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Leaf vegetables, also called leafy greens, salad greens, pot herbs, vegetable greens, or simply greens, are plant eaten as a , sometimes accompanied by tender and s. Although they come from a very wide variety of plants, most share a great deal with other leaf vegetables in and methods. Nearly one thousand species of are known. Leaf vegetables most often come from short-lived s, such as and . Woody plants of various species also provide edible leaves. The leaves of many crops are also edible for humans, but are usually only eaten under conditions. Examples include , , most , including and . These plants are often much more prolific than traditional leaf vegetables, but exploitation of their rich nutrition is difficult, due to their high content. This can be overcome by further such as drying and grinding into powder or pulping and pressing for juice. Leaf vegetables contain many typical plant nutrients, but since they are photosynthetic tissues, their levels are particularly notable. , the most common form of the vitamin, is directly involved in .


Nutrition

Leaf vegetables are typically low in and , and high in per calorie, , , pro- , , and . The vitamin K content of leaf vegetables is particularly high, since these are photosynthetic tissues and is involved in . Accordingly, users of medications, such as , must take special care to limit consumption of leaf vegetables.


Preparation

If leaves are cooked for food, they may be referred to as boiled greens. Leaf vegetables may be , ed, , or consumed raw. Leaf vegetables stewed with is a traditional dish in and . They are also commonly eaten in a variety of South Asian dishes such as . Leafy greens can be used to wrap other ingredients into an edible package in a manner similar to a . Many green leafy vegetables, such as lettuce or spinach, can also be eaten raw, for example in es or s. A enables large quantities of raw leafy greens to be consumed by blending the leaves with fruit and water.


Africa

In certain countries of Africa, various species of nutritious are very widely eaten boiled. ' var. argentea or "Lagos spinach" is one of the main boiled greens in .


Greece

In , ''khorta'' (χόρτα, literally 'greens') are a common side dish, eaten hot or cold and usually seasoned with and . At least 80 different kinds of greens are used, depending on the area and season, including , , , , , , , , , , , , , and even the fresh leaves of the plant.


Italy

''Preboggion'', a mixture of different wild boiled greens, is used in to stuff and . One of the main ingredients of ''preboggion'' are ''(Borago officinalis)'' leaves. ''Preboggion'' is also sometimes added to soup and .


Poland

(or boćwinka) is a soup that features beet stems and leaves as one of its main ingredients. The word "botwinka" is the diminutive form of "botwina" which refers to leafy vegetables like chard and beet leaves.


United States

In the and , , , , , , , and greens are commonly cooked, and often served with pieces of or . The boiling water, called , is used as . Water in which pokeweed has been prepared contains toxins removed by the boiling, and should be discarded. Sauteed escarole is a primary ingredient in the dish .


List of leaf vegetables

* ' — anise hyssop (western ) * ' — Welsh onion () * ' — sissoo spinach () * ' — Malabar spinach(, , ) * ' — beets, including beet greens, * ' — wild cabbage, including , , , , , , and more * ' — field mustard, including , , , , , , , and more * ' — various-colored bellflower (southeastern to the ) * ' — quinoa (western of ) * ' — endive, including * ' — chicory (Europe) * ' — palsingat (western North America) * ' — chaya ( of ) * ' — carrot ( and ) * ' — arugula or rocket ( region) * ' — fennel (southern Europe) * ' — edible gynura (, , ) * ' — longevity spinach (China, Southeast Asia, and Africa) * ' — orange day-lily (China or ) * ' — maca () * ' — lettuce, including , iceberg lettuce, , * ' — watercress ( and ) * ' — musk mallow (Europe and southwestern ) * ' — moringa () * ' — shisho perilla (Southeast Asia and Indian highlands) * ' — garden sorrel (most of Europe, Asia, North America, and ) * ' — sassafras (eastern North America) * ' — katuk (South Asia and Southeast Asia) * ' — spinach (central and western Asia) * ' — nakati (Asia and tropical Africa) * ' — garden nasturtium () * ' — sweet violet (Europe, northern , )


Postharvest diseases

s cause up to 50% losses of leaf vegetables. These are , , and much less commonly . The most important remedy is temperature controlled storage, although also important is prevention of mechanical damage to produce as this provides entryways for pathogens. Uncontaminated water for washing of the vegetables is of lesser but still significant importance. Common bacterial pathogens include: , ', ', and ', , , , , , ' spp. including and ', ' spp., ', and '. Common fungal pathogens include: ', ', ', ', ', ', , ', ', ', ', ', ', ', ', ', ', ', ', ', ', and '. Common pathogens include: ', ', ', ', ', ', and . s such as can be used to manage some of these.


Gallery

Starr 020803-0094 Centella asiatica.jpg, (''Centella asiatica'') Swiss Chard.jpg, Ong choy water spinach.png, Կանաչի 3.JPG, , an Iranian salad-like dish, here of mixed greens and es


See also

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References

{{Authority control Vegetables