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A listed building, or listed structure, is one that has been placed on one of the four statutory lists maintained by
Historic England Historic England (officially the Historic Buildings and Monuments Commission for England) is an executive non-departmental public bodyIn the United Kingdom, non-departmental public body (NDPB) is a classification applied by the Cabinet Office, H ...
in England,
Historic Environment Scotland Historic Environment Scotland (HES) ( gd, Àrainneachd Eachdraidheil Alba) is an executive non-departmental public bodyIn the United Kingdom, non-departmental public body (NDPB) is a classification applied by the Cabinet Office, HM Treasury, Tr ...
in Scotland, in Wales and the
Northern Ireland Environment Agency The Northern Ireland Environment Agency (NIEA) is an executive agency An executive agency is a part of a government department that is treated as managerially and budgetarily separate, to carry out some part of the executive functions of the Un ...
in Northern Ireland. The term has also been used in the
Republic of Ireland Ireland ( ga, Éire ), also known as the Republic of Ireland ('), is a country in north-western Europe consisting of 26 of the 32 Counties of Ireland, counties of the island of Ireland. The capital and largest city is Dublin, on the eastern ...

Republic of Ireland
, where buildings are protected under the Planning and Development Act 2000. However the statutory term in Ireland is " protected structure". A listed building may not be demolished, extended, or altered without special permission from the local planning authority, which typically consults the relevant central government agency, particularly for significant alterations to the more notable listed buildings. In
England and Wales England and Wales () is a legal jurisdiction covering England and Wales, two of the four countries of the United Kingdom, parts of the United Kingdom. England and Wales forms the constitutional successor to the former Kingdom of England and follows ...

England and Wales
, a national
amenity society In England and Wales, an amenity society is an organisation which monitors planning and development in a Conservation area (United Kingdom), conservation area or other sensitive area. National societies National amenity societies preserve historic ...
must be notified of any work to a listed building which involves any element of demolition. Exemption from secular listed building control is provided for some buildings in current use for worship, but only in cases where the relevant religious organisation operates its own equivalent permissions procedure. Owners of listed buildings are, in some circumstances, compelled to repair and maintain them and can face criminal prosecution if they fail to do so or if they perform unauthorised alterations. When alterations are permitted, or when listed buildings are repaired or maintained, the owners are often required to use specific materials or techniques. Although most sites appearing on the lists are buildings, other structures such as bridges, monuments, sculptures, war memorials, and even
milestones and mileposts
milestones and mileposts
and the Abbey Road zebra crossing made famous by
the Beatles The Beatles were an English rock Rock most often refers to: * Rock (geology) A rock is any naturally occurring solid mass or aggregate of minerals or mineraloid matter. It is categorized by the minerals included, its Chemical compou ...

the Beatles
, are also listed. Ancient, military, and uninhabited structures, such as
Stonehenge Stonehenge is a prehistoric monument on Salisbury Plain in Wiltshire, England, west of Amesbury. It consists of an outer ring of vertical sarsen standing stones, each around high, wide, and weighing around 25 tons, topped by connecting ho ...

Stonehenge
, are sometimes instead classified as
scheduled monument In the United Kingdom The United Kingdom of Great Britain and Northern Ireland, commonly known as the United Kingdom (UK) or Britain,Usage is mixed. The Guardian' and Telegraph' use Britain as a synonym for the United Kingdom. Some prefer ...
s and protected by much older legislation, whilst cultural landscapes such as parks and gardens are currently "listed" on a non-statutory basis.


Background

Although a limited number of 'ancient monuments' were given protection under the
Ancient Monuments Protection Act 1882 The Ancient Monuments Protection Act 1882 was an Act of the Parliament In modern politics and history, a parliament is a legislative body of government. Generally, a modern parliament has three functions: Representation (politics), repres ...
, there was reluctance to restrict the owners of occupied buildings in what they could do to their property. It was the damage to buildings caused by German bombing during
World War II World War II or the Second World War, often abbreviated as WWII or WW2, was a global war A world war is "a war War is an intense armed conflict between states State may refer to: Arts, entertainment, and media Literatur ...
that prompted the first listing of buildings that were deemed to be of particular architectural merit. Three hundred members of the
Royal Institute of British Architects The Royal Institute of British Architects (RIBA) is a professional body Regulatory colleges are legal entities in Canada charged with serving the public interest by regulating the practice of a profession. Most regulatory colleges are establ ...
and the
Society for the Protection of Ancient Buildings The Society for the Protection of Ancient Buildings (SPAB) (sometimes known as Anti-Scrape) is an amenity society founded by William Morris, Philip Webb and others, in 1877; to oppose what they saw as destructive 'restoration' of ancient buildi ...
were dispatched to prepare the list under the supervision of the
Inspectorate of Ancient MonumentsAn Inspectorate or Inspectorate-General (or General Inspectorate) is a civil or military body charged with inspecting and reporting on some institution Institutions, according to Samuel P. Huntington, are "stable, valued, recurring patterns of b ...
, with funding from the Treasury. The listings were used as a means of determining whether a particular building should be rebuilt if it was damaged by bombing, with varying degrees of success. In Scotland, the process slightly predated the war with the Marquess of Bute (in his connections to the
National Trust for Scotland The National Trust for Scotland for Places of Historic Interest or Natural Beauty, commonly known as the National Trust for Scotland ( gd, Urras Nàiseanta na h-Alba), is a Scottish conservation organisation. It is the largest membership orga ...

National Trust for Scotland
) commissioning the architect Ian Lindsay in September 1936 to survey 103 towns and villages based on an Amsterdam model using three categories (A, B and C). The basis of the current more comprehensive listing process was developed from the wartime system and was enacted by a provision in the
Town and Country Planning Act 1947 The Town and Country Planning Act 1947 (10 & 11 Geo. VI c. 51) was an Act of Parliament Acts of parliament, sometimes referred to as primary legislation, are texts of law passed by the Legislature, legislative body of a jurisdiction (often a parl ...
covering England and Wales, and the Town and Country Planning (Scotland) Act 1947 covering Scotland. Listing was first introduced into Northern Ireland under the Planning (Northern Ireland) Order 1972. The listing process has since developed slightly differently in each part of the UK.


Heritage protection

In the UK, the process of protecting the built historic environment (i.e. getting a
heritage asset A heritage asset is an item that has value because of its contribution to a nation’s society, knowledge and/or culture. They are usually physical assets, but some countries also use the term in relation to intangible social and spiritual inheritan ...
legally protected) is called 'designation'. To complicate things, several different terms are used because the processes use separate legislation: buildings are 'listed'; ancient monuments are 'scheduled', wrecks are 'protected', and battlefields, gardens and parks are 'registered'. A heritage asset is a part of the historic environment that is valued because of its historic, archaeological, architectural or artistic interest. Only some of these are judged to be important enough to have extra legal protection through designation. However, buildings that are not formally listed but still judged as being of heritage interest are still regarded as being a
material consideration A material consideration, in the United Kingdom The United Kingdom of Great Britain and Northern Ireland, commonly known as the United Kingdom (UK) or Britain,Usage is mixed. The Guardian' and Telegraph' use Britain as a synonym for the Unit ...
in the planning process. As a very rough guide, listed buildings are structures considered of special architectural and historical importance whereas
ancient monument In British law, an ancient monument is an early historical History (from Ancient Greek, Greek , ''historia'', meaning "inquiry; knowledge acquired by investigation") is the study and the documentation of the past. Events before the History of ...

ancient monument
s are of 'national importance' containing evidential values and can on many occasions also relate to below ground or unoccupied sites and buildings.


Eligibility

Almost anything can be listed – it does not have to be a building. Buildings and structures of special historic interest come in a wide variety of forms and types, ranging from telephone boxes and road signs, to castles. Historic England has created twenty broad categories of structures, and published selection guides for each one to aid with assessing buildings and structures. These include historical overviews and describe the special considerations for listing each category. However, in 2020 the
Supreme Court A supreme court is the highest court A court is any person or institution, often as a government institution, with the authority to Adjudication, adjudicate legal disputes between Party (law), parties and carry out the administration of just ...
ruled in ''Dill v Secretary of State for Housing, Communities and Local Government and another'' that buildings in the scheme must meet certain criteria – "a three-fold test which involved considering size, permanence and degree of physical attachment" – referred to as the ''Skerritts'' test in reference to a previous legal case in England.Dill (Appellant) v Secretary of State for Housing, Communities and Local Government and another (Respondents)
judgement of the
Supreme Court A supreme court is the highest court A court is any person or institution, often as a government institution, with the authority to Adjudication, adjudicate legal disputes between Party (law), parties and carry out the administration of just ...

Supreme Court
, handed down on 20 May 2020 following a hearing on 10 March 2020 and accessed upon 23 May 2020
Both Historic Environment Scotland and Cadw produce guidance for owners.


Listing and delisting procedure

In England, to have a building considered for listing or delisting, the process is to apply to the secretary of state; this can be done by submitting an application form online to
Historic England Historic England (officially the Historic Buildings and Monuments Commission for England) is an executive non-departmental public bodyIn the United Kingdom, non-departmental public body (NDPB) is a classification applied by the Cabinet Office, H ...
. The applicant does not need to be the owner of the building to apply for it to be listed. Full information including application form guidance notes are on the Historic England website. Historic England assesses buildings put forward for listing or delisting and provides advice to the Secretary of State on the architectural and historic interest. The Secretary of State, who may seek additional advice from others, then decides whether or not to list or delist the building.


England and Wales


Legislation

In England and Wales, the authority for listing is granted to the Secretary of State by the
Planning (Listed Buildings and Conservation Areas) Act 1990 The Planning (Listed Buildings and Conservation Areas) Act 1990 is an Act of Parliament Acts of parliament, sometimes referred to as primary legislation, are texts of law passed by the Legislature, legislative body of a jurisdiction (often a parli ...
. Listed buildings in danger of decay are listed on the Historic England 'Heritage at Risk' Register. In 1980 there was public outcry at the sudden destruction of the
art deco Art Deco, sometimes referred to as Deco, is a style of visual arts, architecture and design that first appeared in France just before World War I World War I, often abbreviated as WWI or WW1, also known as the First World War or the Gr ...

art deco
Firestone Tyre Factory ( Wallis, Gilbert and Partners, 1928–29), which was demolished over the August bank holiday weekend by its owners Trafalgar House who had been told that it was likely to be 'spot-listed' a few days later,John Witherow, "No listing of Hoover factory", ''The Times'', 1 September 1980, p. 4. and the government undertook to review arrangements for listing buildings.John Young, "A notable dozen are added to the nation's listed buildings", ''The Times'', 15 October 1980, p. 4. After the Firestone demolition, the
Secretary of State for the Environment The Secretary of State for the Environment was a UK cabinet position, responsible for the Department of the Environment (DoE). This was created by Edward Heath Sir Edward Richard George Heath (9 July 191617 July 2005) was a British politic ...
Michael Heseltine Michael Ray Dibdin Heseltine, Baron Heseltine, (; born 21 March 1933) is a British politician and businessman. Having begun his career as a property developer, he became one of the founders of the publishing house Haymarket. Heseltine served a ...
also initiated a complete re-survey of buildings to ensure that everything that merited preservation was on the lists.Charles Knevitt, "Protecting palaces and pillarboxes", ''The Times'', 3 June 1985, p. 8. In England, the
Department for Culture, Media and Sport , type = Department , logo = , logo_width = , logo_caption = , seal = , seal_width = , seal_caption = , picture = Government Offices Great George Street.jpg , picture_width ...
(DCMS) works with
Historic England Historic England (officially the Historic Buildings and Monuments Commission for England) is an executive non-departmental public bodyIn the United Kingdom, non-departmental public body (NDPB) is a classification applied by the Cabinet Office, H ...
(an agency of the DCMS), and other government departments, e.g.
Department for Communities and Local Government The Department for Levelling Up, Housing and Communities (DLUHC), formerly the Ministry for Housing, Communities and Local Government (MHCLG), is the UK Government department for housing Housing, or more generally living spaces, refers to t ...
(DCLG) and the
Department for the Environment, Food and Rural Affairs The Department for Environment, Food and Rural Affairs (Defra) is the government department Ministry or department, also less commonly used secretariat, office, or directorate are designations used by a first-level Executive (government), ...
(DEFRA) to deliver the government policy on the protection to historic buildings and other heritage assets. The decision about whether or not to list a building is made by the Secretary of State, although the process is administered in England by
Historic England Historic England (officially the Historic Buildings and Monuments Commission for England) is an executive non-departmental public bodyIn the United Kingdom, non-departmental public body (NDPB) is a classification applied by the Cabinet Office, H ...
. In Wales (where it is a devolved issue) it is administered by
Cadw (, a Welsh language, Welsh verbal noun meaning "keeping/preserving") is the historic environment service of the Welsh Government and part of the Tourism and Culture group. Cadw works to protect the historic buildings and structures, the landsc ...
on behalf of the
Welsh Parliament The Senedd (; ), officially known as the Welsh Parliament in English language, English and () in Welsh language, Welsh, is the Devolution in the United Kingdom, devolved, unicameral legislature of Wales. A democratically elected body, it makes ...
and in Scotland it is administered by
Historic Environment Scotland Historic Environment Scotland (HES) ( gd, Àrainneachd Eachdraidheil Alba) is an executive non-departmental public bodyIn the United Kingdom, non-departmental public body (NDPB) is a classification applied by the Cabinet Office, HM Treasury, Tr ...
on behalf of the Scottish Ministers.


English heritage protection reform

There have been several attempts to simplify the heritage planning process for listed buildings in England. As of 2021, few changes had been implemented. The review process was started in 2000 by Alan Howarth, then minister at the
Department for Culture, Media and Sport , type = Department , logo = , logo_width = , logo_caption = , seal = , seal_width = , seal_caption = , picture = Government Offices Great George Street.jpg , picture_width ...
(DCMS). The outcome was the paper "The Power of Place" in 2000, followed by the subsequent policy document "The Historic Environment: A Force for Our Future" published by the DCMS and the
Department of the Environment, Transport and the Regions The Secretary of State for the Environment, Transport and the Regions was a United Kingdom Cabinet position created in 1997, with responsibility for the Department of the Environment, Transport and the Regions (DETR). The position and department we ...
(DTLR) in December 2001. The launch of the Government's Heritage Protection Reform (HPR) report in July 2003 by the DCMS, entitled "Protecting our historic environment: Making the system work better", asked questions about how the current designation systems could be improved. The HPR decision report "Review of Heritage Protection: The Way Forward", a green paper published in June 2004 by the DCMS, committed the UK government and
English Heritage English Heritage (officially the English Heritage Trust) is a charity that manages over 400 historic monuments, buildings and places. These include prehistoric sites, medieval castles, Roman forts and country houses. The charity states that ...
to a process of reform including a review of the criteria used for listing buildings. A Review of Heritage Policy in 2006 was criticised, and the Government began a process of consultation on changes to Planning Policy Guidance 15, relating to the principles of selection for listing buildings in England. The government's White Paper "Heritage Protection for the 21st Century" published on 8 March 2007 offered a commitment to sharing the understanding of the historic environment and more openness in the process of designation. In 2008, a draft Heritage Protection Bill was subject to pre-legislative scrutiny before its passage through UK Parliament. The legislation was abandoned despite strong cross-party support, to make room in the parliamentary legislative programme for measures to deal with the credit crunch, though it may be revived in future. The proposal was that the existing registers of buildings, parks and gardens, archaeology and battlefields, maritime wrecks, and
World Heritage Site A World Heritage Site is a landmark or area with legal protection by an international convention administered by the United Nations Educational, Scientific and Cultural Organization (UNESCO). World Heritage Sites are designated by UNESCO for h ...
s be merged into a single online register that will "explain what is special and why". English Heritage would become directly responsible for identifying historic assets in England and there would be wider consultation with the public and asset owners, and new rights of appeal. There would have been streamlined systems for granting consent for work on historic assets. After several years of consultation with heritage groups, charities, local planning authorities, and English Heritage, in March 2010 the DCLG published Planning Policy Statement 5, "Planning for the Historic Environment". This replaced PPG15 and set out the government's national policies on the conservation of the historic environment in England. PPS5 was supported by a Practice Guide, endorsed by the DCLG, the DCMS, and English Heritage, which explained how to apply the policies stated in PPS5. In December 2010, the
Department for Communities and Local Government The Department for Levelling Up, Housing and Communities (DLUHC), formerly the Ministry for Housing, Communities and Local Government (MHCLG), is the UK Government department for housing Housing, or more generally living spaces, refers to t ...
announced that in England all PPSs and
Planning Policy Guidance NotesIn the United Kingdom The United Kingdom of Great Britain and Northern Ireland, commonly known as the United Kingdom (UK) or Britain,Usage is mixed. The Guardian' and Telegraph' use Britain as a synonym for the United Kingdom. Some prefer to u ...
would be replaced by a single document, the
National Planning Policy Framework The National Planning Policy Framework (NPPF) is a land-use planning Land-use planning is the process of regulating the use of land by a central authority. Usually, this is done in an effort to promote more desirable social and environmental o ...
. A consultation draft of this was published on 25 July 2011 and the final version on 27 March 2012. This became a material consideration in planning matters on publication. It has since been revised in 2018, 2019 and 2021.


There are three types of listed status for buildings in England and Wales: * Grade I: buildings of exceptional interest. * Grade II*: particularly important buildings of more than special interest. * Grade II: buildings that are of special interest, warranting every effort to preserve them. There was formerly a non-statutory Grade III, which was abolished in 1970. Additionally, Grades A, B and C were used mainly for
Anglican Anglicanism is a Western Christianity, Western Christian tradition that has developed from the practices, liturgy, and identity of the Church of England following the English Reformation. Adherents of Anglicanism are called ''Anglicans''; t ...
churches in use – these correspond approximately to Grades I, II* and II. These grades were used mainly before 1977, although a few buildings are still listed using these grades. Listed buildings account for about 2% of English building stock. In March 2010, there were about 374,000 list entries of which 92% were Grade II, 5.5% were Grade II*, and 2.5% were Grade I. Places of worship play an important role in the UK's architectural heritage. England alone has 14,500 listed places of worship (4,000 Grade I, 4,500 Grade II* and 6,000 Grade II) and 45% of all Grade I listed buildings are places of worship. Some of the listed churches are no longer in active use; between 1969 and 2010, some 1,795 churches were closed by the
Church of England The Church of England (C of E) is a Christian church Christian Church is a Protestant Protestantism is a form of Christianity that originated with the 16th-century Reformation, a movement against what its followers perceived to be Critic ...
, equaling roughly 11% of the stock, with about a third Listed as Grade I or II. There are estimated to be about 500,000 actual buildings listed, as listing entries can apply to more than one building.


Statutory criteria

The criteria for listing include architectural interest, historic interest and close historical associations with significant people or events. Buildings not individually noteworthy may still be listed if they form part of a group that is—for example, all the buildings in a square. This is called 'group value'. Sometimes large areas comprising many buildings may not justify listing but receive the looser protection of designation as a
conservation area Protected areas or conservation areas are locations which receive protection because of their recognized natural, ecological or cultural values. There are several kinds of protected areas, which vary by level of protection depending on the ena ...
. The specific criteria include: * Age and rarity: The older a building is, the more likely it is to be listed. All buildings erected before 1700 that "contain a significant proportion of their original fabric" will be listed. Most buildings built between 1700 and 1840 are listed. After 1840 more selection is exercised and "particularly careful selection" is applied after 1945. Buildings less than 30 years old are rarely listed unless they are of outstanding quality and under threat. * Aesthetic merits: i.e. the appearance of a building. However, buildings that have little visual appeal may be listed on grounds of representing particular aspects of social or economic history. * Selectivity: where a large number of buildings of a similar type survive, the policy is only to list the most representative or significant examples. * National interest: significant or distinctive regional buildings; e.g. those that represent a nationally important but localised industry. The state of repair of a building is ''not'' deemed to be a relevant consideration for listing. Additionally: * Any buildings or structures constructed before 1 July 1948 that fall within the
curtilage In common law, the curtilage of a house A house is a single-unit residential building, which may range in complexity from a rudimentary hut to a complex structure of wood, masonry, concrete or other material, outfitted with plumbing, electric ...
of a listed building are treated as part of the listed building. * The effect of a proposed development on the setting of a listed building is a material consideration in determining a planning application. Setting is defined as "the surroundings in which a heritage is experienced". Although the decision to list a building may be made on the basis of the architectural or historic interest of one small part of the building, the listing protection nevertheless applies to the whole building. Listing applies not just to the exterior fabric of the building itself, but also to the interior, fixtures, fittings, and objects within the curtilage of the building even if they are not fixed.Noted as 'Changes to legislation: There are outstanding changes not yet made by the legislation.gov.uk editorial team to Planning (Listed Buildings and Conservation Areas) Act 1990.' De-listing is possible but rare in practice. One example is the 30 November 2001 de-listing of North Corporation Primary School,
Liverpool Liverpool is a City status in the United Kingdom, city and metropolitan borough in Merseyside, England. With a population of in 2019, it is the List of English districts by population, tenth largest English district by population, and its ...

Liverpool
.


Emergency measure

In an emergency, the local planning authority can serve a temporary listed "building preservation notice", if a building is in danger of demolition or alteration in such a way that might affect its historic character. This remains in force for 6 months until the Secretary of State decides whether or not to formally list the building.


Certificates of immunity

Until the passing of the
Enterprise and Regulatory Reform Act 2013 The Enterprise and Regulatory Reform Act 2013 (c 24), also known as ERRA, is a major Act of the Parliament of the United Kingdom In the United Kingdom an Act of Parliament is primary legislation In parliamentary systems and presidential sy ...
an application for a
Certificate of Immunity from Listing In England a Certificate of Immunity from Listing, generally known as a Certificate of Immunity, is a document which guarantees that a building will not be listed building, statutorily listed (added to the National Heritage List for England) or be s ...
(CoI) could only be made if planning permission was being sought or had been obtained in England. However, the changes brought about by the Act means that now anyone can ask the Secretary of State to issue a Certificate of Immunity in respect of a particular building at any time.


Alteration

In England and Wales, the management of listed buildings is the responsibility of local planning authorities and the Department for Communities and Local Government (i.e., not DCMS, which originally listed the building). There is a general principle that listed buildings are put to 'appropriate and viable use' and recognition that this may involve the re-use and modification of the building. However, listed buildings cannot be modified without first obtaining Listed Building Consent through the relevant local planning authority. In Wales, applications are made using a form obtained from the relevant local authority. There is no provision for consent to be granted in outline. When a local authority is disposed to grant listed building consent, it must first notify the Welsh Parliament (''i.e.''
Cadw (, a Welsh language, Welsh verbal noun meaning "keeping/preserving") is the historic environment service of the Welsh Government and part of the Tourism and Culture group. Cadw works to protect the historic buildings and structures, the landsc ...
) of the application. If the planning authority decides to refuse consent, it may do so without any reference to Cadw. In Scotland, applications are made on a form obtained from Historic Environment Scotland. After consulting the local planning authority, the owner, where possible, and an independent third party,
Historic Environment Scotland Historic Environment Scotland (HES) ( gd, Àrainneachd Eachdraidheil Alba) is an executive non-departmental public bodyIn the United Kingdom, non-departmental public body (NDPB) is a classification applied by the Cabinet Office, HM Treasury, Tr ...
makes a recommendation on behalf of the Scottish Ministers. Carrying out unauthorised works to a listed building is a criminal offence and owners can be prosecuted. A planning authority can also insist that all work undertaken without consent be reversed at the owner's expense.


Examples of Grade I listed buildings

:''See also :Grade I listed buildings for more examples of such buildings across England and Wales.'' * Royal Albert Dock, Liverpool *
Birmingham Town Hall Birmingham Town Hall is a concert hall and venue for Popular assembly, popular assemblies opened in 1834 and situated in Victoria Square, Birmingham, Victoria Square, Birmingham, England. It is a listed building, Grade I listed building. The hal ...

Birmingham Town Hall
, Birmingham *
Blackpool Tower Blackpool Tower is a tourist attraction in Blackpool Blackpool is a large town and seaside resort A seaside resort is a resort town, town, village, or hotel that serves as a Resort, vacation resort and is located on a coast. Sometimes th ...

Blackpool Tower
, Blackpool *
Cenotaph A cenotaph is an empty tomb at Hierapolis Hierapolis ( grc, Ἱεράπολις, lit. "Holy City") was an ancient Greek city located on hot springs in Greco-Roman culture, classical Phrygia in southwestern Anatolia. Its ruins are a ...

Cenotaph
, London *
Clifton Suspension Bridge The Clifton Suspension Bridge is a suspension bridge A suspension bridge is a type of bridge in which the deck (the load-bearing portion) is hung below suspension cables on vertical suspenders. The first modern examples of this type of ...

Clifton Suspension Bridge
, Bristol *
Humber Bridge The Humber Bridge, near Kingston upon Hull Kingston upon Hull, usually abbreviated to Hull, is a port city and unitary authorities of England, unitary authority in the East Riding of Yorkshire, England. It lies upon the River Hull at its c ...

Humber Bridge
, East Riding of Yorkshire / North Lincolnshire * King's College London Chapel, London *
Liverpool Cathedral Liverpool Cathedral is the Cathedral of the Anglican Diocese of Liverpool The Diocese of Liverpool is a Church of England diocese In Ecclesiastical polity, church governance, a diocese or bishopric is the ecclesiastical district under t ...

Liverpool Cathedral
, Liverpool *
Lloyd's building The Lloyd's building (sometimes known as the Inside-Out Building) is the home of the insurance institution Lloyd's of London. It is located on the former site of East India House in Lime Street, London, Lime Street, in London's main financial dis ...

Lloyd's building
, London * Manchester Liverpool Road railway station, Manchester *
Montacute House Montacute House is a late Elizabethan era, Elizabethan mansion with garden in Montacute, South Somerset. An example of English architecture during a period that was moving from the medieval Gothic to the Renaissance Classical, and one of few ...

Montacute House
, Somerset *
Norwich Castle Norwich Castle is a medieval royal fortification in the city of Norwich, in the English county of Norfolk. William the Conqueror (1066–1087) ordered its construction in the aftermath of the Norman conquest of England. The castle was used as a ...

Norwich Castle
, Norwich *
Palace of Westminster The Palace of Westminster serves as the meeting place for both the House of Commons The House of Commons is the name for the elected lower house A lower house is one of two chambers Chambers may refer to: Places Canada: *Chambers Towns ...

Palace of Westminster
, London *
Pontcysyllte Aqueduct The Pontcysyllte Aqueduct (; cy, Traphont Ddŵr Pontcysyllte) is a navigable aqueduct A body of water, such as a river, canal or lake, is navigable if it is deep, wide and calm enough for a water vessel to pass safely. Such a navigable water is ...

Pontcysyllte Aqueduct
, North Wales *
Portchester Castle Portchester Castle is a medieval fortress that was developed within the walls of the Roman Saxon Shore The Saxon Shore ( la, litus Saxonicum) was a military command of the late Roman Empire The Roman Empire ( la, Imperium Rōmānum ; ...

Portchester Castle
, Hampshire *
Quarr Abbey Quarr Abbey (French: ''Abbaye Notre-Dame de Quarr'') is a monastery A monastery is a building or complex of buildings comprising the domestic quarters and workplaces of monastics, monks or nuns, whether living in Cenobitic monasticism, co ...

Quarr Abbey
, Isle of Wight *
Tower Bridge Tower Bridge is a combined bascule and suspension bridge in London London is the capital city, capital and List of urban areas in the United Kingdom, largest city of England and the United Kingdom. The city stands on the River Thames in ...

Tower Bridge
, London *
Warwick Castle Warwick Castle is a medieval castle developed from a wooden fort, originally built by William I of England, William the Conqueror during 1068. Warwick is the county town of Warwickshire, England, situated on a meander of the River Avon, Warwicksh ...

Warwick Castle
, Warwick *
York Minster The Cathedral and Metropolitical Church of Saint Peter in York, commonly known as York Minster, is the cathedral of York York is a cathedral city and unitary authority, unitary authority area, at the confluence of the rivers River Ouse, York ...

York Minster
, York


Examples of Grade II* listed buildings

''See also :Grade II* listed buildings for examples of such buildings across England and Wales.'' *
Battersea Power Station Battersea Power Station is a decommissioned Fossil fuel power plant, coal-fired power station, located on the south bank of the River Thames, in Nine Elms, Battersea, in the London Borough of Wandsworth. It was built by the London Power Company ...

Battersea Power Station
, London * Capel Manor House, Horsmonden *
Cleveland Bridge Cleveland Bridge over the River Avon, Bristol, River Avon is a grade II* listed building located in the World Heritage Site of Bath, Somerset, Bath, England. It is notable for the unusual lodges that adorn each corner in a style that could be l ...

Cleveland Bridge
, Bath *
Coliseum Theatre The London Coliseum (also known as the Coliseum Theatre) is a theatre in St Martin's Lane St Martin's Lane is a street in the City of Westminster, which runs from the church of St Martin-in-the-Fields, after which it is named, near Trafalg ...
, London *
Liverpool Metropolitan Cathedral Liverpool Metropolitan Cathedral, officially known as the Metropolitan Cathedral of Christ the King and locally nicknamed "Paddy's Wigwam", is the cathedral, seat of the Archbishop of Liverpool and the mother church of the Roman Catholic Archdioc ...

Liverpool Metropolitan Cathedral
, Liverpool *
Manchester Town Hall Extension Manchester Town Hall Extension was built between 1934 and 1938 to provide additional accommodation for local government services. It was built between St Peter's Square, Manchester, St Peter's Square and Lloyd Street in Manchester city centre, Engl ...
, Manchester *
Middlesbrough Transporter Bridge The Tees Transporter Bridge, often referred to as the Middlesbrough Transporter Bridge, is the furthest downstream bridge across the River Tees, England. It connects Middlesbrough, on the south bank, to Port Clarence, on the north bank. It is ...

Middlesbrough Transporter Bridge
, Middlesbrough *
Rise Hall Rise Hall (formerly Rise Manor, or Rise Park) is a Grade II* listed stately home in Rise, East Riding of Yorkshire, England. History Rise is recorded in the Domesday Book of 1086 as having been owned by Cnut (the son of Karli) in 1066. The e ...

Rise Hall
, Rise *
Shibden Hall Shibden Hall is a Grade II* listed historic house located in a public park at Shibden, West Yorkshire West Yorkshire is a metropolitan county, metropolitan and ceremonial counties of England, ceremonial county in England. It is an inla ...
, Calderdale *
St John's Jerusalem St John's Jerusalem or Sutton-at-Hone Preceptory is a National Trust property at Sutton-at-Hone, Kent Kent is a Counties of England, county in South East England and one of the home counties. It borders Greater London to the north-west, Surr ...
, Sutton-at-Hone *
Trellick Tower Trellick Tower is a Grade II* listed Listed may refer to: * Listed, Bornholm, a fishing village on the Danish island of Bornholm * Listed (MMM program), a television show on MuchMoreMusic * Endangered species in biology * Listed building, in a ...

Trellick Tower
, London


Examples of Grade II listed buildings

''See also :Grade II listed buildings for examples of such buildings across England and Wales.'' *
Abbey Road Studios Abbey Road Studios (formerly EMI Recording Studios) is a recording studio at 3 Abbey Road ''Abbey Road'' is the eleventh studio album by the English Rock music, rock band the Beatles, released on 26 September 1969 by Apple Records. Nam ...

Abbey Road Studios
, London *
Adelphi Hotel Adelphi (from Ancient Greek: ἀδελφός, ''adelphós'', 'brother') may refer to: Arts and entertainment * Adelphi (band), an American rock band * ''The Adelphi'', an English literary journal 1923–1955 * ''Adelphi Papers'', a monograph serie ...
, Liverpool * Broomhill Pool, Ipswich *
BT Tower The BT Tower is a communications tower Radio masts and towers are typically tall structures designed to support antenna (radio), antennas for telecommunications and broadcasting, including television. There are two main types: guyed and s ...

BT Tower
, London *
Birmingham Back to Backs Birmingham ( ) is a city A city is a large human settlement.Goodall, B. (1987) ''The Penguin Dictionary of Human Geography''. London: Penguin.Kuper, A. and Kuper, J., eds (1996) ''The Social Science Encyclopedia''. 2nd edition. London: Routl ...
, Birmingham *
India House India House was a student residence that existed between 1905 and 1910 at Cromwell Avenue in Highgate, North London. With the patronage of lawyer Shyamji Krishna Varma, it was opened to promote nationalist views among Indian students in Britai ...
, London * Kursaal, Southend-on-sea *
Surbiton railway station Surbiton is a suburban neighbourhood in South West London, within the Royal Borough of Kingston upon Thames (RBK). It is situated next to the River Thames, southwest of Charing Cross. Formerly part of the ancient parish of Kingston upon Thames ...

Surbiton railway station
, London *
Whitechapel Bell Foundry The Whitechapel Bell Foundry was a business in the London Borough of Tower Hamlets. At the time of the closure of its Whitechapel premises, it was the oldest manufacturing company in Great Britain. The bellfounding, bell foundry primarily made ch ...

Whitechapel Bell Foundry
, London * Footbridge just south of Wokingham railway station, Wokingham, Berkshire


Mixed designations

In 2002, there were 80 seaside piers in England that were listed, variously at Grades I, II* and II. * Cobham Park in Kent is a Listed Landscape (Humphry Repton and older landscape) containing both Grade I structures (Cobham Hall and Darnley Mausoleum) and Grade II structures (ornamental dairy etc.) as well as a
scheduled monument In the United Kingdom The United Kingdom of Great Britain and Northern Ireland, commonly known as the United Kingdom (UK) or Britain,Usage is mixed. The Guardian' and Telegraph' use Britain as a synonym for the United Kingdom. Some prefer ...
(a buried Roman villa). * Derwent Valley Mills includes 838 listed buildings, made up of 16 Grade I, 42 Grade II*, and 780 Grade II. A further nine structures are scheduled monuments. *Golden Lane Estate in London is an example of a site which includes buildings of different Grades, II and II*. *Manor Farm, Ruislip, Manor Farm in Ruislip is made up of buildings that are both Grade II* (the Great Barn) and Grade II (the other buildings). * West Norwood Cemetery is a Gothic Revival cemetery and crematorium which contains 65 structures with Grade II or II* designations, mainly sepulchral monuments but also boundary structures and Mausoleum, mausolea. Additionally it is listed Grade II* on the Register of Parks and Gardens.


Locally listed buildings

Many councils, for example, Birmingham City Council and Crawley, Crawley Borough Council, maintain a list of locally listed buildings as separate to the statutory list (and in addition to it). There is no statutory protection of a building or object on the local list but many receive a degree of protection from loss through being in a Conservation Area or through planning policy. Councils hope that owners will recognise the merits of their properties and keep them unaltered if at all possible. These grades are used by Birmingham: * Grade A: This is of statutory list quality. To be the subject of notification to Historic England or the serving of a Building Preservation Notice if imminently threatened. * Grade B: Important in the citywide architectural or local street scene context, warranting positive efforts to ensure retention. * Grade C: Of significance in the local historical/vernacular context, including industrial archaeological features, and worthy of retention. Crawley Borough Council judges buildings on five criteria: historic interest, architectural interest, group and townscape value, intactness and communal value. As of November 2010, there were Locally listed buildings in Crawley, 59 buildings on its local list.


Northern Ireland

Listing began later in Northern Ireland than in the rest of the UK: the first provision for listing was contained in the Planning (Northern Ireland) Order 1972; and the current legislative basis for listing is the Planning (Northern Ireland) Order 1991. Under Article 42 of the Order, the relevant Department of the Northern Ireland Executive is required to compile lists of buildings of "special architectural or historic interest". Since 2016, the responsibility for the listing process rests with the Historic Environment Division of the Department for Communities, which took over the built heritage functions of the
Northern Ireland Environment Agency The Northern Ireland Environment Agency (NIEA) is an executive agency An executive agency is a part of a government department that is treated as managerially and budgetarily separate, to carry out some part of the executive functions of the Un ...
(formerly the Environment and Heritage Service) following the break up of the Department of the Environment. Following the introduction of listing, an initial survey of Northern Ireland's building stock was begun in 1974. By the time of the completion of this First Survey in 1994, the listing process had developed considerably, and it was therefore decided to embark upon a Second Survey, which is still ongoing, to update and cross-check the original information. Information gathered during this survey, relating to both listed and unlisted buildings, is entered into the publicly accessible Northern Ireland Buildings Database. A range of listing criteria, which aim to define architectural and historic interest, are used to determine whether or not to list a building. Listed building consent must be obtained from local authorities before any alteration to a listed structure. There are about 8,500 listed buildings in Northern Ireland, divided into four grades, defined as follows: * Grade A: "buildings of greatest importance to Northern Ireland including both outstanding architectural set-pieces and the least altered examples of each representative style, period and type." * Grade B+: "high quality buildings that because of exceptional features, interiors or environmental qualities are clearly above the general standard set by grade B1 buildings. Also buildings which might have merited Grade A status but for detracting features such as an incomplete design, lower quality additions or alterations." * Grade B1: "good examples of a particular period or style. A degree of alteration or imperfection of design may be acceptable. Generally B1 is chosen for buildings that qualify for listing by virtue of a relatively wide selection of attributes. Usually these will include interior features or where one or more features are of exceptional quality and/or interest." * Grade B2: "special buildings which meet the test of the legislation. A degree of alteration or imperfection of design may be acceptable. B2 is chosen for buildings that qualify for listing by virtue of only a few attributes. An example would be a building sited within a conservation area where the quality of its architectural appearance or interior raises it appreciably above the general standard of buildings within the conservation area."


Examples of Grade A listed buildings

*Gosford Castle, County Armagh *Grand Opera House (Belfast), Grand Opera House, Belfast *Belfast Castle


Examples of Grade B+ listed buildings

*Necarne, County Fermanagh *Scrabo Tower, Belfast


Examples of Grade B1 listed buildings

*Campbell College, Belfast *Old Bushmills Distillery, County Antrim *Bank Buildings, Belfast


Scotland

In Scotland, listing was begun by a provision in the Town and Country Planning (Scotland) Act 1947, and the current legislative basis for listing is the Town and Country Planning (Scotland) Act 1997. As with other matters regarding planning, conservation is a power devolved to the Scottish Parliament and the Scottish Government. The authority for listing rests with
Historic Environment Scotland Historic Environment Scotland (HES) ( gd, Àrainneachd Eachdraidheil Alba) is an executive non-departmental public bodyIn the United Kingdom, non-departmental public body (NDPB) is a classification applied by the Cabinet Office, HM Treasury, Tr ...
(formerly Historic Scotland), an executive agency of the Scottish Government, which inherited this role from the Scottish Development Department in 1991. Listed building consent must be obtained from local authorities before any alteration to a listed structure. The scheme for classifying buildings is: * Category A: "Buildings of special architectural or historic interest which are outstanding examples of a particular period, style or building type." * Category B: "Buildings of special architectural or historic interest which are major examples of a particular period, style or building type." * Category C: "Buildings of special architectural or historic interest which are representative examples of a period, style or building type." There are about 47,400 listed buildings in Scotland. Of these, around 8 percent (some 3,800) are Category A, and 50 percent are Category B, with the rest listed at Category C.


Examples of Category A listed buildings

* Craigellachie Bridge, Moray * Glasgow City Chambers, Glasgow * Glasgow Cathedral, Glasgow * Palace of Holyroodhouse, Edinburgh * The Kirna, Walkerburn * Ravelston Garden, Edinburgh *St Peter's Seminary, Cardross


Examples of Category B listed buildings

*Harbourmaster's House, Dysart, Fife *Sabhal Mòr Ostaig, Isle of Skye


Examples of Category C listed buildings

*St John's Cathedral, Oban, Argyll *The Belmont Picturehouse, Aberdeen *Craigend Castle, East Dunbartonshire *The George Cinema, Portobello, Edinburgh


Records

Although the 2008 draft legislation was abandoned, Historic England (then part of English Heritage) published a single list of all designated
heritage asset A heritage asset is an item that has value because of its contribution to a nation’s society, knowledge and/or culture. They are usually physical assets, but some countries also use the term in relation to intangible social and spiritual inheritan ...
s within England in 2011. The National Heritage List for England is an online searchable database which includes 400,000 English listed buildings, scheduled monuments, registered parks and gardens, protected historic wrecks and registered battlefields and World Heritage Sites in one place. The legislative frameworks for each type of historic asset remains unchanged. In Scotland, the national dataset of listed buildings and other heritage assets can be searched online via Historic Environment Scotland, or through the map database Pastmap. To find a listed building in Wales, it is necessary to contact the appropriate local authority or
Cadw (, a Welsh language, Welsh verbal noun meaning "keeping/preserving") is the historic environment service of the Welsh Government and part of the Tourism and Culture group. Cadw works to protect the historic buildings and structures, the landsc ...
. Also British Listed Buildings (website) has sections on England, Wales and Scotland. It can be searched either by browsing for listed buildings by country, county and parish/locality, or by keyword search or via the online map. Not all buildings have photographs, as it is run on a volunteer basis. The Northern Ireland Buildings Database contains details of all listed buildings in Northern Ireland. A photographic library of English listed buildings was started in 1999 as a snapshot of buildings listed at the turn of the millennium. This is not an up-to-date record of all listed buildings in England – the listing status and descriptions are only correct as at February 2001. The photographs were taken between 1999 and 2008. It is maintained by the Historic England archive at the Images of England project website. The National Heritage List for England contains the up-to-date list of listed buildings. Listed buildings in danger of being lost through damage or decay in England started to be recorded by survey in 1991. This was extended in 1998 with the publication of Historic England's Buildings at Risk Register which surveyed Grade I and Grade II* buildings. In 2008 this survey was renamed Heritage at risk, Heritage at Risk and extended to include all listed buildings, scheduled monuments, registered parks and gardens, registered battlefields, protected wreck sites and conservation areas. The register is compiled by survey using information from local authorities, official and voluntary heritage groups and the general public. It is possible to search this list online. In Scotland, a Buildings at Risk Register for Scotland, buildings at risk register was started in 1990 by Historic Scotland in response to similar concerns at the number of listed buildings that were vacant and in disrepair. RCAHMS maintained the register on behalf of Historic Scotland, and provided information on properties of architectural or historic merit throughout the country that are considered to be at risk. Since the merger of these two bodies into one, that work is now carried out by Historic Environment Scotland. In Wales, at risk registers of listed buildings are compiled by local planning authorities, and Cadw produced a report in 2009. The Royal Commission on the Ancient and Historical Monuments of Wales's (RCAHMW) Emergency Buildings Recording team is responsible for surveying historic buildings threatened with destruction, substantial alteration, or serious decay.


Equivalent statuses outside the United Kingdom

* – Australian National Heritage List and Commonwealth Heritage List * – National Institute of Historic and Artistic Heritage * – Heritage registers in Belgium, Biens classés/Beschermd erfgoed/Kulturdenkmal ("Protected heritage") * – National Historic Sites of Canada * – Monument historique ("historical monument") * – Deutsche Stiftung Denkmalschutz ("German Foundation for Monument Protection") and National Heritage Sites (Kulturdenkmal ("cultural monument")) * – Historic Building, see List of Grade I historic buildings in Hong Kong, List of Grade II historic buildings in Hong Kong and List of Grade III historic buildings in Hong Kong * - National Inventory of Architectural Heritage and Record of Monuments and Places * – Tangible Cultural Property (Japan), Groups of Traditional Buildings. * – Rijksmonument ("national monument") * – New Zealand Historic Places Trust * – National Heritage Board of Poland * – Bien de Interés Cultural ("heritage of cultural interest") * – Listed buildings in Sweden (''Byggnadsminne'', literally "remembrance-building") * – National Register of Historic Places and National Historic Landmark For other countries' equivalents see List of heritage registers.


See also

* Conservation area * :Lists of Grade I listed buildings in England by county, Grade I listed buildings in England by county * :Grade II* listed buildings, Grade II* listed buildings in England by county * :Grade II listed buildings in England by county, Grade II listed buildings in England by county * Historic England Archive * Images of England * Register of Historic Parks and Gardens of special historic interest in England * Scheduled monument * Site of Special Scientific Interest * The Georgian Group * Tree preservation order


References


Notes


External links


Historic England on designation process

National Heritage List for England: map-based database of listed buildings, scheduled monuments etc in England

PASTMAP Map-based database of listed buildings, scheduled monuments etc in Scotland

Images of England:photographs of listed buildings

Cadw, Wales

The Institute of Historic Building Conservation
{{DEFAULTSORT:Listed Building Listed buildings in the United Kingdom,