or related to Japan , image_flag = Flag of Japan.svg , alt_flag = Centered deep red circle on a white rectangle , ...
'' manga); as well as by content, including action-adventure often involving male heroes, slapstick humor, themes of honor, and sometimes explicit sex. The Japanese use different kanji for two closely allied meanings of "seinen"— for "youth, young man" and for "adult, majority"—the second referring to pornographic manga aimed at grown men and also called ''seijin'' ("adult" ) manga. ''Shōnen'', ''seinen'', and ''seijin'' manga share a number of features in common. Boys and young men became some of the earliest readers of manga after World War II. From the 1950s on, ''shōnen'' manga focused on topics thought to interest the archetypal boy, including subjects like robots, space-travel, and heroic action-adventure. Popular themes include
science fiction Science fiction (sometimes shortened to sci-fi or SF) is a of which typically deals with and futuristic concepts such as advanced and , , , , and . It has been called the " of ", and it often explores the potential consequences of . Scien ...

science fiction
, technology, sports, and supernatural settings. Manga with solitary costumed superheroes like
Superman Superman is a superhero A superhero or superheroine is a stock character Stock (also capital stock) is all of the shares into which ownership of a corporation is divided.Longman Business English Dictionary In American English, th ...

Superman
,
Batman Batman is a superhero A superhero or superheroine is a stock character Stock (also capital stock) is all of the shares into which ownership of a corporation is divided.Longman Business English Dictionary In American English, the ...

Batman
, and
Spider-Man Spider-Man is a superhero A superhero or superheroine is a that possesses , abilities beyond those of ordinary people, and fits the role of the , typically using his or her powers to help the , or dedicating themselves to and fightin ...

Spider-Man
generally did not become as popular. The role of girls and women in manga produced for male readers has evolved considerably over time to include those featuring single pretty girls ('' bishōjo'') such as
Belldandy is a fictional character in the popular anime and manga series ''Oh My Goddess!''. She was created by Kōsuke Fujishima as one of three Goddesses who come to Earth to reside with Keiichi Morisato, and she serves as his love interest. She is dep ...
from ''
Oh My Goddess! , or ''Ah! My Goddess!'' in some releases, is a Japanese manga Manga (Japanese Japanese may refer to: * Something from or related to Japan , image_flag = Flag of Japan.svg , alt_flag ...
'', stories where such girls and women surround the hero, as in ''
Negima ''Negima! Magister Negi Magi'', known in Japan as , is a Japanese manga Manga (Japanese Japanese may refer to: * Something from or related to Japan , image_flag = Flag of Japan.svg , alt_flag ...
'' and '' Hanaukyo Maid Team'', or groups of heavily armed female warriors (''sentō bishōjo'') With the relaxation of censorship in Japan in the 1990s, an assortment of explicit sexual material appeared in manga intended for male readers, and correspondingly continued into the English translations. In 2010, the
Tokyo Metropolitan Government The is the government of the Tokyo Metropolis Tokyo (Japanese Japanese may refer to: * Something from or related to Japan , image_flag = Flag of Japan.svg , alt_flag = Centered deep red circl ...
considered a bill to restrict minors' access to such content. The ''
gekiga , literally "dramatic pictures", is a style of Japanese comics aimed at adult audiences and marked by a more cinematic art style and more mature themes. ''Gekiga'' was the predominant style of adult comics in Japan in the 1960s and 1970s. It is ae ...
'' style of storytelling—thematically somber, adult-oriented, and sometimes deeply violent—focuses on the day-in, day-out grim realities of life, often drawn in a gritty and unvarnished fashion. ''Gekiga'' such as Sampei Shirato's 1959–1962 ''Chronicles of a Ninja's Military Accomplishments'' (''Ninja Bugeichō'') arose in the late 1950s and 1960s partly from left-wing student and working-class political activism,, , and partly from the aesthetic dissatisfaction of young manga artists like
Yoshihiro Tatsumi was a Japanese manga artist Manga (Japanese: 漫画 ) are comics a Media (communication), medium used to express ideas with images, often combined with text or other visual information. It typically the form of a sequence of Panel ...
with existing manga.


Publications and exhibition

A manga store in Japan In Japan, manga constituted an annual 40.6 billion yen (approximately US$395 million) publication-industry by 2007. In 2006 sales of manga books made up for about 27% of total book-sales, and sale of manga magazines, for 20% of total magazine-sales.Manga Industry in Japan
The manga industry has expanded worldwide, where distribution companies license and reprint manga into their native languages. Marketeers primarily classify manga by the age and gender of the target readership. In particular, books and magazines sold to boys (''shōnen'') and girls (''shōjo'') have distinctive cover-art, and most bookstores place them on different shelves. Due to cross-readership, consumer response is not limited by demographics. For example, male readers may subscribe to a series intended for female readers, and so on. Japan has manga cafés, or ''manga kissa'' (''kissa'' is an abbreviation of ''
kissaten A , literally a "tea-drinking shop", is a Japanese-style Tea house, tearoom that is also a café, coffee shop. They developed in the early 20th century as a distinction from a café, as cafés had become places also serving alcohol with noise and ...
''). At a ''manga kissa'', people drink
coffee Coffee is a drink prepared from roasted s, the seeds of from certain s in the ' genus. From the coffee fruit, the seeds are separated to produce a stable, raw product: unroasted ''green coffee''. The seeds are then , a process which transfo ...
, read manga and sometimes stay overnight. The
Kyoto International Manga Museum Exhibit The Kyoto International Manga Manga (Japanese: 漫画 ) are comics a Media (communication), medium used to express ideas with images, often combined with text or other visual information. It typically the form of a sequence o ...
maintains a very large website listing manga published in Japanese.


Magazines

Manga magazines usually have many series running concurrently with approximately 20–40 pages allocated to each series per issue. Other magazines such as the anime fandom magazine ''
Newtype is a monthly magazine publication originating from Japan, covering anime (and to a lesser extent, tokusatsu, manga, Japanese science fiction, seiyuu, and video games). It was launched by publishing company Kadokawa Shoten on March 8, 1985 with its ...
'' featured single chapters within their monthly periodicals. Other magazines like ''
Nakayoshi is a monthly ''shōjo'' manga magazine A magazine is a periodical literature, periodical publication which is printing, printed in Coated paper, gloss-coated and Paint sheen, matte paper. Magazines are generally published on a regular sched ...
'' feature many stories written by many different artists; these magazines, or "anthology magazines", as they are also known (colloquially "phone books"), are usually printed on low-quality newsprint and can be anywhere from 200 to more than 850 pages thick. Manga magazines also contain one-shot comics and various four-panel ''
yonkoma , a comic strip A comic strip is a sequence of drawings, often cartoon A cartoon is a type of illustration, sometimes animated, typically in a non- realistic or semi-realistic style. The specific meaning has evolved over time, but the m ...

yonkoma
'' (equivalent to
comic strip A comic strip is a sequence of drawings, often cartoons A cartoon is a type of illustration An illustration is a decoration, interpretation or visual explanation of a text, concept or process, designed for integration in print and digi ...
s). Manga series can run for many years if they are successful. Popular shonen magazines include ''
Weekly Shōnen Jump is a weekly ''shōnen'' manga anthology published in Japan by Shueisha is a Japanese company headquartered in Chiyoda, Tokyo, Chiyoda, Tokyo, Japan. The company was established in 1925 as the entertainment-related publishing division of Jap ...
'', ''
Weekly Shōnen Magazine is a weekly ''shōnen'' manga anthology published on Wednesdays in Japan by Kodansha is a Japanese privately-held publishing company headquartered in Bunkyō, Tokyo. Kodansha is the largest Japanese publishing company, and it produces the man ...
'' and ''
Weekly Shōnen Sunday is a weekly ''shōnen'' manga magazine published in Japan by Shogakukan is a Japanese publisher of dictionaries A dictionary is a listing of lexemes from the lexicon of one or more specific language A language is a structured ...
'' - Popular shoujo manga include ''
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''. Manga artists sometimes start out with a few "one-shot" manga projects just to try to get their name out. If these are successful and receive good reviews, they are continued. Magazines often have a short life.


Collected volumes

After a series has run for a while, publishers often collect the chapters and print them in dedicated book-sized volumes, called ''tankōbon''. These can be hardcover, or more usually softcover books, and are the equivalent of U.S.
trade paperbacks A paperback, also known as a softcover or softback, is a type of book characterized by a thick paper or paperboard cover, and often held together with adhesive, glue rather than stitch (textile arts), stitches or Staple (fastener), staples. In c ...
or
graphic novel A graphic novel is a book made up of comics content. Although the word "novel" normally refers to long fictional works, the term "graphic novel" is applied broadly and includes fiction, non-fiction, and anthologized work. It is, at least in the Un ...

graphic novel
s. These volumes often use higher-quality paper, and are useful to those who want to "catch up" with a series so they can follow it in the magazines or if they find the cost of the weeklies or monthlies to be prohibitive. "Deluxe" versions have also been printed as readers have gotten older and the need for something special grew. Old manga have also been reprinted using somewhat lesser quality paper and sold for 100 yen (about $1 U.S. dollar) each to compete with the
used book Image:London books.JPG, The South Bank Book Market in front of the National Film Theatre, London, England, in October 2004 A used book or secondhand book is a book which has been owned before by an owner other than the publisher or retailer, usuall ...
market.


History

and Kawanabe Kyōsai created the first manga magazine in 1874: ''Eshinbun Nipponchi''. The magazine was heavily influenced by ''Japan Punch'', founded in 1862 by Charles Wirgman, a British cartoonist. ''Eshinbun Nipponchi'' had a very simple style of drawings and did not become popular with many people. ''Eshinbun Nipponchi'' ended after three issues. The magazine ''Kisho Shimbun'' in 1875 was inspired by ''Eshinbun Nipponchi'', which was followed by ''Marumaru Chinbun'' in 1877, and then ''Garakuta Chinpo'' in 1879. ''Shōnen Sekai'' was the first ''shōnen'' magazine created in 1895 by Iwaya Sazanami, a famous writer of Japanese children's literature back then. ''Shōnen Sekai'' had a strong focus on the First Sino-Japanese War. In 1905 the manga-magazine publishing boom started with the Russo-Japanese War,#Poten, Poten ''Tokyo Puck, Tokyo Pakku'' was created and became a huge hit.#Shonen Pakku, Shonen Pakku After ''Tokyo Pakku'' in 1905, a female version of ''Shōnen Sekai'' was created and named ''Shōjo Sekai'', considered the first ''shōjo'' magazine. ''Shōnen Pakku'' was made and is considered the first children's manga magazine. The children's demographic was in an early stage of development in the Meiji period. ''Shōnen Pakku'' was influenced from foreign children's magazines such as ''Puck'' which an employee of Jitsugyō no Nihon (publisher of the magazine) saw and decided to emulate. In 1924, ''Kodomo Pakku'' was launched as another children's manga magazine after ''Shōnen Pakku''. During the boom, ''Poten'' (derived from the French "potin") was published in 1908. All the pages were in full color with influences from ''Tokyo Pakku'' and ''Osaka Puck''. It is unknown if there were any more issues besides the first one. ''Kodomo Pakku'' was launched May 1924 by Tokyosha and featured high-quality art by many members of the manga artistry like Takei Takeo, Takehisa Yumeji and Aso Yutaka. Some of the manga featured speech balloons, where other manga from the previous eras did not use speech balloons and were silent. Published from May 1935 to January 1941, ''Manga no Kuni'' coincided with the period of the Second Sino-Japanese War (1937–1945). ''Manga no Kuni'' featured information on becoming a mangaka and on other comics industries around the world. ''Manga no Kuni'' handed its title to ''Sashie Manga Kenkyū'' in August 1940.#Manga no Kuni, Manga no Kuni


''Dōjinshi''

''Dōjinshi'', produced by small publishers outside of the mainstream commercial market, resemble in their publishing Small press, small-press independently published
comic book A comic book, also called comic book, comic magazine or (in the United Kingdom and Ireland) simply comic, is a publication that consists of comics art in the form of sequential juxtaposed panel (comics), panels that represent individual scenes ...
s in the United States. Comiket, the largest comic book Convention (meeting), convention in the world with around 500,000 visitors gathering over three days, is devoted to ''dōjinshi''. While they most often contain original stories, many are parodies of or include Character (arts), characters from popular manga and anime series. Some ''dōjinshi'' continue with a series' story or write an entirely new one using its characters, much like fan fiction. In 2007, ''dōjinshi'' sales amounted to 27.73 billion yen (US$245 million). In 2006 they represented about a tenth of manga books and magazines sales.


Digital manga

Thanks to the advent of the internet, there have been new ways for aspiring mangaka to upload and sell their manga online. Before, there were two main ways in which a mangaka's work could be published: taking their manga drawn on paper to a publisher themselves, or submitting their work to competitions run by magazines.


Web manga

In recent years, there has been a rise in manga released digitally. Web manga, as it is known in Japan, has seen an increase thanks in part to image hosting websites where anyone can upload pages from their works for free. Although released digitally, almost all web manga sticks to the conventional black-and-white format despite some never getting physical publication. Pixiv is the most popular site where amateur and professional work gets published on the site. It has grown to be the most visited site for artwork in Japan. Twitter has also become a popular place for web manga with many artists releasing pages weekly on their accounts in the hope of their work getting picked up or published professionally. One of the best examples of an amateur work becoming professional is ''One-Punch Man'' which was released online and later received a professional remake released digitally and an anime adaptation soon thereafter. Many of the big print publishers have also released digital only magazines and websites where web manga get published alongside their serialized magazines. Shogakukan for instance has two websites, Sunday Webry and Ura Sunday, that release weekly chapters for web manga and even offer contests for mangaka to submit their work. Both Sunday Webry and Ura Sunday have become one of the top web manga sites in Japan. Some have even released apps that teach how to draw professional manga and learn how to create them. ''
Weekly Shōnen Jump is a weekly ''shōnen'' manga anthology published in Japan by Shueisha is a Japanese company headquartered in Chiyoda, Tokyo, Chiyoda, Tokyo, Japan. The company was established in 1925 as the entertainment-related publishing division of Jap ...
'' released ''Jump Paint'', an app that guides users on how to make their own manga from making storyboards to digitally inking lines. It also offers more than 120 types of pen tips and more than 1,000 screentones for artists to practice. Kodansha has also used the popularity of web manga to launch more series and also offer better distribution of their officially translated works under Kodansha Comics thanks in part to the titles being released digitally first before being published physically. The rise web manga has also been credited to smartphones and computers as more and more readers read manga on their phones rather than from a print publication. While paper manga has seen a decrease over time, digital manga have been growing in sales each year. The Research Institute for Publications reports that sales of digital manga books excluding magazines jumped 27.1 percent to ¥146 billion in 2016 from the year before while sales of paper manga saw a record year-on-year decline of 7.4 percent to ¥194.7 billion. They have also said that if the digital and paper keep the same growth and drop rates, web manga will exceed their paper counterparts. In 2020 manga sales topped the ¥600 billion mark for the first time in history, beating the 1995 peak due to a fast growth of the digital manga market which rose by ¥82.7 billion from a previous year.


Webtoons

While webtoons have caught on in popularity as a new medium for comics in Asia, Japan has been slow to adopt webtoons as the traditional format and print publication still dominate the way manga is created and consumed. Despite this, one of the biggest webtoon publishers in the world, Comico (NHN Japan), Comico, has had success in the traditional Japanese manga market. Comico was launched by NHN Japan, the Japanese subsidiary of Korean company, NHN Entertainment. As of now, there are only two webtoon publishers that publish Japanese webtoons: Comico and Naver Webtoon (under the name XOY in Japan). Kakao has also had success by offering licensed manga and translated Korean webtoons with their service Piccoma. All three companies credit their success to the webtoon pay model where users can purchase each chapter individually instead of having to buy the whole book while also offering some chapters for free for a period of time allowing anyone to read a whole series for free if they wait long enough. The added benefit of having all of their titles in color and some with special animations and effects have also helped them succeed. Some popular Japanese webtoons have also gotten anime adaptations and print releases, the most notable being ''ReLIFE'' and ''Recovery of an MMO Junkie''.


International markets

By 2007, the influence of manga on international comics had grown considerably over the past two decades. "Influence" is used here to refer to effects on the comics markets outside Japan and to aesthetic effects on comics artists internationally. Traditionally, manga stories flow from top to bottom and from Horizontal and vertical writing in East Asian scripts, right to left. Some publishers of translated manga keep to this original format. Other publishers mirror the pages horizontally before printing the translation, changing the reading direction to a more "Western" left to right, so as not to confuse foreign readers or traditional comics-consumers. This practice is known as "flipping". For the most part, criticism suggests that flipping goes against the original intentions of the creator (for example, if a person wears a shirt that reads "MAY" on it, and gets flipped, then the word is altered to "YAM"), who may be ignorant of how awkward it is to read comics when the eyes must flow through the pages and text in opposite directions, resulting in an experience that's quite distinct from reading something that flows homogeneously. If the translation is not adapted to the flipped artwork carefully enough it is also possible for the text to go against the picture, such as a person referring to something on their left in the text while pointing to their right in the graphic. Characters shown writing with their right hands, the majority of them, would become left-handed when a series is flipped. Flipping may also cause oddities with familiar asymmetrical objects or layouts, such as a car being depicted with the gas pedal on the left and the brake on the right, or a shirt with the buttons on the wrong side, however these issues are minor when compared to the unnatural reading flow, and some of them could be solved with an adaptation work that goes beyond just translation and blind flipping.


Europe

Manga has influenced European cartooning in a way that is somewhat different from in the U.S. Broadcast anime in France and Italy opened the European market to manga during the 1970s. French art has borrowed from Japan since the 19th century (Japonism) and has its own highly developed tradition of bande dessinée cartooning. In France, beginning in the mid-1990s, manga has proven very popular to a wide readership, accounting for about one-third of comics sales in France since 2004. By mid-2021, 75 percent of the €300 value of :fr:Pass Culture, Culture Pass accounts given to French 18 year-olds was spent on manga. According to the Japan External Trade Organization, sales of manga reached $212.6 million within France and Germany alone in 2006. France represents about 50% of the European market and is the second worldwide market, behind Japan. In 2013, there were 41 publishers of manga in France and, together with other Asian comics, manga represented around 40% of new comics releases in the country, surpassing Franco-Belgian comics for the first time. European publishers marketing manga translated into French include Asuka, Casterman, Glénat (publisher), Glénat, Kana (publisher), Kana, and Pika Édition, among others. European publishers also translate manga into Dutch, German, Italian, and other languages. In 2007, about 70% of all comics sold in Germany were manga. Manga publishers based in the United Kingdom include Victor Gollancz Ltd, Gollancz and Titan Books. Manga publishers from the United States have a strong marketing presence in the United Kingdom: for example, the Tanoshimi line from Random House.


United States

Manga made their way only gradually into U.S. markets, first in association with anime and then independently. Some U.S. Fan (person), fans became aware of manga in the 1970s and early 1980s.In 1987, "...Japanese comics were more legendary than accessible to American readers", However, anime was initially more accessible than manga to U.S. fans, many of whom were college-age young people who found it easier to obtain, subtitle, and exhibit video tapes of anime than translate, reproduce, and distribute ''tankōbon''-style manga books. One of the first manga translated into English and marketed in the U.S. was Keiji Nakazawa's ''Barefoot Gen'', an autobiographical story of the atomic bombing of Hiroshima issued by Leonard Rifas and Educomics (1980–1982). More manga were translated between the mid-1980s and 1990s, including ''Golgo 13'' in 1986, ''Lone Wolf and Cub'' from First Comics in 1987, and ''Kamui (1964 manga), Kamui'', ''Area 88'', and ''Mai the Psychic Girl'', also in 1987 and all from Viz Media-Eclipse Comics. Others soon followed, including ''Akira (manga), Akira'' from Marvel Comics' Epic Comics imprint, ''Nausicaä of the Valley of the Wind (manga), Nausicaä of the Valley of the Wind'' from Viz Media, and ''Appleseed (manga), Appleseed'' from Eclipse Comics in 1988, and later ''Iczer-1'' (Antarctic Press, 1994) and Ippongi Bang's ''F-111 Bandit'' (Antarctic Press, 1995). In the 1980s to the mid-1990s, Japanese animation, like ''Akira (1988 film), Akira'', ''Dragon Ball'', ''Neon Genesis Evangelion'', and ''Pokémon (anime), Pokémon'', made a bigger impact on the fan experience and in the market than manga. Matters changed when translator-entrepreneur Toren Smith founded Studio Proteus in 1986. Smith and Studio Proteus acted as an agent and translator of many Japanese manga, including Masamune Shirow's ''Appleseed'' and Kōsuke Fujishima's ''
Oh My Goddess! , or ''Ah! My Goddess!'' in some releases, is a Japanese manga Manga (Japanese Japanese may refer to: * Something from or related to Japan , image_flag = Flag of Japan.svg , alt_flag ...
'', for Dark Horse Comics, Dark Horse and Eros Comix, eliminating the need for these publishers to seek their own contacts in Japan. Simultaneously, the Japanese publisher Shogakukan opened a U.S. market initiative with their U.S. subsidiary Viz, enabling Viz to draw directly on Shogakukan's catalogue and translation skills. Japanese publishers began pursuing a U.S. market in the mid-1990s due to a stagnation in the domestic market for manga. The U.S. manga market took an upturn with mid-1990s anime and manga versions of Masamune Shirow's ''Ghost in the Shell (manga), Ghost in the Shell'' (translated by
Frederik L. Schodt Frederik L. Schodt (born January 22, 1950) is an American translator, interpreter and writer. Biography Schodt's father was in the US foreign service, and he grew up in Norway, Australia, and Japan. The family first went to Japan in 1965 whe ...
and Toren Smith) becoming very popular among fans. An extremely successful manga and anime translated and dubbed in English in the mid-1990s was ''Sailor Moon''. By 1995–1998, the Sailor Moon (manga), ''Sailor Moon'' manga had been exported to over 23 countries, including China, Brazil, Mexico, Australia, North America and most of Europe. In 1997, Mixx Entertainment began publishing ''Sailor Moon'', along with Clamp (manga artists), CLAMP's ''Magic Knight Rayearth'', Hitoshi Iwaaki's ''Parasyte'' and Tsutomu Takahashi's ''Ice Blade'' in the monthly manga magazine ''MixxZine''. Mixx Entertainment, later renamed Tokyopop, also published manga in
trade paperbacks A paperback, also known as a softcover or softback, is a type of book characterized by a thick paper or paperboard cover, and often held together with adhesive, glue rather than stitch (textile arts), stitches or Staple (fastener), staples. In c ...
and, like Viz, began aggressive marketing of manga to both young male and young female demographics. During this period, Dark Horse Manga was a major publisher of translated manga. In addition to ''
Oh My Goddess! , or ''Ah! My Goddess!'' in some releases, is a Japanese manga Manga (Japanese Japanese may refer to: * Something from or related to Japan , image_flag = Flag of Japan.svg , alt_flag ...
'', the company published ''Akira (manga), Akira'', ''
Astro Boy ''Astro Boy'', known in Japan by its original name , is a Japanese manga Manga (Japanese Japanese may refer to: * Something from or related to Japan , image_flag = Flag of Japan.svg , alt_flag ...
'', ''Berserk (manga), Berserk'', ''Blade of the Immortal'', ''Ghost in the Shell (manga), Ghost in the Shell'', ''Lone Wolf and Cub'', Yasuhiro Nightow's ''Trigun'' and ''Blood Blockade Battlefront'', ''Gantz'', Kouta Hirano's ''Hellsing'' and ''Drifters (manga), Drifters'', ''Blood+'', ''Multiple Personality Detective Psycho'', ''FLCL'', ''Mob Psycho 100'', and ''Oreimo''. The company received 13 Eisner Award nominations for its manga titles, and three of the four manga creators admitted to The Will Eisner Award Hall of Fame —
Osamu Tezuka Osamu Tezuka (, b. , ''Tezuka Osamu''; – 9 February 1989) was a Japanese manga artist, cartoonist, and animator. Born in Osaka Prefecture, his prolific output, pioneering techniques, and innovative redefinitions of genres earned him such ti ...
, Kazuo Koike, and Goseki Kojima — were published in Dark Horse translations. In the following years, manga became increasingly popular, and new publishers entered the field while the established publishers greatly expanded their catalogues. The List of Pokémon manga, ''Pokémon'' manga ''Electric Tale of Pikachu'' issue #1 sold over 1million copies in the United States, making it the best-selling single
comic book A comic book, also called comic book, comic magazine or (in the United Kingdom and Ireland) simply comic, is a publication that consists of comics art in the form of sequential juxtaposed panel (comics), panels that represent individual scenes ...
in the United States since 1993. By 2008, the U.S. and Canadian manga market generated $175 million in annual sales. Simultaneously, mainstream U.S. media began to discuss manga, with articles in ''The New York Times'', Time (magazine), ''Time'' magazine, ''The Wall Street Journal'', and ''Wired (magazine), Wired'' magazine. As of 2017, manga distributor Viz Media is the largest publisher of
graphic novel A graphic novel is a book made up of comics content. Although the word "novel" normally refers to long fictional works, the term "graphic novel" is applied broadly and includes fiction, non-fiction, and anthologized work. It is, at least in the Un ...

graphic novel
s and comic books in the United States, with a 23% share of the market. BookScan sales show that manga is one of the fastest-growing areas of the comic book and narrative fiction markets. From January 2019 to May 2019, the manga market grew 16%, compared to the overall comic book market's 5% growth. The NPD Group noted that, compared to other comic book readers, manga readers are younger (76% under 30) and more diverse, including a higher female readership (16% higher than other comic books). As of January 2020 manga is the second largest category in the US comic book and graphic novel market, accounting for 27% of the entire market share.


Localized manga

A number of artists in the United States have drawn comics and cartoons influenced by manga. As an early example, Vernon Grant drew manga-influenced comics while living in Japan in the late 1960s and early 1970s. Others include Frank Miller (comics), Frank Miller's mid-1980s ''Ronin (DC Comics), Ronin'', Adam Warren (comics), Adam Warren and Toren Smith's 1988 ''The Dirty Pair'', Ben Dunn's 1987 ''Ninja High School'' and ''Manga Shi 2000'' from Crusade Comics (1997). By the 21st century several U.S. manga publishers had begun to produce work by U.S. artists under the broad marketing-label of manga. In 2002 I.C. Entertainment, formerly Studio Ironcat and now out of business, launched a series of manga by U.S. artists called ''Amerimanga''. In 2004 eigoMANGA launched the ''Rumble Pak (comics), Rumble Pak'' and ''Sakura Pakk'' comics anthology, anthology series. Seven Seas Entertainment followed suit with ''Original English-language manga, World Manga''. Simultaneously, TokyoPop introduced original English-language manga (OEL manga) later renamed ''Global Manga''. Francophone artists have also developed their own versions of manga ('' manfra''), like Frédéric Boilet's ''la nouvelle manga''. Boilet has worked in France and in Japan, sometimes collaborating with Japanese artists. ,


Awards

The Japanese manga industry grants a large number of awards, mostly sponsored by publishers, with the winning prize usually including publication of the winning stories in magazines released by the sponsoring publisher. Examples of these awards include: * The Akatsuka Award for humorous manga * The Dengeki Comic Grand Prix for one-shot manga * The Japan Cartoonists Association Award various categories * The Kodansha Manga Award (multiple genre awards) * The Seiun Award for best science fiction comic of the year * The Shogakukan Manga Award (multiple genres) * The Tezuka Award for best new serial manga * The Tezuka Osamu Cultural Prize (multiple genres) The Ministry of Foreign Affairs (Japan), Japanese Ministry of Foreign Affairs has awarded the International Manga Award annually since May 2007.


University education

Kyoto Seika University in Japan has offered a highly competitive course in manga since 2000. Then, several established universities and vocational schools (専門学校: ''Semmon gakkou'') established a jp:マンガ学科, training curriculum. Shūhō Satō, Shuho Sato, who wrote ''Umizaru'' and ''Say Hello to Black Jack'', has created some controversy on Twitter. Sato says, "Manga school is meaningless because those schools have very low success rates. Then, I could teach novices required skills on the job in three months. Meanwhile, those school students spend several million yen, and four years, yet they are good for nothing." and that, "For instance,
Keiko Takemiya is a Japanese manga artist Manga (Japanese: 漫画 ) are comics a Media (communication), medium used to express ideas with images, often combined with text or other visual information. It typically the form of a sequence of Panel ...
, the then professor of Kyoto Seika University, Seika Univ., remarked in the Government Council that 'A complete novice will be able to understand where is "Tachikiri" (i.e., Margin (typography), margin section) during four years.' On the other hand, I would imagine that, It takes about thirty minutes to completely understand that at work."


See also

* Alternative manga * Anime * Cinema of Japan * Culture of Japan * Emakimono * E-toki (horizontal, illustrated narrative form) * Japanese popular culture * Kamishibai * Lianhuanhua (small Chinese picture book) * Light novel * List of best-selling manga * List of films based on manga * List of licensed manga in English * List of manga distributors * List of manga magazines * List of Japanese manga magazines by circulation * Manga iconography * Manga outside Japan * Manhua * Manhwa * Q-version (cartoonification) * Ukiyo-e * Visual novel * Webtoon * ''
Weekly Shōnen Jump is a weekly ''shōnen'' manga anthology published in Japan by Shueisha is a Japanese company headquartered in Chiyoda, Tokyo, Chiyoda, Tokyo, Japan. The company was established in 1925 as the entertainment-related publishing division of Jap ...
''


Notes


References


Inline citations


Works cited

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Further reading

* * Hattie Jones, "Manga girls: Sex, love, comedy and crime in recent boy's manga and anime," in Brigitte Steger and Angelika Koch (2013 eds): Manga Girl Seeks Herbivore Boy. Studying Japanese Gender at Cambridge. Lit Publisher, pp. 24–81. * Marcella Zaccagnino and Sebastiano Contrari.
Manga: il Giappone alla conquista del mondo

Archive
''Limes, rivista italiana di geopolitica''. 31/10/2007. *


External links

* * {{Authority control Manga, Anime and manga terminology Comics formats Entertainment in Japan Illustration Japanese culture