[Titze, I.R. (1994). Principles of Voice Production, Prentice Hall, .]
are medical conditions involving abnormal pitch, loudness or quality of the sound produced by the larynx and thereby affecting
Speech is human vocal communication
Communication (from Latin
Latin (, or , ) is a classical language
A classical language is a language
A language is a structured system of communication
Communication (from Latin ''c ...
production. These include:
Vocal fold nodule
Vocal cord nodules are bilaterally symmetrical benign white masses that form at the midpoint of the vocal folds
In humans, vocal cords, also known as vocal chords, vocal folds or voice reeds, are folds of tissue in the throat that are key in ...
* Vocal fold cyst
Vocal cord paresis
Vocal cord paresis, also known as recurrent laryngeal nerve paralysis or vocal fold paralysis, is an injury to one or both recurrent laryngeal nerve
The recurrent laryngeal nerve (RLN) is a branch of the vagus nerve (cranial nerve X) that sup ...
* Reinke's edema
Spasmodic dysphonia, also known as laryngeal dystonia, is a disorder in which the muscles that generate a person's voice
The human voice consists of sound Voice production, made by a human being using the vocal tract, including Speech, talking ...
Foreign accent syndrome
Foreign accent syndrome is a medical condition in which patients develop speech patterns that are perceived as a foreign accent that is different from their native accent, without having acquired it in the perceived accent's place of origin.
Bogart–Bacall syndromeBogart–Bacall syndrome (BBS) is a voice disorder that is caused by abuse or overuse of the vocal cords.
People who speak or sing outside their normal vocal range can develop BBS; symptoms are chiefly an unnaturally deep or rough voice, or dysphoni ...
Laryngeal papillomatosis, also known as recurrent respiratory papillomatosis (RRP) or glottal papillomatosis, is a rare medical condition in which benign tumors ( papilloma) form along the aerodigestive tract. There are two variants based on the a ...
Laryngitis is inflammation
Inflammation (from la, inflammatio) is part of the complex biological response of body tissues to harmful stimuli, such as pathogens, damaged cells, or irritants, and is a protective response involving immune cel ...
Aphasia is an inability to comprehend or formulate language because of damage to specific brain regions. The major causes are a cerebral vascular accident (stroke) or head trauma. Aphasia can also be the result of brain tumors, brain infections ...
A hoarse voice, also known as dysphonia or hoarseness, is when the voice involuntarily sounds breathy, raspy, or strained, or is softer in volume or lower in pitch. A hoarse voice, can be associated with a feeling of unease or scratchiness in the t ...
The human voice consists of sound
In physics, sound is a vibration that propagates as an acoustic wave, through a transmission medium such as a gas, liquid or solid.
In human physiology and psychology, sound is the ''reception'' of such ...
Laryngectomy is the removal of the larynx and separation of the airway from the mouth, Human nose, nose and esophagus. In a total laryngectomy, the entire larynx is removed (including the vocal folds, hyoid bone, epiglottis, Thyroid cartilage, thy ...
Parkinson's disease (PD), or simply Parkinson's, is a chronic condition, long-term neurodegeneration, degenerative disorder of the central nervous system that mainly affects the motor system. The symptoms usually emerge slowly, and as the disea ...
Speech disorders or speech impairments are a type of communication disorder
A communication disorder is any disorder that affects an individual's ability to comprehend, detect, or apply language and speech to engage in discourse effectively with ...
Vocology Vocology is the science and practice of vocal habilitation, or vocal training and therapy.Titze IR. (1996). What is vocology? Logopedics Phoniatrics Vocology, 21:5-6. Its concerns include the nature of speech and language pathology
Speech is hu ...
* Voice changes during puberty