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In
Judaism Judaism is an Abrahamic religions, Abrahamic, monotheism, monotheistic, and ethnic religion comprising the collective religious, cultural, and legal tradition and civilization of the Jewish people. It has its roots as an organized religion ...
,
angel An angel is a supernatural The supernatural encompasses supposed phenomena or entities that are not subject to the . This term is attributed to , such as s, s, , and . It also includes claimed abilities embodied in or provided by such ...

angel
s ( he, מַלְאָךְ ''mal’akh'', plural: ''mal’akhim'') are
supernatural The supernatural encompasses supposed phenomena or entities that are not subject to the Scientific law, laws of nature. This term is attributed to non-physical entity, non-physical entities, such as angels, demons, gods, and ghost, spirits. It ...

supernatural
beings that appear throughout the
Tanakh The Hebrew Bible or Tanakh (; Hebrew Hebrew (, , or ) is a Northwest Semitic languages, Northwest Semitic language of the Afroasiatic languages, Afroasiatic language family. Historically, it is regarded as the language of the Israelites, ...
(
Hebrew Bible The Hebrew Bible or Tanakh (; Hebrew Hebrew (, , or ) is a Northwest Semitic languages, Northwest Semitic language of the Afroasiatic languages, Afroasiatic language family. Historically, it is regarded as the language of the Israelites ...

Hebrew Bible
),
rabbinic literature Rabbinic literature, in its broadest sense, is the entire spectrum of rabbi A rabbi is a spiritual leader or religious teacher in Judaism. One becomes a rabbi by being ordained by another rabbi, following a course of study of Jewish texts ...
,
apocrypha Apocrypha (Gr. ἀπόκρυφος, ‘the hidden hings) The biblical Books received by the early Church as part of the Greek version of the Old Testament, but not included in the Hebrew Bible, being excluded by the non-Hellenistic Jews fro ...
and
pseudepigrapha Pseudepigrapha (also :wikt:anglicized, anglicized as "pseudepigraph" or "pseudepigraphs") are false attribution, falsely attributed works, texts whose claimed author is not the true author, or a work whose real author attributed it to a figure ...
, and traditional
Jewish liturgy Jewish prayer ( he, תְּפִלָּה, ; plural ; yi, תּפֿלה, tfile , plural ; Yinglish: davening from Yiddish 'pray') is the prayer recitation that forms part of the observance of Rabbinic Judaism. These prayers, often with ...
as agents of the
God of IsraelGod of Israel may refer to: * God in Judaism, God as understood in Jewish theological discussion. * Yahweh, the national god of the ancient kingdoms of Israel and Judah. * Tetragrammaton, the four Hebrew letters YHWH as the name of God, and various ...
. They are categorized in different
hierarchies A hierarchy (from the Greek: , from , 'president of sacred rites') is an arrangement of items (objects, names, values, categories, etc.) in which the items are represented as being "above", "below", or "at the same level as" one another. Hierarch ...
. Their essence is often associated with fire. The
Talmud The Talmud (; he, תַּלְמוּד ''Tálmūḏ'') is the central text of Rabbinic Judaism and the primary source of Jewish religious law (''halakha'') and Jewish theology. Until the advent of modernity, in nearly all Jewish communities, the ...

Talmud
describes their very essence as fire.


Etymology

Hebrew ''mal’akh'' () is the standard word for "messenger", both human and divine, in the
Tanakh The Hebrew Bible or Tanakh (; Hebrew Hebrew (, , or ) is a Northwest Semitic languages, Northwest Semitic language of the Afroasiatic languages, Afroasiatic language family. Historically, it is regarded as the language of the Israelites, ...
(Hebrew Bible), though it is rarely used for human messengers in Modern Hebrew as the latter is usually denoted by the term ''shaliyahh'' (). The noun derives from the verbal consonantal root ''l-’-k'' (), meaning specifically "to send with a message" and with time was substituted with more applicable ''sh-l-h''. In Biblical Hebrew this root is attested only in this noun and in the noun "Mel’akah" (), meaning "work", "occupation" or "craftsmanship". The morphological structure of the word ''mal’akh'' suggests that it is the ''maqtal'' form of the root denoting the tool or the means of performing it. The term ''Mal'akh'' therefore simply means the one who is sent, often translated as "messenger" when applied to humans; for instance, ''Mal’akh'' is the root of the name of the prophet
Malachi Malachi, Malachias, Malache or Mal'achi (; ) was the traditional writer of the Book of Malachi, the last book of the Neviim (Prophets) section in the Tanakh, Hebrew Bible. According to the 1897 Easton's Bible Dictionary, it is possible that Ma ...

Malachi
, whose name means "my messenger". In modern Hebrew, ''mal’akh'' is the general word for "angel"; it is also related to the words for "angel" in
Arabic Arabic (, ' or , ' or ) is a Semitic language The Semitic languages are a branch of the Afroasiatic language family originating in the Middle East The Middle East is a list of transcontinental countries, transcontinental region ...

Arabic
(''malak'' ),
Aramaic Aramaic (Classical Syriac The Syriac language (; syc, / '), also known as Syriac Aramaic (''Syrian Aramaic'', ''Syro-Aramaic'') and Classical Syriac (in its literary and liturgical form), is an Aramaic Aramaic (Classical Syriac ...
and Ethiopic.


In the Tanakh (Hebrew Bible)

The
Tanakh The Hebrew Bible or Tanakh (; Hebrew Hebrew (, , or ) is a Northwest Semitic languages, Northwest Semitic language of the Afroasiatic languages, Afroasiatic language family. Historically, it is regarded as the language of the Israelites, ...
reports that angels appeared to each of the
Patriarchs The highest-ranking bishop A bishop is an ordained, consecrated, or appointed member of the Clergy#Christianity, Christian clergy who is generally entrusted with a position of authority and oversight. Within the Catholic, Eastern Orthodox, Or ...
, to
Moses Moses he, מֹשֶׁה, ''Mōše''; also known as Moshe Rabbenu ( he, מֹשֶׁה רַבֵּנוּ "Moshe our Teacher"); syr, ܡܘܫܐ, ''Mūše''; ar, موسى '; el, Mωϋσῆς, ' () is considered the most important prophet in Judais ...

Moses
,
Joshua Joshua () or Yehoshua ( he, יְהוֹשֻׁעַ ''Yəhōšūaʿ'') ''Yēšūʿ''; syr, ܝܫܘܥ ܒܪ ܢܘܢ ''Yəšūʿ bar Nōn''; el, Ἰησοῦς, ar , يُوشَعُ ٱبْنُ نُونٍ '' Yūšaʿ ibn Nūn''; la, Iosue functioned ...

Joshua
, and numerous other figures. They appear to
Hagar Hagar ( he, הָגָר, ''Hāgār'', of uncertain origin; ar, هَاجَر ''Hājar''; gr, Ἁγάρ, ''Hagár''; la, Agar) is a biblical figure. According to the Book of Genesis The Book of Genesis,, "''Bərēšīṯ''", "In hebeginn ...
in
Genesis Genesis may refer to: Literature and comics * Genesis (DC Comics), a 1997 DC Comics crossover * Genesis (Marvel Comics), a Marvel Comics villain * Genesis, a fictional character from the ''Preacher (comics), Preacher'' comic-book series * ''Genes ...

Genesis
16:9, to Lot in Genesis 19:1, and to Abraham in Genesis 22:11, they ascend and descend
Jacob's Ladder#REDIRECT Jacob's Ladder Jacob's Ladder ( he, סֻלָּם יַעֲקֹב ) is a ladder leading to heaven that was featured in a dream the Patriarchs (Bible), biblical Patriarch Jacob had during his flight from his brother Esau in the Book of Ge ...

Jacob's Ladder
in Genesis 28:12 and appear to
Jacob Jacob (; ; ar, يَعْقُوب, Yaʿqūb; gr, Ἰακώβ, Iakṓb), later given the name Israel Israel (; he, יִשְׂרָאֵל, translit=Yīsrāʾēl; ar, إِسْرَائِيل, translit=ʾIsrāʾīl), officially the State ...

Jacob
again in Genesis 31:11–13.
God In monotheism, monotheistic thought, God is conceived of as the supreme being, creator deity, creator, and principal object of Faith#Religious views, faith.Richard Swinburne, Swinburne, R.G. "God" in Ted Honderich, Honderich, Ted. (ed)''The Oxfo ...
promises to send one to Moses in
Exodus Exodus or the Exodus may refer to: Religion *Book of Exodus, second book of the Hebrew Torah and the Christian Bible *The Exodus, the biblical story of the migration of the ancient Israelites from Egypt into Canaan Historical events * Jujuy E ...
33:2, and sends one to stand in the way of
Balaam Balaam (; , Standard Standard may refer to: Flags * Colours, standards and guidons * Standard (flag), a type of flag used for personal identification Norm, convention or requirement * Standard (metrology), an object that bears a defined r ...

Balaam
in
Numbers A number is a mathematical object A mathematical object is an abstract concept arising in mathematics. In the usual language of mathematics, an ''object'' is anything that has been (or could be) formally defined, and with which one may do deduc ...
22:31.
Isaiah Isaiah ( or ; he, , ''Yəšaʿyāhū'', "God God, in monotheistic thought, is conceived of as the supreme being, creator, and principal object of faith Faith, derived from Latin ''fides'' and Old French ''feid'', is confidence or trus ...

Isaiah
speaks of ''mal’ak panav'', "the angel of the presence" ("In all their affliction He was afflicted, and ''the angel of His presence'' saved them: in His love and in His pity He redeemed them; and He bore them, and carried them all the days of old") (
Isaiah Isaiah ( or ; he, , ''Yəšaʿyāhū'', "God God, in monotheistic thought, is conceived of as the supreme being, creator, and principal object of faith Faith, derived from Latin ''fides'' and Old French ''feid'', is confidence or trus ...
63:9). The
Book of Psalms The Book of Psalms ( or ; he, תְּהִלִּים, , lit. "praises"), commonly referred to simply as Psalms, the Psalter or "the Psalms", is the first book of the ("Writings"), the third section of the Tanakh The Hebrew Bible or Tanakh ...
says "For His angels will charge for you, to protect you in all your ways" (Psalms 91:11).


The angel of the and the origins of angels

The figure of "the angel of the " (Heb. ; ''mal’akh YHVH)'' has been perceived by generations of exegetes and interpreters as obscure and perplexing. Almost every appearance of this figure in the
Tanakh The Hebrew Bible or Tanakh (; Hebrew Hebrew (, , or ) is a Northwest Semitic languages, Northwest Semitic language of the Afroasiatic languages, Afroasiatic language family. Historically, it is regarded as the language of the Israelites, ...
complies to the following pattern: # The narration introduces the angel of the ; # He behaves as if he were a deity, e.g. promising fertility (Genesis 21:18), annihilating an army with a single blow (e.g. 2 Kings 19:32-36), or merely delivering a speech in which the angel presents himself as God (e.g. Exodus 3:2-4); # The interlocutors of this figure address and revere him in a way reserved exclusively to a deity. As such, the incident leaves the reader with the question whether it was an angel or a deity who had just appeared. There is a wide array of explanations striving to elucidate this confusion. The most widespread theological ones try to deal with the problem by introducing additional concepts: the angel might be an earthly manifestation of God, some kind of avatar of God himself. Another answer derives from cultural studies which argue that the ancient commissioners during their proclamations used the first person point of view and spoke as if they had been the consigner himself.


Angels and healing from impurity

There are instances in the Bible where angels have the ability to heal an individual from impurity, however, the question may arise whether seraphim are angels. For example, in the book of Isaiah, Isaiah sees seraphim praising the Lord. Their voices were so powerful that they make the pivots on the thresholds shake and filled the temple with smoke. (Isaiah 6: 3-4) All of this power made Isaiah feel unworthy and unclean so he cried out, "Woe is me! I am lost, for I am a man of unclean lips, and I live among a people of unclean lips; yet my eyes have seen the King, the of hosts!" (Isaiah 6:5) Then one of the seraphim flew to Isaiah and touched his mouth with a live coal that “had been taken from the altar with a pair of tongs.” Once the seraph had touched Isaiah's lips with the coal, he then said, “Now that this has touched your lips, your guilt has departed and your sin is blotted out.” (Isaiah 6: 6-7) In the Book of Zechariah, Joshua was standing before the angel of the Lord, and God. (Zechariah 3:3) He was “dressed in filthy clothes” when standing before them. The angel then commanded him to take off his filthy clothing and gave him “festal apparel” and a clean turban to put on. At the removal of Joshua's filthy clothing, the angel proclaimed, “See, I have taken your guilt away from you.” (Zechariah 3: 4-5) Thus, the removal of Joshua's filthy clothing was like healing him from his guilt.


Angels and prayer

In the Book of Zechariah, Zechariah hears from the Lord that He had been angry with his ancestors due to their evil deeds. He promised them that if they “return
d
d
to
im
im
e
e
would return to
hem A hem in sewing Sewing is the craft of fastening or attaching objects using stitches made with a sewing needle A sewing needle, used for hand- sewing, is a long slender tool with a pointed tip at one end and a hole (or ''eye'') at the oth ...

hem
” Then the angel of the Lord prayed to the Lord and said, “O Lord of hosts, how long will you withhold mercy from Jerusalem and the cities of Judah, with which you have been angry these seventy years?” Thus, the angel of the Lord prayed to God in order to petition for the people (Zechariah 1:12).


Angels as warriors

In the Bible there are some references to angels acting as warriors, and protectors of all that is good. One of these references is The Book of Daniel which contains four apocalyptic visions. However, in Daniel 10:13, it makes reference to a sort of battle between the prince of the kingdom of Persia and the speaker who is believed to be Gabriel. Here Gabriel tells Daniel that the chief of princes, Michael, helped him in the opposition he was facing from the prince of the kingdom of Persia. Thus, both angels are acting as warriors for the good against the bad opposition from the prince of the kingdom of Persia. In addition, in Daniel 12:1, the speaker, Gabriel says that the angel Michael is the protector of the Israelite people and is a great prince.


Angels as messengers

In many passages from the Tanakh, angels are utilized as messengers; indeed, there is no specific Hebrew equivalent for the English word “angel”. Angels seem to have the appearance of ordinary humans; they are typically men and (unlike
seraphim A seraph (, "the burning one"; plural seraphim ) is a type of celestial or heavenly being originating in Ancient Judaism. The term plays a role in subsequent Judaism, Christianity, and Islam. Tradition places seraphim in the highest rank in Ch ...

seraphim
), have no wings. The presence of an angelic messenger versus a human messenger must be determined by the context of the passage.Erik Eynikel, “The Angel in Samson’s Birth Narrative,” in Angels: The Concept Of Celestial Beings-Origins, Development And Reception, ed. Friedrich V. Reiterer et al. (Walter de Gruyter: Berlin, 2007), 117 Regardless, messenger angels are a highly important part of preserving and strengthening the link, as well as necessary distance, of God to humans. The nature of the knowledge that angelic messengers carry is always heavenly; that is to say, it is divine, and only by sanction from God can it be transmitted to humans, and only for necessary reasons. When an angel delivers the knowledge of God, his own identity is effaced by that of his Lord; that is, he speaks directly for God.Erik Eynikel, “The Angel in Samson’s Birth Narrative,” in Angels: The Concept Of Celestial Beings-Origins, Development And Reception, ed. Friedrich V. Reiterer et al. (Walter de Gruyter: Berlin, 2007), 110-121 Examples of this role can be seen in numerous famous passages from the Old Testament, including the three mysterious men in the story of Abraham and the destruction of Sodom in Genesis 18:1-19:23, as well as the angel who informs Samson's mother of the nature of the baby she carries in Judges 13:3-5. In these examples, the angels are disguised, their identities unimportant in relation to the heavenly magnitude of the knowledge they possess; they are entirely defined by their jobs.


Angels as teachers in Jewish apocalyptic literature

Angels in the roles of teachers become especially important in Jewish apocalyptic literature, in such books as
Daniel Daniel is a masculine Masculinity (also called manhood or manliness) is a set of attributes, behavior Behavior (American English) or behaviour (British English; American and British English spelling differences#-our, -or, see spelling ...
, Zechariah, and
4 Ezra 2 Esdras (also called 4 Esdras, Latin Esdras, or Latin Ezra) is the name of an apocalyptic book in some English translations of the Bible, English versions of the Bible. Tradition ascribes it to Ezra, a sofer, scribe and kohen, priest of the , ...
, which feature enigmatic and terrifying prophetic visions experienced by unknowing humans who need heavenly guidance to understand what they have witnessed; no longer does prophecy come with full or immediate understanding. Rather, a type of commentary or explanation of the vision is provided through the figure of an interpreting angel, whose teachings dispel the ignorance of the prophet and allow him to better understand, and thus better propagate, the knowledge of the end times that his vision contains.George W.E. Nickelsburg. Jewish Literature between the Bible and the Mishnah (Minneapolis: Fortress Press, 2005), 270 Such knowledge of the apocalypse had both heavenly and earthly implications, and assumed a great deal of importance to the oppressed people of Israel at the time, who needed explanations for why God would let them go through so much hardship; thus, the knowledge was “good.” Because of the bizarre features of the visions contained in such apocalyptic literature, interpreting angels assume the roles of teachers rather than just messengers; instead of just conveying information, they must explain it. As teachers, they convey the full might and authority of heaven, while being able to comfort their distressed human charges in a more relatable way than if the prophets were directly spoken to by God. Thus, angels as teachers function as relatable interpreters and testaments to God's power, while also increasing His transcendence. Most of all, they were important in establishing human prophets in their proper role as comforters, with “good” knowledge, to the people of Israel. In 4 Ezra, the interpreting or teaching angel is
Uriel Uriel ; or Auriel and ''Oriel''( he, אוּרִיאֵל ''ʾŪrīʾēl'', "El (deity), El/Dominus illuminatio mea, God is my light" or Light of God"; el, Οὐριήλ ''Ouriìl''; cop, ⲟⲩⲣⲓⲏⲗ ''Ouriyl''; it, Uriele; Geʽez and Am ...

Uriel
. When Ezra expresses his distress about issues that would be similarly preoccupying Jews of his time—namely, why God would allow His chosen people to suffer under the oppression of the Gentiles—Uriel is sent from heaven by God to help relieve his ignorance. In the passage, Ezra argues with Uriel about matters of justice in a way that he never could with God; however, the angel argues back with a series of riddles that eventually show Ezra the misguidedness of his thinking (4 Ezra 3:1-4:21). Importantly, Uriel does not simply transmit information or “speak at” Ezra; the two are engaged in an animated dialogue that reflects that of a teacher and a student, with the former guiding the latter to a realization. Ezra could never argue with God the way he argues with Uriel; however, this argument and its accompanying emotional catharsis is partially what leads him to discover the truth and main message of the passage on his own. In Daniel, angels also assume the roles of interpreters and teachers, notably in their abilities to explain visions concerning the eschaton, and help human prophets unknot knowledge from it. In Daniel, it is the archangel Gabriel who is sent down from heaven by God to explain Daniel's perplexing visions and help relieve some of his distress (Daniel 8:16-17). In Daniel 7-12, the good knowledge that is transmitted to Daniel and thus to the rest of the population, is that the earthly events that have been so oppressing the Jewish people are being mirrored in heaven, and that justice will eventually reign in the form of a final battle pitting the armies of heaven against evil forces, which will be vanquished. However, Daniel is only aware of this information due to the assistance of Gabriel, who teaches him the correct interpretation of his vision, and encouraging him when he falters (Daniel 8:15-27). This role of angels is mirrored in Zechariah, where angelic interpretation and teaching is necessary to unravel the bizarre visions that the prophet witnesses. In the passage, the angel literally walks through Zechariah's visions with him, explaining and teaching him as they go along so that Zechariah properly understands God's intended meaning (Zechariah 1:9-5:11).


In rabbinic literature

As a subcategory of heavenly beings, ''mal’akim'' occupy the sixth rank of ten in
Maimonides Moses ben Maimon ; (1138–1204), commonly known as Maimonides ( ) grc-gre, Μωυσής Μαϊμωνίδης ; la, Moses Maimonides and also referred to by the acronym Rambam ( he, רמב״ם),, for ''Rabbeinu Mōše bēn Maimun'', "Our Ra ...

Maimonides
' Jewish angelic hierarchy.


Michael, Gabriel, Uriel, and Raphael

The
Talmud The Talmud (; he, תַּלְמוּד ''Tálmūḏ'') is the central text of Rabbinic Judaism and the primary source of Jewish religious law (''halakha'') and Jewish theology. Until the advent of modernity, in nearly all Jewish communities, the ...

Talmud
names four angels who would later be known as
archangels An archangel is an angel of high Christian angelic hierarchy, rank. The word "archangel" itself is usually associated with the Abrahamic religions, but beings that are very similar to archangels are found in a number of religious traditions. Th ...

archangels
, surrounding God's throne:


Angelic hierarchy


Maimonides

Maimonides Moses ben Maimon ; (1138–1204), commonly known as Maimonides ( ) grc-gre, Μωυσής Μαϊμωνίδης ; la, Moses Maimonides and also referred to by the acronym Rambam ( he, רמב״ם),, for ''Rabbeinu Mōše bēn Maimun'', "Our Ra ...

Maimonides
, in his ''
Mishneh Torah The ''Mishneh Torah'' ( he, מִשְׁנֵה תּוֹרָה, "Repetition of the Torah"), also known as ''Sefer Yad ha-Hazaka'' (ספר יד החזקה "Book of the Strong Hand"), is a Legal code, code of Rabbinic Judaism, Rabbinic Jewish religio ...
'', counted ten ranks of
angel An angel is a supernatural The supernatural encompasses supposed phenomena or entities that are not subject to the . This term is attributed to , such as s, s, , and . It also includes claimed abilities embodied in or provided by such ...

angel
s in the Jewish angelic hierarchy, beginning from the highest:


Zohar

The ''
Zohar The ''Zohar'' ( he, זֹהַר, lit. "Splendor" or "Radiance"; yi, דער זוהר, der Zoyer) is a foundational work in the literature of Jewish mystical thought known as Kabbalah Kabbalah ( he, קַבָּלָה, links=no ''Qabālā'', l ...

Zohar
'', in ''Exodus 43a'', also lists ten ranks of angels, beginning from the highest:


Maseket Atzilut

Jacob Nazir, in his '' Maseket Atzilut'', also listed ten ranks of angels, beginning from the highest:


Berit Menuchah

Abraham ben Isaac of Granada Abraham ben Isaac of Granada also Abraham Merimon was a Kabbalist Kabbalah ( he, קַבָּלָה, links=no, literally "reception, tradition" or "correspondence") is an esoteric method, discipline, and school of thought in Jewish mysticism ...
, in his ''
Berit Menuchah ''Berit Menuchah'' (Hebrew: ''ספר ברית מנוחה'') (also ''Berit Menuḥah'', ''Berith Menuḥa'', or ''Brit Menucha'') is a practical Kabbalah Practical Kabbalah ( he, קַבָּלָה מַעֲשִׂית ''Kabbalah Ma'asit'') in histor ...
'', also listed ten ranks of angels, beginning from the highest:


Reshit Chochmah

Eliyahu de Vidas, in his '' Reshit Chochmah'', also listed ten ranks of angels, beginning from the highest:


In Kabbalah

Kabbalah Kabbalah ( he, קַבָּלָה, links=no ''Qabālā'', literally "reception, tradition" or "correspondence") is an esoteric method, discipline, and Jewish theology, school of thought in Jewish mysticism. A traditional Kabbalist in Judaism is ...

Kabbalah
describes the angels at length. Angels are described in Kabbalah literature as forces that send information, and sensations, between mankind and the
Tetragrammaton The Tetragrammaton (; ), or Tetragram, is the four-letter Hebrew Hebrew (, , or ) is a Northwest Semitic languages, Northwest Semitic language of the Afroasiatic languages, Afroasiatic language family. Historically, it is regarded as ...

Tetragrammaton
. They are analogized to atoms, wavelengths or channels that help God in his creation, and it is therefore, reasoned that they should not be worshipped, prayed to, nor invoked. They are not physical in nature but spiritual beings, like spiritual atoms. Therefore, the Kabbalah reasons, when they appear in the
Hebrew Bible The Hebrew Bible or Tanakh (; Hebrew Hebrew (, , or ) is a Northwest Semitic languages, Northwest Semitic language of the Afroasiatic languages, Afroasiatic language family. Historically, it is regarded as the language of the Israelites ...

Hebrew Bible
their description is from the viewpoint of the person that received the vision or prophesy or occurrence, which will be anthropomorphic. However, they are not material beings but are likened to a single emotion, feeling, or material, controlled by God for his purpose of creation.


In Jewish liturgy

On returning home from services on Friday night, the eve of
Shabbat Shabbat (, , or ; he, שַׁבָּת, Šabat, , ) or the Sabbath, also called Shabbos ( yi, שבת) by , is 's day of rest on the seventh day of the —i.e., . On this day, religious remember the biblical stories describing the and the redem ...

Shabbat
, or at the dinner-table before dinner Friday night, it is customary in
Orthodox Judaism Orthodox Judaism is the collective term for the traditionalist branches of contemporary Judaism Judaism is an Abrahamic religions, Abrahamic, monotheism, monotheistic, and ethnic religion comprising the collective religious, cultural, ...
and
Conservative Judaism Conservative Judaism (known as Masorti Judaism outside North America North America is a continent A continent is any of several large landmasses. Generally identified by convention (norm), convention rather than any strict ...
to bring in Shabbat with a traditional hymn which mentions angels: Before going to sleep, many Jews recite a traditional prayer naming four
archangels An archangel is an angel of high Christian angelic hierarchy, rank. The word "archangel" itself is usually associated with the Abrahamic religions, but beings that are very similar to archangels are found in a number of religious traditions. Th ...

archangels
, "To my right Michael and to my left Gabriel, in front of me Uriel and behind me Raphael, and over my head God's
Shekhinah The shekhinah ( hbo, שכינה ''šekīnah''; also Romanized ''shekina(h)'', ''schechina(h)'', ''shechina(h)'') is the English transliteration of a Hebrew word meaning "dwelling" or "settling" and denotes the dwelling or settling of the divine p ...

Shekhinah
the presence of God'" On the
Jewish holiday Jewish holidays, also known as Jewish festivals or ''Yamim Tovim'' ( he, ימים טובים, , Good Days, or singular , in transliterated Transliteration is a type of conversion of a text from one script to another that involves swapp ...
of
Simchat Torah Simchat Torah or Simhat Torah (, lit., "Rejoicing with/of the Torah", Ashkenazi Ashkenazi Jews ( are a Jewish Jews ( he, יְהוּדִים ISO 259-2 , Israeli pronunciation ) or Jewish people are an ethnoreligious group and nation ...
, it is customary to call all the boys (in some synagogues, all the children) to the
Torah reading Torah reading (; ') is a Jewish Jews ( he, יְהוּדִים ISO 259-2ISO The International Organization for Standardization (ISO; ) is an international standard are technical standards developed by international organizations ...
and for the whole congregation to recite a verse from
Jacob Jacob (; ; ar, يَعْقُوب, Yaʿqūb; gr, Ἰακώβ, Iakṓb), later given the name Israel Israel (; he, יִשְׂרָאֵל, translit=Yīsrāʾēl; ar, إِسْرَائِيل, translit=ʾIsrāʾīl), officially the State ...

Jacob
's blessing to
Ephraim Ephraim (; he, אֶפְרָיִם/, ''ʾEfrayim'') was, according to the Book of Genesis, the second son of Joseph (Genesis), Joseph and Asenath. Asenath was an Ancient Egypt, Egyptian woman whom Pharaoh gave to Joseph as wife, and the daughter ...
and Manasheh ( Manassas).


See also

* Angel Lailah


References


External links


Jewish Encyclopedia, "Angelology"

Jewish POV: Angels and Demons
(YouTube) * Israel Regardie, The Golden Dawn, Llewellyn Publications, 1992, *
Elyonim veTachtonim
'. An on-line database of angels, demons and ghosts in the early Rabbinic Literature. {{Angels in Abrahamic religions