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A laptop, laptop computer, or notebook computer is a small, portable
personal computer A personal computer (PC) is a multi-purpose computer whose size, capabilities, and price make it feasible for individual use. Personal computers are intended to be operated directly by an end user, rather than by a computer expert or technician ...
(PC) with a screen and
alphanumeric keyboard The technology of computer keyboards includes many elements. Among the more important of these is the switch In electrical engineering Electrical engineering is an engineering discipline concerned with the study, design, and application of ...

alphanumeric keyboard
. These typically have a clam shell form factor with the
screen Screen or Screens may refer to: Arts * Screen printing (also called ''silkscreening''), a method of printing * Big screen, a nickname associated with the motion picture industry * Split screen (filmmaking), a film composition paradigm in which mult ...
mounted on the inside of the upper lid and the keyboard on the inside of the lower lid, although
2-in-1 PC A 2-in-1 PC, also known as convertible laptop, 2-in-1 tablet, 2-in-1 laptop, 2-in-1 detachable, laplet, tabtop, laptop tablet, or simply 2-in-1, is a portable computer , one of the first portable IBM PC compatible systems Image:MIT Suitcase ...
s with a detachable keyboard are often marketed as laptops or as having a laptop mode. Laptops are folded shut for transportation, and thus are suitable for mobile use. Its name comes from
lap A lap is a surface (usually horizontal) created between the knee In human Humans (''Homo sapiens'') are the most populous and widespread species of primates, characterized by bipedality, opposable thumbs, hairlessness, and intelligence al ...

lap
, as it was deemed practical to be placed on a person's lap when being used. Today, laptops are used in a variety of settings, such as at work, in education, for playing games,
web browsing Web navigation refers to the process of navigating a network Network, networking and networked may refer to: Science and technology * Network theory Network theory is the study of Graph (discrete mathematics), graphs as a representation of ...

web browsing
, for personal
multimedia Multimedia is a form of communication that combines different such as , , , , or into a single interactive presentation, in contrast to traditional mass media which featured little to no interaction fr ...

multimedia
, and general home computer use. As of 2021, in
American English American English (AmE, AE, AmEng, USEng, en-US), sometimes called United States English or U.S. English, is the set of variety (linguistics), varieties of the English language native to the United States. Currently, American English is the m ...
, the terms 'laptop computer' and 'notebook computer' are used interchangeably; in other dialects of English one or the other may be preferred. Although the terms 'notebook computers' or 'notebooks' originally referred to a specific size of laptop (originally smaller and lighter than mainstream laptops of the time), the terms have come to mean the same thing and ''notebook'' no longer refers to any specific size. Laptops combine all the
input/output In computing, input/output (I/O, or informally io or IO) is the communication between an information processing system, such as a computer, and the outside world, possibly a human or another information processing system. Information, Inputs are ...
components and capabilities of a
desktop computer A desktop computer is a personal computer A personal computer (PC) is a multi-purpose computer whose size, capabilities, and price make it feasible for individual use. Personal computers are intended to be operated directly by an end user, ...
, including the display screen, small speakers, a keyboard,
data storage Data Data (; ) are individual facts, statistics, or items of information, often numeric. In a more technical sense, data are a set of values of qualitative property, qualitative or quantity, quantitative variable (research), variables ...
device, sometimes an
optical disc drive In computing, an optical disc drive (ODD) is a disk drive, disc drive that uses laser light or electromagnetic waves within or near the visible light spectrum as part of the process of reading or writing data to or from optical discs. Some ...
, pointing devices (such as a
touch pad A touchpad or trackpad is a pointing device featuring a tactile sensor, a specialized surface that can translate the motion and position of a user's fingers to a relative position on the operating system that is made output to the screen. Touchpa ...

touch pad
or
pointing stick ] A pointing stick (or trackpoint, also referred to generically as a nub) is a small analog stick used as a pointing device typically mounted centrally in a computer keyboard. Like other pointing devices such as computer mouse, mice, touchpads o ...
), with an
operating system An operating system (OS) is system software System software is software designed to provide a platform for other software. Examples of system software include operating systems (OS) like macOS, Linux, Android (operating system), Android and Mi ...

operating system
, a processor and
memory Memory is the faculty of the brain A brain is an organ Organ may refer to: Biology * Organ (anatomy) An organ is a group of Tissue (biology), tissues with similar functions. Plant life and animal life rely on many organs that co-exis ...
into a single unit. Most modern laptops feature integrated
webcam A webcam is a video camera that feeds or streams an image or video in real time to or through a computer A computer is a machine that can be programmed to carry out sequences of arithmetic or logical operations automatically. Modern com ...

webcam
s and built-in
microphone A microphone, colloquially called a mic or mike (), is a device – a transducer A transducer is a device that energy from one form to another. Usually a transducer converts a in one form of energy to a signal in another. Transducers ar ...

microphone
s, while many also have
touchscreen A touchscreen or touch screen is the assembly of both an input ('touch panel') and output ('display') device. The touch panel is normally layered on the top of an electronic visual display of an Information processor, information processing system ...

touchscreen
s. Laptops can be powered either from an internal
battery Battery may refer to: Energy source * Electric battery, an electrochemical device to provide electrical power ** Automotive battery, a device to provide power to certain functions of an automobile ** List of battery types * Energy storage, inclu ...
or by an external
power supply #REDIRECT Power supply#REDIRECT Power supply A power supply is an electrical device that supplies electric power to an electrical load. The primary function of a power supply is to convert electric current from a source to the correct voltage, el ...
from an
AC adapter An AC adapter, AC/DC adapter, or AC/DC converter is a type of external power supply #REDIRECT Power supply#REDIRECT Power supply A power supply is an electrical device that supplies electric power to an electrical load. The primary functio ...
. Hardware specifications, such as the processor speed and memory capacity, significantly vary between different types, models and
price point Price points A, B, and C, along a demand curve (where P is price and Q represents demand), framed Price points are prices at which demand for a given Product (business), product is supposed to stay relatively high. Characteristics Introductory m ...
s. Design elements, form factor and construction can also vary significantly between models depending on the intended use. Examples of specialized models of laptops include rugged notebooks for use in construction or
military applications Military science is the study of military processes, institutions, and behavior, along with the study of warfare, and the theory and application of organized coercive force. It is mainly focused on theory A theory is a reason, rational type of ...
, as well as low production cost laptops such as those from the
One Laptop per Child One Laptop per Child (OLPC) was a non-profit initiative established with the goal of transforming education for children around the world; this goal was to be achieved by creating and distributing educational devices for the developing world ...
(OLPC) organization, which incorporate features like
solar charging
solar charging
and semi-flexible components not found on most laptop computers.
Portable computer , one of the first portable IBM PC compatible systems Image:MIT Suitcase Computer 1975.jpg, The MIT Suitcase Computer, MIT Digital Systems Laboratory, 1975 A portable computer is a computer designed to be easily moved from one place to another ...
s, which later developed into modern laptops, were originally considered to be a small
niche market A niche market is the subset of the market on which a specific product is focused. The market niche defines the product features aimed at satisfying specific market needs, as well as the price A price is the (usually not negative) quantit ...
, mostly for specialized field applications, such as in the military, for accountants, or traveling sales representatives. As portable computers evolved into modern laptops, they became widely used for a variety of purposes.


History

As the personal computer (PC) became feasible in 1971, the idea of a portable personal computer soon followed. A "personal, portable information manipulator" was imagined by
Alan Kay Alan Curtis Kay (born May 17, 1940) published by the Association for Computing Machinery The Association for Computing Machinery (ACM) is a US-based international learned society A learned society (; also known as a learned academy, sch ...

Alan Kay
at
Xerox PARC PARC (Palo Alto Research Center; formerly Xerox PARC) is a research and development company in Palo Alto, California. Founded in 1969 by Jack Goldman, Jacob E. "Jack" Goldman, Xerox Corporation's chief scientist, the company was originally a divis ...
in 1968, and described in his 1972 paper as the "
Dynabook The KiddiComp concept, envisioned by Alan Kay Alan Curtis Kay (born May 17, 1940) published by the Association for Computing Machinery 2012 is an American computer scientist. He has been elected a Fellow of the American Academy of Arts and Scie ...
". The IBM Special Computer APL Machine Portable (SCAMP) was demonstrated in 1973. This prototype was based on the
IBM PALM processor The PALM (Put All Logic in Microcode) is a 16-bit central processing unit (CPU) developed by IBM. It was used in the IBM 5100, IBM 5100 Portable Computer, a predecessor of the IBM PC, and the IBM 5110 and IBM 5120 follow-on machines. It is likel ...
. The
IBM 5100 The IBM 5100 Portable Computer is a portable computer , one of the first portable IBM PC compatible systems Image:MIT Suitcase Computer 1975.jpg, The MIT Suitcase Computer, MIT Digital Systems Laboratory, 1975 A portable computer is a com ...

IBM 5100
, the first commercially available portable computer, appeared in September 1975, and was based on the SCAMP prototype. As 8-bit CPU machines became widely accepted, the number of portables increased rapidly. The first "laptop-sized notebook computer" was the
Epson HX-20 The Epson HX-20 (also known as the HC-20) was the first "true" laptop A laptop or laptop computer is a small, portable personal computer File:Crystal Project computer.png, upright=0.9, An artist's depiction of a 2000s-era desktop-style per ...
, invented (patented) by Suwa Seikosha's Yukio Yokozawa in July 1980, introduced at the
comdex COMDEX (an abbreviation of COMputer Dealers' EXhibition) was a computer expo A trade fair (trade show, trade exhibition, or trade exposition) is an exhibition organized so that companies A company, abbreviated as co., is a Legal personality ...
computer show in
Las Vegas Las Vegas (; Spanish Spanish may refer to: * Items from or related to Spain: **Spaniards, a nation and ethnic group indigenous to Spain **Spanish language **Spanish cuisine Other places * Spanish, Ontario, Canada * Spanish River (disambi ...

Las Vegas
by Japanese company
Seiko Epson Seiko Epson Corporation, or simply known as Epson, is a Japanese electronics The field of electronics is a branch of physics and electrical engineering that deals with the emission, behaviour and effects of electrons The electron is a ...
in 1981,Epson HX-20
Old Computers
and released in July 1982.Michael R. Peres
''The Focal Encyclopedia of Photography'', page 306
Taylor & Francis Taylor & Francis Group is an international company originating in England that publishes books and academic journal An academic or scholarly journal is a periodical publication Periodical literature (also called a periodical publication ...
It had an
LCD A liquid-crystal display (LCD) is a flat-panel display A flat-panel display (FPD) is an electronic display device s, LED display and Vacuum fluorescent display, VF display, top to bottom. A display device is an output device for presentation ...
screen, a rechargeable battery, and a calculator-size printer, in a chassis, the size of an A4
notebook A notebook (also known as a notepad, writing pad, drawing pad, or legal pad) is a book or stack of paper pages that are often Ruled paper, ruled and used for purposes such as recording notes or memoranda, other writing, drawing or scrapbooking. ...

notebook
. It was described as a "laptop" and "notebook" computer in its patent. The portable micro computer
Portal Portal often refers to: * Portal (architecture), an opening in a wall of a building, gate or fortification, or the extremities (ends) of a tunnel Portal may also refer to: Art and entertainment Gaming * ''Portal'' (series), two video games d ...
of the French company R2E
Micral Micral is a series of microcomputer A microcomputer is a small, relatively inexpensive computer A computer is a machine that can be programmed to carry out sequences of arithmetic or logical operations automatically. Modern computers can ...
CCMC officially appeared in September 1980 at the Sicob show in Paris. It was a portable microcomputer designed and marketed by the studies and developments department of R2E
Micral Micral is a series of microcomputer A microcomputer is a small, relatively inexpensive computer A computer is a machine that can be programmed to carry out sequences of arithmetic or logical operations automatically. Modern computers can ...
at the request of the company CCMC specializing in payroll and accounting. It was based on an Intel 8085 processor, 8-bit, clocked at 2  MHz. It was equipped with a central 64 KB RAM, a keyboard with 58 alphanumeric keys and 11 numeric keys (separate blocks), a 32-character screen, a floppy disk: capacity = 140,000 characters, of a thermal printer: speed = 28 characters / second, an asynchronous channel, asynchronous channel, a 220 V power supply. It weighed 12 kg and its dimensions were 45 x 45 x 15 cm. It provided total mobility. Its operating system was aptly named Prologue. The
Osborne 1 The Osborne 1 is the first commercially successful portable computer, released on April 3, 1981 by Osborne Computer Corporation. It weighs , cost US$1,795, and runs the CP/M 2.2 operating system. It is powered from a AC power plugs and sockets, w ...
, released in 1981, was a luggable computer that used the
Zilog Zilog, Inc. is an American manufacturer of 8-bit In computer architecture, 8-bit integer (computer science), integers or other data#Uses of data in computing, data units are those that are 8 bits wide (1 octet). Also, 8-bit central proces ...
Z80 The Z80 is an 8-bit In computer architecture, 8-bit integer (computer science), integers or other data#Uses of data in computing, data units are those that are 8 bits wide (1 octet). Also, 8-bit central processing unit, CPU and arithmeti ...
and weighed . It had no battery, a
cathode ray tube A cathode-ray tube (CRT) is a vacuum tube A vacuum tube, electron tube, valve (British usage), or tube (North America), is a device that controls electric current An electric current is a stream of charged particles, such as electrons ...

cathode ray tube
(CRT) screen, and dual single-density floppy drives. Both Tandy/RadioShack and
Hewlett Packard The Hewlett-Packard Company, commonly shortened to Hewlett-Packard ( ) or HP, was an American multinational information technology company headquartered in Palo Alto, California. HP developed and provided a wide variety of hardware compone ...
(HP) also produced portable computers of varying designs during this period. The first laptops using the flip form factor appeared in the early 1980s. The Dulmont Magnum was released in Australia in 1981–82, but was not marketed internationally until 1984–85. The US$8,150 (US$ today) GRiD Compass 1101, released in 1982, was used at
NASA The National Aeronautics and Space Administration (NASA; ) is an independent agency A regulatory agency or regulatory authority, is a Public benefit corporation Public-benefit corporation is a term that has different meanings in differen ...

NASA
and by the
military A military, also known collectively as armed forces, is a heavily armed, highly organized force primarily intended for warfare War is an intense armed conflict between State (polity), states, governments, Society, societies, or pa ...
, among others. The Sharp PC-5000, AmpereBob Armstrong, http://cosy.com/language/cosyhard/cosyhard.htm and
Gavilan SC The Gavilan SC was a laptop computer, and was the first ever to be marketed as a "laptop". History The brainchild of Gavilan Computer Corp. founder Manuel Fernandez (businessman), Manuel (Manny) Fernandez, the Gavilan was introduced in May 1983, ...

Gavilan SC
released in 1983. The Gavilan SC was described as a "laptop" by its manufacturer, while the Ampere had a modern clamshell design. The
Toshiba T1100 The Toshiba T1100 is a laptop A laptop, laptop computer, or notebook computer is a small, portable personal computer File:Crystal Project computer.png, upright=0.9, An artist's depiction of a 2000s-era desktop-style personal computer, w ...
won acceptance not only among PC experts but the mass market as a way to have PC portability. From 1983 onward, several new input techniques were developed and included in laptops, including the
touch pad A touchpad or trackpad is a pointing device featuring a tactile sensor, a specialized surface that can translate the motion and position of a user's fingers to a relative position on the operating system that is made output to the screen. Touchpa ...

touch pad
(
Gavilan SC The Gavilan SC was a laptop computer, and was the first ever to be marketed as a "laptop". History The brainchild of Gavilan Computer Corp. founder Manuel Fernandez (businessman), Manuel (Manny) Fernandez, the Gavilan was introduced in May 1983, ...

Gavilan SC
, 1983), the
pointing stick ] A pointing stick (or trackpoint, also referred to generically as a nub) is a small analog stick used as a pointing device typically mounted centrally in a computer keyboard. Like other pointing devices such as computer mouse, mice, touchpads o ...

pointing stick
(IBM ThinkPad 700, 1992), and
handwriting recognition Handwriting recognition (HWR), also known as Handwritten Text Recognition (HTR), is the ability of a computer to receive and interpret intelligible handwritten input from sources such as paper Paper is a thin sheet material produced by mecha ...
(Linus Write-Top, 1987). Some CPUs, such as the 1990 Intel i386SL, were designed to use minimum power to increase battery life of portable computers and were supported by dynamic
power management Power management is a feature of some electrical appliances, especially copiers, computer A computer is a machine that can be programmed to Execution (computing), carry out sequences of arithmetic or logical operations automatically. Modern ...
features such as Intel
SpeedStep Enhanced SpeedStep is a series of dynamic frequency scaling Dynamic frequency scaling (also known as CPU throttling) is a power management technique in computer architecture whereby the frequency of a microprocessor can be automatically adjus ...
and AMD
PowerNow! __NOTOC__ AMD PowerNow! is AMD's dynamic frequency scaling and power saving technology for laptop processors. The Central processing unit, CPU's clock speed and VCore are automatically decreased when the computer is under low load or idle, to save ...
in some designs. Displays reached 640x480 (
VGA Video Graphics Array (VGA) is a video display controller A video display controller or VDC (also regularly called display engine, display interface) is an integrated circuit An integrated circuit or monolithic integrated circuit (also ...

VGA
) resolution by 1988 (Compaq SLT/286), and color screens started becoming a common upgrade in 1991, with increases in resolution and screen size occurring frequently until the introduction of 17" screen laptops in 2003. Hard drives started to be used in portables, encouraged by the introduction of 3.5" drives in the late 1980s, and became common in laptops starting with the introduction of 2.5" and smaller drives around 1990; capacities have typically lagged behind physically larger desktop drives. Common resolutions of laptop
webcam A webcam is a video camera that feeds or streams an image or video in real time to or through a computer A computer is a machine that can be programmed to carry out sequences of arithmetic or logical operations automatically. Modern com ...

webcam
s are 720p (HD), and in lower-end laptops 480p. The earliest known laptops with
1080p 1080p (1920×1080 Progressive_scan, progressively displayed pixels; also known as Full HD or FHD, and Rec. 709, BT.709) is a set of High-definition television, HDTV high-definition video modes characterized by 1,920 pixels displayed across the scr ...
(Full HD) webcams like the Samsung 700G7C were released in the early 2010s.
Optical disc drive In computing, an optical disc drive (ODD) is a disk drive, disc drive that uses laser light or electromagnetic waves within or near the visible light spectrum as part of the process of reading or writing data to or from optical discs. Some ...
s became common in full-size laptops around 1997; this initially consisted of CD-ROM drives, which were supplanted by CD-R, DVD, and
Blu-ray The Blu-ray Disc (BD), often known simply as Blu-ray, is a digital Digital usually refers to something using digits, particularly binary digits. Technology and computing Hardware *Digital electronics Digital electronics is a field of elec ...

Blu-ray
drives with writing capability over time. Starting around 2011, the trend shifted against internal optical drives, and as of 2021, they have largely disappeared; they are still readily available as external
peripheral A peripheral or peripheral device is an auxiliary device used to put information into and get information out of the computer. The term peripheral device refers to all hardware components that are attached to a computer and are controlled by the co ...
s.


Etymology

While the terms ''laptop'' and ''notebook'' are used interchangeably today, there is some question as to the original etymology and specificity of either term—the term ''laptop'' appears to have been coined in the early 1980s to describe a mobile computer which could be used on one's lap, and to distinguish these devices from earlier and much heavier,
portable computers , one of the first portable IBM PC compatible IBM PC compatible computers are similar to the original IBM Personal Computer, IBM PC, IBM Personal Computer XT, XT, and IBM Personal Computer/AT, AT that are able to use the same software and expans ...

portable computers
(informally called "luggables"). The term "notebook" appears to have gained currency somewhat later as manufacturers started producing even smaller portable devices, further reducing their weight and size and incorporating a display roughly the size of A4 paper; these were marketed as ''notebooks'' to distinguish them from bulkier mainstream or desktop replacement laptops.


Types

Since the introduction of portable computers during the late 1970s, their form has changed significantly,
spawning Spawn is the eggs and sperm Sperm is the male reproductive Cell (biology), cell, or gamete, in anisogamous forms of sexual reproduction (forms in which there is a larger, "female" reproductive cell and a smaller, "male" one). Animals produce ...
a variety of visually and technologically differing subclasses. Except where there is a distinct legal trademark around a term (notably,
Ultrabook Ultrabook is a marketing term, originated and trademarked by Intel Intel Corporation is an American multinational corporation A multinational company (MNC) is a corporate A corporation is an organization—usually a group of people ...
), there are rarely hard distinctions between these classes and their usage has varied over time and between different sources. Since the late 2010s, the use of more specific terms has become less common, with sizes distinguished largely by the size of the screen.


Smaller and Larger Laptops

There were in the past a number of marketing categories for smaller and larger laptop computers; these included "
subnotebook Subnotebook (also called an ultraportable, superportable or mini notebook) was a marketing term for laptop computer, laptop computers that are smaller and lighter than a typical 'notebook' sized laptop. Types and sizes , 10.4") and early netbook ...
" models, low cost "
netbook The marketing term netbook identified small and inexpensive laptop computer, laptops that were sold from 2007 to around 2013; these were generally low-performance. While the ''name'' has fallen out of use, machines matching their descripti ...

netbook
s", and "
Ultra-mobile PC An ultra-mobile PC (ultra-mobile personal computer or UMPC) is a miniature version of a pen computer, a class of laptop A laptop, laptop computer, or notebook computer is a small, portable personal computer File:Crystal Project com ...
s" where the size class overlapped with devices like
smartphone A smartphone is a portable device A mobile device (or handheld computer) is a computer A computer is a machine that can be programmed to carry out sequences of arithmetic or logical operations automatically. Modern computers can per ...

smartphone
and handheld tablets, and " Desktop replacement" laptops for machines notably larger and heavier than typical to operate more powerful
processors A central processing unit (CPU), also called a central processor, main processor or just Processor (computing), processor, is the electronic circuitry that executes Instruction (computing), instructions comprising a computer program. The CPU per ...

processors
or
graphics hardware Graphics hardware is computer hardware that generates computer graphics and allows them to be shown on a display, usually using a graphics card (video card A graphics card (also called a video card, display card, graphics adapter, video adapte ...
. All of these terms have fallen out of favor as the size of mainstream laptops has gone down and their capabilities have gone up; except for niche models, laptop sizes tend to be distinguished by the size of the screen, and for more powerful models, by any specialized purpose the machine is intended for, such as a "" or a "" for professional use.


Convertible, hybrid, 2-in-1

The latest trend of
technological convergence Technological convergence, also known as digital convergence, is the tendency for technologies Technology ("science of craft", from Greek , ''techne'', "art, skill, cunning of hand"; and , '' -logia'') is the sum of Art techniques and mate ...
in the portable computer industry spawned a broad range of devices, which combined features of several previously separate device types. The ''hybrids'', ''convertibles'', and ''2-in-1s'' emerged as crossover devices, which share traits of both tablets and laptops. All such devices have a
touchscreen A touchscreen or touch screen is the assembly of both an input ('touch panel') and output ('display') device. The touch panel is normally layered on the top of an electronic visual display of an Information processor, information processing system ...

touchscreen
display designed to allow users to work in a ''tablet'' mode, using either
multi-touch In computing Computing is any goal-oriented activity requiring, benefiting from, or creating computing machinery. It includes the study and experimentation of algorithm of an algorithm (Euclid's algorithm) for calculating the greatest commo ...
gestures or a
stylus A stylus (plural styli or styluses) is a writing utensil A writing implement or writing instrument is an object used to produce writing. Writing consists of different figures, lines, and or forms. Most of these items can be also used for othe ...
/
digital pen A digital pen is an input device which captures the handwriting Handwriting is the writing Writing is a medium of human communication that involves the representation of a language with written symbols. Writing systems are not themselves ...
.
Convertibles A convertible or cabriolet () is a passenger car Passenger car may refer to: * A car (automobile) as opposed to a truck * Passenger car (Ferris wheel), a compartment for carrying passengers * Passenger car (rail), railway rolling stock for car ...
are devices with the ability to conceal a hardware keyboard. Keyboards on such devices can be flipped, rotated, or slid behind the back of the chassis, thus transforming from a laptop into a tablet. ''Hybrids'' have a keyboard detachment mechanism, and due to this feature, all critical components are situated in the part with the display. ''2-in-1s'' can have a hybrid or a convertible form, often dubbed ''2-in-1 detachable'' and ''2-in-1 convertibles'' respectively, but are distinguished by the ability to run a desktop , such as
Windows 10 Windows 10 is a major release of the Windows NT Windows NT is a proprietary {{Short pages monitor The list of materials that go into a laptop computer is long, and many of the substances used, such as beryllium (used in beryllium-copper alloy contacts in some connectors and sockets), lead (used in lead-tin solder), chromium, and Mercury (element), mercury (used in CCFL LCD backlights) compounds, are toxic or carcinogenic to humans. Although these toxins are relatively harmless when the laptop is in use, concerns that discarded laptops cause a serious health risk and toxic environmental damage, were so strong, that the Waste Electrical and Electronic Equipment Directive (WEEE Directive) in Europe specified that all laptop computers must be recycled by law. Similarly, the U.S. Environmental Protection Agency (Epargyreus clarus, EPA) has outlawed landfill dumping or the incinerating of discarded laptop computers. Most laptop computers begin the recycling process with a method known as Demanufacturing, this involves the physical separation of the components of the laptop. These components are then either grouped into materials (e.g. plastic, metal and glass) for recycling or more complex items that require more advanced materials separation (e.g.) circuit boards, hard drives and batteries. Corporate laptop recycling can require an additional process known as data destruction. The data destruction process ensures that all information or data that has been stored on a laptop hard drive can never be retrieved again. Below is an overview of some of the data protection and environmental laws and regulations applicable for laptop recycling data destruction: * Data Protection Act 1998 (DPA) * EPrivacy Directive (European Union), EU Privacy Directive (Due 2016) * Financial Conduct Authority * Sarbanes–Oxley Act, Sarbanes-Oxley Act * PCI-DSS Data Security Standard * Waste, Electronic & Electrical Equipment Directive (Weekly Shōnen Jump, WEEE) * Basel Convention * Bank Secrecy Act (BSA) * Fair and Accurate Credit Transactions Act, FACTA Sarbanes-Oxley Act * FDA Security Regulations (21 C.F.R. part 11) * Gramm-Leach-Bliley Act (GLBA) * Health Insurance Portability and Accountability Act, HIPAA (Health Insurance Portability and Accountability Act) * NIST SP 800–53 * Add NIST SP 800–171 * Identity Theft and Assumption Deterrence Act * Patriot Act of 2002 * PCI Data Security Standard * US Safe Harbor Provisions * Various state laws * JAN 6/3 * Gramm-leach-Bliley Act * DCID


Extreme use

The ruggedized Grid Compass computer was used since the early days of the Space Shuttle program. The first Commercial off-the-shelf, commercial laptop used in space was a Macintosh portable in 1991 aboard Space Shuttle mission STS-43. Apple and other laptop computers continue to be flown aboard crewed spaceflights, though the only long-duration flight certified computer for the International Space Station is the ThinkPad#Use in space, ThinkPad. As of 2011, over 100 ThinkPads were aboard the ISS. Laptops used aboard the International Space Station and other spaceflights are generally the same ones that commercial off-the-shelf, can be purchased by the general public but needed modifications are made to allow them to be used safely and effectively in a weightless environment such as updating the cooling systems to function without relying on hot air rising and accommodation for the lower cabin air pressure. Laptops operating in harsh usage environments and conditions, such as strong vibrations, extreme temperatures, and wet or dusty conditions differ from those used in space in that they are Rugged computer, custom designed for the task and do not use commercial off-the-shelf hardware.


See also

* List of computer size categories * List of laptop brands and manufacturers * Netbook * Smartbook * Chromebook *
Ultrabook Ultrabook is a marketing term, originated and trademarked by Intel Intel Corporation is an American multinational corporation A multinational company (MNC) is a corporate A corporation is an organization—usually a group of people ...
* Smartphone * Subscriber Identity Module * Mobile broadband * Mobile Internet device (MID) * Personal digital assistant * VIA OpenBook * Tethering * XJACK * Open-source computer hardware * Novena (computing platform), Novena * Portal (computer), Portal laptop computer * Mobile USB modem, Mobile modem * Stereoscopy glasses


Notes


References

* {{Authority control Laptops, Classes of computers Japanese inventions Office equipment Personal computers 1980s neologisms