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Lactose, a
disaccharide A disaccharide (also called a double sugar or ''biose'') is the sugar Sugar is the generic name for sweet-tasting, soluble carbohydrate is a disaccharide A disaccharide (also called a double sugar or ''biose'') is the sugar formed wh ...
, is a
sugar Sugar is the generic name for sweet-tasting, soluble carbohydrate is a disaccharide A disaccharide (also called a double sugar or ''biose'') is the sugar formed when two monosaccharides are joined by glycosidic linkage. Like monosacc ...

sugar
composed of
galactose Galactose (, '' galacto-'' + ''-ose The suffix In linguistics Linguistics is the science, scientific study of language. It encompasses the analysis of every aspect of language, as well as the methods for studying and modeling them. Th ...
and
glucose Glucose is a simple with the . Glucose is the most abundant , a subcategory of s. Glucose is mainly made by and most during from water and carbon dioxide, using energy from sunlight, where it is used to make in s, the most abundant carbohydr ...

glucose
subunits and has the
molecular formula A chemical formula is a way of presenting information about the chemical proportions of atom An atom is the smallest unit of ordinary matter In classical physics and general chemistry, matter is any substance that has mass and take ...
C12H22O11. Lactose makes up around 2–8% of
milk Milk is a nutrient A nutrient is a substance Substance may refer to: * Substance (Jainism), a term in Jain ontology to denote the base or owner of attributes * Chemical substance, a material with a definite chemical composition * Matter, any ...

milk
(by weight). The name comes from ' (gen. '), the
Latin Latin (, or , ) is a classical language belonging to the Italic languages, Italic branch of the Indo-European languages. Latin was originally spoken in the area around Rome, known as Latium. Through the power of the Roman Republic, it became ...

Latin
word for milk, plus the suffix ''
-ose The suffix In linguistics Linguistics is the science, scientific study of language. It encompasses the analysis of every aspect of language, as well as the methods for studying and modeling them. The traditional areas of linguistic analys ...
'' used to name sugars. The compound is a white, water-soluble, non-hygroscopic solid with a mildly sweet taste. It is used in the food industry.


Structure and reactions

Lactose is a
disaccharide A disaccharide (also called a double sugar or ''biose'') is the sugar Sugar is the generic name for sweet-tasting, soluble carbohydrate is a disaccharide A disaccharide (also called a double sugar or ''biose'') is the sugar formed wh ...
derived from the
condensation Condensation is the change of the state of matter In physics, a state of matter is one of the distinct forms in which matter can exist. Four states of matter are observable in everyday life: solid, liquid, gas, and Plasma (physics), plasma. ...
of
galactose Galactose (, '' galacto-'' + ''-ose The suffix In linguistics Linguistics is the science, scientific study of language. It encompasses the analysis of every aspect of language, as well as the methods for studying and modeling them. Th ...
and
glucose Glucose is a simple with the . Glucose is the most abundant , a subcategory of s. Glucose is mainly made by and most during from water and carbon dioxide, using energy from sunlight, where it is used to make in s, the most abundant carbohydr ...

glucose
, which form a β-1→4
glycosidic A glycosidic bond or glycosidic linkage is a type of covalent bond A covalent bond is a chemical bond A chemical bond is a lasting attraction between atoms, ions or molecules that enables the formation of chemical compounds. The bond may ...
linkage. Its systematic name is β-D-galactopyranosyl-(1→4)-D-glucose. The glucose can be in either the α-
pyranosePyranose is a collective term for saccharides that have a chemical structure that includes a six-membered ring consisting of five carbon atoms and one oxygen atom. There may be other carbons external to the ring. The name derives from its similarity ...
form or the β-pyranose form, whereas the galactose can only have the β-pyranose form: hence α-lactose and β-lactose refer to the
anomer An anomer is a type of geometric variation found at certain atoms in carbohydrate is a disaccharide found in animal milk. It consists of a molecule of D-galactose and a molecule of D-glucose bonded by beta-1-4 glycosidic linkage. A carboh ...
ic form of the glucopyranose ring alone. Detection reactions for lactose are the Woehlk- and Fearon's test. Both can be easily used in school experiments to visualise the different lactose content of different dairy products such as whole milk, lactose free milk, yoghurt, buttermilk, coffee creamer, sour cream, kefir etc. Lactose is
hydrolysed Hydrolysis (; ) is any chemical reaction in which a molecule of water breaks one or more chemical bonds. The term is used broadly for substitution Substitution may refer to: Arts and media *Chord substitution, in music, swapping one chord fo ...
to glucose and galactose, isomerised in alkaline solution to
lactulose Lactulose is a non-absorbable sugar Sugar is the generic name for , soluble s, many of which are used in food. Simple sugars, also called s, include , , and . Compound sugars, also called s or double sugars, are molecules made of two mo ...

lactulose
, and
catalytically
catalytically
hydrogenated to the corresponding
polyhydric alcohol Sugar alcohols (also called polyhydric alcohols, polyalcohols, alditols or glycitols) are organic compound , CH4; is among the simplest organic compounds. In chemistry, organic compounds are generally any chemical compounds that contain carbon-hy ...
,
lactitol Lactitol is a sugar alcohol Sugar alcohols (also called polyhydric alcohols, polyalcohols, alditols or glycitols) are organic compound , CH4; is among the simplest organic compounds. In chemistry, organic compounds are generally any chemical co ...

lactitol
. Lactulose is a commercial product, used for treatment of constipation.


Occurrence and isolation

Lactose composes about 2–8% of milk by weight. Several million tons are produced annually as a by-product of the
dairy industry A dairy is a business enterprise established for the harvesting or processing (or both) of animal milk – mostly from cattle, cows or Water buffalo, buffaloes, but also from goats, sheep, horses, or camels – for human consumption. A dairy is ty ...
.
Whey Whey is the liquid remaining after milk Milk is a nutrient A nutrient is a substance Substance may refer to: * Substance (Jainism), a term in Jain ontology to denote the base or owner of attributes * Chemical substance, a material with a ...

Whey
or milk plasma is the liquid remaining after milk is curdled and strained, for example in the production of
cheese Cheese is a dairy product Dairy products or milk products are a type of food Food is any substance consumed to provide Nutrient, nutritional support for an organism. Food is usually of plant, animal or Fungus, fungal origin, and conta ...

cheese
. Whey is made up of 6.5% solids, of which 4.8% is lactose, which is purified by crystallisation. Industrially, lactose is produced from whey permeate – that is whey filtrated for all major
protein Proteins are large biomolecule , showing alpha helices, represented by ribbons. This poten was the first to have its suckture solved by X-ray crystallography by Max Perutz and Sir John Cowdery Kendrew in 1958, for which they received a No ...

protein
s. The protein fraction is used in infant nutrition and
sports nutrition Sports nutrition is the study and practice of nutrition Nutrition is the biochemical and physiological process by which an organism uses food to support its life. It includes ingestion, Absorption (biology), absorption, Assimilation (biology ...
while the permeate can be evaporated to 60–65% solids and crystallized while cooling. Lactose can also be isolated by dilution of whey with
ethanol Ethanol (also called ethyl alcohol, grain alcohol, drinking alcohol, or simply alcohol) is an organic Organic may refer to: * Organic, of or relating to an organism, a living entity * Organic, of or relating to an anatomical organ (anatomy), ...

ethanol
. Dairy products such as milk
yogurt Yogurt (; , from tr, yoğurt) also spelled yoghurt, yogourt or yoghourt, is a food produced by bacteria Bacteria (; common noun bacteria, singular bacterium) are ubiquitous, mostly free-living organisms often consisting of one Cell ...

yogurt
and
cheese Cheese is a dairy product Dairy products or milk products are a type of food Food is any substance consumed to provide Nutrient, nutritional support for an organism. Food is usually of plant, animal or Fungus, fungal origin, and conta ...

cheese
contain very little lactose. Lactase is used as the bacteria used to make them consume lactose during the manufacturing process.


Metabolism

Infant
mammal Mammals (from Latin Latin (, or , ) is a classical language A classical language is a language A language is a structured system of communication Communication (from Latin ''communicare'', meaning "to share" or "to be i ...
s nurse on their mothers to drink milk, which is rich in lactose. The intestinal villi secrete the
enzyme Enzymes () are proteins that act as biological catalysts (biocatalysts). Catalysts accelerate chemical reactions. The molecules upon which enzymes may act are called substrate (chemistry), substrates, and the enzyme converts the substrates in ...

enzyme
lactase Lactase is an enzyme Enzymes () are proteins that act as biological catalysts (biocatalysts). Catalysts accelerate chemical reactions. The molecules upon which enzymes may act are called substrate (chemistry), substrates, and the enzyme conve ...

lactase
(β-D-galactosidase) to digest it. This enzyme cleaves the lactose molecule into its two subunits, the simple
sugar Sugar is the generic name for sweet-tasting, soluble carbohydrate is a disaccharide A disaccharide (also called a double sugar or ''biose'') is the sugar formed when two monosaccharides are joined by glycosidic linkage. Like monosacc ...

sugar
s
glucose Glucose is a simple with the . Glucose is the most abundant , a subcategory of s. Glucose is mainly made by and most during from water and carbon dioxide, using energy from sunlight, where it is used to make in s, the most abundant carbohydr ...

glucose
and
galactose Galactose (, '' galacto-'' + ''-ose The suffix In linguistics Linguistics is the science, scientific study of language. It encompasses the analysis of every aspect of language, as well as the methods for studying and modeling them. Th ...
, which can be absorbed. Since lactose occurs mostly in milk, in most mammals, the production of lactase gradually decreases with maturity due to a lack of continuing consumption. Many people with ancestry in
Europe Europe is a continent A continent is any of several large landmass A landmass, or land mass, is a large region In geography Geography (from Greek: , ''geographia'', literally "earth description") is a field of scienc ...

Europe
,
West Asia Western Asia, also West Asia, is the westernmost subregion of Asia Asia () is Earth's largest and most populous continent, located primarily in the Eastern Hemisphere, Eastern and Northern Hemisphere, Northern Hemisphere of the Earth, Hem ...
,
South Asia South Asia is the southern region of Asia Asia () is 's largest and most populous , located primarily in the and . It shares the continental of with the continent of and the continental landmass of with both Europe and . Asia cov ...

South Asia
, the
Sahel The Sahel (; ar, ساحل ' , "coast, shore") is the ecoclimatic and of in between the to the north and the to the south. Having a , it stretches across the south-central latitudes of between the Atlantic Ocean and the . The Sahel part o ...

Sahel
belt in
West Africa West Africa or Western Africa is the westernmost region of Africa. The United Nations defines Western Africa as the 17 countries of Benin, Burkina Faso, Cape Verde, The Gambia, Ghana, Guinea, Guinea-Bissau, Ivory Coast, Liberia, Mali, Mauritania ...

West Africa
,
East Africa East Africa, Eastern Africa, or East of Africa is the eastern sub-region A subregion is a part of a larger region or continent and is usually based on location. Cardinal directions, such as south or southern, are commonly used to define a subr ...
and a few other parts of
Central Africa Central Africa is a subregion A subregion is a part of a larger region In geography Geography (from Greek: , ''geographia'', literally "earth description") is a field of science devoted to the study of the lands, features, inhab ...

Central Africa
maintain lactase production into adulthood. In many of these areas, milk from mammals such as
cattle Cattle, taurine cattle, Eurasian cattle, or European cattle (''Bos taurus'' or ''Bos primigenius taurus'') are large domestication, domesticated Cloven hoof, cloven-hooved herbivores. They are a prominent modern member of the subfamily Bovinae ...

cattle
,
goats The domestic goat or simply goat (''Capra aegagrus hircus'') is a subspecies of '' C. aegagrus'' domesticated Domestication is a sustained multi-generational relationship in which one group of organisms assumes a significant degree of infl ...

goats
, and
sheep Sheep (''Ovis aries'') are quadrupedal, ruminant mammals typically kept as livestock. Like all ruminants, sheep are members of the order (biology), order Artiodactyla, the even-toed ungulates. Although the name ''sheep'' applies to many species ...

sheep
is used as a large source of food. Hence, it was in these regions that genes for lifelong lactase production first
evolved Evolution is change in the heritable Heredity, also called inheritance or biological inheritance, is the passing on of Phenotypic trait, traits from parents to their offspring; either through asexual reproduction or sexual reproduction, ...

evolved
. The genes of adult lactose tolerance have evolved independently in various ethnic groups. By descent, more than 70% of western Europeans can digest lactose as adults, compared with less than 30% of people from areas of Africa, eastern and south-eastern Asia and Oceania. In people who are lactose intolerant, lactose is not broken down and provides food for gas-producing
gut flora Gut or guts may refer to: Anatomy * Abdomen, the region of the body below the thorax but above the pelvic region * Beer gut, slang for an obese stomach * Gastrointestinal tract, the system of digestive organs in humans and other animals * Hu ...
, which can lead to diarrhea, bloating, flatulence, and other gastrointestinal symptoms.


Biological properties

The
sweetness Sweetness is a basic taste most commonly perceived Perception (from the Latin ''perceptio'', meaning gathering or receiving) is the organization, identification, and interpretation of Sense, sensory information in order to represent ...

sweetness
of lactose is 0.2 to 0.4, relative to 1.0 for
sucrose Sucrose is a type of sugar Sugar is the generic name for , soluble s, many of which are used in food. Simple sugars, also called s, include , , and . Compound sugars, also called s or double sugars, are molecules made of two monosacchari ...

sucrose
. For comparison, the sweetness of
glucose Glucose is a simple with the . Glucose is the most abundant , a subcategory of s. Glucose is mainly made by and most during from water and carbon dioxide, using energy from sunlight, where it is used to make in s, the most abundant carbohydr ...

glucose
is 0.6 to 0.7, of
fructose Fructose, or fruit sugar, is a ketonic simple sugar Monosaccharides (from Greek#REDIRECT Greek Greek may refer to: Greece Anything of, from, or related to Greece Greece ( el, Ελλάδα, , ), officially the Hellenic Republic, is a cou ...

fructose
is 1.3, of
galactose Galactose (, '' galacto-'' + ''-ose The suffix In linguistics Linguistics is the science, scientific study of language. It encompasses the analysis of every aspect of language, as well as the methods for studying and modeling them. Th ...
is 0.5 to 0.7, of
maltose} Maltose ( or ), also known as maltobiose or malt sugar, is a disaccharide A disaccharide (also called a double sugar or ''biose'') is the sugar formed when two monosaccharides are joined by glycosidic linkage. Like monosaccharides, disacchari ...

maltose
is 0.4 to 0.5, of
sorbose Sorbose is a ketose belonging to the group of sugar Sugar is the generic name for Sweetness, sweet-tasting, soluble carbohydrates, many of which are used in food. Table sugar, granulated sugar, or regular sugar, refers to sucrose, a disacchar ...

sorbose
is 0.4, and of
xylose Xylose ( grc, ξύλον, , "wood") is a sugar first isolated from wood, and named for it. Xylose is classified as a of the type, which means that it contains five atoms and includes an . It is derived from , one of the main constituents o ...

xylose
is 0.6 to 0.7. When lactose is completely digested in the
small intestine The small intestine or small bowel is an organ (anatomy), organ in the human gastrointestinal tract, gastrointestinal tract where most of the #Absorption, absorption of nutrients from food takes place. It lies between the stomach and large intes ...

small intestine
, its
caloric value The calorie is a unit of energy defined as the amount of heat needed to raise the temperature of a quantity of water by one degree. For historical reasons, two main definitions of calorie are in wide use. The small calorie or gram calorie (usual ...
is 4 kcal/g, or the same as that of other
carbohydrate A carbohydrate () is a biomolecule , showing alpha helices, represented by ribbons. This poten was the first to have its suckture solved by X-ray crystallography by Max Perutz and Sir John Cowdery Kendrew in 1958, for which they received a ...
s. However, lactose is not always fully digested in the small intestine. Depending on ingested dose, combination with meals (either solid or liquid), and
lactase Lactase is an enzyme Enzymes () are proteins that act as biological catalysts (biocatalysts). Catalysts accelerate chemical reactions. The molecules upon which enzymes may act are called substrate (chemistry), substrates, and the enzyme conve ...

lactase
activity in the
intestine The gastrointestinal tract (GI tract, digestive tract, alimentary canal) is the tract or passageway of the digestive system The human digestive system consists of the gastrointestinal tract The gastrointestinal tract, (GI tract, GIT, d ...

intestine
s, the caloric value of lactose ranges from 2 to 4 kcal/g. Undigested lactose acts as
dietary fiber Dietary fiber (British spelling fibre) or roughage is the portion of plant-derived food that cannot be completely broken down by human digestive enzyme Digestive may refer to: Biology *Digestion Digestion is the breakdown of large insolub ...
. It also has positive effects on absorption of
mineral In geology and mineralogy, a mineral or mineral species is, broadly speaking, a solid chemical compound with a fairly well-defined chemical composition and a specific crystal structure that occurs naturally in pure form.John P. Rafferty, ed. (2 ...

mineral
s, such as
calcium Calcium is a chemical element In chemistry, an element is a pure Chemical substance, substance consisting only of atoms that all have the same numbers of protons in their atomic nucleus, nuclei. Unlike chemical compounds, chemical elem ...

calcium
and
magnesium Magnesium is a chemical element upright=1.0, 500px, The chemical elements ordered by link=Periodic table In chemistry Chemistry is the science, scientific study of the properties and behavior of matter. It is a natural science ...

magnesium
. The
glycemic index The glycemic index (GI; ) is a number from 0 to 100 assigned to a food, with pure glucose arbitrarily given the value of 100, which represents the relative rise in the blood glucose level two hours after consuming that food. The GI of a specific fo ...
of lactose is 46 to 65. For comparison, the glycemic index of
glucose Glucose is a simple with the . Glucose is the most abundant , a subcategory of s. Glucose is mainly made by and most during from water and carbon dioxide, using energy from sunlight, where it is used to make in s, the most abundant carbohydr ...

glucose
is 100 to 138, of
sucrose Sucrose is a type of sugar Sugar is the generic name for , soluble s, many of which are used in food. Simple sugars, also called s, include , , and . Compound sugars, also called s or double sugars, are molecules made of two monosacchari ...

sucrose
is 68 to 92, of
maltose} Maltose ( or ), also known as maltobiose or malt sugar, is a disaccharide A disaccharide (also called a double sugar or ''biose'') is the sugar formed when two monosaccharides are joined by glycosidic linkage. Like monosaccharides, disacchari ...

maltose
is 105, and of
fructose Fructose, or fruit sugar, is a ketonic simple sugar Monosaccharides (from Greek#REDIRECT Greek Greek may refer to: Greece Anything of, from, or related to Greece Greece ( el, Ελλάδα, , ), officially the Hellenic Republic, is a cou ...

fructose
is 19 to 27. Lactose has relatively low cariogenicity among
sugar Sugar is the generic name for sweet-tasting, soluble carbohydrate is a disaccharide A disaccharide (also called a double sugar or ''biose'') is the sugar formed when two monosaccharides are joined by glycosidic linkage. Like monosacc ...

sugar
s. This is because it is not a substrate for
dental plaque Dental plaque is a biofilm A biofilm comprises any syntrophicIn biology Biology is the natural science that studies life and living organisms, including their anatomy, physical structure, Biochemistry, chemical processes, Molecular biolog ...
formation and it is not rapidly
fermented Fermentation is a metabolic Metabolism (, from el, μεταβολή ''metabolē'', "change") is the set of life Life is a characteristic that distinguishes physical entities that have biological processes, such as signaling ...

fermented
by
oral The word oral may refer to: Relating to the mouth * Relating to the mouth, the first portion of the alimentary canal that primarily receives food and liquid **Oral administration of medicines ** Oral examination (also known as an oral exam or oral ...

oral
bacteria Bacteria (; common noun bacteria, singular bacterium) are ubiquitous, mostly free-living organisms often consisting of one Cell (biology), biological cell. They constitute a large domain (biology), domain of prokaryotic microorganisms. Typ ...

bacteria
. The buffering capacity of milk also reduces the cariogenicity of lactose.


Applications

Its mild flavor and easy handling properties have led to its use as a carrier and stabiliser of aromas and pharmaceutical products. Lactose is not added directly to many foods, because its solubility is less than that of other sugars commonly used in food. Infant formula is a notable exception, where the addition of lactose is necessary to match the composition of human milk. Lactose is not fermented by most
yeast Yeasts are eukaryotic Eukaryotes () are organism In biology Biology is the natural science that studies life and living organisms, including their anatomy, physical structure, Biochemistry, chemical processes, Molecular ...

yeast
during brewing, which may be used to advantage. For example, lactose may be used to sweeten stout beer; the resulting beer is usually called a
milk stout Stout is a dark, top-fermented beer with a number of variations, including #Dry stout, dry stout, #Oatmeal stout, oatmeal stout, #Milk stout, milk stout, and #Imperial stout, imperial stout. The first known use of the word ''stout'' for beer wa ...
or a cream stout. Yeast belonging to the genus ''
Kluyveromyces ''Kluyveromyces'' is a genus Genus (plural genera) is a taxonomic rank Taxonomy (general) is the practice and science of classification of things or concepts, including the principles that underlie such classification. The term may also refer ...
'' have a unique industrial application as they are capable of fermenting lactose for ethanol production. Surplus lactose from the whey by-product of dairy operations is a potential source of alternative energy. Another significant lactose use is in the pharmaceutical industry. Lactose is added to tablet and capsule drug products as an ingredient because of its physical and functional properties. For similar reasons it can be used to dilute illicit drugs such as cocaine or heroin.


History

The first crude isolation of lactose, by Italian physician Fabrizio Bartoletti (1576–1630), was published in 1633. In 1700, the Venetian pharmacist Lodovico Testi (1640–1707) published a booklet of testimonials to the power of milk sugar (''saccharum lactis'') to relieve, among other ailments, the symptoms of arthritis. In 1715, Testi's procedure for making milk sugar was published by Antonio Vallisneri. Lactose was identified as a
sugar Sugar is the generic name for sweet-tasting, soluble carbohydrate is a disaccharide A disaccharide (also called a double sugar or ''biose'') is the sugar formed when two monosaccharides are joined by glycosidic linkage. Like monosacc ...

sugar
in 1780 by
Carl Wilhelm Scheele Carl Wilhelm Scheele (, ; 9 December 1742 – 21 May 1786) was a German and Swedish Pomerania Swedish Pomerania ( sv, Svenska Pommern; german: Schwedisch-Pommern) was a Dominion The word Dominion was used from 1907 to 1948 to refer to one o ...

Carl Wilhelm Scheele
. In 1812, Heinrich Vogel (1778–1867) recognized that glucose was a product of hydrolyzing lactose. In 1856,
Louis Pasteur Louis Pasteur (, ; 27 December 1822 – 28 September 1895) was a French chemist and microbiologist renowned for his discoveries of the principles of vaccination, fermentation, microbial fermentation, and pasteurization. His research in chemi ...

Louis Pasteur
crystallized the other component of lactose, galactose. By 1894,
Emil Fischer Hermann Emil Louis Fischer FRS FRSE FCS (c; ; 9 October 185215 July 1919) was a German chemist A chemist (from Greek ''chēm(ía)'' alchemy; replacing ''chymist'' from Medieval Latin ''alchemist'') is a scientist A scientist is a person ...

Emil Fischer
had established the configurations of the component sugars. Lactose was named by the French chemist Jean Baptiste André Dumas (1800–1884) in 1843. In 1856,
Louis Pasteur Louis Pasteur (, ; 27 December 1822 – 28 September 1895) was a French chemist and microbiologist renowned for his discoveries of the principles of vaccination, fermentation, microbial fermentation, and pasteurization. His research in chemi ...

Louis Pasteur
named
galactose Galactose (, '' galacto-'' + ''-ose The suffix In linguistics Linguistics is the science, scientific study of language. It encompasses the analysis of every aspect of language, as well as the methods for studying and modeling them. Th ...
"lactose". In 1860,
Marcellin Berthelot Pierre Eugène Marcellin Berthelot (; 1827–1907) was a French chemist A chemist (from Greek ''chēm(ía)'' alchemy; replacing ''chymist'' from Medieval Latin ''alchemist'') is a scientist A scientist is a person who conducts Scientific m ...

Marcellin Berthelot
renamed it "galactose", and transferred the name "lactose" to what is now called lactose.Marcellin Berthelot, ''Chimie organique fondée sur la synthèse'' rganic chemistry based on synthesis(Paris, France: Mallet-Bachelier, 1860), vol. 2
pp. 248–249
an
pp. 268–270.
/ref> It has a formula of C12H22O11 and the hydrate formula C12H22O11·H2O, making it an
isomer In chemistry, isomers are molecules or polyatomic ions with identical molecular formulas — that is, same number of atoms of each element (chemistry), element — but distinct arrangements of atoms in space. Isomerism is existence or possibil ...

isomer
of
sucrose Sucrose is a type of sugar Sugar is the generic name for , soluble s, many of which are used in food. Simple sugars, also called s, include , , and . Compound sugars, also called s or double sugars, are molecules made of two monosacchari ...

sucrose
.


See also

*
Lactose intolerance Lactose intolerance is a common condition caused by a decreased ability to digest lactose Lactose, a disaccharide A disaccharide (also called a double sugar or ''biose'') is the sugar Sugar is the generic name for sweet-tasting, sol ...
*
Nectar Nectar is a sugar Sugar is the generic name for , soluble s, many of which are used in food. Simple sugars, also called s, include , , and . Compound sugars, also called s or double sugars, are molecules made of two monosaccharides jo ...

Nectar
*
Sugars in wine along with water, organic acids and other compounds Sugars in wine are at the heart of what makes winemaking Winemaking or vinification is the production of wine, starting with the selection of the fruit, its Ethanol fermentation, fermentation in ...
*
lac operon The ''lactose'' operon (''lac'' operon) is an operon In genetics Genetics is a branch of biology Biology is the natural science that studies life and living organisms, including their anatomy, physical structure, Biochemistry, chemic ...

lac operon
*
Lactic acid Lactic acid is an organic acid An organic acid is an organic compound with acidic properties. The most common organic acids are the carboxylic acids, whose acidity is associated with their carboxyl group –COOH. Sulfonic acids, conta ...

Lactic acid


References


External links

* {{Authority control Disaccharides Excipients Sugar substitutes