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A joystick is an
input device In computing, an input device is a piece of equipment used to provide data and control signals to an information processing system, such as a computer or information appliance. Examples of input devices include keyboards, mouse, scanners, cameras ...
consisting of a stick that pivots on a base and reports its angle or direction to the device it is controlling. A joystick, also known as the control column, is the principal control device in the
cockpit A cockpit or flight deck is the area, usually near the front of an aircraft An aircraft is a vehicle or machine that is able to fly Flies are insect Insects or Insecta (from Latin Latin (, or , ) is a classical language belon ...

cockpit
of many civilian and military aircraft, either as a
centre stick A centre stick (or center stick in the United States), or simply control stick is an aircraft cockpit arrangement where the control column (or joystick) is located in the center of the cockpit between the Aviator, pilots or between the pilot's le ...
or
side-stick __NOTOC__ A side-stick or sidestick controller is an aircraft An aircraft is a vehicle or machine that is able to fly Flies are insect Insects or Insecta (from Latin Latin (, or , ) is a classical language belonging to the Ita ...
. It often has supplementary switches to control various aspects of the aircraft's flight. Joysticks are often used to control video games, and usually have one or more push-buttons whose state can also be read by the computer. A popular variation of the joystick used on modern
video game console A video game console is an electronic device that output Output may refer to: * The information produced by a computer, see Input/output In computing, input/output (I/O, or informally io or IO) is the communication between an information proc ...
s is the
analog stick An analog stick (or analogue stick in British English), sometimes called a control stick or thumbstick, is an input device for a controller (often a game controller) that is used for two-dimensional input. An analog stick is a variation of a joyst ...
. Joysticks are also used for controlling machines such as cranes, trucks, underwater unmanned vehicles, wheelchairs, surveillance cameras, and zero turning radius lawn mowers. Miniature finger-operated joysticks have been adopted as input devices for smaller electronic equipment such as
mobile phone A mobile phone, cellular phone, cell phone, cellphone, handphone, or hand phone, sometimes shortened to simply mobile, cell or just phone, is a portable telephone A telephone is a telecommunications device that permits two or more use ...

mobile phone
s.


Aviation

Joysticks originated as controls for aircraft
aileron An aileron (French for "little wing" or "fin") is a hinged flight control surface Aircraft flight control surfaces are aerodynamic devices allowing a pilot to adjust and control the aircraft's flight attitude Attitude may refer to: Phil ...

aileron
s and
elevator U-Bahn Rapid transit in Germany consists of four U-Bahn systems and fourteen S-Bahn systems. The U-Bahn or Untergrundbahn (''underground railway'') are conventional rapid transit systems that run mostly underground, while the S-Bahn or ...
s, and are first known to have been used as such on
Louis BleriotLouis may refer to: * Louis (given name) Louis is the French language, French form of the Old Frankish language, Old Frankish given name Clovis (given name), Chlodowig and one of two English language, English forms, the other being Lewis (given nam ...

Louis Bleriot
's
Bleriot VIII
Bleriot VIII
aircraft of 1908, in combination with a foot-operated rudder bar for the yaw control surface on the tail.


Origins

The name ''joystick'' is thought to originate with early 20th century French pilot
Robert Esnault-Pelterie Robert Albert Charles Esnault-Pelterie (November 8, 1881 – December 6, 1957) was a French aircraft An aircraft is a vehicle or machine that is able to fly Flies are insect Insects or Insecta (from Latin Latin (, or , ) is ...
. There are also competing claims on behalf of fellow pilots
Robert Loraine Robert Bilcliffe Loraine (14 January 1876 – 23 December 1935) was a successful London and Broadway British stage actor, actor-manager, and soldier who later enjoyed a side career as a pioneer aviator. Born in New BrightonNew Brighton is the na ...
,
James Henry Joyce James is a common English language surname and given name: * James (name) James is a given name of Hebrew origin, most commonly used for males. ...
, and A. E. George. Loraine is cited by the ''Oxford English Dictionary'' for using the term "joystick" in his diary in 1909 when he went to Pau to learn to fly at
Bleriot's
Bleriot's
school. George was a pioneer aviator who with his colleague Jobling built and flew a biplane at Newcastle in England in 1910. He is alleged to have invented the "George Stick" which became more popularly known as the joystick. The George and Jobling aircraft control column is in the collection of the Discovery Museum in Newcastle upon Tyne, England. Joysticks were present in early planes, though their mechanical origins are uncertain. The coining of the term "joystick" may actually be credited to Loraine, as his is the earliest known usage of the term, although he most certainly did not invent the device.


Electronic joysticks


History

The electrical two-axis joystick was invented by C. B. Mirick at the
United States Naval Research Laboratory The United States Naval Research Laboratory (NRL) is the corporate research laboratory for the United States Navy ), (unofficial)."''Non sibi sed patriae''" ( en, "Not for self but for country") (unofficial). , colors ...
(NRL) and patented in 1926 (U.S. Patent no. 1,597,416)". NRL was actively developing remote controlled aircraft at the time and the joystick was possibly used to support this effort. In the awarded patent, Mirick writes: "My control system is particularly applicable in maneuvering aircraft without a pilot." The Germans developed an electrical two-axis joystick around 1944. The device was used as part of the Germans' ''Funkgerät'' FuG 203 ''Kehl'' radio control transmitter system used in certain German bomber aircraft, used to guide both the rocket-boosted anti-ship missile ''
Henschel Hs 293 The Henschel Hs 293 was a World War II World War II or the Second World War, often abbreviated as WWII or WW2, was a World war, global war that lasted from 1939 to 1945. It involved World War II by country, the vast majority of the wor ...
'', and the unpowered pioneering precision-guided munition ''
Fritz-X Fritz X was the most common name for a Nazi Germany, German guided anti-ship glide bomb used during World War II. ''Fritz X'' was the world's first precision guided weapon deployed in combat and the first to sink a ship in combat. ''Fritz X'' was ...
'', against maritime and other targets. Here, the joystick of the ''Kehl'' transmitter was used by an operator to steer the missile towards its target. This joystick had on-off switches rather than analogue sensors. Both the Hs 293 and Fritz-X used FuG 230 ''Straßburg'' radio receivers in them to send the ''Kehl's'' control signals to the ordnance's control surfaces. A comparable joystick unit was used for the contemporary American
Azon AZON (or Azon), from "''az''imuth ''on''ly", was one of the world's first guided weapons, deployed by the Allies An alliance is a relationship among people, groups, or sovereign state, states that have joined together for mutual benefit or ...

Azon
steerable munition, strictly to laterally steer the munition in the yaw axis only. This German invention was picked up by someone in the team of scientists assembled at the ''Heeresversuchsanstalt'' in
Peenemünde Peenemünde (, en, "Peene
iver Iver is a large civil parish In England, a civil parish is a type of administrative parish used for local government. It is a territorial designation which is the lowest tier of local government below districts and counties, or their com ...
Mouth") is a municipality on the Baltic Sea island of Usedom in the Vorpommern-Greifswald district in Mecklenburg-Vorpommern, Germany. It is part of the ''Amt (country subdivision), Amt'' (collective municipality ...
. Here a part of the team on the German
rocket A rocket (from it, rocchetto, , bobbin/spool) is a spacecraft A spacecraft is a vehicle or machine designed to fly in outer space. A type of artificial satellite alt=, A full-size model of the Earth observation satellite ERS 2 ...

rocket
program was developing the
Wasserfall missile The ''Wasserfall Ferngelenkte FlaRakete'' (Waterfall Remote-Controlled A-A Rocket) was a German guided supersonic surface-to-air missile project of World War II. Development was not completed before the end of the war and it was not used operation ...
, a variant of the
V-2 rocket #REDIRECT V-2 rocket #REDIRECT V-2 rocket#REDIRECT V-2 rocket The V-2 (german: Vergeltungswaffe 2, "Retribution Weapon 2"), with the technical name '' Aggregat 4'' (A4), was the world's first long-range guided ballistic missile. The missile, ...

V-2 rocket
, the first ground-to-air
missile In military terminology, a missile is a missile guidance, guided airborne ranged weapon capable of self-propelled flight usually by a jet engine or rocket motor. Missiles are thus also called guided missiles or guided rockets (when in rocket f ...
. The Wasserfall steering equipment converted the electrical signal to radio signals and transmitted these to the missile. In the 1960s the use of joysticks became widespread in radio-controlled model aircraft systems such as the Kwik Fly produced by Phill Kraft (1964). The now-defunct Kraft Systems firm eventually became an important OEM supplier of joysticks to the computer industry and other users. The first use of joysticks outside the radio-controlled aircraft industry may have been in the control of powered wheelchairs, such as the Permobil (1963). During this time period NASA used joysticks as control devices as part of the Apollo missions. For example, the lunar lander test models were controlled with a joystick. In many modern airliners aircraft, for example all Airbus aircraft developed from the 1980s, the joystick has received a new lease on life for flight control in the form of a "
side-stick __NOTOC__ A side-stick or sidestick controller is an aircraft An aircraft is a vehicle or machine that is able to fly Flies are insect Insects or Insecta (from Latin Latin (, or , ) is a classical language belonging to the Ita ...
", a controller similar to a gaming joystick but which is used to control the flight, replacing the traditional
yoke A yoke is a wooden Beam (structure), beam normally used between a pair of oxen or other animals to enable them to pull together on a load when working in pairs, as oxen usually do; some yokes are fitted to individual animals. There are several ...
. The sidestick saves weight, improves movement and visibility in the cockpit, and may be safer in an accident than the traditional "control yoke".


Electronic games

Ralph H. Baer, inventor of the
Magnavox Odyssey The Magnavox Odyssey is the first commercial home video game console. The hardware was designed by a small team led by Ralph H. Baer at Sanders Associates, while Magnavox completed development and released it in the United States in September 1972 ...

Magnavox Odyssey
console, released in 1972, created the first video game joysticks in 1967. They were able to control the horizontal and vertical position of a spot displayed on a screen. The earliest known
electronic game An electronic game is any game that uses any form of Electronics, electronic to create an interactive system with which a player can play. Video games are the most common form today, and for this reason the two terms are often used interchangeabl ...
joystick with a fire
button In modern clothing and fashion design, a button is a small fastener, now most commonly made of plastic but also may be made of metal, wood, or seashell, that joins two pieces of fabric together. In archaeology, a button can be a significant Arti ...
was released by
Sega is a Japanese multinational Multinational may refer to: * Multinational corporation, a corporate organization operating in multiple countries * Multinational force, a military body from multiple countries * Multinational state, a sovereign ...

Sega
as part of their 1969
arcade game An arcade game or coin-op game is a coin-operated entertainment machine typically installed in public businesses such as restaurants, bars and amusement arcades. Most arcade games are presented as primarily game of skill, games of skill and in ...

arcade game
''
Missile In military terminology, a missile is a missile guidance, guided airborne ranged weapon capable of self-propelled flight usually by a jet engine or rocket motor. Missiles are thus also called guided missiles or guided rockets (when in rocket f ...
'', a
shooter Shooting is the act or process of discharging a projectile from a ranged weapon (such as a gun, bow and arrow, bow, crossbow, slingshot, or blowgun, blowpipe). Even the acts of launching flamethrower, flame, artillery, dart (missile), darts, har ...
simulation game A simulation video game describes a diverse super-category of video game A video game is an electronic game that involves interaction with a user interface or input device such as a joystick, game controller, controller, computer keyboard, k ...
that used it as part of an early dual-control scheme, where two directional buttons are used to move a motorized tank and a two-way joystick is used to shoot and steer the missile onto oncoming planes displayed on the screen; when a plane is hit, an explosion is animated on screen along with an explosion sound. In 1970, the game was released in North America as ''S.A.M.I.'' by
Midway Games Midway Games Inc., known variously as Midway Manufacturing and Bally Midway, and commonly known as simply Midway, was an American video game developer and publisher. Midway's franchises included ''Mortal Kombat ''Mortal Kombat'' is an Ame ...
.
Taito is a Japanese company that specializes in video games, toys, arcade cabinets and game centers, based in Shinjuku, Tokyo. The company was founded by Michael Kogan in 1953 as the importing vodka, vending machines and jukeboxes into Japan. It be ...

Taito
released a four-way joystick as part of their arcade
racing video game Racing video games are a video game genre in which the player participates in a racing competition. They may be based on anything from real-world racing leagues to fantastical settings. They are distributed along a spectrum between simulations ...
'' Astro Race'' in 1973, while their 1975 run and gun
multi-directional shooter Shoot 'em up (also known as shmup or STG Davies, Jonti. ''. GameSpy. 30 July 2008. Carless, Simon. Final Form On Jamestown's Origins, Mechanics ''. Game Set Watch. 5 April 2011. ) is a subgenre of video games within the Shooter game, shooter ...
game '' Western Gun'' introduced dual-stick controls with one eight-way joystick for movement and the other for changing the shooting direction. In North America, it was released by Midway under the title ''
Gun Fight ''Gun Fight'', known as in Japan and Europe, is a 1975 multidirectional shooter Shoot 'em up (also known as shmup or STG Davies, Jonti. ''. GameSpy. 30 July 2008. Carless, Simon. Final Form On Jamestown's Origins, Mechanics ''. Game Set ...
''.Stephen Totilo
In Search Of The First Video Game Gun
Kotaku ''Kotaku'' is a video game#REDIRECT Video game A video game is an electronic game that involves interaction with a user interface or input device such as a joystick, game controller, controller, computer keyboard, keyboard, or motion sensin ...
In 1976, Taito released ''
Interceptor Interceptor may refer to: Vehicles * Interceptor aircraft An interceptor aircraft, or simply interceptor, is a type of fighter aircraft designed specifically for the defensive interception role against an attacking enemy aircraft, particularl ...
'', an early first-person
combat flight simulator Combat flight simulators are vehicle simulation games, amateur flight simulation computer program A computer program is a collection of instructions that can be executed by a computer to perform a specific task. A computer program is usua ...
that involved piloting a
jet fighter Fighter aircraft are fixed-wing A fixed-wing aircraft is a heavier-than-air flying machine, such as an airplane An airplane or aeroplane (informally plane) is a fixed-wing aircraft that is propelled forward by thrust from a jet e ...

jet fighter
, using an eight-way joystick to aim with a crosshair and shoot at enemy aircraft. The Atari standard joystick, developed for the
Atari 2600 The Atari 2600, originally branded as the Atari Video Computer System (Atari VCS) until November 1982, is a home video game console A home video game console is a video game console that is designed to be connected to a display device, suc ...

Atari 2600
, released in 1977, was a digital controller, with a single fire button. The
Atari joystick port The Atari joystick port is a computer port used to connect various gaming controllers to game console and home computer Home computers were a class of microcomputers that entered the market in 1977 and became common during the 1980s. They w ...
was for many years the ''de facto'' standard digital joystick specification. Joysticks were commonly used as controllers in
first First or 1st is the ordinal form of the number one (#1). First or 1st may also refer to: *World record A world record is usually the best global and most important performance that is ever recorded and officially verified in a specific skill ...
and second generation
game consoles A video game console is an electronic or computer A computer is a machine that can be programmed to carry out sequences of arithmetic or logical operations automatically. Modern computers can perform generic sets of operations known as C ...
, but they gave way to the familiar game pad with the
Nintendo Entertainment System The Nintendo Entertainment System (NES) is an 8-bit In computer architecture, 8-bit integer (computer science), integers or other data#Uses of data in computing, data units are those that are 8 bits wide (1 octet). Also, 8-bit centr ...

Nintendo Entertainment System
and
Sega Master System The is a third-generation 8-bit In computer architecture, 8-bit integer An integer (from the Latin wikt:integer#Latin, ''integer'' meaning "whole") is colloquially defined as a number that can be written without a Fraction (math ...
during the mid-1980s, though joysticks—especially arcade-style one—were and are popular after-market add-ons for any console. In 1985, Sega's third-person arcade
rail shooter Shoot 'em up (also known as shmup or STG Davies, Jonti. ''. GameSpy GameSpy was an American provider of online multiplayer and Matchmaking (video games), matchmaking middleware for video games founded in 1996 by Mark Surfas. After the rele ...
game ''
Space Harrier is a third-person arcade rail shooter game developed by Sega Enterprises and released in 1985. Originally conceived as a realistic military-themed game played in the third-person perspective and featuring a player-controlled fighter jet, tec ...
'' featured a true analog flight stick, used for movement. The joystick could register movement in any direction as well as measure the degree of push, which could move the
player character A player character (also known as a playable character or PC) is a fictional Character (arts), character in a video game or tabletop role-playing game whose actions are controlled by a player rather than the rules of the game. The characters tha ...
at different speeds depending on how far the joystick was pushed in a certain direction. A variation of the joystick is the rotary joystick. It is a type of joystick-knob hybrid, where the joystick can be moved in various direction while at the same time being able to rotate the joystick. It is mainly used in arcade
shoot 'em up Shoot 'em ups (also known as shmups or STGs Davies, Jonti. ''. GameSpy GameSpy was an American provider of online multiplayer A multiplayer video game is a video game A video game is an electronic game that involves interaction wit ...
games, to control both the player's eight-directional movement and the gun's 360-degree direction. It was introduced by
SNK is a Japanese video game hardware and software company. It is the successor to the company Shin Nihon Kikaku and presently owns the SNK video game brand and the Neo Geo Neo Geo is a family of video game hardware developed by SNK. On the mar ...

SNK
, initially with the tank shooter '' TNK III'' (1985) before it was popularized by the run-and-gun shooter ''
Ikari Warriors ''Ikari Warriors'', known as in Japan, is a vertically-scrolling, run-and-gun shooter arcade game An arcade game or coin-op game is a coin-operated entertainment machine typically installed in public businesses such as restaurants, bars an ...
'' (1986). SNK later used rotary joystick controls in arcade games such as '' Guerrilla War'' (1989). A distinct variation of an analog joystick is a positional gun, which works differently from a
light gun A light gun is a pointing device A pointing device is an input interface (specifically a human interface device) that allows a User (computing)#End-user, user to input Three-dimensional space, spatial (i.e., continuous and multi-dimens ...
. Instead of using light sensors, a positional gun is essentially an analog joystick mounted in a fixed location that records the position of the gun to determine where the player is aiming on the screen. It is often used for
arcade Arcade most often refers to: * Arcade (architecture) An arcade is a succession of contiguous arch An arch is a vertical curved structure A structure is an arrangement and organization of interrelated elements in a material object or syst ...

arcade
gun games, with early examples including
Sega is a Japanese multinational Multinational may refer to: * Multinational corporation, a corporate organization operating in multiple countries * Multinational force, a military body from multiple countries * Multinational state, a sovereign ...

Sega
's '''' in 1972;
Taito is a Japanese company that specializes in video games, toys, arcade cabinets and game centers, based in Shinjuku, Tokyo. The company was founded by Michael Kogan in 1953 as the importing vodka, vending machines and jukeboxes into Japan. It be ...
's ''
Attack Attack may refer to: Warfare and combat * Offensive (military) * Charge (warfare) * Attack (fencing) * Strike (attack) * Attack (computing) * Attack aircraft Books and publishing * The Attack (novel), ''The Attack'' (novel), a book * ''Attack No. ...

Attack
'' in 1976; ''
Cross Fire Image:Crossfireguns.svg, Depiction of crossfire A crossfire (also known as interlocking fire) is a military term for the siting of weapons (often automatic weapons such as assault rifles or sub-machine guns) so that their arcs of fire overlap. This ...

Cross Fire
'' in 1977; and
Nintendo is a Japanese Multinational corporation, multinational consumer electronics and video game company headquartered in Kyoto, Japan. The company was founded in 1889 as by craftsman Fusajiro Yamauchi and originally produced handmade playing ca ...

Nintendo
's '''' in 1978. During the 1990s, joysticks such as the CH Products Flightstick, Gravis Phoenix, Microsoft SideWinder,
Logitech Logitech International S.A. ( ; often shortened to Logi) is a Swiss manufacturer of computer peripherals and software, with headquarters in Lausanne, Switzerland , neighboring_municipalities= Bottens Bottens is a municipalities of Switzer ...

Logitech
WingMan, and Thrustmaster FCS were in demand with PC gamers. They were considered a prerequisite for flight simulators such as ''
F-16 Fighting Falcon The General Dynamics F-16 Fighting Falcon is a single-engine multirole A multirole combat aircraft (MRCA) is a combat aircraft intended to perform different roles in combat. A multirole fighter is a multirole combat aircraft which is, at th ...
'' and ''
LHX Attack Chopper ''LHX Attack Chopper'' is a combat helicopter vehicle simulation game, simulation game published by Electronic Arts in 1990. Development was led by Brent Iverson who later designed ''Chuck Yeager's Air Combat''. The game was released for MS-DOS ...
''. Joysticks became especially popular with the mainstream success of
space flight simulator game A space flight simulation game is a Video game genres, genre of flight simulator video games that lets players experience space flight to varying degrees of Reality, realism. Common mechanics include space exploration, space trade and space combat ...
s like ''
X-Wing The X-wing starfighter is a name applied to a family of fictional spacecraft manufactured by the Incom Corporation from the ''Star Wars'' franchise. Named for the distinctive shape made when its s-foils (wings) are in attack position, the X-wing ...
'' and ''
Wing Commander Wing commander (Wg Cdr in the RAF, the IAF, and the PAF, WGCDR in the RNZAF and RAAF, formerly sometimes W/C in all services) is a senior commissioned rank Rank is the relative position, value, worth, complexity, power, importance, authori ...
'', as well as the "Six degrees of freedom" 3D shooter '' Descent''. VirPil Controls' MongoosT-50 joystick was designed to mimic the style of Russian aircraft (including the
Sukhoi Su-35 The Sukhoi Su-35 (russian: link=no, Сухой Су-35; NATO reporting name NATO reporting names are code names for military equipment from Russia, China, and historically, the Eastern Bloc (Soviet Union and other nations of the Warsaw Pac ...

Sukhoi Su-35
and
Sukhoi Su-57 The Sukhoi Su-57 (russian: Сухой Су-57; NATO reporting name NATO reporting names are code names for military equipment from Russia, China, and historically, the Eastern Bloc (Soviet Union and other nations of the Warsaw Pact). They pr ...
), unlike most flight joysticks. However, since the beginning of the 21st century, these types of games have waned in popularity and are now considered a "dead" genre, and with that, gaming joysticks have been reduced to niche products. In NowGamer's interview with Jim Boone, a producer at Volition Inc., he stated that ''
FreeSpace 2 ''FreeSpace 2'' is a 1999 space combat simulation computer game A PC game, also known as a computer game or personal computer game, is a type of video game A video game is an electronic game that involves interaction with a user interface ...
''s poor sales could have been due to joysticks' being sold poorly because they were "going out of fashion" because more modern first-person shooters, such as '' Quake'', were "very much about the mouse and keyboard". He went further on to state "Before that, when we did '' Descent'' for example, it was perfectly common for people to have joysticks – we sold a lot of copies of Descent. It was around that time
hen Hen commonly refers to a female animal: a female chicken, other galliformes, gallinaceous bird, any type of bird in general, or a lobster. It is also a slang term for a woman. Hen or Hens may also refer to: Places Norway *Hen, Buskerud, a villa ...

hen
the more modern FPS with mouse and keyboard came out, as opposed to just keyboard like '' Wolfenstein D' or something.". Since the late 1990s, ''
analog stick An analog stick (or analogue stick in British English), sometimes called a control stick or thumbstick, is an input device for a controller (often a game controller) that is used for two-dimensional input. An analog stick is a variation of a joyst ...
s'' (or ''thumbsticks'', due to their being controlled by one's thumbs) have become standard on controllers for video game consoles, popularized by
Nintendo is a Japanese Multinational corporation, multinational consumer electronics and video game company headquartered in Kyoto, Japan. The company was founded in 1889 as by craftsman Fusajiro Yamauchi and originally produced handmade playing ca ...

Nintendo
's Nintendo 64 controller, and have the ability to indicate the stick's displacement from its neutral position. This means that the software does not have to keep track of the position or estimate the speed at which the controls are moved. These devices usually use potentiometers to determine the position of the stick, though some newer models instead use a Hall effect sensor for greater reliability and reduced size. In 1997, ThrustMaster, Inc. introduced a 3D programmable controller, which was integrated into computer games to experience flight simulations. This line adapted several aspects of NASA's RHC (Rotational Hand Controller), which is used for landing and navigation methods. In 1997 the first gaming joystick with force feedback (Haptic technology, haptics) was manufactured by CH Products under license from technology creator, Immersion Corporation. The product, called the Force FX joystick was followed by force feedback joysticks from
Logitech Logitech International S.A. ( ; often shortened to Logi) is a Swiss manufacturer of computer peripherals and software, with headquarters in Lausanne, Switzerland , neighboring_municipalities= Bottens Bottens is a municipalities of Switzer ...

Logitech
, Thrustmaster, and others, also under license from Immersion.


Arcade sticks

An arcade stick is a large-format controller for use with home consoles or computers. They use the stick-and-button configuration of some arcade cabinets, such as those with particular multi-button arrangements. For example, the six button layout of the arcade games ''Street Fighter II'' or ''Mortal Kombat'' cannot be comfortably emulated on a console joypad, so licensed home arcade sticks for these games have been manufactured for home consoles and PCs.


Hat switch

A hat switch is a control on some joysticks. It is also known as a POV (point of view) switch. It allows one to look around in one's virtual world, browse menus, etc. For example, many flight simulators use it to switch the player's views, while other games sometimes use it as a substitute for the D-pad. Computer gamepads with both an analogue stick and a D-pad usually assign POV switch scancodes to the latter. The term hat switch is a shortening of the term "Coolie hat switch", named for the Asian conical hat, similar-looking headgear. In a real aircraft, the hat switch may control things like
aileron An aileron (French for "little wing" or "fin") is a hinged flight control surface Aircraft flight control surfaces are aerodynamic devices allowing a pilot to adjust and control the aircraft's flight attitude Attitude may refer to: Phil ...

aileron
or Elevator (aeronautics), elevator trim.


Cameras

Apart from buttons, wheels and dials as well as touchscreens also miniature joysticks have been established for the efficient manual operation of cameras. Joystick.Kamera.P1078740.jpg, Miniature joystick to be operated by the right thumb, next to an electronic viewfinder Joystick.Kamera.P1078738.jpg, Detailed view


Industrial applications

In recent times, the employment of joysticks has become commonplace in many industrial and manufacturing applications, such as cranes, assembly lines, forestry equipment, mining trucks, and excavators. In fact, the use of such joysticks is in such high demand, that it has virtually replaced the traditional mechanical control lever in nearly all modern hydraulic control systems. Additionally, most unmanned aerial vehicles (UAVs) and Remotely operated underwater vehicle, submersible remotely operated vehicles (ROVs) require at least one joystick to control either the vehicle, the on-board cameras, sensors and/or manipulators. Due to the highly hands-on, rough nature of such applications, the industrial joystick tends to be more robust than the typical video-game controller, and able to function over a high cycle life. This led to the development and employment of Hall effect sensing to such applications in the 1980s as a means of contactless sensing. Several companies produce joysticks for industrial applications using Hall effect technology. Another technology used in joystick design is the use of strain gauges to build force transducers from which the output is proportional to the force applied rather than physical deflection. Miniature force transducers are used as additional controls on joysticks for menu selection functions. Some larger manufacturers of joysticks are able to customize joystick handles and grips specific to the OEM needs while small regional manufacturers often concentrate on selling standard products at higher prices to smaller OEMs.


Assistive technology

Specialist joysticks, classed as an assistive technology pointing device, are used to replace the computer mouse for people with fairly severe physical disabilities. Rather than controlling games, these joysticks control the pointer (user interface), pointer. They are often useful to people with athetoid conditions, such as cerebral palsy, who find them easier to grasp than a standard mouse. Miniature joysticks are available for people with conditions involving muscular weakness such as muscular dystrophy or motor neurone disease as well. They are also used on wheelchair#Electric Powered Wheelchairs, electric powered wheelchairs for control since they are simple and effective to use as a control method.


See also

*List of computer hardware *Aircraft flight control system *The Arcade (joystick) *Flight simulator *Game controller *Gamepad *Gravis PC GamePad *Kempston joystick *TAC-2 *Yoke (aircraft)


References


Further reading

* (11 pages) (NB. This is based on an earlier German article published in 1996 in ''Lab. Jahrbuch 1995/1996 für Künste und Apparate'' (350 pages) by Kunsthochschule für Medien Köln mit dem Verein der Freunde der Kunsthochschule für Medien Köln; in Cologne, Germany. .)


External links

{{Authority control Joysticks, American inventions Aircraft controls Computing input devices Video game controllers Computer peripherals