HOME

TheInfoList




Lexicography is the study of
lexicon A lexicon is the of a or branch of (such as or ). In , a lexicon is a language's inventory of s. The word ''lexicon'' derives from word (), neuter of () meaning 'of or for words'. Linguistic theories generally regard human languages as c ...

lexicon
s, and is divided into two separate but equally important
academic discipline An academic discipline or academic field is a subdivision of knowledge Knowledge is a familiarity or awareness, of someone or something, such as facts A fact is an occurrence in the real world. The usual test for a statement of fact is ...
s: * Practical lexicography is the art or
craft A craft or trade is a pastime or an occupation that requires particular skills and knowledge of skilled work. In a historical sense, particularly the Middle Ages In the history of Europe, the Middle Ages or medieval period lasted ap ...
of compiling, writing and editing
dictionaries A dictionary is a listing of lexeme A lexeme () is a unit of lexical meaning that underlies a set of words that are related through inflection In linguistic morphology Morphology, from the Greek and meaning "study of shape", may refer ...

dictionaries
. * Theoretical lexicography is the
scholarly The scholarly method or scholarship is the body of principle A principle is a proposition or value that is a guide for behavior or evaluation. In law, it is a rule Rule or ruling may refer to: Human activity * The exercise of political ...
study of
semantic Semantics (from grc, σημαντικός ''sēmantikós'', "significant") is the study of reference Reference is a relationship between objects in which one object designates, or acts as a means by which to connect to or link to, another o ...
, orthographic, syntagmatic and
paradigm In science Science () is a systematic enterprise that Scientific method, builds and organizes knowledge in the form of Testability, testable explanations and predictions about the universe."... modern science is a discovery as well as ...
atic features of
lexeme A lexeme () is a unit of lexical meaning that underlies a set of words that are related through inflection In linguistic morphology Morphology, from the Greek and meaning "study of shape", may refer to: Disciplines * Morphology (archaeolog ...
s of the
lexicon A lexicon is the of a or branch of (such as or ). In , a lexicon is a language's inventory of s. The word ''lexicon'' derives from word (), neuter of () meaning 'of or for words'. Linguistic theories generally regard human languages as c ...

lexicon
(
vocabulary A vocabulary is a set of familiar words In linguistics, a word of a spoken language can be defined as the smallest sequence of phonemes that can be uttered in isolation with semantic, objective or pragmatics, practical meaning (linguistics), m ...
) of a
language A language is a structured system of communication Communication (from Latin Latin (, or , ) is a classical language belonging to the Italic languages, Italic branch of the Indo-European languages. Latin was originally spoken in the ...

language
, developing theories of dictionary components and structures linking the data in dictionaries, the needs for information by users in specific types of situations, and how users may best access the data incorporated in printed and electronic dictionaries. This is sometimes referred to as 'metalexicography'. There is some disagreement on the definition of
lexicology Lexicology is the branch of linguistics that analyzes the lexicon of a specific language. A word is the smallest meaningful unit of a language that can stand on its own, and is made up of small components called Morpheme, morphemes and even smalle ...
, as distinct from lexicography. Some use "lexicology" as a synonym for theoretical lexicography; others use it to mean a branch of
linguistics Linguistics is the scientific study of language, meaning that it is a comprehensive, systematic, objective, and precise study of language. Linguistics encompasses the analysis of every aspect of language, as well as the methods for studying ...

linguistics
pertaining to the inventory of words in a particular language. A person devoted to lexicography is called a lexicographer.


Focus

General lexicography focuses on the design, compilation, use and evaluation of general dictionaries, i.e. dictionaries that provide a description of the language in general use. Such a dictionary is usually called a general dictionary or LGP dictionary (Language for General Purpose). Specialized lexicography focuses on the design, compilation, use and evaluation of specialized dictionaries, i.e. dictionaries that are devoted to a (relatively restricted) set of linguistic and factual elements of one or more specialist subject fields, e.g.
legal lexicography Legal lexicography is the complex of activities concerned with the development of theories and principles for the design, compilation, use, and evaluation of dictionaries within the field of law, see e.g. Nielsen 1994. Overview As a branch of t ...
. Such a dictionary is usually called a
specialized dictionary A specialized dictionary is a dictionary A dictionary is a listing of lexemes from the lexicon of one or more specific languages, often arranged Alphabetical order, alphabetically (or by radical-and-stroke sorting, radical and stroke for ideo ...
or
Language for specific purposes dictionary A language-for-specific-purposes dictionary (LSP dictionary) is a reference work A reference work is a work such as a book A book is a medium for recording information Information can be thought of as the resolution of uncertainty; ...
and following Nielsen 1994, specialized dictionaries are either multi-field, single-field or sub-field dictionaries. It is now widely accepted that lexicography is a scholarly discipline in its own right and not a sub-branch of
applied linguistics Applied linguistics is an interdisciplinary field which identifies, investigates, and offers solutions to language-related real-life problems. Some of the academic fields related to applied linguistics Linguistics is the scientific study of ...
, as the chief object of study in lexicography is the dictionary (see e.g. Bergenholtz/Nielsen/Tarp 2009). Lexicography is the practice of creating books, computer programs, or databases that reflect lexicographical work and are intended for
public In public relations Public relations (PR) is the practice of managing and disseminating information from an individual or an organization An organization, or organisation (English in the Commonwealth of Nations, Commonwealth Engli ...

public
use. These include dictionaries and
thesauri A thesaurus (plural ''thesauri'' or ''thesauruses'') or synonym dictionary is a reference work for finding synonyms and sometimes antonyms of words. They are often used by writers to help find the best word to express an idea: Synonym dictiona ...

thesauri
which are widely accessible resources that present various aspects of lexicology, such as spelling, pronunciation, and meaning.
Lexicographers This list contains people who contributed to the field of lexicography, the theory and practice of compiling dictionaries. __NOTOC__ A *Maulvi Abdul Haq (India/Pakistan, 1872–1961) Baba-e-Urdu, English-Urdu dictionary *Ivar Aasen (Norway, 1813 ...
are tasked with defining simple words as well as figuring out how compound or complex words or words with many meanings can be clearly explained. They also make decisions regarding which words should be kept, added, or removed from a dictionary. They are responsible for arranging lexical material (usually
alphabetically Alphabetical order is a system whereby character strings are placed in order based on the position of the characters in the conventional ordering of an alphabet. It is one of the methods of collation. In mathematics, a lexicographical order is t ...
) to facilitate understanding and navigation.


Etymology

Coined in English 1680, the word "lexicography" derives from the
Greek#REDIRECT Greek Greek may refer to: Greece Anything of, from, or related to Greece Greece ( el, Ελλάδα, , ), officially the Hellenic Republic, is a country located in Southeast Europe. Its population is approximately 10.7 million as of ...
λεξικογράφος ''lexikographos'', "lexicographer", from λεξικόν ''lexicon'', neut. of λεξικός ''lexikos'', "of or for words", from λέξις ''lexis'', "speech", "word", (in turn from λέγω ''lego'', "to say", "to speak") and γράφω ''grapho'', "to scratch, to inscribe, to write".γράφω
Henry George Liddell, Robert Scott, ''A Greek–English Lexicon'', on Perseus Digital Library


Aspects

Practical lexicographic work involves several activities, and the compilation of well-crafted dictionaries requires careful consideration of all or some of the following aspects: * profiling the intended users (i.e. linguistic and non-linguistic competences) and identifying their needs * defining the communicative and cognitive functions of the dictionary * selecting and organizing the components of the dictionary * choosing the appropriate structures for presenting the data in the dictionary (i.e. frame structure, distribution structure, macro-structure, micro-structure and
cross-referenceThe abbrevation Xref can refer also to External Reference The term cross-reference (abbreviation: xref) can refer to either: * An instance within a document which refers to related information elsewhere in the same document. In both printed and on ...
structure) * selecting words and affixes for systematization as entries * selecting
collocation In corpus linguistics Corpus linguistics is the study of language as a language is expressed in its text corpus (plural ''corpora''), its body of "real world" text. Corpus linguistics proposes that reliable language analysis is more feasible ...
s, phrases and examples * choosing
lemma Lemma may refer to: Language and linguistics * Lemma (morphology), the canonical, dictionary or citation form of a word * Lemma (psycholinguistics), a mental abstraction of a word about to be uttered * Headword, under which a set of related dict ...
forms for each word or part of word to be lemmatized * defining words * organizing definitions * specifying pronunciations of words * labeling definitions and pronunciations for
register A register is an authoritative list of one kind of information. Register or registration may refer to: Arts entertainment, and media Music * Register (music), the relative "height" or range of a note, melody, part, instrument, etc. * ''Regis ...
and dialect, where appropriate * selecting equivalents in bi- and multi-lingual dictionaries * translating collocations, phrases and examples in bi- and multilingual dictionaries * designing the best way in which users can access the data in printed and electronic dictionaries One important goal of lexicography is to keep the
lexicographic information cost Lexicographic information cost is a concept within the field of lexicography Lexicography is divided into two separate but equally important groups: * Practical lexicography is the art or craft A craft or trade is a pastime or an occupa ...
s incurred by dictionary users as low as possible. Nielsen (2008) suggests relevant aspects for lexicographers to consider when making dictionaries as they all affect the users' impression and actual use of specific dictionaries. Theoretical lexicography concerns the same aspects as lexicography, but aims to develop principles that can improve the quality of future dictionaries, for instance in terms of access to data and lexicographic information costs. Several perspectives or branches of such academic dictionary research have been distinguished: 'dictionary criticism' (or evaluating the quality of one or more dictionaries, e.g. by means of reviews (see Nielsen 1999), 'dictionary history' (or tracing the traditions of a type of dictionary or of lexicography in a particular country or language), 'dictionary typology' (or classifying the various genres of reference works, such as dictionary versus encyclopedia, monolingual versus bilingual dictionary, general versus technical or pedagogical dictionary), 'dictionary structure' (or formatting the various ways in which the information is presented in a dictionary), 'dictionary use' (or observing the reference acts and skills of dictionary users), and 'dictionary IT' (or applying computer aids to the process of dictionary compilation). One important consideration is the status of 'bilingual lexicography', or the compilation and use of the
bilingual dictionary A bilingual dictionary or translation dictionary is a specialized dictionary A dictionary is a listing of lexemes from the lexicon of one or more specific languages, often arranged Alphabetical order, alphabetically (or by radical-and-stro ...
in all its aspects (see e.g. Nielsen 1894). In spite of a relatively long history of this type of dictionary, it is often said to be less developed in a number of respects than its unilingual counterpart, especially in cases where one of the languages involved is not a major language. Not all genres of reference works are available in interlingual versions, e.g. LSP, learners' and encyclopedic types, although sometimes these challenges produce new subtypes, e.g. 'semi-bilingual' or 'bilingualised' dictionaries such as Hornby's ''(Oxford) Advanced Learner's Dictionary English-Chinese'', which have been developed by translating existing monolingual dictionaries (see Marello 1998).


See also

*
Linguistic description In the study of language, description or descriptive linguistics is the work of objectively analyzing and describing how language A language is a structured system of communication Communication (from Latin ''communicare'', meaning ...
*
Dictionary A dictionary is a listing of lexemes from the lexicon of one or more specific languages, often arranged Alphabetical order, alphabetically (or by radical-and-stroke sorting, radical and stroke for ideographic languages), which may include in ...

Dictionary
**
Bilingual dictionary A bilingual dictionary or translation dictionary is a specialized dictionary A dictionary is a listing of lexemes from the lexicon of one or more specific languages, often arranged Alphabetical order, alphabetically (or by radical-and-stro ...
**
Monolingual learner's dictionary A monolingual learner's dictionary (MLD) is designed to meet the reference needs of people learning a foreign language. MLDs are based on the premise that language-learners should progress from a bilingual dictionary 250px, Printed bilingual dict ...
**
Specialized dictionary A specialized dictionary is a dictionary A dictionary is a listing of lexemes from the lexicon of one or more specific languages, often arranged Alphabetical order, alphabetically (or by radical-and-stroke sorting, radical and stroke for ideo ...
(
Picture dictionary File:TEIDE.JPG, An Synthetic aperture radar, SAR radar imaging, radar image acquired by the SIR-C/X-SAR radar on board the Space Shuttle Endeavour shows the Teide volcano. The city of Santa Cruz de Tenerife is visible as the purple and white a ...
,
Multi-field dictionary A multi-field dictionary is a specialized dictionary that has been designed and compiled to cover the terms within two or more subject fields. Multi-field dictionaries should be contrasted with single-field dictionary, single-field dictionaries and ...
,
Single-field dictionary A single-field dictionary is a specialized dictionary that has been designed and compiled to cover the terms of one particular subject field. Single-field dictionaries should be contrasted with multi-field dictionaries and sub-field dictionaries. ...
,
Sub-field dictionary A sub-field dictionary is a specialized dictionary that has been designed and compiled to cover the terms of one (or possibly more) sub-fields of a particular subject field. It is therefore a sub-division of the class of dictionary called a single-f ...
, LSP dictionary) **
Glossary __NOTOC__ A glossary (from grc, γλῶσσα / language, speech, wording) also known as a vocabulary or clavis, is an alphabetical list of terms in a particular domain of knowledge Domain knowledge is knowledge of a specific, specialized di ...

Glossary
(
defining dictionary A defining vocabulary is a list of words used by lexicographers to write dictionary definitions. The underlying principle goes back to Samuel Johnson's notion that words should be defined using 'terms less abstruse than that which is to be explained ...
, Core glossary) *
List of lexicographers This list contains people who contributed to the field of lexicography Lexicography is the study of lexicon A lexicon is the of a or branch of (such as or ). In , a lexicon is a language's inventory of s. The word ''lexicon'' derives ...
*
Lexicology Lexicology is the branch of linguistics Linguistics is the scientific study of language A language is a structured system of communication Communication (from Latin Latin (, or , ) is a classical language belonging to the ...
*
Lexicon A lexicon is the vocabulary A vocabulary is a set of familiar words In linguistics, a word of a spoken language can be defined as the smallest sequence of phonemes that can be uttered in isolation with semantic, objective or pragmatics, pra ...

Lexicon
* Lexical definition *
Vocabulary A vocabulary is a set of familiar words In linguistics Linguistics is the scientific study of language A language is a structured system of communication used by humans, including speech (spoken language), gestures (Signed la ...
* Idioms Lexicon * Specialised lexicography * English lexicology and lexicography *
Terminology Terminology is a general word for the group of specialized words or meanings relating to a particular field, and also the study of such terms and their use. This is also known as terminology science. Terms are words and compound words or multi-w ...

Terminology
* Dictionary Society of North America


References


Further reading

* Atkins, B.T.S. & Rundell, Michael (2008) ''The Oxford Guide to Practical Lexicography'', Oxford U.P. * Béjoint, Henri (2000) ''Modern Lexicography: An Introduction'', Oxford U.P. * Bergenholtz, H., Nielsen, S., Tarp, S. (eds.): ''Lexicography at a Crossroads: Dictionaries and Encyclopedias Today, Lexicographical Tools Tomorrow''. Peter Lang 2009. * Bergenholtz, Henning & Tarp, Sven (eds.) (1995) ''Manual of Specialised Lexicography: The Preparation of Specialised Dictionaries'', J. Benjamins. * Green, Jonathon (1996) ''Chasing the Sun: Dictionary-Makers and the Dictionaries They Made'', J. Cape. * Hartmann, R.R.K. (2001) ''Teaching and Researching Lexicography'', Pearson Education. * Hartmann, R.R.K. (ed.) (2003) ''Lexicography: Critical Concepts'', Routledge/Taylor & Francis, 3 volumes. * Hartmann, R.R.K. & James, Gregory (comps.) (1998/2001) ''Dictionary of Lexicography'', Routledge. * Inglis, Douglas (2004
Cognitive Grammar and lexicography
Payap University Graduate School Linguistics Department. * Kirkness, Alan (2004) "Lexicography", in ''The Handbook of Applied Linguistics'' ed. by A. Davies & C. Elder, Oxford: Blackwell, pp. 54–81. * Landau, Sidney (2001) ''Dictionaries: The Art and Craft of Lexicography'', Cambridge U.P. 2nd ed. * Marello, Carla (1998) "Hornby's bilingualized dictionaries", in ''International Journal of Lexicography'' 11,4, pp. 292–314. * Nielsen, Sandro (1994) ''The Bilingual LSP Dictionary'', G. Narr. * Nielsen, Sandro (2008) "The effect of lexicographical information costs on dictionary making and use", in ''Lexikos'' (AFRILEX-reeks/series 18), pp. 170–189. * Nielsen, Sandro (2009): "Reviewing printed and electronic dictionaries: A theoretical and practical framework". In S. Nielsen/S. Tarp (eds): ''Lexicography in the 21st Century. In honour of Henning Bergenholtz''. Amsterdam/Philadelphia: John Benjamins, 23–41. * Ooi, Vincent (1998) ''Computer Corpus Lexicography'', Edinburgh U.P

* Ladislav Zgusta, Zgusta, Ladislav (1971) ''Manual of lexicography'' (Janua Linguarum. Series maior 39). Prague: Academia / The Hague, Paris: Mouton.


External links


''International Journal of Lexicography''

''Lexicographica. International Annual for Lexicography - Revue Internationale de Lexicographie - Internationales Jahrbuch für Lexikographie''


Societies


Centre for LexicographyEN version

Dictionary Society of North America

Euralex – European Association for Lexicography

Afrilex – African Association for Lexicography

Australex – Australasian Association for Lexicography



Asialex – Asian Association for Lexicography
{{Authority control Lexicology Applied linguistics +