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Madrasa (, also , ;
Arabic Arabic (, ' or , ' or ) is a Semitic language The Semitic languages are a branch of the Afroasiatic language family originating in the Middle East The Middle East is a list of transcontinental countries, transcontinental region ...

Arabic
: مدرسة ,
pl.
pl.
, ) is the
Arabic Arabic (, ' or , ' or ) is a Semitic language The Semitic languages are a branch of the Afroasiatic language family originating in the Middle East The Middle East is a list of transcontinental countries, transcontinental region ...

Arabic
word for any type of educational institution, secular or religious (of any religion), whether for elementary instruction or higher learning. The word is variously
transliterated Transliteration is a type of conversion of a text from one script Script may refer to: Writing systems * Script, a distinctive writing system, based on a repertoire of specific elements or symbols, or that repertoire * Script (styles of ha ...
''madrasah'', ''medresa'', ''madrassa'', ''madraza'', ''medrese'', etc. In countries outside the
Arab world The Arab world ( ar, العالم العربي '), formally the Arab homeland ( '), also known as the Arab nation ( '), the Arabsphere, or the Arab states, consists of the 22 Arab countries The Arab world ( ar, العالم العربي '), ...

Arab world
, the word usually refers to a specific type of religious school or college for the study of the religion of
Islam Islam (; ar, اَلْإِسْلَامُ, al-’Islām, "submission
o God Oh God may refer to: * An exclamation; similar to "oh no", "oh yes", "oh my", "aw goodness", "ah gosh", "ah gawd"; see interjection An interjection is a word or expression that occurs as an utterance on its own and expresses a spontaneous feeling ...
) is an Abrahamic religions, Abrahamic monotheistic religion teaching that Muhammad is a Muhammad in Islam, messenger of God.Peters, F. E. 2009. "Allāh." In , ed ...
, though this may not be the only subject studied. In an
architectural Architecture (Latin ''architectura ''Architectura: Zeitschrift für Geschichte der Baukunst'' is a biannual peer-reviewed Peer review is the evaluation of work by one or more people with similar competencies as the producers of the wo ...
and historical context, the term generally refers to a particular kind of institution in the historic
Muslim world The terms Muslim world and Islamic world commonly refer to the Islamic Islam (;There are ten pronunciations of ''Islam'' in English, differing in whether the first or second syllable has the stress, whether the ''s'' is or , and whether ...

Muslim world
which primarily taught
Islamic law Sharia (; ar, شريعة, sharīʿa ) is a religious law Religious law includes ethical and moral codes taught by religious traditions. Different religious systems hold sacred law in a greater or lesser degree of importance to their beli ...
and
jurisprudence Jurisprudence, or legal theory, is the theoretical study of the propriety of . Scholars of jurisprudence seek to explain the nature of law in its most general form and provide a deeper understanding of , , , and the proper application and rol ...
(''fiqh''), as well as other subjects on occasion. The origin of this type of institution is widely credited to
Nizam al-Mulk Abu Ali Hasan ibn Ali Tusi (April 10, 1018 – October 14, 1092), better known by his honorific title of Nizam al-Mulk ( fa, نظام‌الملک, , Order of the Realm) was a Persian Persian may refer to: * People and things from Iran, histori ...
, a
vizier A vizier (; ar, وزير, wazīr; fa, وزیر, vazīr), or wazir, is a high-ranking political advisor or minister in the near east. The caliphs gave the title ''wazir'' to a minister formerly called ' (secretary), who was at first merely a ...
under the
Seljuks The Seljuk dynasty, or Seljuks ( ; fa, آل سلجوق ''Al-e Saljuq'', alternatively spelled as Seljuqs or Saljuqs), also known as Seljuk Turks, Seljuk Turkomans "The defeat in August 1071 of the Byzantine emperor Romanos Diogenes by the Turkom ...

Seljuks
in the 11th century, who was responsible for building the first network of official madrasas in Iran,
Mesopotamia Mesopotamia ( grc, Μεσοποταμία ''Mesopotamíā''; ar, بِلَاد ٱلرَّافِدَيْن ; syc, ܐܪܡ ܢܗܪ̈ܝܢ, or , ) is a historical region of Western Asia situated within the Tigris–Euphrates river system, in the ...

Mesopotamia
, and
Khorasan Khorasan may refer to: * Greater Khorasan, a historical region which lies mostly in modern-day northern/northwestern Afghanistan, northeastern Iran, southern Turkmenistan, Tajikistan, and Uzbekistan * Khorasan Province, a pre-2004 province of Iran, ...
. From there, the construction of madrasas spread across much of the Muslim world over the next few centuries, often adopting similar models of architectural design.


Definition


Etymology

The word ' derives from the triconsonantal
Semitic root The root (linguistics), roots of verbs and most nouns in the Semitic languages are characterized as a sequence of consonants or "wikt:radical, radicals" (hence the term consonantal root). Such abstract consonantal roots are used in the formation of ...
د-ر-س ''D-R-S'' 'to learn, study', using the ''wazn'' ( morphological form or template) ; , meaning "a place where something is done". Thus, ' literally means "a place where learning and studying take place" or "place of study". The word is also present as a
loanword A loanword (also loan word or loan-word) is a word In linguistics, a word of a spoken language can be defined as the smallest sequence of phonemes that can be uttered in isolation with semantic, objective or pragmatics, practical meaning (lin ...
with the same general meaning in many Arabic-influenced languages, such as:
Urdu Urdu (; ur, , ALA-LC ALA-LC (American Library Association The American Library Association (ALA) is a nonprofit organization A nonprofit organization (NPO), also known as a non-business entity, not-for-profit organization, or nonpr ...
,
Punjabi Panjābī (pʌnˈdʒɑːbi) (ਪੰਜਾਬੀ) (پنجابی) Punjabi or Panjabi most often refers to: * Something of, from, or related to Punjab Punjab ( Gurmukhi: ; Shahmukhi: ; , ; , ; ; also romanised as Panjāb or Panj-Āb) is a ge ...
,
Bengali Bengali or Bengalee, or Bengalese may refer to: *something of, from, or related to Bengal, a large region in South Asia * Bengalis, an ethnic and linguistic group of the region * Bengali language, the language they speak ** Bengali alphabet, the wr ...
,
Pashto Pashto (,; / , ), sometimes spelled Pukhto or Pakhto, is an Eastern Iranian language The Eastern Iranian languages are a subgroup of the Iranian languages The Iranian or Iranic languages are a branch of the Indo-Iranian languages in ...
,
Baluchi Baluchi may refer to: Common meanings * Balochi language, a language of Iran, Pakistan and Afghanistan * an adjective for something related to the Baloch people or to Balochistan Places Afghanistan *Baluchi, Balkh, Afghanistan *Balūchī, Helma ...
,
Persian Persian may refer to: * People and things from Iran, historically called ''Persia'' in the English language ** Persians, Persian people, the majority ethnic group in Iran, not to be conflated with the Iranian peoples ** Persian language, an Iranian ...
,
Turkish Turkish may refer to: * of or about Turkey Turkey ( tr, Türkiye ), officially the Republic of Turkey, is a country straddling Southeastern Europe and Western Asia. It shares borders with Greece Greece ( el, Ελλάδα, , ), offi ...

Turkish
,
Azeri Azerbaijanis (; az, Azərbaycanlılar) or Azeris (), also known as Azerbaijani Turks ( az, Azərbaycan Türkləri, ), are a Turkic ethnic group, living mainly in the sovereign Republic of Azerbaijan A republic ( la, res publica ''R ...
, ,
Indonesian Indonesian is anything of, from, or related to Indonesia, an archipelagic country in Southeast Asia. It may refer to: * Indonesians, citizens of Indonesia ** Native Indonesians, diverse groups of local inhabitants of the archipelago ** Indonesian w ...

Indonesian
,
Somali Somali refers to an East African tribe (ethnic group) native to Somalia Somalia,; ar, الصومال, aṣ-Ṣūmāl officially the Federal Republic of Somalia, is a country in the Horn of Africa. It is bordered by Ethiopia to the west, D ...
and
Bosnian Bosnian may refer to: *Anything related to the state of Bosnia and Herzegovina or its inhabitants *Anything related to Bosnia (region) or its inhabitants * Bosniaks, an ethnic group mainly inhabiting Bosnia and Herzegovina and one of three Ethnic gr ...
.


Arabic meaning

In the Arabic language, the word ' simply means the same as ''school'' does in the English language, whether that is private, public or parochial school, as well as for any primary or secondary school whether
Muslim Muslims () are people who follow or practice Islam Islam (; ar, اَلْإِسْلَامُ, al-’Islām, "submission o God Oh God may refer to: * An exclamation; similar to "oh no", "oh yes", "oh my", "aw goodness", "ah gosh", ...

Muslim
, non-Muslim, or secular. Unlike the use of the word ''school'' in British English, the word ' more closely resembles the term ''school'' in American English, in that it can refer to a university-level or post-graduate school as well as to a primary or secondary school. For example, in the
Ottoman Empire The Ottoman Empire (; ', ; or '; )info page on bookat Martin Luther University) // CITED: p. 36 (PDF p. 38/338). was an empire that controlled much of Southeastern Europe, Western Asia, and North Africa, Northern Africa between the 14th ...
during the
Early Modern Period The early modern period of modern history Human history, or world history, is the narrative of Human, humanity's past. It is understood through archaeology, anthropology, genetics, and linguistics, and since the History of writing, adve ...
, madrasas had lower schools and specialised schools where the students became known as ''danişmends''.İnalcık, Halil. 1973. "Learning, the Medrese, and the Ulema." In ''The Ottoman Empire: The Classical Age 1300–1600''. New York: Praeger, pp. 165–178. In medieval usage, however, the term ''madrasah'' was usually specific to institutions of higher learning, which generally taught Islamic law and occasionally other subjects, as opposed to elementary schools or children's schools, which were usually known as ''kuttāb'' or ''maktab''. The usual modern Arabic word for a university, however, is '' ()''. The
Hebrew Hebrew (, , or ) is a Northwest Semitic languages, Northwest Semitic language of the Afroasiatic languages, Afroasiatic language family. Historically, it is regarded as the language of the Israelites, Judeans and their ancestors. It is the o ...
cognate In linguistics Linguistics is the scientific study of language A language is a structured system of communication used by humans, including speech (spoken language), gestures (Signed language, sign language) and writing. Most langu ...
''
midrasha 250px, Founding Beit Yaakov Teachers' Seminary, Kraków, Poland A ' (Hebrew Hebrew (, , or ) is a Northwest Semitic languages, Northwest Semitic language of the Afroasiatic languages, Afroasiatic language family. Historically, ...
'' also connotes the meaning of a place of learning; the related term ''
midrash ''Midrash'' (;"midrash"
''Random House Webster's Unabridged Dictionary''.
he, מִדְרָשׁ; ...

midrash
'' literally refers to study or learning, but has acquired mystical and religious connotations.


Meaning and usage in English

In English, the term ' or "madrasa" usually refers more narrowly to Islamic institutions of learning. Historians and other scholars also employ the term to refer to historical ''madrasah'' institutions throughout the
Muslim world The terms Muslim world and Islamic world commonly refer to the Islamic Islam (;There are ten pronunciations of ''Islam'' in English, differing in whether the first or second syllable has the stress, whether the ''s'' is or , and whether ...

Muslim world
, which is to say a college where
Islamic law Sharia (; ar, شريعة, sharīʿa ) is a religious law Religious law includes ethical and moral codes taught by religious traditions. Different religious systems hold sacred law in a greater or lesser degree of importance to their beli ...
was taught along with other secondary subjects. These institutions were typically housed in specially designed buildings which were primarily devoted to this purpose. Such institutions are believed to have originated, or at least proliferated, in the region of
Iran Iran ( fa, ایران ), also called Persia, and officially the Islamic Republic of Iran, is a country in Western Asia Western Asia, West Asia, or Southwest Asia, is the westernmost subregion A subregion is a part of a larger regio ...

Iran
in the 11th century under
vizier A vizier (; ar, وزير, wazīr; fa, وزیر, vazīr), or wazir, is a high-ranking political advisor or minister in the near east. The caliphs gave the title ''wazir'' to a minister formerly called ' (secretary), who was at first merely a ...
Nizam al-Mulk Abu Ali Hasan ibn Ali Tusi (April 10, 1018 – October 14, 1092), better known by his honorific title of Nizam al-Mulk ( fa, نظام‌الملک, , Order of the Realm) was a Persian Persian may refer to: * People and things from Iran, histori ...
and subsequently spread to other regions of the Islamic world.


History


Early history

The first institute of madrasa education was at the estate of Zaid bin Arkam near a hill called Safa, where
Muhammad Muhammad ibn AbdullahHe is referred to by many appellations, including Messenger of Allah, The Prophet Muhammad, Allah's Apostle, Last Prophet of Islam, and others; there are also many variant spellings of Muhammad, such as Mohamet, Mohammed, ...

Muhammad
was the teacher and the students were some of his followers. After
Hijrah Hegira () is a medieval Latin transliteration of the Arabic word meaning "departure" or "migration", among other definitions. Alternative transliterations of the word include Hijra or Hijrah. The word is commonly used to refer to the journey ...
(migration) the madrasa of "Suffa" was established in
Madina Medina, ', "the radiant city"; or , ' (), "the city", officially Al Madinah Al Munawwarah (), commonly simplified as Madīnah or Madinah, is the second holiest city in Islam Islam (;There are ten pronunciations of ''Islam'' in English, di ...

Madina
on the east side of the
Al-Masjid an-Nabawi Al-Masjid an-Nabawi (), known in English as The Prophet's Mosque, and also known as Al Haram, Al Haram Al Madani and Al Haram Al Nabawi by locals, is a mosque built by the Prophets and messengers in Islam, Islamic prophet Muhammad in the city of ...

Al-Masjid an-Nabawi
mosque. Ubada ibn as-Samit was appointed there by Muhammad as teacher and among the students. In the curriculum of the madrasa, there were teachings of The Qur'an, The Hadith, fara'iz,
tajweed In the context of the recitation of the Quran The Quran (, ; ar, القرآن, translit=al-Qurʼān, lit=the recitation, ), also romanized Qur'an or Koran, is the central religious text of Islam Islam (;There are ten pronunciatio ...
,
genealogy Genealogy (from el, γενεαλογία ' "study of family trees") is the study of families In human society, family (from la, familia) is a Social group, group of people related either by consanguinity (by recognized birth) or Affinit ...

genealogy
, treatises of
first aid First aid is the first and immediate assistance given to any person suffering from either a minor or serious illness A disease is a particular abnormal condition that negatively affects the structure or function of all or part of a ...

first aid
, etc. There was also training in horse-riding, the art of war, handwriting and
calligraphy Calligraphy (from Greek language, Greek: καλλιγραφία) is a Visual arts, visual art related to writing. It is the design and execution of lettering with a broad-tipped instrument, brush, or other writing instrument. A contemporary call ...

calligraphy
,
athletics Athletics may refer to: Sports * Sport of athletics, a collection of sporting events that involve competitive running, jumping, throwing, and walking ** Track and field, a sub-category of the above sport * Athletics (physical culture), competitio ...
and
martial arts Martial arts are codified systems and traditions of combat practiced for a number of reasons such as self-defense; military and law enforcement applications; combat sport, competition; physical, mental, and spiritual development; entertainment; an ...
. The first part of madrasa-based education is estimated from the first day of " nabuwwat" to the first portion of the
Umayyad Caliphate The Umayyad Caliphate (661–750 CE; , ; ar, ٱلْخِلَافَة ٱلْأُمَوِيَّة, al-Khilāfah al-ʾUmawīyah) was the second of the four major caliphate A caliphate ( ar, خِلَافَة, ) is an Islamic state under ...
. At the beginning of the
Caliphate A caliphate ( ar, خِلَافَة, ) is an Islamic state under the leadership of an Islamic steward with the title of caliph (; ar, خَلِيفَة ', ), a person considered a politico-religious successor to the Islamic prophet Muhammad ...
period, the reliance on
courts A court is any person or institution, often as a government A government is the system or group of people governing an organized community, generally a State (polity), state. In the case of its broad associative definition, govern ...
initially confined sponsorship and scholarly activities to major centres. In the early history of the Islamic period, teaching was generally carried out in mosques rather than in separate specialized institutions. Although some major early mosques like the
Great Mosque of Damascus The Umayyad Mosque ( ar, الْجَامِع الْأُمَوِي, al-Jāmiʿ al-ʾUmawī), also known as the Great Mosque of Damascus ( ar, جَامِع بَنِي أُمَيَّة الْكَبِير, Jāmiʻ Banī Umayyah al-Kabīr), located in t ...

Great Mosque of Damascus
or the
Mosque of Amr ibn al-As The Mosque of Amr ibn al-As ( ar, جامع عمرو بن العاص), or Taj al-Jawame' ( ar, تاج الجوامِع, lit=Crown of Mosques), or Masjid Ahl ar-Rayah ( ar, مسجد اهل الرّاية, lit=Mosque of the Banner Bearers), or Jam ...

Mosque of Amr ibn al-As
in
Cairo Cairo ( ; ar, القاهرة, al-Qāhirah, , Coptic Coptic may refer to: Afro-Asia * Copts, an ethnoreligious group mainly in the area of modern Egypt but also in Sudan and Libya * Coptic language, a Northern Afro-Asiatic language spoken in E ...

Cairo
had separate rooms which were devoted to teaching, this distinction between "mosque" and "madrasa" was not very present. Notably, the
al-Qarawiyyin The University of al-Qarawiyyin (; Berber languages, Berber : ⵜⴰⵙⴷⴰⵡⵉⵜ ⵏ ⵍⵇⴰⵕⴰⵡⵉⵢⵢⵉⵏ; french: Université Al Quaraouiyine), also written Al-Karaouine or Al Quaraouiyine, is a university located in Fez, Moroc ...
(''Jāmiʻat al-Qarawīyīn''), established in 859 in the city of
Fes Fez or Fes (; ar, فاس, fās, ber, ⴼⴰⵙ, fas, french: Fès) is a city in northern inland Morocco ) , image_map = Morocco (orthographic projection, WS claimed).svg , map_caption = Location of Morocco in northwest Africa.Dark green: ...
, present-day
Morocco ) , image_map = Morocco (orthographic projection, WS claimed).svg , map_caption = Location of Morocco in northwest Africa.Dark green: Undisputed territory of Morocco.Lighter green: Western Sahara, a United Nations lis ...

Morocco
, is considered the oldest university in the world by some scholars,while other scholars have argued that this distinction belongs to the
University of al-Qarawiyyin The University of al-Qarawiyyin (; Berber Berber or Berbers may refer to: Culture * Berbers Berbers or ''Imazighen'' ( ber, translit=Imaziɣen, ⵉⵎⴰⵣⵉⵖⵏ, ⵎⵣⵗⵏ; singular: , ) are an ethnic group mostly concentrated i ...
, also founded in 859. * *Kettani, M. Ali. ''Engineering Education in the Arab World''. Middle East Journal, 1974, 28(4):441.
though the application of the term "university" to institutions of the medieval Muslim world is disputed. Verger, Jacques: "Patterns", in: Ridder-Symoens, Hilde de (ed.): ''A History of the University in Europe. Vol. I: Universities in the Middle Ages'', Cambridge University Press, 2003, , pp. 35–76 (35): According to tradition, the al-Qarawiyyin mosque was founded by ', the daughter of a wealthy merchant named . This was later followed by the
Fatimid The Fatimid Caliphate ( ar, ٱلْخِلَافَة ٱلْفَاطِمِيَّة , al-Ḫilāfa al-Fāṭimiyya) was an Ismaili Shia Ismāʿīlism ( ar, الإسماعيلية, ''al-ʾIsmāʿīlīyah''; fa, اسماعیلیان, ''E ...

Fatimid
establishment of
al-Azhar Mosque Al-Azhar Mosque ( ar, الجامع الأزهر, al-Jāmiʿ al-ʾAzhar, lit=The Resplendent Congregational Mosque), known simply in Egypt as al-Azhar, is an Egyptian mosque in Islamic Cairo. Al-Mu'izz li-Din Allah of the Fatimid Caliphate, Fatim ...

al-Azhar Mosque
in 969–970 in Cairo, initially as a center to promote
Isma'ili Ismāʿīlism ( ar, الإسماعيلية, ''al-ʾIsmāʿīlīyah''; fa, اسماعیلیان, ''Esmâ'īliyân'') is a branch or sub-sect of Shia Islam. The Ismāʿīlī () get their name from their acceptance of Imam Isma'il ibn Jafar, Ism ...
teachings, which later became a
Sunni Sunni Islam () is by far the largest branch Image:Tree Leaves.JPG, The branches and leaves of a tree. A branch ( or , ) or tree branch (sometimes referred to in botany as a ramus) is a woody structural member connected to but not part o ...
institution under
Ayyubid The Ayyubid dynasty ( ar, الأيوبيون '; Kurdish: ئەیووبیەکان Eyûbiyan) was a Sunni Muslim Sunni Islam () is by far the largest branch of Islam Islam (;There are ten pronunciations of ''Islam'' in English, diffe ...

Ayyubid
rule (today's
Al-Azhar University Al-Azhar University ( ; ar, 1=جامعة الأزهر (الشريف), , "the (honorable) University of Al-Azhar") is a university in Cairo Cairo ( ; ar, القاهرة, al-Qāhirah, , Coptic: ⲕⲁϩⲓⲣⲏ) is the capital and larges ...
).Jonathan Berkey, ''The Transmission of Knowledge in Medieval Cairo'' (Princeton: Princeton University Press, 1992), ''passim'' By the 900s AD, the Madrasa is noted to have become a successful higher education system.


The development of the formal ''madrasah''

In the late 11th century, during the late ʻAbbāsid period, the
SeljukSeljuk may refer to: * Seljuk (warlord) (died c. 1038), founder of the Turko-Persian Seljuk dynasty in the Middle East and central Asia * Seljuq dynasty (c. 950–1307), the dynasty founded by Seljuk * Seljuk Empire (1051–1153), a medieval empire ...
vizier created one of the first major official academic institutions known in history as the , based on the informal ' (sessions of the shaykhs). , who would later be murdered by the Assassins ('), created a system of state madrasas (in his time they were called the Niẓāmiyyahs, named after him) in various Seljuk and ʻAbbāsid cities at the end of the 11th century, ranging from
Mesopotamia Mesopotamia ( grc, Μεσοποταμία ''Mesopotamíā''; ar, بِلَاد ٱلرَّافِدَيْن ; syc, ܐܪܡ ܢܗܪ̈ܝܢ, or , ) is a historical region of Western Asia situated within the Tigris–Euphrates river system, in the ...

Mesopotamia
to
Khorasan Khorasan may refer to: * Greater Khorasan, a historical region which lies mostly in modern-day northern/northwestern Afghanistan, northeastern Iran, southern Turkmenistan, Tajikistan, and Uzbekistan * Khorasan Province, a pre-2004 province of Iran, ...
. Although madrasa-type institutions appear to have existed in Iran before Nizam al-Mulk, this period is nonetheless considered by many as the starting point for the proliferation of the formal ''madrasah'' across the rest of the Muslim world, adapted for use by all four different Sunni Islamic legal schools and
Sufi orders A tariqa (or ''tariqah''; ar, :wikt:طريقة, طريقة ') is a school or order of Sufism, or specifically a concept for the mystical teaching and spiritual practices of such an order with the aim of seeking ''haqiqa'', which translates as "u ...
. Part of the motivation for this widespread adoption of the madrasah by Sunni rulers and elites was a desire to counter the influence and spread of
Shi'ism Shia Islam or Shi'ism is one of the two main branches of Islam Islam (;There are ten pronunciations of ''Islam'' in English, differing in whether the first or second syllable has the stress, whether the ''s'' is or , and whether the ...
at the time, by using these institutions to spread Sunni teachings.
Dimitri Gutas Dimitri Gutas ( el, Δημήτρης Γούτας; born 1945, Cairo Cairo ( ; ar, القاهرة, al-Qāhirah, , Coptic: ⲕⲁϩⲓⲣⲏ) is the capital and largest city of Egypt. The Cairo metropolitan area, with a population of 21.3 mi ...
and the ''
Stanford Encyclopedia of Philosophy The ''Stanford Encyclopedia of Philosophy'' (''SEP'') combines an online encyclopedia An online encyclopedia, also called an Internet encyclopedia, or a digital encyclopedia, is an encyclopedia An encyclopedia or encyclopaedia (British E ...
'' consider the period between the 11th and 14th centuries to be the "
Golden Age#REDIRECT Golden Age The term Golden Age comes from Greek mythology, particularly the ''Works and Days'' of Hesiod, and is part of the description of temporal decline of the state of peoples through five Ages of Man, Ages, Gold being the first a ...
" of Arabic and
Islamic philosophy Islamic philosophy is a development in philosophy that is characterised by coming from an Islamic tradition. Two terms traditionally used in the Islamic world are sometimes translated as philosophy—falsafa (literally: "philosophy"), which refe ...
, initiated by
al-Ghazali Al-Ghazali (, ; full name or , ; Latinized Algazelus or Algazel; – 19 December 1111) was a Persian Persian may refer to: * People and things from Iran, historically called ''Persia'' in the English language ** Persians, Persian people, the ...

al-Ghazali
's successful integration of logic into the curriculum and the subsequent rise of
Avicennism Avicennism is a school of Islamic philosophy which was established by Avicenna Ibn Sina ( fa, ابن سینا), also known as Abu Ali Sina (), Pur Sina (), and often known in the West as Avicenna (;  – June 1037), was a Persian p ...
. In addition to religious subjects, they sometimes taught the "rational sciences," as varied as
mathematics Mathematics (from Greek: ) includes the study of such topics as numbers (arithmetic and number theory), formulas and related structures (algebra), shapes and spaces in which they are contained (geometry), and quantities and their changes (cal ...
,
astronomy Astronomy (from el, ἀστρονομία, literally meaning the science that studies the laws of the stars) is a natural science that studies astronomical object, celestial objects and celestial event, phenomena. It uses mathematics, phys ...
,
astrology Astrology is a pseudoscience that claims to divination, divine information about human affairs and terrestrial events by studying the movements and relative positions of Celestial objects in astrology, celestial objects. Astrology has be ...
,
geography Geography (from Ancient Greek, Greek: , ''geographia'', literally "earth description") is a field of science devoted to the study of the lands, features, inhabitants, and phenomena of the Earth and Solar System, planets. The first person t ...
,
alchemy Alchemy (from Arabic Arabic (, ' or , ' or ) is a Semitic language The Semitic languages are a branch of the Afroasiatic language family originating in the Middle East The Middle East is a list of transcontinental countri ...
,
philosophy Philosophy (from , ) is the study of general and fundamental questions, such as those about Metaphysics, existence, reason, Epistemology, knowledge, Ethics, values, Philosophy of mind, mind, and Philosophy of language, language. Such questio ...

philosophy
, magic, and
occultism The occult, in the broadest sense, is a category of supernatural beliefs and practices which generally fall outside the scope of organized religion, religion and science, encompassing such phenomena involving otherworldly agency as mysticism, sp ...
, depending on the curriculum of the specific institution in question. The madrasas, however, were not centres of advanced scientific study; scientific advances in Islam were usually carried out by scholars working under the
patronage Patronage is the support, encouragement, privilege, or financial aid that an organization or individual bestows on another. In the history of art, arts patronage refers to the support that kings, popes, and the wealthy have provided to artists suc ...

patronage
of royal courts. During the
Islamic Golden Age The Islamic Golden Age was a period of cultural, economic, and scientific flourishing in the history of Islam The history of Islam concerns the political, social, economic, and cultural developments of Muslim world, Islamic civilization. M ...
, the territories under the Caliphate experienced a growth in
literacy Literacy is popularly understood as an ability to read and write Writing is a medium of human communication Communication (from Latin ''communicare'', meaning "to share") is the act of developing Semantics, meaning among Subject (p ...
, having the highest literacy rate of the
Middle Ages In the history of Europe The history of Europe concerns itself with the discovery and collection, the study, organization and presentation and the interpretation of past events and affairs of the people of Europe since the beginning of ...
, comparable to
classical Athens The city of Athens ( grc, Ἀθῆναι, ''Athênai'' Help:IPA/Greek, .tʰɛ̂ː.nai̯ Modern Greek: Αθήναι ''Athine'' or, more commonly and in singular, Αθήνα ''Athina'' .'θi.na during the Classical Greece, classical period ...
' literacy in
antiquity Antiquity or Antiquities may refer to Historical objects or periods Artifacts * Antiquities, objects or artifacts surviving from ancient cultures Eras Any period before the European Middle Ages In the history of Europe, the Middle Ages ...
but on a much larger scale. The emergence of the and madrasa institutions played a fundamental role in the relatively high literacy rates of the medieval Islamic world. Under the ,
Zengid#REDIRECT Zengid dynasty The Zengid or Zangid dynasty was a List of Muslim states and dynasties, Muslim dynasty of Oghuz Turks, Oghuz Turkic origin, which ruled parts of the Levant and Upper Mesopotamia on behalf of the Seljuk Empire. The dynasty w ...
,
Ayyubid The Ayyubid dynasty ( ar, الأيوبيون '; Kurdish: ئەیووبیەکان Eyûbiyan) was a Sunni Muslim Sunni Islam () is by far the largest branch of Islam Islam (;There are ten pronunciations of ''Islam'' in English, diffe ...

Ayyubid
, and
Mamluk Mamluk ( ar, مملوك, mamlūk (singular), , ''mamālīk'' (plural), translated as "one who is owned", meaning "", also as ''Mameluke'', ''mamluq'', ''mamluke'', ''mameluk'', ''mameluke'', ''mamaluke'', or ''marmeluke'') is a term most commo ...
dynasties (11th-16th centuries) in the Middle East, many of the ruling elite founded madrasas through a religious endowment and
charitable trust A charitable trust is an irrevocable trust established for charitable The practice of charity means the Volunteering, voluntary giving of help to those in need, as a Humanitarianism, humanitarian act. There are a number of Philosophy, philosophie ...
known as a ''
waqf A waqf ( ar, وَقْف; ), also known as hubous () or ''mortmain Mortmain () is the perpetual, inalienable ownership of real estate Real estate is property consisting of land and the buildings on it, along with its natural resources ...

waqf
''.Behrens-Abouseif, Doris. 2007. ''Cairo of the Mamluks: A History of Architecture and its Culture''. Cairo: The American University in Cairo Press. The first documented madrasa created in Syria was the Madrasa of Kumushtakin, added to a mosque in
Bosra Bosra ( ar, بُصْرَىٰ, Buṣrā), also spelled Bostra, Busrana, Bozrah, Bozra and officially called Busra al-Sham ( ar, بُصْرَىٰ ٱلشَّام, Buṣrā al-Shām), is a town in southern Syria, administratively belonging to the Daraa ...

Bosra
in 1136. One of the earliest madrasas in Damascus, and one of the first madrasas to be accompanied by the tomb of its founder, is the (or Madrasa al-Kubra) founded by Nur al-Din in 1167–1172. After (Saladin) overthrew the Shi'a Fatimids in Egypt in 1171, he founded a Sunni madrasa near the tomb of al-Shafi'i in Cairo in 1176–1177, introducing this institution to Egypt. The Mamluks who succeeded the Ayyubids built many more madrasas across their territories. Not only was the madrasa a potent symbol of status for its patrons but it could also be an effective means of transmitting wealth and status to their descendants. Especially during the Mamluk period, when only former slaves ('''') could assume power, the sons of the ruling Mamluk elites were unable to inherit. Guaranteed positions within the new madrasas (and other similar foundations) thus allowed them to maintain some status and means of living even after their fathers' deaths. Madrasas built in this period were often associated with the mausoleums of their founders. Further west, the
Hafsid dynasty The Hafsids ( ar, الحفصيون ''al-Ḥafṣiyūn'') were a Sunni Muslim Sunni Islam () is by far the largest branch of Islam Islam (;There are ten pronunciations of ''Islam'' in English, differing in whether the first or second ...
introduced the first madrasas to
Ifriqiya Ifriqiya ( '), also known as al-Maghrib al-Adna ( ar, المغرب الأدنى), was a medieval historical region comprising today's Tunisia and eastern Algeria, and Tripolitania (today's western Libya). It included all of what had previously ...
, beginning with the Madrasa al-Shamma῾iyya built in Tunis in 1238 (or in 1249 according to some sources). By the late 13th century, the first madrasas were being built in
Morocco ) , image_map = Morocco (orthographic projection, WS claimed).svg , map_caption = Location of Morocco in northwest Africa.Dark green: Undisputed territory of Morocco.Lighter green: Western Sahara, a United Nations lis ...

Morocco
under the
Marinid dynasty The Marinid Sultanate was a Berbers, Berber empire from the mid-13th to the 15th century which controlled present-day Morocco and, intermittently, other parts of North Africa (Algeria and Tunisia) and of southern Spain around Gibraltar. It was ...
, starting with the
Saffarin Madrasa) , image=Place es Seffarine (588955430).jpg , caption=A part of the madrasa courtyard , location=Fez, Morocco ) , image_map = Morocco (orthographic projection, WS claimed).svg , map_caption = Location of Morocco in northwest Africa.Dark green ...
in Fes (founded in 1271) and culminating with much larger and more ornate constructions like the
Bou Inania Madrasa The Madrasa Bou Inania (; ) is a madrasah, madrasa in Fes, Morocco, built in 1350–55 Common Era, CE by Abu Inan Faris. It is widely acknowledged as a high point of Marinid architecture and of historic Moroccan architecture generally. History ...

Bou Inania Madrasa
(founded in 1350). During the
Ottoman period The Ottoman Empire (; ota, دولت عليه عثمانيه ', literally "The Sublime Ottoman State"; Modern Turkish: ' or '; french: Empire ottoman) (''Osmanean Têrut´iwn'', meaning "Ottoman Authority/Governance/Rule"), Օսմանյան ...
the ''medrese'' (
Turkish Turkish may refer to: * of or about Turkey Turkey ( tr, Türkiye ), officially the Republic of Turkey, is a country straddling Southeastern Europe and Western Asia. It shares borders with Greece Greece ( el, Ελλάδα, , ), offi ...

Turkish
word for ''madrasah'') was a common institution as well, often part of a larger ''
külliye A külliye ( ota, كلية) is a complex of buildings associated with Turkish architecture centered on a mosque and managed within a single institution, often based on a waqf (charitable foundation) and composed of a madrasa, a Dar al-Shifa ("cli ...
'' or a ''waqf''-based religious foundation which included other elements like a mosque and a ''
hammam A hammam ( ar, حمّام, translit=ḥammām, tr, hamam) is a type of steam bath or a place of public bathing associated with the Islamic world. It is a prominent feature in the Islamic culture, culture of the Muslim world and was inherited fro ...
'' (public bathhouse). The following excerpt provides a brief synopsis of the historical origins and starting points for the teachings that took place in the Ottoman madrasas in the Early Modern Period:


Islamic education in the madrasa

The term "Islamic education" means education in the light of Islam itself, which is rooted in the teachings of the
Qur'an The Quran (, ; ar, القرآن , "the recitation"), also romanized Qur'an or Koran, is the central religious text of Islam, believed by Muslims to be a revelation in Islam, revelation from God in Islam, God (''Allah''). It is widely rega ...

Qur'an
- the holy book of the Muslims. Islamic education and Muslim education are not the same. Because Islamic education has epistemological integration which is founded on
Tawhid Tawhid ( ar, توحيد, ', meaning "unification or oneness of God as per Islam (Arabic Arabic (, ' or , ' or ) is a Semitic language The Semitic languages are a branch of the Afroasiatic language family originating in the Middl ...
- Oneness or
monotheism Monotheism is the belief A belief is an attitude Attitude may refer to: Philosophy and psychology * Attitude (psychology) In psychology Psychology is the science of mind and behavior. Psychology includes the study of consciou ...
. To islam, the Quran is the core of all learning, it is described in this journal as the “Spine of all discipline” A typical Islamic school usually offers two courses of study: a ' course teaching memorization of the
Qur'an The Quran (, ; ar, القرآن , "the recitation"), also romanized Qur'an or Koran, is the central religious text of Islam, believed by Muslims to be a revelation in Islam, revelation from God in Islam, God (''Allah''). It is widely rega ...

Qur'an
(the person who commits the entire Qur'an to memory is called a ); and an course leading the candidate to become an accepted scholar in the community. A regular curriculum includes courses in
Arabic Arabic (, ' or , ' or ) is a Semitic language The Semitic languages are a branch of the Afroasiatic language family originating in the Middle East The Middle East is a list of transcontinental countries, transcontinental region ...

Arabic
, ''
tafsir Tafsir ( ar, تفسير, tafsīr ) refers to exegesis Exegesis (; from the Greek#REDIRECT Greek Greek may refer to: Greece Anything of, from, or related to Greece Greece ( el, Ελλάδα, , ), officially the Hellenic Republic, is ...

tafsir
'' (Qur'anic interpretation), (Islamic law),
hadith Ḥadīth ( or ; ar, حديث , pl. aḥādīth, , , , literally means "talk" or "discourse") or Athar ( ar, أثر, , literally means "tradition") in Islam refers to what the majority of Muslims Muslims () are people who follow or ...

hadith
,
mantiqEarly Islamic law Sharia (; ar, شريعة, sharīʿa ) is a religious law Religious law includes ethical and moral codes taught by religious traditions. Different religious systems hold sacred law in a greater or lesser degree of importan ...
(logic), and
Muslim history Muslims () are people who follow or practice Islam Islam (;There are ten pronunciations of ''Islam'' in English, differing in whether the first or second syllable has the stress, whether the ''s'' is or , and whether the ''a'' is prono ...
. In the
Ottoman Empire The Ottoman Empire (; ', ; or '; )info page on bookat Martin Luther University) // CITED: p. 36 (PDF p. 38/338). was an empire that controlled much of Southeastern Europe, Western Asia, and North Africa, Northern Africa between the 14th ...
, during the Early Modern Period, the study of hadiths was introduced by . Depending on the educational demands, some madrasas also offer additional advanced courses in
Arabic literature Arabic literature ( ar, الأدب العربي / ALA-LC: ''al-Adab al-‘Arabī'') is the writing, both as prose Prose is a form of written (or spoken) language that usually exhibits a natural speech, natural flow of speech and Syntax, gram ...
, English and other foreign languages, as well as science and world history. Ottoman madrasas along with religious teachings also taught "styles of writing, grammar, syntax, poetry, composition, natural sciences, political sciences, and etiquette." People of all ages attend, and many often move on to becoming
imam Imam (; ar, إمام '; plural: ') is an Islamic leadership position. For Sunni Islam, Sunni Muslims, Imam is most commonly used as the title of a worship leader of a mosque. In this context, imams may lead Salah, Islamic worship services, ...
s. The certificate of an ''ʻālim'', for example, requires approximately twelve years of study. A good number of the ''ḥuffāẓ'' (plural of ''ḥāfiẓ'') are the product of the madrasas. The madrasas also resemble colleges, where people take evening classes and reside in dormitories. An important function of the madrasas is to admit orphans and poor children in order to provide them with education and training. Madrasas may enroll female students; however, they study separately from the men.


Education in historical madrasas


Elementary education

In the medieval Islamic world, an elementary school (for children or for those learning to read) was known as a 'kuttāb' or '. Their exact origin is uncertain, but they appear to have been already widespread in the early Abbasid period (8th-9th centuries) and may have played an early role in socializing new ethnic and demographic groups into the Islamic religion during the first few centuries after the Arab-Muslim conquests of the region. Like madrasas (which referred to higher education), a was often attached to an endowed mosque. In the 11th century, the famous Persian Islamic philosopher and teacher

(known as ''Avicenna'' in the West), in one of his books, wrote a chapter about the ' entitled "The Role of the Teacher in the Training and Upbringing of Children," as a guide to teachers working at ' schools. He wrote that children can learn better if taught in
classes Class or The Class may refer to: Common uses not otherwise categorized * Class (biology), a taxonomic rank * Class (knowledge representation), a collection of individuals or objects * Class (philosophy), an analytical concept used differently f ...
instead of individual
tuition Tuition payments, usually known as tuition in American English and as tuition fees in English in the Commonwealth of Nations, Commonwealth English, are fees charged by education institutions for instruction or other services. Besides public spen ...

tuition
from private
tutor Tutoring is private academic support, usually provided by an expert teacher; someone with deep knowledge or defined expertise in a particular subject or set of subjects. A tutor, formally also called an academic tutor, is a person who provides ...

tutor
s, and he gave a number of reasons for why this is the case, citing the value of competition and
emulation Emulation may refer to: Computing *Emulator, imitation of behavior of a computer or other electronic system with the help of another type of computer/system **Video game console emulator, a program that allows a personal computer or video game co ...
among pupils, as well as the usefulness of group discussions and debates. described the curriculum of a ' school in some detail, describing the curricula for two stages of education in a ' school.


Primary education

wrote that children should be sent to a ' school from the age of 6 and be taught primary education until they reach the age of 14. During which time, he wrote, they should be taught the Qur'an, Islamic metaphysics, Arabic, Islamic literature, literature, Islamic ethics, and manual skills (which could refer to a variety of practical skills).


Secondary education

refers to the secondary education stage of ' schooling as a period of specialisation when pupils should begin to acquire manual skills, regardless of their social status. He writes that children after the age of 14 should be allowed to choose and specialise in subjects they have an interest in, whether it was reading, manual skills, literature, preaching, Islamic medicine, medicine, Islamic mathematics, geometry, Islamic economics in the world, trade and commerce, Inventions in medieval Islam, craftsmanship, or any other subject or profession they would be interested in pursuing for a future career. He wrote that this was a transitional stage and that there needs to be flexibility regarding the age in which pupils graduate, as the student's emotional development and chosen subjects need to be taken into account.


Higher education

During its formative period, the term ' referred to a higher education institution, whose curriculum initially included only the "religious sciences", whilst Early Islamic philosophy, philosophy and the Islamic science, secular sciences were often excluded.Toby E. Huff (2003), ''The Rise of Early Modern Science: Islam, China and the West'', Cambridge University Press, pp. 77–8 The curriculum slowly began to diversify, with many later madrasas teaching both the religious and the "secular sciences", such as Logic in Islamic philosophy, logic, Islamic mathematics, mathematics and Islamic philosophy, philosophy. Some madrasas further extended their curriculum to Early Muslim sociology, history, politics, Islamic ethics, ethics, Islamic music, music, metaphysics, Islamic medicine, medicine, Islamic astronomy, astronomy and Alchemy and chemistry in Islam, chemistry. The curriculum of a was usually set by its founder, but most generally taught both the religious sciences and the physical sciences. Madrasas were established throughout the Islamic world, examples being the 9th century
University of al-Qarawiyyin The University of al-Qarawiyyin (; Berber Berber or Berbers may refer to: Culture * Berbers Berbers or ''Imazighen'' ( ber, translit=Imaziɣen, ⵉⵎⴰⵣⵉⵖⵏ, ⵎⵣⵗⵏ; singular: , ) are an ethnic group mostly concentrated i ...
, the 10th century al-Azhar University (the most famous), the 11th century , as well as 75 madrasas in Cairo, 51 in Damascus and up to 44 in Aleppo between 1155 and 1260. Many more were also established in the Al-Andalus, Andalusian cities of Córdoba, Spain, Córdoba, Seville, Toledo, Spain, Toledo, Granada (Madrasah of Granada), Murcia, Almería, Valencia, Spain, Valencia and Cádiz during the Caliphate of Córdoba. In the Ottoman Empire during the early modern period, "Madaris were divided into lower and specialised levels, which reveals that there was a sense of elevation in school. Students who studied in the specialised schools after completing courses in the lower levels became known as ''danişmends''." Mosques were more than a place of worship as they were also utilized as an area to host community transactions of business. It was the center of most of a city’s social and cultural life. Along with this came trades of information and teachings. As the mosque was a starting ground for religious discourse in the Islamic world, these ''madrasas'' became more common. In this context, a madrasa would be referred to as a localized area or center within the mosque for studies and teachings relating the Quran. Among the first advanced topics featured at a ''madrasa'' was sharia, Islamic law. There was a premium fee required to study Islamic law, which was sometimes fronted by state or private subsidiaries. The topics of this higher education also expanded larger than the Islamic time and area. Arab translations of Greco-Roman classical texts were often examined for mathematical and grammatical discourse. Since the focus of theology and legal study was utmost, specified law schools began their own development. On the theological side however, these remained mainly at the general ''madrasa'' since it was more common and easier for the lower-level students to approach. The requirement of competent teachers to keep a madrasa up and running was also important. It was not uncommon for these scholars to be involved in multiple fields such as Abd al-Latif al-Baghdadi, Abd al-Latif who was an expert in medicine, grammar, linguistics, law, alchemy, and philosophy. The choice of freedom in inquiry was also important. Muslim higher education at ''madrasas'' offered not only mastery in specified fields but also a more generalized, broader option. In Islam in South Asia, Muslim India, the ''madrasa'' started off as providing higher education similarly to other parts of the Islamic world. The primary function for these institutions was to train and prepare workers for bureaucratic work as well as the judicial system. The curriculum generally consisted of logic, philosophy, law, history, politics, and particularly religious sciences, later incorporating more of mathematics, astronomy, geography, and medicine. ''Madrasas'' were often subsidized and founded by states or private individuals, and well-qualified teachers filled in the role for professors. Foundations of Islamic higher education in India is tied to the establishment of the Delhi Sultanate in 1206 which set a basis of importance for Muslim education. Under control of the Delhi Sultanate, two early important madrasas were founded. The first was the Mu’zziyya named after Muḥammad Ghuri of the Ghorid Dynasty and his title of Muʿizz al-Dīn and founded by Sultan Iltutmish. The other ''madrasa'' was the Nāṣiriyya, named after Nāṣir al-Dīn Maḥmūd and built by Balban. These two ''madrasas'' bear importance as a starting point for higher education for Muslim India. Babur of the Mughal Empire founded a ''madrasa'' in Dehli which he specifically included the subjects of mathematics, astronomy, and geography besides the standard subjects of law, history, secular and religious sciences. Although little is known about the management and inner workings of these places of Islamic higher education, religious studies bore the focus amongst most other subjects, particularly the rational sciences such as mathematics, logic, medicine, and astronomy. Although some tried to emphasize these subjects more, it is doubtful that every ''madrasa'' made this effort. While "" can now refer to any type of school, the term ' was originally used to refer more specifically to a medieval Islamic centre of learning, mainly teaching
Islamic law Sharia (; ar, شريعة, sharīʿa ) is a religious law Religious law includes ethical and moral codes taught by religious traditions. Different religious systems hold sacred law in a greater or lesser degree of importance to their beli ...
and Islamic theology, theology, usually affiliated with a mosque, and funded by an early charitable trust known as ''waqf''.


Law school

Madrasas were largely centred on the study of ' (Islamic jurisprudence). The ''Ijazah, '' ("licence to teach and issue legal opinions") in the medieval Islamic legal education system had its origins in the 9th century after the formation of the ''madhhab, '' (schools of jurisprudence). George Makdisi considers the ' to be the origin of the European doctorate. However, in an earlier article, he considered the ' to be of "fundamental difference" to the medieval doctorate, since the former was awarded by an individual teacher-scholar not obliged to follow any formal criteria, whereas the latter was conferred on the student by the collective authority of the faculty.George Makdisi: "Madrasa and University in the Middle Ages", ''Studia Islamica'', No. 32 (1970), pp. 255-264 (260) To obtain an ', a student "had to study in a guild school of law, usually four years for the basic undergraduate course" and ten or more years for a Postgraduate education, post-graduate course. The "doctorate was obtained after an oral examination to determine the originality of the candidate's theses", and to test the student's "ability to defend them against all objections, in disputations set up for the purpose." These were scholarly exercises practised throughout the student's "career as a graduate student of law." After students completed their post-graduate education, they were awarded ''ijaza''s giving them the status of ''faqih, '' 'scholar of jurisprudence', ''mufti, '' 'scholar competent in issuing fatwās', and ' 'teacher'. The Arabic term ' was awarded to Ulema, Islamic scholars who were qualified to teach. According to Makdisi, the Latin title ''licentia docendi'' 'licence to teach' in the European university may have been a translation of the Arabic, but the underlying concept was very different. A significant difference between the ' and the ''licentia docendi'' was that the former was awarded by the individual scholar-teacher, while the latter was awarded by the chief official of the university, who represented the collective faculty, rather than the individual scholar-teacher. Much of the study in the college centred on examining whether certain opinions of law were orthodox. This scholarly process of "determining orthodoxy began with a question which the Muslim layman, called in that capacity ', presented to a Jurist, jurisconsult, called ''mufti'', soliciting from him a response, called ''fatwa'', a legal opinion (the Sharia, religious law of Islam covers Civil law (common law), civil as well as Religious law, religious matters). The ''mufti'' (professor of legal opinions) took this question, studied it, researched it intensively in the sacred scriptures, in order to find a solution to it. This process of scholarly research was called ''ijtihad, '', literally, the exertion of one's efforts to the utmost limit."


Medical school

Though Islamic medicine was most often taught at the bimaristan teaching hospitals, there were also several medical school, medical madrasas dedicated to the teaching of medicine. For example, of the 155 madrasa colleges in 15th century Damascus, three of them were medical schools. Toby Huff argues that no medical degrees were granted to students, as there was no faculty that could issue them, and that therefore, no system of examination and certification developed in the Islamic tradition like that of medieval Europe. However, the historians Andrew C. Miller, Nigel J. Shanks and Dawshe Al-Kalai point out that, during this era, physician licensure became mandatory in the Abbasid Caliphate. In 931 AD, Caliph Al-Muqtadir learned of the death of one of his subjects as a result of a physician's error. He immediately ordered his muhtasib Sinan ibn Thabit to examine and prevent doctors from practicing until they passed an examination. From this time on, licensing exams were required and only qualified physicians were allowed to practice medicine. The study of Medicine and many other sciences that took place in Madrasas made large contributions to western societies in later years. In the Early Modern Period in the Ottoman Empire, "Suleyman I added new curriculums ['sic'] to the Ottoman medreses of which one was medicine, which alongside studying of the was given highest rank."


Madrasa and university

:''Note: The word ' ( ar, جامعة) simply means 'university'. For more information, see Islamic university (disambiguation).'' Scholars like Arnold H. Green and Seyyed Hossein Nasr have argued that, starting in the 10th century, some Islamic Golden Age, medieval Islamic madrasas indeed became universities. However, scholars like George Makdisi, Toby Huff and Norman Daniel argue that the European medieval university has no parallel in the medieval Islamic world.Toby Huff, ''Rise of Early Modern Science: Islam, China and the West'', 2nd ed., Cambridge 2003, , p. 133-139, 149-159, 179-189 Darleen Pryds questions this view, pointing out that madrasas and European universities in the Mediterranean region shared similar foundations by princely patrons and were intended to provide loyal administrators to further the rulers' agenda. A number of scholars regard the university as uniquely European in origin and characteristics. University of al-Qarawiyyin, Al-Qarawīyīn University in Fez, Morocco, Fez, present-day
Morocco ) , image_map = Morocco (orthographic projection, WS claimed).svg , map_caption = Location of Morocco in northwest Africa.Dark green: Undisputed territory of Morocco.Lighter green: Western Sahara, a United Nations lis ...

Morocco
is recognised by many historians as the oldest degree-granting university in the world, having been founded in 859 as a mosque by Fatima al-Fihri.Kettani, M. Ali. ''Engineering Education in the Arab World''. Middle East Journal, 1974, 28(4):441. While the madrasa college could also issue degrees at all levels, the ''jāmiʻah''s (such as al-Qarawīyīn and al-Azhar University) differed in the sense that they were larger institutions, more universal in terms of their complete source of studies, had individual faculties for different subjects, and could house a number of mosques, madrasas, and other institutions within them. Such an institution has thus been described as an "Islamic university". Al-Azhar University, founded in Cairo, Egypt in 975 by the Ismaʻīlī Shīʻī Fatimid dynasty as a ', had individual Faculty (division), faculties for a theological seminary,
Islamic law Sharia (; ar, شريعة, sharīʿa ) is a religious law Religious law includes ethical and moral codes taught by religious traditions. Different religious systems hold sacred law in a greater or lesser degree of importance to their beli ...
and
jurisprudence Jurisprudence, or legal theory, is the theoretical study of the propriety of . Scholars of jurisprudence seek to explain the nature of law in its most general form and provide a deeper understanding of , , , and the proper application and rol ...
, Arabic grammar, Islamic astronomy, early Islamic philosophy and logic in Islamic philosophy. In the second half of the 19th century in Egypt, Muslim Egyptians began to attend secular schools, and a movement arose in the late 19th to the early 20th century to ''modernize'' al-Azhar. The postgraduate doctorate in law was only obtained after "an oral examination to determine the originality of the candidate's theses", and to test the student's "ability to defend them against all objections, in disputations set up for the purpose." Abd al-Latif al-Baghdadi (medieval writer), ‘Abd al-Laṭīf al-Baghdādī also delivered lectures on Islamic medicine at al-Azhar, while Maimonides delivered lectures on medicine and astronomy there during the time of Saladin. Another early ' was the Al-Nizamiyya of Baghdad, Niẓāmīyah of Baghdād (founded 1091), which has been called the "largest university of the Medieval world." Mustansiriya University, established by the ʻAbbāsid caliph Al-Mustansir (caliph), al-Mustanṣir in 1227, in addition to teaching the religious subjects, offered courses dealing with philosophy, mathematics and the natural sciences. Madrasas by the 11th century had buildings and full time working educators. These educators were provided with places to live inside the madrasas. The institutions by this time occumulated a wide spread of attendance among the population. The attraction of the educational institution was that it provided free education for everyone in attendance. Furthermore, sciences at madrasas were indeed taught, and much of the material was from well-known scholars of the sciences such as Nasir al-Din al-Tusi, who was the “most famous and most successful” editor of the Shi’i law, kalam philosophy which include mathematic works and astrology. However, the classification of madrasas as "universities" is disputed on the question of understanding of each institution on its own terms. In madrasas, the ''Ijazah, ijāzahs'' were only issued in one field, the Islamic religious law of , and in no other field of learning. Other academic subjects, including the natural sciences, philosophy and literary studies, were only treated "ancillary" to the study of the Sharia. For example, at least in Sunni madrasas, astronomy was only studied (if at all) to supply religious needs, like the time for prayer. This is why Ptolemaic astronomy was considered adequate, and is still taught in some modern day madrasas. The Islamic law undergraduate degree from al-Azhar, the most prestigious madrasa, was traditionally granted without final examinations, but on the basis of the students' attentive attendance to courses. In contrast to the medieval doctorate which was granted by the collective authority of the faculty, the Islamic degree was not granted by the teacher to the pupil based on any formal criteria, but remained a "personal matter, the sole prerogative of the person bestowing it; no one could force him to give one". Although there is a sort of validity to what was just mentioned in this section, more specifically in the previous paragraph, other sources also convey that an emphasis on the teaching of sciences in madrasas, and the licensing of ''Ijazah, ijāzahs'' to those who proved satisfactory in the knowledge of their specific scientific field of study, were indeed conducted. It is historically inaccurate to definitively mention that all forms of science were studied solely for the advancement/supplication of religious needs. This can be evident when one further examines the specific fields of secular sciences that have achieved an established position in madrasa curriculum. Such fields included the sciences of mathematics, medicine and pharmacology, natural philosophy, divination, magic, and alchemy (The last three being clumped up into one set of coursework). To support the claims mentioned earlier in this section, it has been noted that ''Ijazah, ijāzahs'' are not issued to these sciences as much as they are to religious studies, yet at the same time, there is no evidence fully supporting that none were given to these subjects. Clear examples of the issuing of such ''Ijazah, ijāzahs'' can be seen in numerous manuscripts, or more specifically, in Al-Sakhawi, Shams al-Din al-Sakhawi's multiple collections of manuscript titles and biographies. Further evidence of this was illustrated by al-Sakhawi. He mentioned that in places like Syria and Egypt, it has been suggested that public performances of knowledge, which its conduction was required for one to finally receive their ''Ijazah, ijāzah,'' included mathematics in its content. There are plenty of other examples of the issuance of Ijazah, ''ijazahs'' for scientific subjects. Abu'l-Hasan ibn Ali al-Qalasadi, Ali b. Muhammad al-Qalasadi, a prominent mathematician in his day, was mentioned to be responsible for giving his students an ''Ijazah, ijāzah'' to teach his mathematical treatise on the dust letters. Ibn al-Nafis gave an ''ijazah'' to his student al-Quff for proving sufficient in knowledge of his commentary on the medical book, ''On the Nature of Man''. In addition, a copy of a commentary on Hunayn ibn Ishaq, Hunayn b. Ishaq's, ''Problems of Medicine for Students,'' managed to show that one of its readers had sufficient knowledge in the medical text, ''Synopses of the Alexandrians.'' Later on in this commentary, an ''ijazah'', issued by a physician from Damscus, was present to confirm that one was indeed issued here for said student. Qutb al-Din al-Shirazi was a student of Nasir al-Din al-Tusi who was considered to be a proficient polymath, astronomer, philosopher, and physician who issued an ''ijazah'' to Najm al-Milla wa-l-Din M. b. M. b. Abi Bakr al-Tabrizi. This license was very extensive, allowing him to teach religious, philosophical, and even medical texts like Avicenna, Ibn Sina's first book in his ''The Canon of Medicine, Canon of Medicine''. These are just a few select/historical examples of the issuance of ''ijazahs'' for scientific subjects, thereby proving that such licenses were indeed issued along with those regarding religious studies. There are many more examples of this that are not listed on this page, but can easily be found. When taking this evidence into account, one may then reasonably assume that the presence, teaching, and licensing of certain sciences in madrasas has been historically underrepresented. This information, along with some of what is discussed in the following sections/paragraphs on this page, may now hopefully help one in identifying whether or not madrasas can indeed be classified as "Universities". However, arguments for why they should not be classified as such will later be proposed as well. Medievalist specialists who define the university as a legally autonomous corporation disagree with the term "university" for the Islamic madrasas and ''jāmi‘ah''s because the medieval university (from Latin ''universitas'') was structurally different, being a legally autonomous corporation rather than a ''
waqf A waqf ( ar, وَقْف; ), also known as hubous () or ''mortmain Mortmain () is the perpetual, inalienable ownership of real estate Real estate is property consisting of land and the buildings on it, along with its natural resources ...

waqf
'' institution like the madrasa and '. Despite the many similarities, medieval specialists have coined the term "Islamic college" for madrasa and ' to differentiate them from the legally autonomous corporations that the medieval European universities were. In a sense, the madrasa resembles a university college in that it has most of the features of a university, but lacks the corporate element. Toby Huff summarises the difference as follows: As Muslim institutions of higher learning, the madrasa had the legal designation of
waqf A waqf ( ar, وَقْف; ), also known as hubous () or ''mortmain Mortmain () is the perpetual, inalienable ownership of real estate Real estate is property consisting of land and the buildings on it, along with its natural resources ...

waqf
. In central and eastern Islamic lands, the view that the madrasa, as a charitable endowment, will remain under the control of the donor (and their descendant), resulted in a "spurt" of establishment of madrasas in the 11th and 12th centuries. However, in Western Islamic lands, where the Maliki views prohibited donors from controlling their endowment, madrasas were not as popular. Unlike the corporate designation of Western institutions of higher learning, the waqf designation seemed to have led to the exclusion of non-orthodox religious subjects such a philosophy and natural science from the curricula. The madrasa of al-Qarawīyīn, one of the two surviving madrasas that predate the founding of the earliest medieval universities and are thus claimed to be the "first universities" by some authors, has acquired official university status as late as 1947. The other, al-Azhar, did acquire this status in name and essence only in the course of numerous reforms during the 19th and 20th century, notably the one of 1961 which introduced non-religious subjects to its curriculum, such as economics, engineering, medicine, and agriculture. Many medieval universities were run for centuries as Christian cathedral schools or monastic schools prior to their formal establishment as ''universitas scholarium''; evidence of these immediate forerunners of the university dates back to the 6th century AD, thus well preceding the earliest madrasas. George Makdisi, who has published most extensively on the topic concludes in his comparison between the two institutions: Nevertheless, Makdisi has asserted that the European university borrowed many of its features from the Islamic madrasa, including the concepts of a degree and doctorate. Makdisi and Hugh Goddard have also highlighted other terms and concepts now used in modern universities which most likely have Islamic origins, including "the fact that we still talk of professors holding the 'chairman' of their subject" being based on the "traditional Islamic pattern of teaching where the professor sits on a chair and the students sit around him", the term 'Study circle, academic circles' being derived from the way in which Islamic students "sat in a circle around their professor", and terms such as "having 'fellows', 'Reading education, reading' a subject, and obtaining 'degrees', can all be traced back" to the Islamic concepts of ' ('Sahaba, companions, as of Muhammad'), ' ('reading aloud the Qur'an') and ''ijazah, '' ('licence [to teach]') respectively. Makdisi has listed eighteen such parallels in terminology which can be traced back to their roots in Islamic education. Some of the practices now common in modern universities which Makdisi and Goddard trace back to an Islamic root include "practices such as delivering inaugural lectures, wearing academic robes, obtaining doctorates by defending a thesis, and even the idea of academic freedom are also modelled on Islamic custom." The Islamic scholarly system of ''fatwa, '' and ''ijma, '', meaning opinion and consensus respectively, formed the basis of the "scholarly system the West has practised in university scholarship from the Middle Ages down to the present day." According to Makdisi and Goddard, "the idea of academic freedom" in universities was also "modelled on Islamic custom" as practised in the medieval Madrasa system from the 9th century. Islamic influence was "certainly discernible in the foundation of the first deliberately planned university" in Europe, the University of Naples Federico II founded by Frederick II, Holy Roman Emperor in 1224. However, all of these facets of medieval university life are considered by other scholars to be independent medieval European developments with no necessary Islamic influence. Norman Daniel criticizes Makdisi for overstating his case by simply resting on "the accumulation of close parallels" while failing to point to convincing channels of transmission between the Muslim and Christian world.Norman Daniel: Review of "The Rise of Colleges. Institutions of Learning in Islam and the West by George Makdisi", Journal of the American Oriental Society, Vol. 104, No. 3 (Jul. - Sep., 1984), pp. 586-588 (586f.) Daniel also points out that the Arab equivalent of the Latin disputation, the ''taliqa'', was reserved for the ruler's court, not the madrasa, and that the actual differences between Islamic fiqh and medieval European Civil law (legal system), civil law were profound. The taliqa only reached Islamic Spain, the only likely point of transmission, after the establishment of the first medieval universities. Moroever, there is no Latin translation of the taliqa and, most importantly, no evidence of Latin scholars ever showing awareness of Arab influence on the Latin method of disputation, something they would have certainly found noteworthy. Rather, it was the medieval reception of the Greek Organon which set the scholastic sic et non in motion. Daniel concludes that resemblances in method had more to with the two religions having "common problems: to reconcile the conflicting statements of their own authorities, and to safeguard the data of revelation from the impact of Greek philosophy"; thus Christian scholasticism and similar Arab concepts should be viewed in terms of a parallel occurrence, not of the transmission of ideas from one to the other,Norman Daniel: Review of "The Rise of Colleges. Institutions of Learning in Islam and the West by George Makdisi", Journal of the American Oriental Society, Vol. 104, No. 3 (Jul. - Sep., 1984), pp. 586-588 (587) a view shared by Hugh Kennedy. Toby Huff, in a discussion of Makdisi's hypothesis, argues: George Saliba criticized Huff's views regarding the legal autonomy of European universities and limited curriculum of Madrasahs, demonstrating that there were many Madrasahs dedicated to the teaching of non-religious subjects and arguing that Madrasahs generally had greater legal autonomy than medieval European universities. According to Saliba, Madrasahs "were fully protected from interference in their curriculum by the Waqf, very endowments that established them in the first place." Examples include the Dakhwariyya madrasah in Damascus, which was Medicine in medieval Islam, dedicated to medicine, a subject also taught at Bimaristan, Islamic hospitals; the Madrasah established by Kamal al-Din Ibn Man`a (d. 1242) in Mosul which taught astronomy, Islamic music, music, and the Old Testament, Old the New Testaments; Ulugh Beg’s Madrasah in Samarqand which taught
astronomy Astronomy (from el, ἀστρονομία, literally meaning the science that studies the laws of the stars) is a natural science that studies astronomical object, celestial objects and celestial event, phenomena. It uses mathematics, phys ...
; and Shia Islam, Shi`i madrasahs in
Iran Iran ( fa, ایران ), also called Persia, and officially the Islamic Republic of Iran, is a country in Western Asia Western Asia, West Asia, or Southwest Asia, is the westernmost subregion A subregion is a part of a larger regio ...

Iran
which taught astronomy along with religious studies. According to Saliba:


Female education

Prior to the 12th century, women accounted for less than one percent of the world’s Islamic scholars. However, al-Sakhawi and Mohammad Akram Nadwi have since found evidence of over 8,000 female scholars since the 15th century. al-Sakhawi devotes an entire volume of his 12-volume biographical dictionary ' to female scholars, giving information on 1,075 of them. More recently, the scholar Mohammad Akram Nadwi, currently a researcher from the Oxford Centre for Islamic Studies, has written 40 volumes on the muhaddith, (the women scholars of hadith), and found at least 8,000 of them. From around 750, during the Abbasid Caliphate, women "became renowned for their brains as well as their beauty". In particular, many well known women of the time were trained from childhood in Arabic music, music, dancing and Arabic poetry, poetry. Mahbuba was one of these. Another feminine figure to be remembered for her achievements was Tawaddud, "a slave girl who was said to have been bought at great cost by Harun al-Rashid, because she had passed her examinations by the most eminent Ulema, scholars in
astronomy Astronomy (from el, ἀστρονομία, literally meaning the science that studies the laws of the stars) is a natural science that studies astronomical object, celestial objects and celestial event, phenomena. It uses mathematics, phys ...
, Medicine in medieval Islam, medicine, Sharia, law, Early Islamic philosophy, philosophy, Islamic music, music, Muslim history, history, Arabic grammar, Arabic literature, literature, Islamic theology, theology and chess". Moreover, among the most prominent feminine figures was Shuhda who was known as "the Scholar" or "the Pride of Women" during the 12th century in Baghdad. Despite the recognition of women's aptitudes during the Abbasid dynasty, all these came to an end in Iraq with the Battle of Baghdad (1258), sack of Baghdad in 1258. According to the Sunni scholar Ibn Asakir, in the 12th century, there were opportunities for female education in the Islamic Golden Age, medieval Islamic world, writing that women could study, earn ''ijazahs'' (academic degrees), and qualify as Ulema, scholars and teachers. This was especially the case for learned and scholarly families, who wanted to ensure the highest possible education for both their sons and daughters. Ibn ʻAsakir had himself studied under 80 different female teachers in his time. Female education in the Islamic world was inspired by Muhammad's wives, such as Khadija bint Khuwaylid, Khadijah, a successful businesswoman, and 'A'isha, a strong leader and interpreter of the Prophet's actions. According to a hadith attributed both to Muhammad and 'A'isha, the women of Medina were praiseworthy because of their desire for religious knowledge: Although female madrasas did exist before the 1970s large strides were made is regards to female education. After 1970s a large increase in total female madrasas took place expanded very rapidly across the region. While it was not common for women to enroll as students in formal
classes Class or The Class may refer to: Common uses not otherwise categorized * Class (biology), a taxonomic rank * Class (knowledge representation), a collection of individuals or objects * Class (philosophy), an analytical concept used differently f ...
, it was common for women to attend informal lectures and study sessions at mosques, madrasas and other public places. While there were no legal restrictions on female education, some men did not approve of this practice, such as Muhammad ibn al-Hajj (d. 1336) who was appalled at the behaviour of some women who informally Academic audit, audited lectures in his time: The term ''Awrah, '' is often translated as 'that which is indecent', which usually meant the exposure of anything other than a woman's face and hands, although scholarly interpretations of the ' and hijab, have always tended to vary, with some more or less strict than others.Women played an important role in the foundations of many Islamic educational institutions, such as Fatima al-Fihri's founding of the
al-Qarawiyyin The University of al-Qarawiyyin (; Berber languages, Berber : ⵜⴰⵙⴷⴰⵡⵉⵜ ⵏ ⵍⵇⴰⵕⴰⵡⵉⵢⵢⵉⵏ; french: Université Al Quaraouiyine), also written Al-Karaouine or Al Quaraouiyine, is a university located in Fez, Moroc ...
mosque in 859, which later developed into a madrasa. The role of female patrons was also evident during the Ayyubid dynasty in the 12th and 13th centuries, when 160 mosques and madrasas were established in Damascus, 26 of which were funded by women through the ''waqf'' (charitable trust) system. Half of all the royal patrons for these institutions were also women. Royal women were also major patrons of culture and architecture in the Ottoman Empire, founding many ''külliye''s (religious and charitable complexes) that included madrasas. While madrasas continue to play a pivotal role in the education of many, including young girls, there are still some cultural norms that find their way into the hallways and classrooms of these institutions. In article from 2021, Hem Borker, a professor at Jamia Millia Islamia, had the opportunity to travel to India and see the daily life of girls at a residential madrasa. In these madrasas in Northern India, young girls have the ability to receive an education, however, many of the practices within these institutions can be seen as very restrictive or at least by Western standards. Many madrasas that enroll girls act as "purdah institutions." In Persian, purdah translates to curtain or cover. With respect to these madrasas in Northern India, a purdah institution is an institution in which there are several guidelines female students must adhere to as a way to cover themselves both physically and culturally, These restrictions are based on the students' gender and create a segregation of sorts. Girls are expected to wear veils over their faces and cover their entire bodies as a means of dressing modestly by cultural standards. In addition to the clothes that these girls wear, the physical building itself also adheres to the ideals of a purdah institution. Classrooms and hallways are separated by gender in order to prevent fraternization. Within many of these madrasas, even the windows are lined with metal grills in order to prevent students from looking to the outside as well as to prevent people on the outside to look inward. In addition to the physical layout of the building, there are a series of rules female students must adhere to. Some of these rules include girls must lower their head and their voice when addressing their male counterparts. As they pass windows, even with barriers blocking most of their view to the outside and blocking the view of those on the outside, they are expected to lower their gaze. Going back to the idea of clothing, they must wear a niqāb in order to go outside. Within a cultural context, these rules are very appropriate. In addition to teaching specific subject academic content, institutions such as these purdah madrasas are also incorporating appropriate cultural and societal behavior outside the walls of the building.


Architecture


Architectural origins

Madrasas were generally centered around an interior courtyard and the classical madrasa form generally featured four iwans (vaulted chambers open on one side) arranged symmetrically around the courtyard. The origin of this architectural model may have been Buddhism, Buddhist Vihāra, monasteries in Transoxiana (Central Asia), of which some early surviving remains demonstrate this type of layout. Another possible origin may have been domestic houses in the region of Khorasan Province, Khorasan. Practically none of the first madrasas founded under
Nizam al-Mulk Abu Ali Hasan ibn Ali Tusi (April 10, 1018 – October 14, 1092), better known by his honorific title of Nizam al-Mulk ( fa, نظام‌الملک, , Order of the Realm) was a Persian Persian may refer to: * People and things from Iran, histori ...
(Seljuk Empire, Seljuk vizier between 1064 and 1092) have survived, though partial remains of one madrasa in Khar Gerd, Khargerd, Iran, include an iwan and an inscription attributing it to Nizam al-Mulk. Nonetheless, it is clear that the Seljuks constructed many madrasas across their empire within a relatively short period of time, thus spreading both the idea of this institution and the architectural models on which later examples were based.


Evolution and spread across different regions


Seljuk Anatolia

In contrast to early Iranian Seljuk madrasas, a large number of madrasas from the Anatolian Seljuk Empire (between 1077 and 1308) have survived, and are the closest examples we have of Iranian-influenced early madrasa architecture. However, though each usually included a large central courtyard, their overall layouts were more variable and may have reflected more multi-purpose functions, often with an attached mausoleum, a minaret, and an ornate entrance portal. The courtyards were sometimes covered by a large dome (as with the Karatay Madrasa, Konya, Karatay Madrasa, founded in 1279, and other madrasas in Konya), reflecting an ongoing transition to domed Islamic buildings in Anatolia and later Ottoman architecture.


Syria and Egypt

In Syria and the surrounding region, the earliest madrasas were often relatively small buildings, the earliest example of which is one in
Bosra Bosra ( ar, بُصْرَىٰ, Buṣrā), also spelled Bostra, Busrana, Bozrah, Bozra and officially called Busra al-Sham ( ar, بُصْرَىٰ ٱلشَّام, Buṣrā al-Shām), is a town in southern Syria, administratively belonging to the Daraa ...

Bosra
founded in 1136–37. Madrasa architecture in this region appears to have evolved out of Seljuk prototypes. Another early important example is the Nur al-Din Madrasa, Madrasa of Nur al-Din from 1167. Under the Ayyubid dynasty madrasas began to take on added importance, with the first madrasa in Egypt (no longer extant) being built by (Saladin) in 1180 next to the Mausoleum of Imam al-Shafi'i in Cairo's City of the Dead (Cairo), Qarafa Cemetery. As with the earlier Seljuk madrasas, is likely that these foundations were motivated by a desire to counteract the influence of
Isma'ili Ismāʿīlism ( ar, الإسماعيلية, ''al-ʾIsmāʿīlīyah''; fa, اسماعیلیان, ''Esmâ'īliyân'') is a branch or sub-sect of Shia Islam. The Ismāʿīlī () get their name from their acceptance of Imam Isma'il ibn Jafar, Ism ...
proselytism and propaganda efforts during the Fatimid Caliphate. Among the surviving Ayyubid madrasas in Egypt are the remains of the Madrasa of al-Kamil (founded by Sultan Al-Kamil, al-Kamil Ayyub in 1229) and the more important Salihiyya Madrasa, Madrasa al-Salihiyya founded by Sultan As-Salih Ayyub, al-Salih Ayyub founded in 1242, to which was later attached al-Salih's mausoleum. In Syria, an exceptional example of a monumental madrasa from this period is the al-Firdaws Madrasa in Aleppo. Many more examples from this period, however, have not survived. Although it is not fastest growing, in todays time madrasas are still expanding a rapid rate within the population in Egypt.After the faltering of the Ayyubid dynasty and the transition to the Mamluk Sultanate (Cairo), Mamluk Sultanate around 1250, the Mamluks became eager patrons of architecture. Many of their projects involved the construction of madrasas as part of larger multi-functional religious complexes, usually attached to their personal mausoleums, which provided services to the general population while also promoting their own prestige and pious reputations. In Egyptian Mamluk architecture, which largely used stone, the madrasa layout generally had two prominent iwans which were aligned to the ''qibla'' and faced each other across a central courtyard, while two "lateral" iwans faced each across each on the other two sides of the courtyard. Prominent examples of these include the madrasa of the Qalawun complex, Sultan Qalawun complex (built in 1284–1285) and the neighbouring Madrassa of Al-Nasir Muhammad, complex of his son al-Nasir Muhammad (finished in 1304). One exceptional madrasa, which also served as a mosque and was easily one of the most massive structures of its time, was the monumental Mosque-Madrassa of Sultan Hassan, Madrasa-Mosque of Sultan Hasan (built from 1356 to 1363), with a large central courtyard surrounded by four enormous iwans. While the unique Madrasa of Sultan Hasan provided instruction in all four Sunni Madhhab, legal schools of thought, most madrasas and mosques in Egypt followed the Shafi‘i school, Shafi'i school. Moreover, due to the already dense urban fabric of Cairo, Mamluk architectural complexes adopted increasingly irregular and creatively designed floor plans to compensate for limited space while simultaneously attempting to maximize their prominence and visibility from the street. While Mamluk architecture outside Cairo was generally of lesser quality and craftsmanship, there were nonetheless many examples. The Al-Zahiriyah Library, Madrasa al-Zahiriyya in Damascus, which contains the mausoleum of Sultan Baibars, Baybars I, is still essentially Ayyubid in style. The city of Tripoli, Lebanon, Tripoli in Lebanon also holds a concentration of Mamluk-era architecture, including madrasas. However, the most significant Mamluk archtiectural patronage outside of Cairo is likely in Jerusalem, as with the example of the major Madrasa Al-Ashrafiyya, al-Ashrafiyya Madrasa on the Temple Mount (''Haram al-Sharif''), which was rebuilt in its current form by Sultan Qaitbay, Qaytbay in the late 15th century.


Maghreb (North Africa)

In northwestern Africa (the ''Maghrib'' or Maghreb), including Morocco, Algeria, and Tunisia, madrasas began to be constructed in the 13th century under the Marinid Sultanate, Marinid and Hafsid dynasty, Hafsid dynasties. In Tunisia (or
Ifriqiya Ifriqiya ( '), also known as al-Maghrib al-Adna ( ar, المغرب الأدنى), was a medieval historical region comprising today's Tunisia and eastern Algeria, and Tripolitania (today's western Libya). It included all of what had previously ...
), the earliest Hafsid madrasa was the Madrasa Ech Chamaiya, Madrasa al-Shamma'iyya founded in 1238 (or in 1249 according to some sources). In Morocco, the first madrasa was the Saffarin Madrasa, Madrasa as-Saffarin built in Fes in 1271, followed by many others constructed around the country. The main architectural highlights among these are the Sahrij Madrasa, Madrasa as-Sahrij (built in 1321–1328), the Al-Attarine Madrasa, Madrasa al-Attarin (built in 1323–1325), and the Madrasa of Abu al-Hasan, Madrasa of Salé (completed in 1341), all of which are lavishly decorated with sculpted wood, carved stucco, and ''zellij'' mosaic tilework. The
Bou Inania Madrasa The Madrasa Bou Inania (; ) is a madrasah, madrasa in Fes, Morocco, built in 1350–55 Common Era, CE by Abu Inan Faris. It is widely acknowledged as a high point of Marinid architecture and of historic Moroccan architecture generally. History ...

Bou Inania Madrasa
in Fes, built in 1350–1355, distinguished itself from other madrasas by its size and by being the only madrasa which also officially functioned as a public Jama masjid, Friday mosque. The Marinids also built madrasas in Algeria, particularly in Tlemcen. In Morocco, madrasas were generally built in brick and wood and were still centered around a main internal courtyard with a central fountain or water basin, around which student dorms were distributed across one or two floors. A prayer hall or mosque chamber usually stood opposite the entrance on one side of the courtyard. The Bou Inania Madrasa in Fes also contained two side-chambers opening off the lateral sides of its courtyard, which may reflect an influence of the older four-iwan layout. However, most other Moroccan madrasas did not have this feature and the courtyards were instead flanked by ornate Gallery (architecture), galleries. By contrast with Mamluk structures to the east, Moroccan and Maghrebi madrasas were not prominently distinguishable from the outside except for an ornate entrance portal decorated with carved wood and stucco. This model continued to be found in later madrasas like the Ben Youssef Madrasa of the 16th century in Marrakesh.


Iran, Iraq, and Central Asia

Very few if any formal madrasas from before the Mongol invasion of Iran, Mongol invasions have survived in Iran. One exception is the Mustansiriya Madrasah, Mustansiriyya Madrasa in Baghdad, which dates from 1227 and is also the earliest "universal" madrasa, which is to say the first madrasa that taught all four Sunni ''Madhhab, maddhab''s (legal schools of thought). Later, the Mongol Ilkhanate, Ilkhanid dynasty and the many dynasties that followed them (e.g. the Timurid dynasty, Timurids and Safavid Iran, Safavids) nonetheless built numerous monumental madrasas, many of which are excellent examples of Iranian architecture, Iranian Islamic architecture. In some cases, these madrasas were directly attached and integrated into larger mosques, as with those attached to the Shah Mosque (Isfahan), Shah Mosque in Isfahan (17th century). In other cases they were built as more or less separate entities, such as with the Chaharbagh School, Chahar Bagh Madrasa (also in Isfahan, 17th-18th centuries), or the 15th-century Timurid Ulugh Beg Madrasa, Samarkand, Ulugh Beg Madrasa and two other monumental 17th-century madrasas at the Registan complex in Samarkand. The form of the madrasa does not appear to have changed significantly over time in this region. The Timurid period (late 14th and 15th century), however, was a "golden age" of Iranian madrasas, during which the four-iwan model was made much larger and more monumental, on a par with major mosques, thanks to intense patronage from Timur and his successors. Madrasas in the Iranian architectural tradition continued to be centered around a large square or rectangular courtyard with a central water basin and surrounded by a one or two-story Arcade (architecture), arcade. Either two or four large iwans stood at the ends of the central axes of the courtyard.


Ottoman Empire

Ottoman architecture evolved out of its Anatolian Seljuk predecessors into a particular style. In the classical Ottoman period (15th-16th centuries), the typical form of the madrasa had become a large courtyard surrounded by an arched gallery covered by a series of domes, similar to the ''sahn'' (courtyard) of imperial mosques. Madrasas were generally limited to a main ground floor, and were often built as auxiliary buildings to a central mosque which anchored a ''
külliye A külliye ( ota, كلية) is a complex of buildings associated with Turkish architecture centered on a mosque and managed within a single institution, often based on a waqf (charitable foundation) and composed of a madrasa, a Dar al-Shifa ("cli ...
'' or charitable complex. This marked a certain departure from other madrasa styles as it emphasized the feeling of space for its own sake instead of focusing on the practical function of housing as many students as possible within a small area. This is evident in the ''külliye'' complex of Muhammad the Conqueror, Mehmet II Fatih, which included 16 madrasa buildings arranged symmetrically around the Fatih Mosque, Istanbul, Fatih Mosque. The Süleymaniye Mosque, Süleymaniye complex, often considered the apogee of Ottoman architecture, included four madrasas as part of a vast and carefully designed architectural ensemble at the top of one of Istanbul's highest hills.


Madrasas by region


Ottoman Empire

"The first Ottoman Medrese was created in İznik in 1331 and most Ottoman medreses followed the traditions of Sunni Islam." "When an Ottoman sultan established a new medrese, he would invite scholars from the Islamic world—for example, Murad II brought scholars from Persia, such as ʻAlāʼ al-Dīn and Fakhr al-Dīn who helped enhance the reputation of the Ottoman medrese". This reveals that the Islamic world was interconnected in the early modern period as they travelled around to other Islamic states exchanging knowledge. This sense that the Ottoman Empire was becoming modernised through globalization is also recognised by Hamadeh who says: "Change in the eighteenth century as the beginning of a long and unilinear march toward westernisation reflects the two centuries of reformation in sovereign identity." İnalcık also mentions that while scholars from for example Persia travelled to the Ottomans in order to share their knowledge, Ottomans travelled as well to receive education from scholars of these Islamic lands, such as Egypt, Persia and Turkestan. Hence, this reveals that similar to today's modern world, individuals from the early modern society travelled abroad to receive education and share knowledge and that the world was more interconnected than it seems. Also, it reveals how the system of "schooling" was also similar to today's modern world where students travel abroad to different countries for studies. Examples of Ottoman madrasas are the ones built by Muhammad the Conqueror. He built eight madrasas that were built "on either side of the mosque where there were eight higher madrasas for specialised studies and eight lower medreses, which prepared students for these." The fact that they were built around, or near mosques reveals the religious impulses behind madrasa building and it reveals the interconnectedness between institutions of learning and religion. The students who completed their education in the lower medreses became known as danismends. This reveals that similar to the education system today, the Ottomans' educational system involved different kinds of schools attached to different kinds of levels. For example, there were lower madrasas and specialised ones, and for one to get into the specialised area meant that he had to complete the classes in the lower one in order to adequately prepare himself for higher learning. This is the rank of madrasas in the Ottoman Empire from the highest ranking to the lowest: (From İnalcık, 167). # Semniye # Darulhadis # Madrasas built by earlier sultans in Bursa. # Madrasas endowed by great men of state. Although Ottoman madrasas had a number of different branches of study, such as calligraphic sciences, oral sciences, and intellectual sciences, they primarily served the function of an Islamic centre for spiritual learning. Often mentioned by critics that madrasas did not include a variety of natural sciences during the time of the ottoman empire, madrasas included curriculums that included a wide range of natural sciences. There were many well-known Muslim scholars, mathematicians, and scientists that all worked to teach high-ranking families and children of the sciences. it known that "The goal of all knowledge and in particular, of the spiritual sciences is knowledge of God." Religion, for the most part, determines the significance and importance of each science. As İnalcık mentions: "Those which aid religion are good and sciences like astrology are bad." However, even though mathematics, or studies in logic were part of the madrasa's curriculum, they were all primarily concerned with religion. Even mathematics had a religious impulse behind its teachings. "The Ulema of the Ottoman medreses held the view that hostility to logic and mathematics was futile since these accustomed the mind to correct thinking and thus helped to reveal divine truths" – key word being "divine". İnalcık also mentions that even philosophy was only allowed to be studied so that it helped to confirm the doctrines of Islam." Hence, madrasas – schools were basically religious centres for religious teachings and learning in the Ottoman world. Although scholars such as Goffman have argued that the Ottomans were highly tolerant and lived in a pluralistic society, it seems that schools that were the main centres for learning were in fact heavily religious and were not religiously pluralistic, but rather Islamic in nature. Similarly, in Europe "Jewish children learned the Hebrew letters and texts of basic prayers at home, and then attended a school organised by the synagogue to study the Torah."Wiesner-Hanks, E. Merry. ''Early Modern Europe 1450–1789''. New York: U of Cambridge P, 2006. Wiesner-Hanks also says that Protestants also wanted to teach "proper religious values." This shows that in the early modern period, Ottomans and Europeans were similar in their ideas about how schools should be managed and what they should be primarily focused on. Thus, Ottoman madrasas were very similar to present day schools in the sense that they offered a wide range of studies; however, these studies, in their ultimate objective, aimed to further solidify and consolidate Islamic practices and theories.


Curricula

As is previously mentioned, religion dominated much of the knowledge and teachings that were endowed upon students. "Religious learning as the only true science, whose sole aim was the understanding of God's word." The following is taken from İnalcık.
* A) Calligraphic sciences—such as styles of writing. * B) Oral sciences—such as Arabic language, grammar and syntax. * C) Intellectual sciences—logic in Islamic philosophy. * D) Spiritual sciences—theoretical, such as Islamic theology and mathematics; and practical, such as Islamic ethics and politics.


Social life and the medrese

As with any other country during the Early Modern Period, such as Italy and Spain in Europe, the Ottoman social life was interconnected with the medrese. Medreses were built in as part of a Mosque complex where many programmes, such as aid to the poor through soup kitchens, were held under the infrastructure of a mosque, which reveals the interconnectedness of religion and social life during this period. "The mosques to which medreses were attached, dominated the social life in Ottoman cities."Goffman, Daniel. ''The Ottoman Empire and Early Modern Europe''. United Kingdom: U of Cambridge P, 2002. Social life was not dominated by religion only in the Muslim world of the Ottoman Empire; it was also quite similar to the social life of Europe during this period. As Goffman says: "Just as mosques dominated social life for the Ottomans, churches and synagogues dominated life for the Christians and Jews as well." Hence, social life and the medrese were closely linked, since medreses taught many curricula, such as religion, which highly governed social life in terms of establishing orthodoxy. "They tried moving their developing state toward Islamic orthodoxy." Overall, the fact that mosques contained medreses comes to show the relevance of education to religion in the sense that education took place within the framework of religion and religion established social life by trying to create a common religious orthodoxy. Hence, medreses were simply part of the social life of society as students came to learn the fundamentals of their societal values and beliefs.


Maghreb

In northwestern Africa (the ''Maghrib'' or Maghreb), including
Morocco ) , image_map = Morocco (orthographic projection, WS claimed).svg , map_caption = Location of Morocco in northwest Africa.Dark green: Undisputed territory of Morocco.Lighter green: Western Sahara, a United Nations lis ...

Morocco
, Algeria, and Tunisia, the appearance of madrasas was delayed until after the fall of the Almohad Caliphate, Almohad dynasty, who espoused a Almohad reforms, reformist doctrine generally considered unorthodox by other Sunnis. As such, it only came to flourish in the region in the 13th century, under the Marinid Sultanate, Marinid and Hafsid dynasty, Hafsid dynasties which succeeded them. In Tunisia (or
Ifriqiya Ifriqiya ( '), also known as al-Maghrib al-Adna ( ar, المغرب الأدنى), was a medieval historical region comprising today's Tunisia and eastern Algeria, and Tripolitania (today's western Libya). It included all of what had previously ...
), the earliest Hafsid madrasa was the ''Madrasat al-Ma'raḍ'', founded in Tunis in 1252 and followed by many others. In Morocco, the first madrasa was the Saffarin Madrasa, Madrasa as-Saffarin built in Fes in 1271, followed by many others constructed around the country.Kubisch, Natascha (2011). "Maghreb - Architecture" in Hattstein, Markus and Delius, Peter (eds.) ''Islam: Art and Architecture''. h.f.ullmann. The Marinids also built madrasas in Algeria, particularly in Tlemcen. As elsewhere, rulers in the Maghreb built madrasas to bolster their political legitimacy and that of their dynasty. The Marinids used their patronage of madrasas to cultivate the loyalty of Morocco's influential but independent religious elites and also to portray themselves to the general population as protectors and promoters of orthodox Sunni Islam. Madrasas also served to train the scholars and educated elites who generally operated the state bureaucracy. A number of madrasas also played a supporting role to major learning institutions like the older University of al-Qarawiyyin, Qarawiyyin Mosque-University and the Andalusian Mosque, al-Andalusiyyin Mosque (both located in Fes) because they provided accommodations for students coming from other cities. Many of these students were poor, seeking sufficient education to gain a higher position in their home towns, and the madrasas provided them with basic necessities such as lodging and bread. However, the madrasas were also teaching institutions in their own right and offered their own courses, but usually with much narrower and more limited curriculums than the Qarawiyyin. The
Bou Inania Madrasa The Madrasa Bou Inania (; ) is a madrasah, madrasa in Fes, Morocco, built in 1350–55 Common Era, CE by Abu Inan Faris. It is widely acknowledged as a high point of Marinid architecture and of historic Moroccan architecture generally. History ...

Bou Inania Madrasa
in Fes, distinguished itself from other madrasas by its size and by being the only madrasa which also officially functioned as a public Jama masjid, Friday mosque. While some historical madrasas in Morocco remained in use well into the 20th century, most are no longer used for their original purpose following the reorganization of the Moroccan education system under French Protectorate in Morocco, French colonial rule and in the period following independence in 1956. Likewise, while some madrasas are still used for learning in Tunisia, many have since been converted to other uses in modern times.


South Asia


Afghanistan

As of early 2021, Afghanistan had some 5000 madrasas registered with the Ministry of Hajj and Religious Affairs (unregistered ones being uncounted) with around 250 in Kabul, including the Darul-Ulom Imam Abu Hanifa which has 200 teachers and 3000 students, and in all, some 380,000 students were enrolled in these government recognized madrasas, including 55,000 girls.


Bangladesh

There are three different madrasa education systems in Bangladesh: the original darse nizami system, the redesigned nizami system, and the higher syllabus alia nisab. The first two categories are commonly called Qawmi or non-government madrasas. Amongst them the most notable are Al-Jamiatul Ahlia Darul Ulum Moinul Islam in Hathazari, Al-Jamiah Al-Islamiah Patiya, in Patiya, and Jamia Tawakkulia Renga Madrasah in Sylhet. In 2006 there were 15,000 registered Qawmi madrasas with the Befaqul Mudarressin of Bangladesh Qawmi Madrasah Education Board, though the figure could be well over double that number if unregistered madrasas were counted.Ahmed, Samina.
Testimony of Samina Ahmed to U.S. Senate Foreign Relations Committee
''. 19 Apr 2005.
The madrasas regulated by the government through the Bangladesh Madrasah Education Board are called the Alia madrasas and they number some 7,000, offering, in addition to religious instruction, subjects such as English and science, and its graduates often complete their education in secular institutions, to the extent that some 32% of the university teachers in the humanities and the social sciences are graduates of these Alia madrasas.


India

In 2008, India's madrassas were estimated to number between 8000 and 30,000, the state of Uttar Pradesh hosting most of them, estimated by the Indian government to have 10,000 of those back then. The majority of these schools follow the Hanafi school of thought. The religious establishment forms part of the mainly two large divisions within the country, namely the Deobandis, who dominate in numbers (of whom the Darul Uloom Deoband constitutes one of the biggest madrasas) and the Barelvis, who also make up a sizeable portion (Sufi-oriented). Some notable establishments include: Aljamea-tus-Saifiyah (Isma'ilism), Al Jamiatul Ashrafia, Mubarakpur, Manzar Islam Bareilly, Jamia Nizamdina New Delhi, Jamia Nayeemia Muradabad which is one of the largest learning centres for the Barelvis. The HR ministry of the government of India has recently declared that a Central Madrasa Board would be set up. This will enhance the education system of madrasas in India. Though the madrasas impart Quranic education mainly, efforts are on to include Mathematics, Computers and science in the curriculum. In July 2015, the state government of Maharashtra created a stir when it de-recognised madrasa education, receiving criticism from several political parties with the NCP accusing the ruling BJP of creating Hindu-Muslim friction in the state, and Kamal Farooqui of the All India Muslim Personal Law Board saying it was "ill-designed"


= Expansion

= After the establishment of the British Raj and the emergence of Darul Ulum Manazar-e Islam Bareilly Sharif, Indian Muslim Scholars left India to establish madrasas in other regions of the world. Some of the most notable of these madrasas are Darul Ulum Holocombe, which produced scholars such as Shaikh Ibrahim Memon Madani, or Darul Uloom Al-Madania. These offshoot schools symbolise an emotional drive based upon both religion and patriotism that is not evident elsewhere.


= In Kerala

= Most of the Muslims of Kerala follow the traditional Shafi'i, Shāfiʿī school of religious law (known in Kerala as the traditionalist 'Sunnis') while a large minority follow modern movements that developed within Sunni Islam.Miller, E. Roland. "Mappila Muslim Culture" State University of New York Press, Albany (2015); p. xi.Miller, R. E. "Mappila" in ''The Encyclopedia of Islam'' Volume VI. Leiden E. J. Brill 1988 p. 458-6

/ref> The latter section consists of majority Salafi movement, Salafists (the Mudjahids) and the minority Islamism, Islamists (political Islam). * A 'madrasa' in Kerala refers to institution where children receive basic Arabic language and (Islamic) religious instruction.OSELLA, FILIPPO, and CAROLINE OSELLA. “Islamism and Social Reform in Kerala, South India.” ''Modern Asian Studies'', vol. 42, no. 2-3, 2008, pp. 317–346., doi:10.1017/S0026749X07003198. * The so-called 'Arabic Colleges' of Kerala are the equivalent of north Indian madrasas.


Pakistan

It is sometimes speculated that parents send their children to madrasas in Pakistan due to the inability to afford a good education. Although Madrasas are free they do provide adequate education for their students. It is sometimes speculated that due to lower quality of education those who finish have a hard time finding employment. Those who attended Madrasas have problem finding a job soon after. The education those receive madrasas in Pakistan closely resembles public institutions in the United States. The madrasas rose as colleges of learning in the Islamic world in the 11th century, though there were institutions of learning earlier. They catered not only to the religious establishment, though that was the dominant influence over them, but also the secular one. To the latter they supplied physicians, administrative officials, judges and teachers. Today many registered madrasas are working effectively and coping up with modern education system such as Jamia-tul-Madina, which is a chain of Islamic schools in Pakistan and in European and other countries established by Dawat-e-Islami. The Jamia-tul-Madina are also known as Faizan-e-Madina. Dawat-e-Islami has grown its network of madrasas from Pakistan to Europe. In todays time the most centralized location of madrasas is in Pakistan. Although Pakistan hold the most Madrasas the number is still growing in many different countries.


Nepal

Nepal has 907 madrasas recognized on the same level as government schools but the total number in the country is around 4000.


Southeast Asia

In Southeast Asia, Muslim students have a choice of attending a secular government or an Islamic school. Madrasas or Islamic schools are known as ''Sekolah Agama'' ( ms, religious school) in Malaysia and Indonesia, โรงเรียนศาสนาอิสลาม ( th, school of Islam) in Thailand and ''madaris'' in the Philippines. In countries where Islam is not the majority or state religion, Islamic schools are found in regions such as southern Thailand (near the Thai-Malaysian border) and the southern Philippines in Mindanao, where a significant Muslim population can be found.


Indonesia

The number of madrasas more than doubled from 2002/2003 to 2011/2012, going from 63,000 to 145,000, unrecognized madrasas accounting for 17% of all schools in the country while the recognized madrasas account for nearly 1/3 of the secondary schools. The word ''madrasah'' in Indonesia is also refer to secular-style public and private schools with more Islamic subjects in its curriculum. There are several levels of ''madrasah'': ''Madrasah Ibtidaiyah'' (MI, the equivalent of elementary school), ''Madrasah Tsanawiyah'' (MTs, the equivalent of junior high school), ''Madrasah Aliyah'' (MA, the equivalent of senior high school), and ''Madrasah Aliyah Kejuruan'' (MAK, the equivalent of vocational high school).


Singapore

In Singapore, madrasahs are private schools which are overseen by Majlis Ugama Islam Singapura (MUIS, ''Islamic Religious Council of Singapore''). There are six Madrasahs in Singapore, catering to students from Primary 1 to Secondary 4 (and Junior college (Singapore), junior college equivalent, or "Pre-U", at several schools). Four Madrasahs are coeducational and two are for girls. Students take a range of Islamic Studies subjects in addition to mainstream Ministry of Education (Singapore), MOE curriculum subjects and sit for the Primary School Leaving Examination, PSLE and Singapore-Cambridge GCE Ordinary Level, GCE 'O' Levels like their peers. In 2009, MUIS introduced the "Joint Madrasah System" (JMS), a joint collaboration of Madrasah Al-Irsyad Al-Islamiah primary school and secondary schools Madrasah Aljunied Al-Islamiah (offering the ''ukhrawi'', or religious stream) and Madrasah Al-Arabiah Al-Islamiah (offering the academic stream). The JMS aims to introduce the International Baccalaureate (IB) programme into the Madrasah Al-Arabiah Al-Islamiah by 2019. Students attending a madrasah are required to wear the traditional Malay attire, including the songkok for boys and tudong for girls, in contrast to mainstream government schools which ban religious headgear as Singapore is officially a secular state. Students who wish to attend a mainstream school may opt to take classes on weekends at the ''madrasah'' instead of enrolling full-time.


Philippines

According to a 2006 International Religious Freedom Report of the US State Department the country has some 2000 madrasas, with half of them located in Mindanao. In 2004, madrasas were mainstreamed in 16 Regions of the Philippines, Regions nationwide, primarily in Muslim-majority areas in Mindanao under the auspices of the Department of Education (Philippines), Department of Education (DepEd). The DepEd adopted ''Department Order No. 51'', which instituted Arabic-language and Islamic Values instruction for Muslim children in state schools, and authorised implementation of the Standard Madrasa Curriculum (SMC) in private-run madrasas. While there are state-recognised Islamic schools, such as Ibn Siena Integrated School in the Islamic City of Marawi, Sarang Bangun LC in Zamboanga City, Zamboanga and SMIE in Jolo, their Islamic studies programmes initially varied in application and content. Since 2005, the AusAID-funded DepEd project Basic Education Assistance for Mindanao (BEAM) has assisted a group of private madrasas seeking a Permit To Operate from the government and implement the SMC. These private madrasas are scattered throughout Davao Region, SOCCSKSARGEN Region, Soccsksargen and the Autonomous Region in Muslim Mindanao (ARMM). In Bangsamoro, which succeeded the ARMM, the eligibility of Madrasa teachers are covered by the autonomous region's education code. Prospect teachers barring any exception will have to take special examinations organized by the region's education ministry in order to secure their eligibility.


Western countries


South Africa

In South Africa, the madrasas also play a social and cultural role in giving after-school religious instruction to children of Muslims who attend government or private non-religious schools. However, substantial numbers of Muslim children attend fully-fledged private Islamic schools, which combine secular and religious education. Among Muslims of Indian South Africans, Indian origin, madrasas also used to provide instruction in Urdu, although this is far less common today than it used to be.


Canada

The first Madressa established in North America, Al-Rashid Islamic Institute, was established in Cornwall, Ontario in 1983 and has graduates who are Hafiz (Quran) and Ulama. The seminary was established by Mazhar Alam under the direction of his teacher the leading Indian Tablighi scholar Muhammad Zakariya Kandhlawi and focuses on the Hanafi school of thought. Due to its proximity to the US border city of Messina the school has historically had a high ratio of US students. Their most prominent graduate Shaykh Muhammad Alshareef completed his Hifz in the early 1990s then went on to form the AlMaghrib Institute.


United States

On May 26, 2012, Congressman André Carson of Indiana called for additional madrasas in the United States. There is a madrassa in Woodside, Queens, Queens, NY called Shia Ithna-Asheri Jamaat of New York. Presently, the Darul Uloom in New York City, an affiliate of Darul Uloom Haqqania in Pakistan, also serves as a madrassa.


Common misconceptions

In the Arabic language, the word ''madrasa'' (مدرسه) means any educational institution, of any description, (as does the term ''school'' in American English) and does not imply a political or religious affiliation, not even one as broad as Islam in the general sense. Madrasas often have varied curricula. A large misconception is that madrasas only focused on the study of religion which is not true. Madrasas often included many different topics in their curriculum. Some madrasas in India, for example, have a secularised identity. Although early madrasas were founded primarily to gain "knowledge of God" they also taught subjects such as mathematics and poetry. For example, in the Ottoman Empire, "Madrasahs had seven categories of sciences that were taught, such as: styles of writing, oral sciences like the Arabic language, grammar, rhetoric, and history and intellectual sciences, such as logic." This is similar to the Western world, in which universities began as institutions of the Roman Catholic Church, Catholic church. The Yale Center for the Study of Globalization examined bias in United States newspaper coverage of Pakistan since the September 11, 2001 attacks, and found the term has come to contain a loaded political meaning:
When articles mentioned "madrassas," readers were led to infer that all schools so-named are anti-American, anti-Western, pro-terrorist centres having less to do with teaching basic literacy and more to do with political indoctrination.
Various American public figures have, in recent times, used the word in a negative context, including Newt Gingrich, Donald Rumsfeld, and Colin Powell. ''The New York Times'' published in January 2007 a correction for misusing the word "madrassa" in a way that assumed it meant a radical Islamic school. The correction stated:
An article [...] about a pointed exchange [...] over a Web site report that said Senator Barack Obama had attended an Islamic school or madrassa in Indonesia as a child referred imprecisely to madrassas. While some [madrassas] teach a radical version of Islam, most historically have not.
There are many other instances where attempts to deem madrasas as just radical Islamic schools were made. In the year 2000, an article from ''Foreign Affairs'', authored by university professor Jessica Stern, claimed that specifically Pakistani madrasas were responsible for responsible for the development of thousands of jihadists/terrorists, and that they were essentially weapons of mass destruction. During the time of the article's release, videos surfaced of young boys intensely memorizing/studying the Quran, thus facilitating the false stereotype that madrasas brainwash and breed children to becoming future jihadists. This stereotype was even further accentuated following the events of September 11 attacks, 9/11. After this event, the United States implemented a plan to force Pakistan to completely shut down all madrasas that have links to militant groups, and to persuade madrasa students to instead attend public schools. Such a reaction and belief of the ties between Pakistan's madrasas and militancy were especially prominent during these times, and even in modern day society to a similar extent, due to false assumptions regarding the roles of madrasas in upbringing militant groups, the prevalence of enrollment in such institutions, and more. To touch more on the prevalence of enrollment in Pakistan's madrasas, a 2005 study by Andrabi and others could be looked at. According to the study's results, seventy-five percent of all households that send one child to a madrasa also tended to incorporate public and private schools for the education of the rest of their children (Those who were not sent to a madrasa). Therefore, only twenty-five percent of all households relied solely on madrasas for the education of all their children. When taking this into account, one can see that enrollment in madrasas is not as prevalent as many people would assume due to parental choice being a strong deciding factor.


See also

*Bias in education *Education in Islam * Beth midrash,
midrasha 250px, Founding Beit Yaakov Teachers' Seminary, Kraków, Poland A ' (Hebrew Hebrew (, , or ) is a Northwest Semitic languages, Northwest Semitic language of the Afroasiatic languages, Afroasiatic language family. Historically, ...
, and Yeshiva—Jewish religious schooling * Dars-e Nizamiyyah—most common madrasa curriculum in South Asia * Darul uloom—another similar type of Islamic school *Education in Mali * Hawza—used in Shi'a Islam * Islamic architecture * Islamic studies * List of Islamic seminaries * List of oldest madrasahs in continuous operation * Maktab (disambiguation), Maktab * Zawiya (institution), Zawiya


References


Citations


Sources

* * Esplanada, Jerry E. (2009-07-20). "Mainstreaming Madrasa. The Philippine Daily Inquirer." Retrieved 2010-11-25.


Further reading

* Sultan Ali of Sawabi. ''Madrasah Reform and State Power in Pakistan'' (2012) * Ali, Saleem H
"Islam and Education: Conflict and Conformity in Pakistan's Madrassas"
Oxford University Press, 2009. * Evans, Alexander

''Foreign Affairs'', Jan/Feb 2006. * Malik, Jamal (ed.)
''Madrasas in South Asia: Teaching Terror?''
London and New York: Routledge, 2008. * Malik, Jamal. ''Colonialization of Islam: Dissolution of Traditional Institutions in Pakistan''. New Delhi: Manohar Publications, and Lahore: Vanguard Ltd., 1996. * Rahman, Tariq
''Denizens of Alien Worlds: A Study of Education, Inequality and Polarization in Pakistan''
Karachi: Oxford University Press, 2004. Reprinted 2006. . Chapter on "Madrassas". * Tanweer, Bilal.

. ''The News International'', 6 May 2007. About a talk given by Dr. Nomanul Haq (University of Pennsylvania) at the Lahore University of Management Sciences (LUMS), Pakistan. * Ziad, Waleed. . Reprinted from ''The News International, The News'', March 21, 2004.
Madrasa Education in India


External links

{{Authority control Madrasas, Arabic architecture Arabic words and phrases Arabic words and phrases in Sharia Arab inventions Education terminology School types Law schools Islamic architecture Islamic education Islamic terminology Deobandi Ribats