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Management (or managing) is the administration of an
organization An organization, or organisation (English in the Commonwealth of Nations, Commonwealth English; American and British English spelling differences#-ise, -ize (-isation, -ization), see spelling differences), is an legal entity, entity—such a ...

organization
, whether it is a
business Business is the activity of making one's living or making money by producing or buying and selling products (such as goods and services). Simply put, it is "any activity or enterprise entered into for profit." Having a business name A trade ...
, a
non-profit A nonprofit organization (NPO), also known as a non-business entity, not-for-profit organization, or nonprofit institution, is a legal entity organized and operated for a collective, public or social benefit, in contrast with an entity that op ...
organization, or a government body. It is the art and science of managing resources. Management includes the activities of setting the
strategy Strategy (from Greek στρατηγία ''stratēgia'', "art of troop leader; office of general, command, generalship") is a general plan to achieve one or more long-term or overall goal A goal is an idea of the future or desired result th ...
of an organization and coordinating the efforts of its
employee Employment is a relationship between two party (law), parties, usually based on employment contract, contract where work is paid for, where one party, which may be a corporation, for profit, not-for-profit organization, co-operative or other ent ...

employee
s (or of volunteers) to accomplish its
objectives
objectives
through the application of available
resources A resource is a source or supply from which a benefit is produced and that has some utility. Resources can broadly be classified upon their availability — they are classified into renewable and non-renewable resources. They can also be classif ...
, such as
financial Finance is the study of financial institutions, financial markets and how they operate within the financial system. It is concerned with the creation and management of money Image:National-Debt-Gillray.jpeg, In a 1786 James Gillray caricatu ...

financial
,
natural Nature, in the broadest sense, is the natural, physical, material world or universe The universe ( la, universus) is all of space and time and their contents, including planets, stars, galaxies, and all other forms of matter and ...
,
technological Technology ("science of craft", from Ancient Greek, Greek , ''techne'', "art, skill, cunning of hand"; and , ''wikt:-logia, -logia'') is the sum of Art techniques and materials, techniques, skills, Scientific method, methods, and Business proc ...
, and
human resources Human resources is the set of people who make up the workforce of an organization An organization, or organisation ( Commonwealth English; see spelling differences), is an entity – such as a company, an institution, or an associ ...

human resources
. "Run the business" and "Change the business" are two concepts that are used in management to differentiate between the continued delivery of goods or services and adapting of goods or services to meet the changing needs of customers - see trend. The term "management" may also refer to those people who manage an organization—managers. Some people study management at colleges or universities; major degrees in management include the
Bachelor of CommerceA Bachelor of Commerce (abbreviated BComm or BCom; also, ''baccalaureates commercii'') is an undergraduate degree in business, usually awarded in Canada, Australia, India, Sri Lanka, Pakistan, Ireland, New Zealand, Ghana, South Africa, Myanmar, Egypt ...
(B.Com.)
Bachelor of Business Administration The Bachelor of Business Administration (BBA) is a bachelor's degree A bachelor's degree (from Middle Latin ''baccalaureus'') or baccalaureate (from Modern Latin ''baccalaureatus'') is an undergraduate academic degree awarded by colleges a ...
(BBA.)
Master of Business Administration The Master of Business Administration (MBA; also Master's in Business Administration) degree originated in the United States in the early 20th century when the country industrialized and companies sought scientific management. The core courses ...
(MBA.)
Master in Management The Master of Management (MM, MBM,MIM, MMgt) is a post-graduate master’s degree awarded to students who normally complete a one- to two-year program of graduate level coursework in business management at an accredited academic institution. A ...
(MSM or MIM) and, for the public sector, the
Master of Public Administration The Master of Public Administration (M.P.Adm., M.P.A., or MPA) is a professional graduate degree in public administration, similar to the Master of Business Administration but with an emphasis on the issues of public services. Overview The M ...
(MPA) degree. Individuals who aim to become management specialists or experts, management researchers, or professors may complete the
Doctor of ManagementThe Doctor of Management (DM) is a professional doctorate with a degree focus in management, leadership, and organizational topics. The intention of the DM is to advance the skills of professionals in research, analysis, theory, and practice in orga ...
(DM), the
Doctor of Business Administration The Doctor of Business Administration (commonly abbreviated as D.B.A., DBA, DrBA, or Dr.B.A) is a research doctorate awarded on the basis of advanced study, examinations, project work and research in business administration. The D.B.A. is a terminal ...
(DBA), or the
Ph.D. A Doctor of Philosophy (PhD, Ph.D., or DPhil; Latin Latin (, or , ) is a classical language belonging to the Italic languages, Italic branch of the Indo-European languages. Latin was originally spoken in the area around Rome, known as La ...
in Business Administration or Management. There has recently been a movement for
evidence-based management Evidence-based management (EBMgt) is an emerging movement to explicitly use the current, best evidence in management Management (or managing) is the administration of an organization, whether it is a business, a not-for-profit organization, o ...
. Larger organizations generally have three
hierarchical A hierarchy (from the Greek: , from , 'president of sacred rites') is an arrangement of items (objects, names, values, categories, etc.) in which the items are represented as being "above", "below", or "at the same level as" one another. Hierarch ...

hierarchical
levels of managers, in a pyramid structure: * Senior managers, such as members of a
board of directors A board of directors is a group of people who jointly supervise the activities of an organization An organization, or organisation ( Commonwealth English; see spelling differences), is an entity – such as a company, an institution, ...
and a
chief executive officer A chief executive officer (CEO), chief administrator, or just chief executive (CE), is one of a number of corporate executives in charge of managing an organization especially an independent legal entity such as a company A company, abbre ...
(CEO) or a
president President most commonly refers to: *President (corporate title) A president is a leader of an organization, company, community, club, trade union, university or other group. The relationship between a president and a Chief Executive Officer, chi ...
of an organization. They set the strategic goals of the organization and make decisions on how the overall organization will operate. Senior managers are generally executive-level professionals and provide direction to middle management, who directly or indirectly report to them. * Middle managers: examples of these would include branch managers, regional managers, department managers, and section managers, who provide direction to front-line managers. Middle managers communicate the strategic goals of senior management to the front-line managers. * Lower managers, such as
supervisor A supervisor, or also known as foreman, boss, overseer, facilitator, monitor, area coordinator, or sometimes gaffer, is the job title of a low level management position that is primarily based on authority over a worker or charge of a workplace. A ...
s and front-line
team leaderA team leader is a person who ''provides guidance, instruction, direction and leadership Leadership is both a research area, and a practical skill encompassing the ability of an individual, group or organization to "lead", influence or guide other ...

team leader
s, oversee the work of regular employees (or volunteers, in some voluntary organizations) and provide direction on their work. In smaller organizations, a manager may have a much wider scope and may perform several roles or even all of the roles commonly observed in a large organization.
Social scientists
Social scientists
study management as an
academic discipline An academic discipline or academic field is a subdivision of knowledge that is Education, taught and researched at the college or university level. Disciplines are defined (in part) and recognized by the academic journals in which research is pu ...
, investigating areas such as
social organization In sociology Sociology is a social science Social science is the Branches of science, branch of science devoted to the study of society, societies and the Social relation, relationships among individuals within those societies. The te ...
,
organizational adaptationOrganizational adaptation (sometimes referred to as strategic fit and organizational congruence) is a concept in organization theory Organizational theory consists of many approaches to organizational analysis. Organization An organization, ...
, and organizational leadership.


Etymology

The English verb "manage" has its roots by the XV century
French French (french: français(e), link=no) may refer to: * Something of, from, or related to France France (), officially the French Republic (french: link=no, République française), is a country primarily located in Western Europe, consistin ...

French
verb 'mesnager', which often referred in
equestrian The word equestrian is a reference to Equestrianism, horseback riding, derived from Latin ' and ', "horse". Horseback riding (or Riding in British English) Notable examples of this are: *List of equestrian sports, Equestrian sports *Equestrianism, ...

equestrian
language "to hold in hand the reins of a horse". Also the
Italian Italian may refer to: * Anything of, from, or related to the country and nation of Italy ** Italians, an ethnic group or simply a citizen of the Italian Republic ** Italian language, a Romance language *** Regional Italian, regional variants of the ...

Italian
term ''maneggiare'' (to handle, especially tools or a horse) is possible. In
Spanish Spanish may refer to: * Items from or related to Spain , * gl, Reino de España, * oc, Reiaume d'Espanha, , , image_flag = Bandera de España.svg , image_coat = Escudo de España (mazonado).svg , national_motto = , national_an ...

Spanish
''manejar'' can also mean to rule the horses. These three terms derive from the two
Latin Latin (, or , ) is a classical language belonging to the Italic languages, Italic branch of the Indo-European languages. Latin was originally spoken in the area around Rome, known as Latium. Through the power of the Roman Republic, it became the ...

Latin
words ''manus'' (hand) and ''agere'' (to act). The French word for
housekeeping Housekeeping refers to the management of duties and chores involved in the running of a household, such as cleaning, cooking, home maintenance, shopping, and bill payment. These tasks may be performed by members of the household, or by other pers ...
, ''ménagerie'', derived from ''ménager'' ("to keep house"; compare ''ménage'' for "household"), also encompasses taking care of domestic animals. ''Ménagerie'' is the French translation of
Xenophon Xenophon of Athens (; grc-gre, Ξενοφῶν, , ''Xenophōn''; – 354 BC) was an Athenian-born military leader, philosopher A philosopher is someone who practices philosophy. The term ''philosopher'' comes from the grc, φιλόσοφ ...

Xenophon
's famous book ''
Oeconomicus The ''Oeconomicus'' ( grc-gre, Οἰκονομικός) by Xenophon Xenophon of Athens (; grc-gre, Ξενοφῶν, , ''Xenophōn''; – 354 BC) was an Athenian-born military leader, philosopher A philosopher is someone who practices phil ...
'' ( grc-gre, Οἰκονομικός) on household matters and
husbandry Animal husbandry is the branch of agriculture Agriculture is the science, art and practice of cultivating plants and livestock. Agriculture was the key development in the rise of sedentism, sedentary human civilization, whereby farming of ...
. The French word ''mesnagement'' (or ''ménagement'') influenced the semantic development of the English word ''management'' in the 17th and 18th centuries.


Definitions

Views on the definition and scope of management include: *
Henri Fayol Henri Fayol (29 July 1841 – 19 November 1925) was a French mining engineer, mining executive, author and director of mines who developed a general theory of business administration that is often called Fayolism Fayolism was a theory of managemen ...
(1841–1925) stated: "to manage is to forecast and to plan, to organise, to command, to co-ordinate and to control." * Fredmund Malik (1944– ) defines management as "the transformation of resources into utility". * Management is included as one of the
factors of production In economics Economics () is the social science that studies how people interact with value; in particular, the Production (economics), production, distribution (economics), distribution, and Consumption (economics), consumption of goods a ...
– along with machines, materials and money. *
Ghislain Deslandes
Ghislain Deslandes
defines management as "a vulnerable force, under pressure to achieve results and endowed with the triple power of constraint, imitation and imagination, operating on subjective, interpersonal, institutional and environmental levels". *
Peter Drucker Peter Ferdinand Drucker (; ; November 19, 1909 – November 11, 2005) was an Austrian-American management consultant, educator, and author, whose writings contributed to the philosophical and practical foundations of the modern business corp ...
(1909–2005) saw the basic task of management as twofold:
marketing Marketing is the process of intentionally stimulating demand for and purchases of goods and services; potentially including selection of a target audience; selection of certain attributes or themes to emphasize in advertising; operation of adve ...

marketing
and
innovation 190px, Thomas Edison with phonograph. Edison was one of the most prolific inventors in history, holding List of Edison patents, 1,093 U.S. patents in his name. Innovation is the practical implementation of ideas that result in the introduction ...

innovation
. Nevertheless, innovation is also linked to marketing (product innovation is a central strategic marketing issue). Drucker identifies marketing as a key essence for business success, but management and marketing are generally understood as two different branches of business administration knowledge.


Theoretical scope

Management involves identifying the
mission Mission may refer to: Religion *Mission (station) A religious mission or mission station is a location for missionary work, in particular Christian missions. History Historically, missions have been religious communities used to spread ...

mission
, objective, procedures, rules and manipulation of the
human capital Human capital is a concept used by human resource professionals to designate personal attributes considered useful in the production process. It encompasses employee knowledge, skill, skills, know-how, good health, and education, to name a few. ...

human capital
of an
enterprise Enterprise (or the archaic spelling Enterprize) may refer to: Business and economics Brands and enterprises * Enterprise GP Holdings Enterprise GP Holdings was a midstream energy holding company based in Houston, Texas Houston ( ) is ...

enterprise
to contribute to the success of the enterprise. Scholars have focused on the management of individual, organizational, and inter-organizational relationships. This implies effective
communication Communication (from Latin ''communicare'', meaning "to share" or "to be in relation with") is "an apparent answer to the painful divisions between self and other, private and public, and inner thought and outer world." As this definition indica ...

communication
: an enterprise environment (as opposed to a physical or mechanical mechanism) implies human
motivation Motivation is what explains why people or animals initiate, continue or terminate a certain behavior at a particular time. Motivational states are commonly understood as forces acting within the agent that create a disposition to engage in goal-di ...
and implies some sort of successful progress or
system A system is a group of Interaction, interacting or interrelated elements that act according to a set of rules to form a unified whole. A system, surrounded and influenced by its environment, is described by its boundaries, structure and purpo ...

system
outcome. As such, management is not the manipulation of a mechanism (machine or automated program), not the herding of animals, and can occur either in a legal or in an illegal enterprise or environment. From an individual's perspective, management does not need to be seen solely from an enterprise point of view, because management is an essential function in improving one's
life Life is a characteristic that distinguishes physical entities that have biological processes, such as Cell signaling, signaling and self-sustaining processes, from those that do not, either because such functions have ceased (they have Death ...

life
and relationships. Management is therefore everywhere and it has a wider range of application. Communication and a positive endeavor are two main aspects of it either through enterprise or through independent pursuit. Plans,
measurements Measurement is the quantification (science), quantification of variable and attribute (research), attributes of an object or event, which can be used to compare with other objects or events. The scope and application of measurement are dependent ...
, motivational psychological tools, goals, and economic measures (profit, etc.) may or may not be necessary components for there to be management. At first, one views management functionally, such as measuring quantity, adjusting
plan A plan is typically any diagram or list of steps with details of timing and resources, used to achieve an Goal, objective to do something. It is commonly understood as a modal logic, temporal set (mathematics), set of intended actions through whi ...

plan
s, meeting
goal A goal is an idea In philosophy Philosophy (from , ) is the study of general and fundamental questions, such as those about reason, Metaphysics, existence, Epistemology, knowledge, Ethics, values, Philosophy of mind, mind, and Phil ...

goal
s. This applies even in situations where planning does not take place. From this perspective,
Henri Fayol Henri Fayol (29 July 1841 – 19 November 1925) was a French mining engineer, mining executive, author and director of mines who developed a general theory of business administration that is often called Fayolism Fayolism was a theory of managemen ...
(1841–1925) considers management to consist of five
functions Function or functionality may refer to: Computing * Function key A function key is a key on a computer A computer is a machine that can be programmed to carry out sequences of arithmetic or logical operations automatically. Modern comp ...
: # planning (forecasting) # organizing # commanding # coordinating # controlling In another way of thinking,
Mary Parker Follett Mary Parker Follett (3 September 1868 – 18 December 1933) was an American social worker, management consultant, philosopher and pioneer in the fields of organizational theory and organizational behavior. Along with Lillian Gilbreth, she was one ...

Mary Parker Follett
(1868–1933), allegedly defined management as "the art of getting things done through people". She described management as a philosophy. Critics, however, find this definition useful but far too narrow. The phrase "management is what managers do" occurs widely, suggesting the difficulty of defining management without circularity, the shifting nature of definitions and the connection of managerial practices with the existence of a managerial cadre or of a
class Class or The Class may refer to: Common uses not otherwise categorized * Class (biology), a taxonomic rank * Class (knowledge representation), a collection of individuals or objects * Class (philosophy), an analytical concept used differently f ...
. One habit of thought regards management as equivalent to "
business administration Business administration (also known as business management) is the administration of a commercial enterprise. It includes all aspects of overseeing and supervising business operations. From the point of view of management Management (or man ...
" and thus excludes management in places outside
commerce Commerce is the exchange of goods and services, especially on a large scale. Etymology The English-language word ''commerce'' has been derived from the Latin word ''commercium'', from ''com'' ("together") and ''merx'' ("merchandise"). History ...

commerce
, as for example in
charities A charitable organization or charity is an organization whose primary objectives are philanthropy and social well-being (e.g. educational, religious Religion is a social system, social-cultural system of designated religious behaviour, b ...
and in the
public sector The public sector (also called the state sector) is the part of the economy composed of both public service A public service is a service Service may refer to: Activities :''(See the Religion section for religious activities)'' * Administr ...
. More broadly, every organization must "manage" its work, people, processes, technology, etc. to maximize effectiveness. Nonetheless, many people refer to university departments that teach management as "
business school A business school is a university-level institution that confers degrees in business administration or management. A business school may also be referred to as school of management, management school, school of business administration, or colloquia ...

business school
s". Some such institutions (such as the
Harvard Business School Harvard Business School (HBS) is the graduate Graduate refers to someone who has been the subject of a graduation, namely, someone who has completed the requirements of an academic degree. Education * Graduate, an alumnus * Graduate diploma, ...
) use that name, while others (such as the
Yale School of Management The Yale School of Management (also known as Yale SOM) is the graduate business school of Yale University in New Haven, Connecticut New Haven is a coastal city in the U.S. state of Connecticut. It is located on New Haven Harbor on the northern ...
) employ the broader term "management". English-speakers may also use the term "management" or "the management" as a collective word describing the managers of an organization, for example of a
corporation A corporation is an organization—usually a group of people or a company—authorized by the State (polity), state to act as a single entity (a legal entity recognized by private and public law "born out of statute"; a legal person in legal ...

corporation
. Historically this use of the term often contrasted with the term "labor" – referring to those being managed. But in the present era the concept of management is identified in the wide areas and its frontiers have been pushed to a broader range. Apart from profitable organizations even
non-profit organizations A nonprofit organization (NPO), also known as a non-business entity, not-for-profit organization, or nonprofit institution, is a legal entity organized and operated for a collective, public or social benefit, in contrast with an entity that oper ...
apply management concepts. The concept and its uses are not constrained. Management on the whole is the process of planning, organizing, coordinating,
leading In typography File:metal movable type.jpg, 225px, Movable type being assembled on a composing stick using pieces that are stored in the type case shown below it Typography is the art and technique of typesetting, arranging type to make writ ...

leading
and controlling.


Levels

Most organizations have three management levels: first-level, middle-level, and top-level managers. First-line managers are the lowest level of management and manage the work of non-managerial individuals who are directly involved with the production or creation of the organization's products. First-line managers are often called supervisors, but may also be called line managers, office managers, or even foremen. Middle managers include all levels of management between the first-line level and the top level of the organization. These managers manage the work of first-line managers and may have titles such as department head, project leader, plant manager, or division manager. Top managers are responsible for making organization-wide decisions and establishing the plans and goals that affect the entire organization. These individuals typically have titles such as executive vice president, president, managing director, chief operating officer, chief executive officer, or chairman of the board. These managers are classified in a hierarchy of authority, and perform different tasks. In many organizations, the number of managers in every level resembles a pyramid. Each level is explained below in specifications of their different responsibilities and likely job titles.


Top

The top or senior layer of management consists of the
board of directors A board of directors is a group of people who jointly supervise the activities of an organization An organization, or organisation ( Commonwealth English; see spelling differences), is an entity – such as a company, an institution, ...
(including
non-executive directorA non-executive director (abbreviated to non-exec, NED or NXD), independent director or external director is a member of the board of directors A board of directors is a group of people who jointly supervise the activities of an organization ...
s,
executive director An executive director is a member of a board of directors for an organisation, but the meaning of the term varies between countries. United States In the US, an executive director is a chief executive officer A chief executive officer (CEO), ...
s and
independent director An independent director (also sometimes known as an outside director) is a director (member) of a board of directors who does not have a material or pecuniary relationship with company or related persons, except sitting fees. In the US, independ ...
s), president, vice-president,
CEO A chief executive officer (CEO), chief administrator, or just chief executive (CE), is one of a number of corporate executives in charge of managing an organization especially an independent legal entity such as a company A company, abbre ...

CEO
s and other members of the C-level executives. Different organizations have various members in their C-suite, which may include a
chief financial officer The chief financial officer (CFO) is the officer An officer is a person who has a position of authority In the fields of sociology Sociology is the study of society, human social behaviour, patterns of social relationships, social interac ...
,
chief technology officer A chief technical officer (CTO), sometimes known as a chief technology officer or chief technologist, is an executive-level position in a company or other entity whose occupation is focused on the scientific and technological issues within an org ...
, and so on. They are responsible for controlling and overseeing the operations of the entire organization. They set a " tone at the top" and develop
strategic plans
strategic plans
, company policies, and make decisions on the overall direction of the organization. In addition, top-level managers play a significant role in the mobilization of outside resources. Senior managers are accountable to the shareholders, the general public and to public bodies that oversee corporations and similar organizations. Some members of the senior management may serve as the public face of the organization, and they may make speeches to introduce new strategies or appear in marketing. The board of directors is typically primarily composed of non-executives who owe a
fiduciary 300px, The court of chancery, which governed fiduciary relations in England prior to the ''Judicature Acts'' A fiduciary is a person who holds a Law, legal or ethical relationship of Trust (social sciences), trust with one or more other Party (law ...
duty to shareholders and are not closely involved in the day-to-day activities of the organization, although this varies depending on the type (e.g., public versus private), size and culture of the organization. These directors are theoretically liable for breaches of that duty and typically insured under
directors and officers liability insuranceDirectors and officers liability Insurance (also written "directors’ and officers’ liability insurance"; often called "D&O") is liability insurance payable to the directors and officers of a company, or to the organization(s) itself, as indemnif ...
.
Fortune 500 The ''Fortune'' 500 is an annual list compiled and published by ''Fortune Fortune may refer to: General * Fortuna or Fortune, the Roman goddess of luck * Luck, a chance happening, or that which happens beyond a person's controls * Wealth, an ab ...
directors are estimated to spend 4.4 hours per week on board duties, and median compensation was $212,512 in 2010. The board sets corporate strategy, makes major decisions such as major acquisitions, and hires, evaluates, and fires the top-level manager (
chief executive officer A chief executive officer (CEO), chief administrator, or just chief executive (CE), is one of a number of corporate executives in charge of managing an organization especially an independent legal entity such as a company A company, abbre ...
or CEO). The CEO typically hires other positions. However, board involvement in the hiring of other positions such as the
chief financial officer The chief financial officer (CFO) is the officer An officer is a person who has a position of authority In the fields of sociology Sociology is the study of society, human social behaviour, patterns of social relationships, social interac ...
(CFO) has increased. In 2013, a survey of over 160 CEOs and directors of public and private companies found that the top weaknesses of CEOs were "
mentoring Mentorship is the influence, guidance, or direction given by a mentor. In an organizational setting, a mentor influences the personal and professional growth of a mentee. Most traditional mentorships involve having senior employees mentor more ...
skills" and "board engagement", and 10% of companies never evaluated the CEO. The board may also have certain employees (e.g.,
internal auditorAn internal auditor is an auditorAn auditor is a person or a firm appointed by a company A company, abbreviated as co., is a Legal personality, legal entity representing an association of people, whether Natural person, natural, Legal personality ...
s) report to them or directly hire independent contractors; for example, the board (through the audit committee) typically selects the
auditorAn auditor is a person or a firm appointed by a company A company, abbreviated as co., is a Legal personality, legal entity representing an association of people, whether Natural person, natural, Legal personality, legal or a mixture of both, wit ...
. Helpful skills of top management vary by the type of organization but typically include a broad understanding of competition, world economies, and politics. In addition, the CEO is responsible for implementing and determining (within the board's framework) the broad policies of the organization. Executive management accomplishes the day-to-day details, including: instructions for preparation of department budgets, procedures, schedules; appointment of middle level executives such as department managers; coordination of departments; media and governmental relations; and
shareholder A shareholder (in the United States often referred to as stockholder) of a corporation A corporation is an organization—usually a group of people or a company—authorized by the State (polity), state to act as a single entity (a legal en ...
communication.


Middle

Consist of
general manager#REDIRECT General manager A general manager (GM) is an executive who has overall responsibility for managing both the revenue In accounting, revenue is the income or increase in net assets that an entity has from its normal activities (in the cas ...
s, branch managers and department managers. They are accountable to the top management for their department's function. They devote more time to organizational and directional functions. Their roles can be emphasized as executing organizational plans in conformance with the company's policies and the objectives of the top management, they define and discuss information and policies from top management to lower management, and most importantly they inspire and provide guidance to lower-level managers towards better performance. Middle management is the midway management of a categorized organization, being secondary to the senior management but above the deepest levels of operational members. An operational manager may be well-thought-out by middle management or may be categorized as non-management operate, liable to the policy of the specific organization. The efficiency of the middle level is vital in any organization since they bridge the gap between top level and bottom level staffs. Their functions include: * Design and implement effective group and inter-group work and information systems. * Define and monitor group-level performance indicators. * Diagnose and resolve problems within and among workgroups. * Design and implement reward systems that support cooperative behavior. They also make decision and share ideas with top managers.


Lower

Lower managers include
supervisor A supervisor, or also known as foreman, boss, overseer, facilitator, monitor, area coordinator, or sometimes gaffer, is the job title of a low level management position that is primarily based on authority over a worker or charge of a workplace. A ...
s, section leaders, forepersons and team leaders. They focus on controlling and directing regular employees. They are usually responsible for assigning employees' tasks, guiding and supervising employees on day-to-day activities, ensuring the quality and quantity of production and/or service, making recommendations and suggestions to employees on their work, and channeling employee concerns that they cannot resolve to mid-level managers or other administrators. First-level or "front line" managers also act as role models for their employees. In some types of work, front line managers may also do some of the same tasks that employees do, at least some of the time. For example, in some restaurants, the front line managers will also serve customers during a very busy period of the day. Front-line managers typically provide: * Training for new employees * Basic supervision * Motivation * Performance feedback and guidance Some front-line managers may also provide career planning for employees who aim to rise within the organization.


Training

Colleges and universities around the world offer bachelor's degrees, graduate degrees, diplomas and certificates in management, generally within their colleges of business, business schools or faculty of management but also in other related departments. In the 2010s, there has been an increase in online management education and training in the form of electronic
educational technology Educational technology (commonly abbreviated as EduTech, or EdTech) is the combined use of computer hardware, software, and Education sciences, educational theory and practice to facilitate learning. When referred to with its abbreviation, EdTech ...
(also called e-learning). Online education has increased the accessibility of management training to people who do not live near a college or university, or who cannot afford to travel to a city where such training is available.


Requirement

While some professions require academic credentials in order to work in the profession (e.g., law, medicine, engineering, which require, respectively the
Bachelor of Law Bachelor of Laws ( la, Legum Baccalaureus; LL.B.) is an undergraduate law degree in the United Kingdom and most common law jurisdictionsexcept the United States The United States of America (USA), commonly known as the United States (U.S ...
,
Doctor of Medicine Doctor of Medicine (abbreviated M.D., from the Latin Latin (, or , ) is a classical language belonging to the Italic languages, Italic branch of the Indo-European languages. Latin was originally spoken in the area around Rome, known as Latium. ...
and
Bachelor of Engineering A Bachelor of Engineering (abbreviated as B.E., B.Eng. or B.A.I. in Latin form) is a first professional undergraduate Undergraduate education is education conducted after secondary education and prior to postgraduate education. It typically in ...
degrees), management and administration positions do not necessarily require the completion of academic degrees. Some well-known senior executives in the US who did not complete a degree include
Steve Jobs Steven Paul Jobs (; February 24, 1955 – October 5, 2011), known as Steve Jobs, was an American business magnate, industrial designer, investor, and media proprietor. He was the chairman, the chief executive officer (CEO), and a co-founder of ...

Steve Jobs
,
Bill Gates William Henry Gates III (born October 28, 1955) is an American business magnate A business magnate is someone who has achieved great success and enormous wealth through the ownership of multiple lines of enterprise. The term characterist ...
and
Mark Zuckerberg Mark Elliot Zuckerberg (; born ) is an American media magnate, internet entrepreneur, and Philanthropy, philanthropist. He is known for co-founding Meta Platforms, Meta Platforms, Inc. (formerly named Facebook, Inc.) and serves as its chairma ...
. However, many managers and executives have completed some type of business or management training, such as a
Bachelor of CommerceA Bachelor of Commerce (abbreviated BComm or BCom; also, ''baccalaureates commercii'') is an undergraduate degree in business, usually awarded in Canada, Australia, India, Sri Lanka, Pakistan, Ireland, New Zealand, Ghana, South Africa, Myanmar, Egypt ...
or a
Master of Business Administration The Master of Business Administration (MBA; also Master's in Business Administration) degree originated in the United States in the early 20th century when the country industrialized and companies sought scientific management. The core courses ...
degree. Some major organizations, including companies, non-profit organizations and governments, require applicants to managerial or executive positions to hold at minimum
bachelor's degree A bachelor's degree (from Middle Latin ''baccalaureus'') or baccalaureate (from New Latin, Modern Latin ''baccalaureatus'') is an Undergraduate degree, undergraduate academic degree awarded by colleges and universities upon completion of a cours ...
in a field related to administration or management, or in the case of business jobs, a Bachelor of Commerce or a similar degree.


Undergraduate

At the undergraduate level, the most common business programs are the
Bachelor of Business Administration The Bachelor of Business Administration (BBA) is a bachelor's degree A bachelor's degree (from Middle Latin ''baccalaureus'') or baccalaureate (from Modern Latin ''baccalaureatus'') is an undergraduate academic degree awarded by colleges a ...
(BBA) and
Bachelor of CommerceA Bachelor of Commerce (abbreviated BComm or BCom; also, ''baccalaureates commercii'') is an undergraduate degree in business, usually awarded in Canada, Australia, India, Sri Lanka, Pakistan, Ireland, New Zealand, Ghana, South Africa, Myanmar, Egypt ...
(B.Com.). These typically comprise a four-year program designed to give students an overview of the role of managers in planning and directing within an organization. Course topics include accounting, financial management, statistics, marketing, strategy, and other related areas. There are many other undergraduate degrees that include the study of management, such as
Bachelor of Arts Bachelor of Arts (BA or AB; from the Latin Latin (, or , ) is a classical language belonging to the Italic languages, Italic branch of the Indo-European languages. Latin was originally spoken in the area around Rome, known as Latium. Throug ...
degrees with a major in
business administration Business administration (also known as business management) is the administration of a commercial enterprise. It includes all aspects of overseeing and supervising business operations. From the point of view of management Management (or man ...
or management and Bachelor of Public Administration (B.P.A), a degree designed for individuals aiming to work as
bureaucrat A bureaucrat is a member of a bureaucracy The term bureaucracy () may refer both to a body of non-elected governing officials (bureaucrats A bureaucrat is a member of a bureaucracy and can compose the administration of any organization of ...

bureaucrat
s in the
government jobs The public sector (also called the state sector) is the part of the economy composed of both public services and public enterprises. Public sectors include public goods and governmental services such as the military, law enforcement, infrastructu ...
. Many colleges and universities also offer certificates and diplomas in business administration or management, which typically require one to two years of full-time study. Note that to manage technological areas, one often needs an undergraduate degree in a STEM area.


Graduate

At the graduate level students aiming at careers as managers or executives may choose to specialize in major subareas of management or business administration such as
entrepreneurship Entrepreneurship is the creation or extraction of value. With this definition, entrepreneurship is viewed as change, generally entailing risk beyond what is normally encountered in starting a business, which may include other values than simply e ...
,
human resources Human resources is the set of people who make up the workforce of an organization An organization, or organisation ( Commonwealth English; see spelling differences), is an entity – such as a company, an institution, or an associ ...

human resources
,
international business International business refers to the trade of goods, services, technology, capital and/or knowledge across national borders and at a global or transnational scale. It involves cross-border transactions of goods and services between two or more ...
,
organizational behavior Organizational behavior (OB) or organisational behaviour is the: "study of human behavior Human behavior is the potential and expressed capacity (Energy (psychological), mentally, Physical activity, physically, and Social actions, socially ...
,
organizational theory A theory involves concepts or construct Construct, Constructs or constructs may refer to: * Construct (information technology), a collection of logic components forming an interactive agent or environment ** Language construct * Construct (album ...
,
strategic management In the field of management Management (or managing) is the administration of an organization, whether it is a business, a not-for-profit organization, or government body. Management includes the activities of setting the strategy of an ...
,
accounting Accounting or Accountancy is the measurement ' Measurement is the number, numerical quantification (science), quantification of the variable and attribute (research), attributes of an object or event, which can be used to compare with other obj ...
,
corporate finance Corporate finance is the area of finance Finance is the study of financial institutions, financial markets and how they operate within the financial system. It is concerned with the creation and management of money and investments. Savers an ...
, entertainment, global management,
healthcare management Health administration, healthcare administration, healthcare management or hospital management is the field relating to leadership, management, and administration of public health Public health has been defined as "the science and art of Pre ...
,
investment management Investment management is the professional asset management of various securities A security is a tradable financial asset. The term commonly refers to any form of financial instrument Finance is the study of financial institutions, fin ...
, sustainability and
real estate Real estate is property consisting of land and the buildings on it, along with its natural resources such as crops, minerals or water; immovable property of this nature; an interest vested in this (also) an item of real property, (more general ...

real estate
. A
Master of Business Administration The Master of Business Administration (MBA; also Master's in Business Administration) degree originated in the United States in the early 20th century when the country industrialized and companies sought scientific management. The core courses ...
(MBA) is the most popular professional degree at the master's level and can be obtained from many universities in the United States. MBA programs provide further education in management and leadership for graduate students. Other master's degrees in business and management include
Master of Management The Master of Management (MM, MBM,MIM, MMgt) is a post-graduate master’s degree awarded to students who normally complete a one- to two-year program of graduate level coursework in business management at an accredited academic institution. A ...
(MM) and the
Master of Science A Master of Science ( la, Magisterii Scientiae; abbreviated MS, M.S., MSc, M.Sc., SM, S.M., ScM or Sc.M.) is a master's degree A master's degree (from Latin ) is an academic degree awarded by University, universities or colleges upon completio ...
(M.Sc.) in business administration or management, which is typically taken by students aiming to become researchers or professors. There are also specialized master's degrees in administration for individuals aiming at careers outside of business, such as the
Master of Public Administration The Master of Public Administration (M.P.Adm., M.P.A., or MPA) is a professional graduate degree in public administration, similar to the Master of Business Administration but with an emphasis on the issues of public services. Overview The M ...
(MPA) degree (also offered as a
Master of Arts A Master of Arts ( la, Magister Artium or ''Artium Magister''; abbreviated MA or AM) is the holder of a master's degree A master's degree (from Latin ) is an academic degree awarded by University, universities or colleges upon completion of a co ...
in
Public Administration Public administration is the implementation of public policy, government policy and also an academic discipline that studies this implementation and prepares civil servant, civil employees for working in the public service. As a "field of inquiry ...
in some universities), for students aiming to become managers or executives in the public service and the
Master of Health Administration The Master of Health Administration (MHA or M.H.A.), or Master of Healthcare Administration, is a master's-level professional degreeA professional degree, formerly known in the US as a first professional degree, is a degree that prepares someone to ...
, for students aiming to become managers or executives in the health care and hospital sector. Management doctorates are the most advanced
terminal degree A terminal degree is a university A university ( la, universitas, 'a whole') is an educational institution, institution of higher education, higher (or Tertiary education, tertiary) education and research which awards academic degrees in vari ...
s in the field of business and management. Most individuals obtaining management doctorates take the programs to obtain the training in research methods, statistical analysis and writing academic papers that they will need to seek careers as researchers, senior consultants and/or professors in business administration or management. There are three main types of management doctorates: the
Doctor of ManagementThe Doctor of Management (DM) is a professional doctorate with a degree focus in management, leadership, and organizational topics. The intention of the DM is to advance the skills of professionals in research, analysis, theory, and practice in orga ...
(D.M.), the
Doctor of Business Administration The Doctor of Business Administration (commonly abbreviated as D.B.A., DBA, DrBA, or Dr.B.A) is a research doctorate awarded on the basis of advanced study, examinations, project work and research in business administration. The D.B.A. is a terminal ...
(D.B.A.), and the
Ph.D. A Doctor of Philosophy (PhD, Ph.D., or DPhil; Latin Latin (, or , ) is a classical language belonging to the Italic languages, Italic branch of the Indo-European languages. Latin was originally spoken in the area around Rome, known as La ...
in Business Administration or Management. In the 2010s, doctorates in business administration and management are available with many specializations.


Good practices

While management trends can change so fast, the long-term trend in management has been defined by a market embracing diversity and a rising service industry. Managers are currently being trained to encourage greater equality for minorities and women in the workplace, by offering increased flexibility in working hours, better retraining, and innovative (and usually industry-specific) performance markers. Managers destined for the service sector are being trained to use unique measurement techniques, better worker support and more charismatic leadership styles. Human resources finds itself increasingly working with management in a training capacity to help collect management data on the success (or failure) of management actions with employees.


Evidence-based management

Evidence-based management Evidence-based management (EBMgt) is an emerging movement to explicitly use the current, best evidence in management Management (or managing) is the administration of an organization, whether it is a business, a not-for-profit organization, o ...
is an emerging movement to use the current, best evidence in management and
decision-making In psychology, decision-making (also spelled decision making and decisionmaking) is regarded as the Cognition, cognitive process resulting in the selection of a belief or a course of action among several possible alternative options, it could be ...
. It is part of the larger movement towards
evidence-based practices Evidence-based practice (EBP) is the idea that occupational practices ought to be based on scientific evidence Scientific evidence is evidence Evidence, broadly construed, is anything presented in support of an assertion, because evident t ...
. Evidence-based management entails managerial decisions and organizational practices informed by the best available evidence. As with other evidence-based practice, this is based on the three principles of: 1) published peer-reviewed (often in management or social science journals) research evidence that bears on whether and why a particular management practice works; 2) judgement and experience from contextual management practice, to understand the organization and interpersonal dynamics in a situation and determine the risks and benefits of available actions; and 3) the preferences and values of those affected.


History

Some see management as a late-modern (in the sense of late
modernity Modernity, a topic in the humanities and social sciences, is both a historical period (the modern era) and the ensemble of particular socio-cultural norms, attitudes and practices that arose in the wake of the Renaissance The Renaissance ...

modernity
) conceptualization. On those terms it cannot have a pre-modern history – only harbingers (such as stewards). Others, however, detect management-like thought among ancient
Sumer Sumer ()The name is from AkkadianAkkadian or Accadian may refer to: * The Akkadian language Akkadian ( ''akkadû'', ''ak-ka-du-u2''; logogram: ''URIKI'')John Huehnergard & Christopher Woods, "Akkadian and Eblaite", ''The Cambridge Encyclo ...

Sumer
ian traders and the builders of the pyramids of
ancient Egypt Ancient Egypt was a civilization of Ancient history, ancient North Africa, concentrated along the lower reaches of the Nile, Nile River, situated in the place that is now the country Egypt. Ancient Egyptian civilization followed prehistoric ...

ancient Egypt
. Slave-owners through the centuries faced the problems of exploiting/motivating a dependent but sometimes unenthusiastic or recalcitrant workforce, but many pre-industrial
enterprises
enterprises
, given their small scale, did not feel compelled to face the issues of management systematically. However,
innovation 190px, Thomas Edison with phonograph. Edison was one of the most prolific inventors in history, holding List of Edison patents, 1,093 U.S. patents in his name. Innovation is the practical implementation of ideas that result in the introduction ...

innovation
s such as the spread of
Arabic numerals Arabic numerals are the ten numerical digit A numerical digit (often shortened to just digit) is a single symbol used alone (such as "2") or in combinations (such as "25"), to represent numbers in a Positional notation, positional numeral sy ...
(5th to 15th centuries) and the codification of double-entry book-keeping (1494) provided
tools A tool is an object that can extend an individual's ability to modify features of the surrounding environment. Although many animals use tool use by animals, simple tools, only human beings, whose use of stone tools dates back Paleolithic, hund ...
for management assessment, planning and control. * An organisation is more stable if members have the right to express their differences and solve their conflicts within it. * While one person can begin an organisation, "it is lasting when it is left in the care of many and when many desire to maintain it". * A weak manager can follow a strong one, but not another weak one, and maintain authority. * A manager seeking to change an established organization "should retain at least a shadow of the ancient customs". With the changing workplaces of industrial revolutions in the 18th and 19th centuries, military theory and practice contributed approaches to managing the newly popular factory, factories. Given the scale of most commercial operations and the lack of mechanized record-keeping and recording before the industrial revolution, it made sense for most ownership, owners of enterprises in those times to carry out management functions by and for themselves. But with growing size and complexity of organizations, a distinction between owners (individuals, industrial dynasties or groups of
shareholder A shareholder (in the United States often referred to as stockholder) of a corporation A corporation is an organization—usually a group of people or a company—authorized by the State (polity), state to act as a single entity (a legal en ...
s) and day-to-day managers (independent specialists in planning and control) gradually became more common.


Early writing

The field of management originated in ancient China,Ewan Ferlie, Laurence E. Lynn, Christopher Pollitt (2005) ''The Oxford Handbook of Public Management'', p.30. including possibly the first highly centralized Bureaucracy, bureaucratic state, and the earliest (by the second century BC) example of an meritocracy, administration based on merit through Imperial examination, testing.Kazin, Edwards, and Rothman (2010), 142. ''One of the oldest examples of a merit-based civil service system existed' in the imperial bureaucracy of China.'' * * * Some theorists have cited :Ancient military books, ancient military texts as providing lessons for civilian managers. For example, Chinese general Sun Tzu in his 6th-century BC work ''The Art of War'' recommends (when re-phrased in modern terminology) being aware of and acting on strengths and weaknesses of both a manager's organization and a foe's. The writings of influential Chinese Legalist philosopher Shen Buhai may be considered to embody a rare premodern example of abstract theory of administration. American philosopher Herrlee G. Creel and other scholars find the influence of Chinese administration in Europe by the 12th century. Thomas Taylor Meadows, Britain's consul in Guangzhou, argued in his ''Desultory Notes on the Government and People of China'' (1847) that "the long duration of the Chinese empire is solely and altogether owing to the good government which consists in the advancement of men of talent and merit only," and that the British must reform their civil service by making the institution meritocratic. Influenced by the ancient Chinese imperial examination, the Northcote–Trevelyan Report of 1854 recommended that recruitment should be on the basis of merit determined through competitive examination, candidates should have a solid general education to enable inter-departmental transfers, and promotion should be through achievement rather than "preferment, patronage, or purchase". This led to implementation of Her Majesty's Civil Service as a systematic, meritocratic civil service bureaucracy. Like the British, the development of French bureaucracy was influenced by the Chinese system. Voltaire claimed that the Chinese had "perfected moral science" and François Quesnay advocated an economic and political system modeled after that of the Chinese. French civil service examinations adopted in the late 19th century were also heavily based on general cultural studies. These features have been likened to the earlier Chinese model. Various ancient and medieval civilizations produced "mirrors for princes" books, which aimed to advise new monarchs on how to govern. Plato described job specialization in 350 BC, and Alfarabi listed several leadership traits in AD 900. Other examples include the Indian ''Arthashastra'' by Chanakya (written around 300 BC), and ''The Prince'' by Italian author Niccolò Machiavelli (c. 1515). Written in 1776 by Adam Smith, a Scotland, Scottish Ethics, moral philosopher, ''The Wealth of Nations'' discussed efficient organization of work through division of labour. Smith described how changes in processes could boost productivity in the manufacture of pin (device), pins. While individuals could produce 200 pins per day, Smith analyzed the steps involved in manufacture and, with 10 specialists, enabled production of 48,000 pins per day.


19th century

Classical economists such as Adam Smith (1723–1790) and John Stuart Mill (1806–1873) provided a theoretical background to resource allocation, production (economics), and pricing issues. About the same time, innovators like Eli Whitney (1765–1825), James Watt (1736–1819), and Matthew Boulton (1728–1809) developed elements of technical production such as standardization, quality control, quality-control procedures, cost accounting, cost-accounting, interchangeability of parts, and plan, work-planning. Many of these aspects of management existed in the pre-1861 slave-based sector of the US economy. That environment saw 4 million people, as the contemporary usages had it, "managed" in profitable quasi-mass production before wage slavery eclipsed chattel slavery. Salaried managers as an identifiable group first became prominent in the late 19th century. As large corporations began to overshadow small family businesses the need for personnel management positions became more necessary. Businesses grew into large corporations and the need for clerks, bookkeepers, secretaries and managers expanded. The demand for trained managers led college and university administrators to consider and move forward with plans to create the first schools of business on their campuses.


20th century

At the turn of the twentieth century the need for skilled and trained managers had become increasingly apparent. The demand occurred as personnel departments began to expand rapidly. In 1915, less than one in twenty manufacturing firms had a dedicated personnel department. By 1929 that number had grown to over one-third. Formal management education became standardized at colleges and universities. Colleges and universities capitalized on the needs of corporations by forming business schools and corporate placement departments. This shift toward formal business education marked the creation of a corporate elite in the US. By about 1900 one finds managers trying to place their theories on what they regarded as a thoroughly scientific basis (see scientism for perceived limitations of this belief). Examples include Henry R. Towne's ''Science of management'' in the 1890s, Frederick Winslow Taylor's ''The Principles of Scientific Management'' (1911), Lillian Moller Gilbreth, Lillian Gilbreth's ''Psychology of Management'' (1914), Frank Bunker Gilbreth, Frank and Lillian Moller Gilbreth, Lillian Gilbreth's ''Applied motion study'' (1917), and Henry L. Gantt's charts (1910s). J. Duncan wrote the first college management textbook in 1911. In 1912 Yoichi Ueno introduced Taylorism to Japan and became the first management consultant of the "Japanese management culture, Japanese management style". His son Ichiro Ueno pioneered Japanese quality assurance. The first comprehensive theories of management appeared around 1920. The
Harvard Business School Harvard Business School (HBS) is the graduate Graduate refers to someone who has been the subject of a graduation, namely, someone who has completed the requirements of an academic degree. Education * Graduate, an alumnus * Graduate diploma, ...
offered the first
Master of Business Administration The Master of Business Administration (MBA; also Master's in Business Administration) degree originated in the United States in the early 20th century when the country industrialized and companies sought scientific management. The core courses ...
degree (MBA) in 1921. People like
Henri Fayol Henri Fayol (29 July 1841 – 19 November 1925) was a French mining engineer, mining executive, author and director of mines who developed a general theory of business administration that is often called Fayolism Fayolism was a theory of managemen ...
(1841–1925) and Alexander Hamilton Church, Alexander Church (1866–1936) described the various branches of management and their inter-relationships. In the early 20th century, people like Ordway Tead (1891–1973), Walter Dill Scott, Walter Scott (1869–1955) and J. Mooney applied the principles of psychology to management. Other writers, such as Elton Mayo (1880–1949), Mary Follett, Mary Parker Follett (1868–1933), Chester Barnard (1886–1961), Max Weber (1864–1920), who saw what he called the "administrator" as
bureaucrat A bureaucrat is a member of a bureaucracy The term bureaucracy () may refer both to a body of non-elected governing officials (bureaucrats A bureaucrat is a member of a bureaucracy and can compose the administration of any organization of ...

bureaucrat
, Rensis Likert (1903–1981), and Chris Argyris (born 1923) approached the phenomenon of management from a sociology, sociological perspective. The 1930s and 1940s saw the development of a militarization trend in management in parts of Eurasia – both the NKVD (in the Soviet Union) and the Schutzstaffel , SS (in the Greater Germanic Reich), for example, managed labor camps as industrial enterprises using slave labor supervised by uniformed cadres. Military habits persisted in some management circles.
Peter Drucker Peter Ferdinand Drucker (; ; November 19, 1909 – November 11, 2005) was an Austrian-American management consultant, educator, and author, whose writings contributed to the philosophical and practical foundations of the modern business corp ...
(1909–2005) wrote one of the earliest books on applied management: ''Concept of the Corporation'' (published in 1946). It resulted from Alfred Sloan (chairman of General Motors Corporation, General Motors until 1956) commissioning a study of the organisation. Drucker went on to write 39 books, many in the same vein. H. Dodge, Ronald Fisher (1890–1962), and Thornton C. Fry introduced statistical techniques into management-studies. In the 1940s, Patrick Maynard Stuart Blackett, Patrick Blackett worked in the development of the applied mathematics, applied-mathematics science of operations research, initially for military operations. Operations research, sometimes known as "management science" (but distinct from Taylor's scientific management), attempts to take a science, scientific approach to solving decision-problems, and can apply directly to multiple management problems, particularly in the areas of logistics and operations. Some of the later 20th-century developments include the theory of constraints (introduced in 1984), management by objectives (systematised in 1954), business process reengineering, re-engineering (early 1990s), Six Sigma (1986), management by walking around (1970s), the Viable system model (1972), and various information technology, information-technology-driven theories such as agile software development (so-named from 2001), as well as group-management theories such as Cog's Ladder (1972) and the notion of Tom Peters, "thriving on chaos" (1987). As the general recognition of managers as a class solidified during the 20th century and gave perceived practitioners of the art/science of management a certain amount of prestige, so the way opened for business philosophies and popular management theories, popularised systems of management ideas to peddle their wares. In this context many management fads may have had more to do with pop psychology than with scientific theories of management. Business management includes the following branches: # Finance, financial management # human resource management # Management cybernetics # information technology management (responsible for management information systems ) # marketing management # operations management and Manufacturing, production management #
strategic management In the field of management Management (or managing) is the administration of an organization, whether it is a business, a not-for-profit organization, or government body. Management includes the activities of setting the strategy of an ...


21st century

In the 21st century observers find it increasingly difficult to subdivide management into functional categories in this way. More and more processes simultaneously involve several categories. Instead, one tends to think in terms of the various processes, tasks, and objects subject to management. Branches of management theory also exist relating to Non-profit organization, nonprofits and to government: such as public administration, public management, and educational management. Further, management programs related to civil society, civil-society organizations have also spawned programs in nonprofit management and social entrepreneurship. Note that many of the assumptions made by management have come under attack from business ethics, business-ethics viewpoints, critical management studies, and anti-corporate activism. As one consequence, workplace democracy (sometimes referred to as Workers' self-management) has become both more common and more advocated, in some places distributing all management functions among workers, each of whom takes on a portion of the work. However, these models predate any current political issue, and may occur more naturally than does a command hierarchy. All management embraces to some degree a democratic principle—in that in the long term, the majority of workers must support management. Otherwise, they leave to find other work or go on strike. Despite the move toward workplace democracy, command-and-control organization structures remain commonplace as ''de facto'' organization structures. Indeed, the entrenched nature of command-and-control is evident in the way that recent layoffs have been conducted with management ranks affected far less than employees at the lower levels. In some cases, management has even rewarded itself with bonuses after laying off lower-level workers. According to leadership-academic Manfred F.R. Kets de Vries, a contemporary senior-management team will almost inevitably have some personality disorders.


Nature of work

In profitable organizations, management's primary function is the satisfaction of a range of Stakeholder (corporate), stakeholders. This typically involves making a profit (for the shareholders), creating valued products at a reasonable cost (for customers), and providing great employment opportunities for employees. In case of nonprofit management, one of the main functions is, keeping the faith of donors. In most models of management and governance, shareholders vote for the
board of directors A board of directors is a group of people who jointly supervise the activities of an organization An organization, or organisation ( Commonwealth English; see spelling differences), is an entity – such as a company, an institution, ...
, and the board then hires senior management. Some organizations have experimented with other methods (such as employee-voting models) of selecting or reviewing managers, but this is rare.


Topics


Basics

According to Henri Fayol, Fayol, management operates through five basic functions: planning, organizing, coordinating, commanding, and controlling. * Planning: Deciding what needs to happen in the future and generating plans for action (deciding in advance). * Organizing (or staffing): Making sure the human and nonhuman resources are put into place. * Commanding (or leading): Determining what must be done in a situation and getting people to do it. * Coordinating: Creating a structure through which an organization's goals can be accomplished. * Controlling: Checking progress against plans.


Basic roles

* Interpersonal: roles that involve coordination and interaction with employees. Figurehead, leader * Informational: roles that involve handling, sharing, and analyzing information. Nerve centre, disseminator * Decision: roles that require decision-making. Entrepreneur, negotiator, allocator, disturbance handler


Skills

Management skills include: * political: used to build a power base and to establish personal network, connections. * conceptual: used to analyze complex situations. * interpersonal: used to communicate, motivate, mentor and delegate. * diagnostic: ability to mental image, visualize appropriate responses to a situation. * leadership: ability to communicate a vision and inspire people to embrace that vision. ** cross-cultural leadership: ability to understand the effects of culture on leadership style. * technical: expertise in one's particular functional area. * behavioral: perception towards others, conflict resolution, time-management, self-improvement, stress management and resilience, patience, clear communication.


Implementation of policies and strategies

* All policies and strategies must be discussed with all managerial personnel and staff. * Managers must understand where and how they can implement their policies and strategies. * An action plan must be devised for each department. * Policies and strategies must be reviewed regularly. * Contingency plans must be devised in case the environment changes. * Top-level managers should carry out regular progress assessments. * The business requires team spirit and a good environment. * The missions, objectives, strengths and weaknesses of each department must be analyzed to determine their roles in achieving the business's mission. * The forecasting method develops a reliable picture of the business' future environment. * A planning unit must be created to ensure that all plans are consistent and that policies and strategies are aimed at achieving the same mission and objectives.


Policies and strategies in the planning process

* They give mid and lower-level managers a good idea of the future plans for each department in an organization. * A framework is created whereby plans and decisions are made. * Mid and lower-level management may add their own plans to the business's strategies.


See also

* Engineering management * Outline of business management


References


External links

* * * {{Authority control Management, Management occupations, Leadership Organizational theory Majority–minority relations