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Lumberjacks are mostly
North America North America is a continent A continent is any of several large landmasses. Generally identified by convention (norm), convention rather than any strict criteria, up to seven geographical regions are commonly regarded as continen ...

North America
n workers in the
logging Logging is the process of cutting, processing, and moving trees to a location for transport. It may include skidder, skidding, on-site processing, and loading of trees or trunk (botany), logs onto logging truck, trucks or flatcar#Skeleton car, s ...

logging
industry who perform the initial harvesting and transport of trees for ultimate processing into
forest product A forest product is any material derived from forestry Forestry is the science and craft of creating, managing, planting, using, conserving and repairing forest A forest is an area of land dominated by tree In botany, a tree ...
s. The term usually refers to loggers in the era (before 1945 in the United States) when trees were felled using hand tools and dragged by oxen to rivers. The work was difficult, dangerous, intermittent, low-paying, and involved living in primitive conditions. However, the men built a traditional culture that celebrated strength,
masculinity Masculinity (also called manhood or manliness) is a set of attributes, behavior Behavior (American English) or behaviour (British English; American and British English spelling differences#-our, -or, see spelling differences) is the Action ...
, confrontation with danger, and resistance to modernization.


Terminology

The term lumberjack is of Canadian derivation. The first attested use of the word comes from an 1831 letter to the ''
Cobourg Cobourg () is a town in the Provinces and territories of Canada, Canadian province of Ontario, located in Southern Ontario east of Toronto and east of Oshawa. It is the largest town in and seat of Northumberland County, Ontario, Northumberlan ...
Star and General Advertiser'' in the following passage: "my misfortunes have been brought upon me chiefly by an incorrigible, though perhaps useful, race of mortals called lumberjacks, whom, however, I would name the Cossack's of Upper Canada, who, having been reared among the oaks and pines of the wild forest, have never been subjected to the salutary restraint of laws." The term ''lumberjack'' is primarily historical; logger is used by workers in the 21st century. When ''lumberjack'' is used, it usually refers to a logger from an earlier time before the advent of
chainsaw A chainsaw (or chain saw) is a portable gasoline-, electric-, or battery-powered saw that cuts with a set of teeth attached to a rotating chain driven along a guide bar. It is used in activities such as tree felling, limbing, Log bucking, bucki ...
s,
feller-buncher A feller buncher is a type of harvester used in logging Logging is the process of cutting, processing, and moving trees to a location for transport. It may include skidder, skidding, on-site processing, and loading of trees or trunk (botany) ...
s and other modern logging equipment. Other terms for the occupation include woodcutter, shanty boy and the colloquial term woodhick (Pennsylvania, US). A logger employed in driving logs down a river was known locally in northern North America as a river pig, catty-man, river hog, or river rat. The term lumberjill has been known for a woman who does this work; for example, in Britain during World War II. In Australia, the occupation is referred to as timber cutter or cool cutters.


History


Lifestyle

Lumberjacks worked in
lumber camp A logging camp (or lumber camp) is a transitory work site used in the logging industry. Before the second half of the 20th century, these camps were the primary place where lumberjacks would live and work to fell trees in a particular area. Many p ...
s and often lived a migratory life, following timber harvesting jobs as they opened. Being a lumberjack was seasonal work. Lumberjacks were exclusively men. They usually lived in
bunkhouse A bunkhouse is a barracks Barracks are usually a group of long buildings built to house military personnel or laborers. The English word comes via French from an old Spanish word "barraca" (hut), originally referring to temporary shelters or hut ...
s or tents. Common equipment included the
axe An axe (sometimes ax in American English American English (AmE, AE, AmEng, USEng, en-US), sometimes called United States English or U.S. English, is the set of varieties of the English language native to the United States. Currently, ...

axe
and
cross-cut saw A crosscut saw (thwart saw) is any saw designed for cutting wood perpendicular to (across) the wood grain. Crosscut saws may be small or large, with small teeth close together for fine work like woodworking or large for coarse work like log buc ...

cross-cut saw
. Lumberjacks could be found wherever there were vast forests to be harvested and a demand for wood, most likely in Scandinavia, Canada, and parts of the United States. In the U.S., many lumberjacks were of Scandinavian ancestry, continuing the family tradition. American lumberjacks were first centred in north-eastern states such as Maine. They then followed the general westward migration on the continent to the
Upper Midwest The Upper Midwest is a region in the northern portion of the U.S. Census Bureau The United States Census Bureau (USCB), officially the Bureau of the Census, is a principal agency of the U.S. Federal Statistical System, responsible for produc ...
, and finally the
Pacific Northwest The Pacific Northwest (PNW) is a geographic region in western North America bounded by its coastal waters of the Pacific Ocean to the west and, loosely, by the Rocky Mountains to the east. Though no official boundary exists, the most common co ...
.
Stewart HolbrookStewart Hall Holbrook (1893–1964) was an Americans, American lumberjack, logger, writer, and popular historian. His writings focused on what he called the "Far Corner": Washington (state), Washington, Oregon, and Idaho. A self-proclaimed "low-brow" ...

Stewart Holbrook
documented the emergence and westward migration of the classic American lumberjack in his first book, ''Holy Old Mackinaw: A Natural History of the American Lumberjack''. He often wrote colourfully about lumberjacks in his subsequent books, romanticizing them as hard-drinking, hard-working men. Logging camps were slowly phased out between World War II and the early 1960s as crews could by then be transported to remote logging sites in motor vehicles.


Division of labour

The division of labour in lumber camps led to several specialized jobs on logging crews, such as whistle punk, chaser, and high climber. The whistle punk's job was to sound a whistle (usually at the
Steam donkey A steam donkey or donkey engine was a steam-powered from Stott Park Bobbin Mill, Cumbria, England A steam engine is a heat engine In thermodynamics Thermodynamics is a branch of physics that deals with heat, Work (thermodynami ...
) as a signal to the
yarder A yarder is piece of logging Logging is the process of cutting, processing, and moving trees to a location for transport. It may include skidder, skidding, on-site processing, and loading of trees or trunk (botany), logs onto logging truck, tru ...
operator controlling the movement of logs. He also had to act as a safety lookout. A good whistle punk had to be alert and think fast as others' safety depended on him. The high climber (also known as a tree topper) used iron climbing hooks and rope to ascend a tall tree in the landing area of the logging site, where he would chop off limbs as he climbed, chop off the top of the tree, and finally attach pulleys and rigging to the tree. After that, it could be used as a spar so logs could be skidded into the landing. High climbers and whistle punks were both phased out in the 1960s to early 1970s when portable steel towers replaced spar trees and radio equipment replaced steam whistles for communication. The choker setters attached steel cables (or chokers) to downed logs so they could be dragged into the landing by the yarder. The chasers removed the chokers once the logs were at the landing. Choker setters and chasers were often entry-level positions on logging crews, with more experienced loggers seeking to move up to more skill-intensive positions such as yarder operator and high climber or supervisory positions such as hook tender. Despite the common perception that all loggers cut trees, the actual felling, and bucking of trees were also specialized job positions done by fallers and buckers. Faller and bucker were once two separate job titles, but they are now combined.


Machinery

Before the era of modern diesel or gasoline powered equipment, the existing machinery was steam powered. Animal or steam-powered
skidder A skidder is any type of heavy vehicle mining truck A truck or lorry is a motor vehicle Electric bicycles parked in Yangzhou's main street, Wenchang Lu. They are a very common way of transport in this city, in some areas almost outnumb ...
s could be used to haul harvested logs to nearby rail roads for shipment to
sawmill A sawmill (saw mill, saw-mill) or lumber mill is a facility where logs are cut into lumber Lumber, also known as timber, is wood Wood is a porous and fibrous structural tissue found in the stems and roots of tree In bota ...

sawmill
s. Horse driven logging wheels were a means used for moving logs out of the woods. Another way for transporting logs to sawmills was to float them down a body of water or a specially-constructed
log flume 220px, A sawmill with log flume, Cascade Range, USA A log flume is a flume specifically constructed to transport lumber and logging, logs down mountainous terrain to a sawmill by using flowing water. These watertight wikt:trough, trough-like chan ...
.
Log rolling Log rolling, is a sport involving two competitors, each on one end of a free-floating log in a body of water. The athletes battle to stay on the log by sprinting, kicking the log, and using a variety of techniques as they attempt to cause the oppo ...
, the art of staying on top of a floating log while "rolling" the log by walking, was another skill much in demand among lumberjacks. Spiked boots known as "caulks" or "corks" were used for log rolling and often worn by lumberjacks as their regular footwear. The term " skid row", which today means a poor city neighbourhood frequented by
homeless Homelessness is the condition of lacking stable, safe, and adequate housing. People can be categorized as homeless if they are: * living on the streets (primary homelessness); * moving between temporary shelters, including houses of frien ...

homeless
people, originated in a way in which harvested logs were once transported. Logs could be "skidded" down hills or along a
corduroy road A corduroy road or log road is a type of road or timber trackway Historic roads (historic trails in USA and Canada) are paths or routes that have historical importance due to their use over a period of time. Examples exist from prehistori ...

corduroy road
. One such street in
Seattle Seattle ( ) is a seaport The Porticciolo del Cedas port in Barcola The thumb is the first digit of the hand, next to the index finger. When a person is standing in the medical anatomical position (where the palm is facing to the front) ...

Seattle
was named Skid Road. This street later became frequented by people down on their luck, and both the name and its meaning morphed into the modern term. Among the
living history Living history is an activity that incorporates historical tools, activities and dress into an interactive presentation that seeks to give observers and participants a sense of stepping back in time. Although it does not necessarily seek to reen ...
museums that preserve and interpret the
forest industry The wood industry or lumber industry is the industry Industry may refer to: Economics * Industry (economics) In macroeconomics, an industry is a branch of an economy that produces a closely related set of raw materials, goods, or servic ...
are: *
BC Forest Discovery Centre The BC Forest Discovery Centre, located in Duncan, British Columbia, Duncan, chronicles the history of logging in British Columbia, Canada. It is a site with of operational narrow gauge railway. History G.E. (Gerry) Wellburn, a collector, was ...
,
Duncan Duncan may refer to: People * Duncan (given name), various people * Duncan (surname), various people * Clan Duncan Places * Duncan River (disambiguation) Australia *Duncan, South Australia, a locality in the Kangaroo Island Council *Hundred ...
* Camp Five Museum, Laona, Wisconsin ** The Lumberjack Steam Train, a passenger excursion train, operates as part of the museum. * Central New Brunswick Woodsmen's Museum,
Boiestown, New BrunswickBoiestown (1991 population: 349) is a Canada, Canadian community in the List of Rural Communities in New Brunswick, rural community of Upper Miramichi, New Brunswick, Upper Miramichi in Northumberland County, New Brunswick, Northumberland County, New ...
* Coos County Logging Museum,
Myrtle Point, Oregon
Myrtle Point, Oregon
* Cradle of Forestry in America historic site, near
Asheville, North Carolina Asheville is a city in, and the county seat of, Buncombe County, North Carolina, Buncombe County, North Carolina, United States. Located at the confluence of the French Broad River, French Broad and Swannanoa River, Swannanoa rivers, it is the ...
* Forest History Center,
Grand Rapids, Minnesota Grand Rapids is a city in and the county seat A county seat is an administrative centerAn administrative centre is a seat of regional administration or local government Local government is a generic term for the lowest tiers of public admin ...
*
Hartwick Pines Logging Museum
Hartwick Pines Logging Museum
, near
Grayling, Michigan Grayling ( ''GRAY-LEENG'') is a city and the county seat of Crawford County, Michigan, Crawford County in the U.S. state of Michigan. It is the only incorporated community in Crawford County. The population was 1,884 at the 2010 United States Censu ...
*
Lumberman's Monument 250px, 14-foot bronze statue by Robert Ingersoll Aitken at Lumberman's Monument Lumberman's Monument is a monument dedicated to the workers of the early logging industry in Michigan. Standing at 14 feet, the bronze statue features a log surrounded ...
, near
Oscoda, Michigan Oscoda is an unincorporated community An unincorporated area is a region not governed by a local . Similarly, an unincorporated community is a not governed by its own local municipal corporation, but is administered as part of larger s, su ...
* Maine Forest & Logging Museum, Bradley, Maine * Pennsylvania Lumber Museum, near
Galeton, Pennsylvania Galeton is a borough in Potter County, Pennsylvania, Potter County, Pennsylvania, United States, southeast of Bradford, Pennsylvania, Bradford. Light industries such as knitting mills and a tannery have existed in Galeton. The population declined ...
* Algonquin Logging Museum in
Algonquin Provincial Park Algonquin Provincial Park is a provincial park A provincial park (or territorial park) is a administered by one of the s of a country, as opposed to a . They are similar to s in other countries. They are typically open to the public for recr ...
,
Ontario ("Loyal she began, loyal she remains") , Label_map = yes , image_map = Ontario in Canada 2.svg , map_alt = Map showing Ontario's location east/central of Canada. , coordinates = , cap ...

Ontario


Culture

Tomczik (2008) has investigated the lifestyle of lumberjacks from 1840 to 1940, using records from mostly Maine and Minnesota logging camps. In a period of industrial development and modernization in urban areas, logging remained a traditional business in which the workers exhibited pride in their craft, their physical strength and masculinity, and guarded their individualism. Their camps were a bastion of the traditional workplace as they defied modern rationalized management, and built a culture around masculinity. At the peak in 1906 there were 500,000 lumberjacks, who took special pride in their work. Logging camps were located in isolated areas that provided room and board as well as a workplace. With few females present other than the wives of cooks and foremen, lumberjacks lived an independent life style that emphasized manly virtues in doing dangerous tasks. Men earned praise for their skills in doing their work, for being competitive, and for being aggressive. When not at work, they played rough games, told tall tales, and won reputations for
consuming large amounts of food
consuming large amounts of food
. By 1940, the business was undergoing major changes, as access roads and automobiles ended residential logging camps, chain saws replaced crosscut saws, and managers installed modern industrial methods.


Evolution


Tie hacking

A specialty form of logging involving the felling of trees for the production of
railroad tie A railroad tie, crosstie (American English American English (AmE, AE, AmEng, USEng, en-US), sometimes called United States English or U.S. English, is the set of variety (linguistics), varieties of the English language native to the Un ...
s was known as tie hacking. These lumberjacks, called tie hacks, used saws to fell trees and cut to length, and a
broad-axe
broad-axe
to flatten two or all four sides of the log to create railroad ties. Later, portable saw mills were used to cut and shape ties. Tie hacking was an important form of logging in Wyoming and northern Colorado and the remains of tie hacking camps can be found on National Forest land. The remains of flumes can be seen near
Dubois, Wyoming Dubois is a town in Fremont County, Wyoming Wyoming () is a U.S. state, state in the Mountain states, Mountain West subregion of the Western United States. The List of U.S. states and territories by area, 10th largest state by area, it is ...

Dubois, Wyoming
, and Old Roach, Colorado. In addition, a decaying splash dam exists near the Old Roach site as well. There, tie hacks attempted to float logs down to the Laramie River for the annual spring tie drives, and the splash dam was used to collect winter snow-melt to increase the water flow for the tie drive.


Modern technology

Modern technology changed the job of the modern logger considerably. Although the basic task of harvesting trees is still the same, the machinery and tasks are no longer the same. Many of the old job specialties on logging crews are now obsolete. Chainsaws,
harvesters Harvester may refer to: Agriculture and forestry * Combine harvester The modern combined harvester, or simply combine, is a versatile machine designed to efficiently harvest a variety of grain crops. The name derives from its combining four ...
, and feller bunchers are now used to cut or fell trees. The tree is turned into logs by removing the limbs (delimbing) and cutting it into logs of optimal length (bucking). The felled tree or logs are moved from the stump to the landing. Ground vehicles such as a
skidder A skidder is any type of heavy vehicle mining truck A truck or lorry is a motor vehicle Electric bicycles parked in Yangzhou's main street, Wenchang Lu. They are a very common way of transport in this city, in some areas almost outnumb ...
or
forwarder A medium-sized forwarder piling logs. A forwarder is a forestry vehicle that carries big felled logs from the stump to a roadside landing. Unlike a skidder, a forwarder carries logs clear of the ground, which can reduce soil impacts but ten ...

forwarder
can pull, carry, or shovel the logs. Cable systems "cars" can pull logs to the landing. Logs can also be flown to the landing by helicopter. Logs are commonly transported to the sawmill using trucks. Harvesting methods may include
clear cutting Clearcutting, clearfelling or clearcut logging is a forestry Forestry is the science and craft of creating, managing, planting, using, conserving and repairing forest A forest is an area of land dominated by tree In bota ...

clear cutting
or selective cutting. Concerns over the environmental impact have led to controversy about modern logging practices. In certain areas of forest loggers re-plant their crop for future generations. A ''Wall Street Journal'' survey on the best jobs in the United States ended by listing being a logger as the "worst" '' 3D's'' job, citing "work instability, poor income, and pure
danger Danger is a lack of safety and may refer to: Places * Danger Cave, an archaeological site in Utah * Danger Island, Great Chagos Bank, Indian Ocean * Danger Island, alternate name of Pukapuka Atoll in the Cook Islands, Pacific Ocean * Danger Island ...
". According to a Wall St. review studying the 71 most dangerous jobs, the most dangerous job was identified as that of logging workers in 2020.


Safety

Lumberjacks and loggers have one of the most dangerous jobs in the United States. The constant danger of being around heavy equipment and chainsaws in unsafe areas maximizes the danger. Proper PPE for those in this field consist of eye protection, head protection,
ear protection Ear protection refers to devices used to protect the ear, either externally from elements such as cold, intrusion by water and other environmental conditions, debris, or specifically from noise. High levels of exposure to noise may result in noise-i ...
, long sleeves, chaps (if working with a chainsaw), and lastly steel toe boots. When entering this profession, it is emphasized to be on one's toes because individuals are responsible for their own safety to guard against many uncontrollable hazards in the timber. For example, the weather can cause a dangerous situation quicker than one may realize. Additionally, logs and trees often plummet down a mountainside with no regard for what is in its way. In the United States, the
Occupational Safety and Health Administration The Occupational Safety and Health Administration (OSHA ) is a large regulatory agency of the United States Department of Labor The United States Department of Labor (DOL) is a cabinet-level department of the U.S. federal government, re ...
(OSHA) has resources dedicated for logging safety, and the
National Institute for Occupational Safety and Health The National Institute for Occupational Safety and Health (NIOSH, ) is the United States federal agency responsible for conducting research and making recommendations for the prevention of work-related injury Injury, also known as physical ...
(NIOSH) has identified logging as a priority area of safety research under the
National Occupational Research AgendaThe National Occupational Research Agenda (NORA) is a partnership program developed by the National Institute for Occupational Safety and Health (NIOSH). The program was founded in 1996 to provide a framework for research collaborations among univer ...
.


Loggersports

The sport of Loggersports grew out of competitions in lumber camps aimed at determining the best woodcutters. Today, these competitions are used to acknowledge the rich history of
forestry Forestry is the science and craft of creating, managing, planting, using, conserving and repairing forest A forest is an area of land dominated by tree In botany, a tree is a perennial plant with an elongated Plant stem, ste ...
and logging and to keep traditions alive. STIHL Timbersports Series - Worldwide The
STIHL Timbersports Series The Stihl Timbersports Series is a series of woodsman Image:Corte hachu.jpg, Wood chopping competition at Avilés, Spain, 2005 Woodsman (also, woodsmen, pl.) is a competitive, co-ed intercollegiate sport in the United States, Canada and elsewher ...
was founded in 1985, and brings competitors from across the world to compete in six
woodsman Image:Corte hachu.jpg, Wood chopping competition at Avilés, Spain, 2005 Woodsman (also, woodsmen, pl.) is a competitive, co-ed intercollegiate sport in the United States, Canada and elsewhere based on various skills traditionally part of forestr ...
or
wood chopping Wood is a porous and fibrous structural tissue found in the Plant stem, stems and roots of trees and other woody plants. It is an organic materiala natural composite material, composite of cellulose fibers that are strong in tension and embe ...
competitions. The events are broadcast worldwide on a variety of networks, including ESPN, ABC, and Eurosport. Squamish Days Loggers Sports - Canada In
Canada Canada is a country in the northern part of North America North America is a continent A continent is any of several large landmasses. Generally identified by convention (norm), convention rather than any strict criteria, ...

Canada
, Squamish Days Loggers Sports in
Squamish, British Columbia Squamish (; 2016 census population 19,512) is a community and a district municipality in the Canadian province of British Columbia ( en, Splendour without diminishment) , image_map = British Columbia in Canada 2.svg , Label_map ...
, attracts the finest competitors to its weekend festival in August each year. The event has entertainers such as
Johnny Cash John R. Cash (born J. R. Cash; February 26, 1932 – September 12, 2003) was an American singer, songwriter, musician, and actor. Much of Cash's music contained themes of sorrow, moral tribulation, and redemption, especially in the later ...
, who, in 1991, performed at the 5,000-seat Loggers Sports grounds during his Roadshow tour. The Woodsmen's Days - New York, United States The Woodsmen's Days events at Tupper Lake, New York commemorate the lumberjack with logging competitions and demonstrations during mid-July. Many colleges have woodsmen teams or forestry clubs who compete regionally, nationally, and internationally. The Association of Southern Forestry Clubs, for example, sponsors an annual Forestry Conclave with 250 contestants and a variety of events. Lumberjack Tours - United States There are also lumberjack shows which tour the United States, demonstrating traditional logging practices to the general public. The annual Lumberjack World Championships have been held in
Hayward, Wisconsin Hayward is a city in Sawyer County, Wisconsin Wisconsin () is a state in the Upper Midwest region of the United States The United States of America (USA), commonly known as the United States (U.S. or US), or America, is a countr ...
since 1960. Over 12,000 visitors come to the event each year in late July to watch men and women compete in 21 different events, including log rolling, chopping, timed hot (power) and bucksaw cutting, and
tree climbing Tree climbing is a recreational or functional activity consisting of ascending and moving around in the crown of trees. A rope, helmet, and safety harness, harness can be used to increase the safety of the climber. Other equipment can also be ...
.


Aesthetic

A "lumbersexual" or "urban lumberjack" is a man who, despite not being a lumberjack, has adopted style traits stereotypical of a traditional lumberjack; namely a
beard A beard is the hair that grows on the jaw, chin, upper lip, lower lip, cheeks, and neck of humans and some non-human animals. In humans, usually only pubescent or adult males are able to grow beards. Some women with hirsutism Hirsutism is e ...

beard
, plaid shirt, and work boots, substituting otherwise clean-cut and refined style choices. They are also often adorned by neck tattoos and "sleeve" tattoos, and may wear large gauged piercings in their earlobes. Denver Nicks described the trend as perhaps an attempt to "reclaim masculinity". The term "lumbersexual" is a near
antonym In lexical semantics Lexical semantics (also known as lexicosemantics), as a subfield of linguistic Linguistics is the science, scientific study of language. It encompasses the analysis of every aspect of language, as well as the methods fo ...
ous play on the earlier "
metrosexual ''Metrosexual'' is a portmanteau of ''wikt:metropolitan, metropolitan'' and ''sexuality, sexual'' coined in 1994, describing a man of ambiguous sexuality, (especially one living in an Urban area, urban, post-industrial society, post-industrial, Ca ...

metrosexual
", which was coined in the 1990s.


Popular culture

In
popular culture Popular culture (also called mass culture or pop culture) is generally recognized by members of a society A society is a group A group is a number A number is a mathematical object used to counting, count, measurement, measure, and ...
, the stereotypical lumberjack is a strong, burly, usually bearded man who lives to brave the
natural environment The natural environment or natural world encompasses all life, living and non-living things occurring nature, naturally, meaning in this case not Artificiality, artificial. The term is most often applied to the Earth or some parts of Earth. Th ...

natural environment
. He is depicted wearing suspenders, a long-sleeved plaid
flannel Flannel is a soft woven Woven fabric is any textile A textile is a flexible material made by creating an interlocking bundle of yarn Yarn is a long continuous length of interlocked fibres, suitable for use in the production of textil ...

flannel
shirt, and heavy
caulk boots Caulk boots or calk boots (also called cork boots, timber boots, logger boots, logging boots, or corks)"Caulk Boots"
...
, and is often characterized as having a voracious appetite, especially for flapjacks. He works by cutting down trees with either an axe or with the help of another lumberjack and a crosscut saw, as opposed to the modern chainsaw.


Folklore

The most famous depiction of a lumberjack in folklore is
Paul Bunyan Paul Bunyan is a Giant (mythology), giant lumberjack and folk hero in American folklore, American and Canadian folklore. His exploits revolve around the tall tales of his superhuman labors, and he is customarily accompanied by Babe the Blue O ...

Paul Bunyan
. Several towns claim to have been Paul Bunyan's home and have constructed statues of Bunyan and his blue ox "Babe". Known for their many exploits, many real life loggers have become renowned for their extraordinary strength, intuition, and knowledge of the woods. Men such as
Jigger Johnson Albert Lewis Johnson (18711935), better known as Jigger Johnson (also nicknamed Wildcat Johnson, Jigger Jones, or simply The Jigger), was a legendary lumberjack, logging foreman, trapper, and fire warden for the U.S. Forest Service who was known t ...

Jigger Johnson
, the
Maine Maine () is a U.S. state, state in the New England region of the United States, bordered by New Hampshire to the west; the Gulf of Maine to the southeast; and the Provinces and territories of Canada, Canadian provinces of New Brunswick and Qu ...

Maine
woodsman who supposedly kicked knots off frozen logs barefooted, and
Joseph Montferrand Joseph "Jos" Montferrand (; born Joseph Favre ; October 25, 1802 – October 4, 1864) was a French-Canadian French Canadians (also referred to as Canadiens; french: Canadiens français, ; feminine form: , ), or Franco-Canadians (french: Franco ...
(better known as
Big Joe Mufferaw Joseph "Jos" Montferrand (; born Joseph Favre ; October 25, 1802 – October 4, 1864) was a French-Canadian logger, strongman, and folk hero of the working man, who was the inspiration for the legendary Ottawa Valley figure Big Joe Mufferaw. ...

Big Joe Mufferaw
), the
French-Canadian French Canadians (referred to as Canadiens mainly before the twentieth century ; french: Canadiens français, ; feminine form: , ) are an ethnic group who trace their ancestry to French people, French colonists who settled in Canada (New France) ...
known for his physical prowess and desire to protect the French-speaking logger, have been celebrated as
folk hero A folk hero or national hero is a type of hero File:Wilhelm Tell Denkmal Altdorf um 1900.jpeg, upWilliam Tell, a popular folk hero of Switzerland. A hero (heroine in its feminine form) is a real person or a main fictional character who, ...
es throughout
North America North America is a continent A continent is any of several large landmasses. Generally identified by convention (norm), convention rather than any strict criteria, up to seven geographical regions are commonly regarded as continen ...

North America
, and have contributed to the
myths Myth is a folklore genre Folklore is the expressive body of culture shared by a particular group of people; it encompasses the tradition A tradition is a belief A belief is an Attitude (psychology), attitude that something is the ca ...

myths
of the Lumberjack.


Literature, film, and television


Books

* ''Blackwater Ben'', 2003, by William Durbin, about a boy who gets to live with his father as a cook in a lumberjack camp * ''
Sometimes a Great Notion ''Sometimes a Great Notion'' is the second novel by American author Ken Kesey Kenneth Elton Kesey (September 17, 1935 – November 10, 2001) was an American novelist, essayist, and Counterculture of the 1960s, countercultural figure. He c ...
'', 1964, by
Ken Kesey Ken Elton Kesey (September 17, 1935 – November 10, 2001) was an American novelist, essayist and countercultural A counterculture is a culture whose values and norms of behavior differ substantially from those of mainstream society, som ...
(1964), about an Oregon family of
gyppo logger A gyppo or gypo logger is a Lumberjack, logger who runs or works for a small-scale logging operation that is independent from an established sawmill or lumber company. The gyppo system is one of two main patterns of historical organization of loggi ...
s * ''Lumberjack'', 1974, by
William Kurelek William Kurelek, (March 3, 1927 – November 3, 1977) was a Canadian art Canadian art refers to the visual arts, visual (including painting, photography, and printmaking) as well as plastic arts (such as sculpture) originating from the geograp ...
, about his days working in a logging camp. * '' The Alphabet of Manliness'', 2006, by Maddox (writer), Maddox, lists the lumberjack as one of 26 examples (each corresponding to a letter of the alphabet) of the pinnacle of manliness


Films

* ''Come and Get It (1936 film), Come and Get It'', 1936 film directed by Howard Hawks and William Wyler * ''The Howards of Virginia'', 1940 film directed by Frank Lloyd * ''Wild Geese Calling'', 1941 film directed by John Brahm * ''The Enchanted Forest (film), The Enchanted Forest'', a 1945 film directed by Lew Landers * ''The Strange Woman'', a 1946 film directed by Edgar G. Ulmer * ''The Big Trees'', 1952 film directed by Felix E. Feist * ''Seven Brides for Seven Brothers'', 1954 film directed by Stanley Donen * ''North to Alaska'', a 1960 film directed by Henry Hathaway * ''Sometimes a Great Notion (film), Sometimes a Great Notion'', 1970 film adaptation of the novel of the same name, directed by Paul Newman * ''Ferngully: The Last Rainforest'', 1992 animated film directed by Bill Kroyer * ''Fargo (1996 film), Fargo'', 1996 film directed by Joel Coen * ''X-Men Origins: Wolverine'', 2009 film directed by Gavin Hood * The Lumber Baron, 2019 film directed by Barry Andersson


Television

The lives of loggers have been featured on the following American television series: * ''American Loggers'' on the Discovery Channel * ''Axe Men'' on History (U.S. TV channel), History * ''Here Come the Brides'' * ''The Pink Panther Show, The Pink Panther'' cartoon short, ''Pink Campaign'' * ''Wacky Races (1968 TV series), Wacky Races'' * ''Gravity Falls'' * ''Dexter (TV series), Dexter''


Music


Songs

* Lumberjacks rapidly developed their own distinctive musical culture of work songs. Many were based on traditional European folk tunes, with lyrics that reflected the lives, experiences and concerns of lumberjacks, with the themes of cutting, hauling, rolling, and driving, as well as narrative songs that involved romance. * ''Big Joe Mufferaw'', a song recorded and performed by Stompin' Tom Connors, one of Canada's most prolific and well-known country and folk singer-songwriters, about legendary folk hero
Joseph Montferrand Joseph "Jos" Montferrand (; born Joseph Favre ; October 25, 1802 – October 4, 1864) was a French-Canadian French Canadians (also referred to as Canadiens; french: Canadiens français, ; feminine form: , ), or Franco-Canadians (french: Franco ...
, a French-Canadian logger. This song appears on the album ''Stompin' Tom Meets Big Joe Mufferaw'' (1970), on the live album ''Live At The Horseshoe'' (1971), and on the album ''Move Along With Stompin' Tom'' (1999). * ''The Log Driver's Waltz'', a 1956 song by Wade Hemsworth on his album ''Folk Songs of the Canadian North Woods'' * ''Lumberjack'', a 1960 song by
Johnny Cash John R. Cash (born J. R. Cash; February 26, 1932 – September 12, 2003) was an American singer, songwriter, musician, and actor. Much of Cash's music contained themes of sorrow, moral tribulation, and redemption, especially in the later ...
on his album ''Ride This Train'' * ''The Lumberjack (Hal Willis song), The Lumberjack'', a song by Hal Willis (singer), Hal Willis * ''The Lumberjack'', a song featuring a chainsaw solo, by the American rock band Jackyl * ''The Lumberjack Song'', a song by Monty Python, known for its refrain: "I'm a lumberjack and I'm okay / I sleep all night and I work all day. ..."


See also

* Arborist * Log boom * Log scaler * Log driving


References


Further reading

* Brock, Emily K. ''Money Trees: The Douglas Fir and American Forestry, 1900-1944'' (Oregon State University Press, 2015). 272 pp. * Chaney, Michael P. ''White Pine on the Saco River: An Oral History of River Driving in Southern Maine'' (University of Maine Press, 1993) * Cox, Thomas R. ''The Lumberman's Frontier: Three Centuries of Land Use, Society, and Change in America's Forests '' (Oregon State University Press, 2010); 560 pages; examines successive frontier regions prized for lumber rather than farming, beginning with northern New England in the 17th century * Griffiths, Bus. ''Now You're Logging'', Harbour Publishing, 1978. * Hayner, Norman S. "Taming the Lumberjack," ''American Sociological Review,'' Vol. 10, No. 2, (April, 1945), pp. 217–22
in JSTOR
description of lifestyle * Holbrook, Stewart H. ''Holy Old Mackinaw: A Natural History of the American Lumberjack'', 1938, popular ** Holbrook, Stewart H. ''The American Lumberjack'' (Collier Books, 1962), popular account * Karamanski, Theodore J. ''Deep Woods Frontier: A History of Logging in Northern Michigan'' (1989) * Lee, David. ''Lumber Kings and Shantymen''. Ottawa, Ontario, Canada: 2006. * Lemonds, James. ''Deadfall: Generations of Logging in the Pacific Northwest''. Missoula: Mountain Press, 2001. *Mackay, Donald. "The Canadian Logging Frontier," ''Journal of Forest History'' 1979 23(1): 4-17 * Radforth, Ian. ''Bushworkers and Bosses: Logging in Northern Ontario, 1900–1980'' (University of Toronto Press, 1987). * Robbins, William G. ''Lumberjacks and Legislators: Political Economy of the U.S. Lumber Industry, 1890-1941'' (Texas A. & M. U. Press, 1982). 268 pp. * Roberge, Earl. ''Timber Country''. Caldwell, Idaho: Caxton Printers, 1973. * * Smith, David C. ''A History of Lumbering in Maine, 1861–1960'' (University of Maine Press, 1972) * Sorden, L. G. and Vallier, Jacque. ''Lumberjack Lingo: A Dictionary of the Logging Era.'' (Ashland, Wis.: NorthWord, 1986). 288 pp. * Tomczik, Adam, "'He-men Could Talk to He-men in He-man Language'": Lumberjack Work Culture in Maine and Minnesota, 1840–1940," ''Historian'' Winter 2008, Vol. 70 Issue 4, pp 697–715


External links


William Reed (Timber getter) c.1930
- photo from the Jones-Mashman Collection at Lake Macquarie Library.
University of Washington Libraries: Digital Collections
*

Over 1000 images by commercial photographer Clark and his brother Darius Kinsey documenting the logging and milling camps and other forest related activities in Washington State, ca. 1910–1945. *
Industry and Occupations Photographs
An ongoing and expanding collection devoted to the workers in the Pacific Northwest from the 1880s to the 1940s. Many occupations and industries are represented including the logging and lumber industry. *
Man to Machine: Peninsula Logging
Online museum exhibit based upon the Clark Kinsey Logging Photographs Collection and the recollections of Harry C. Hall, who worked as a logger on the Olympic Peninsula in the early 20th century. Includes a video on the Hobi family logging history (late 19th century – early 20th century).
OSHA.gov
An overview of logging operations along with safety standards and other important safety links. {{Authority control 2010s fads and trends American culture Canadian culture Forestry occupations Logging Lumberjack sports 1830s neologisms