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A journalist is an individual trained to collect/gather information in form of text, audio or pictures, processes them to a news-worthy form and disseminates it to the public. The act or process mainly done by the journalist is called
journalism Journalism is the production and distribution of report Image:Hurt Report cover page.png, 220px, Example of a front page of a report A report is a document that presents information in an organized format for a specific audience and purpose. ...

journalism
.


Roles

Journalism can be in form of Broadcast, print, advertisers and public relations personnel, and, depending with the form of journalism the term ''journalist'' may include various categories of individuals as per the roles they play in the process. This includes, Reporters,
Correspondents A correspondent or on-the-scene reporter is usually a journalist or Pundit (expert), commentator for a magazine, or an agent who contributes reports to a newspaper, or All-news radio, radio or television news, or another type of company, from a ...
,
Citizen Journalist Citizen journalism, also known as collaborative media, participatory journalism, democratic journalism, guerrilla journalism or street journalism, is based upon public citizens "playing an active role in the process of collecting, reporting, ana ...

Citizen Journalist
,
editors "Quarters of the news editor", one of a group of four photos in the 1900 The Seattle Daily Times—Editorial Department".">The Seattle Times">The Seattle Daily Times—Editorial Department". Editing is the process of selecting and preparing w ...

editors
, editorial-writers,
columnist A columnist is a person who writes for publication in a series, creating an article that usually offers commentary and opinions. Columns A column or pillar in architecture File:Plan d'exécution du second étage de l'hôtel de Brionne (d ...
s, and visual journalists, such as
photojournalist Photojournalism is a particular form of journalism (the collecting, editing, and presenting of news material for publication or broadcast) that employs images in order to tell a news story. It is now usually understood to refer only to still images ...

photojournalist
s (journalists who use the medium of
photography Photography is the art Art is a diverse range of (products of) human activities involving creative imagination to express technical proficiency, beauty, emotional power, or conceptual ideas. There is no generally agreed definition of ...

photography
). A reporter is a type of journalist who
research Research is "creative and systematic work undertaken to increase the stock of knowledge". It involves the collection, organization and analysis of information to increase understanding of a topic or issue. A research project may be an expa ...

research
es, writes and reports on information in order to present using
sources Source or subsource or ''variation'', may refer to: Research * Historical document * Historical source * Source (intelligence) or subsource, typically a confidential provider of non open-source intelligence * Source (journalism), a person, public ...
. This may entail conducting
interview conducted with a member of the public File:Luis Castro esklevndurt.jpg, Some interviews are recorded for television broadcast An interview is essentially a structured conversation where one participant asks questions, and the other provides ...

interview
s, information-gathering and/or writing articles. Reporters may split their time between working in a
newsroom A newsroom is the central place where journalist A journalist is an individual trained to collect/gather information in form of text, audio or pictures, processes them to a news-worth form and disseminates it to the public. The act or process ...

newsroom
, or from home, and going out to witness events or interviewing people. Reporters may be assigned a specific
beat Beat, beats or beating may refer to: Common meanings Assigned activity or area * Patrol, an area (usually geographic) that one is responsible to monitor, including: ** Beat (police), the territory and time that a police officer patrols ** Beat ...
or area of coverage. Matthew C. Nisbet, who has written on
science communication Science communication is the practice of informing, educating, raising awareness of science-related topics, and increasing the sense of wonder about scientific discoveries and arguments. Science communicators and audiences are ambiguously define ...
, has defined a "knowledge journalist" as a
public intellectual An intellectual is a person who engages in critical thinking, research, and Human self-reflection, reflection to advance discussions of academic subjects. This often involves publishing work for consumption by the general public that adds dept ...
who, like
Walter Lippmann Walter Lippmann (September 23, 1889 – December 14, 1974) was an American writer, reporter and political commentator. With a career spanning 60 years he is famous for being among the first to introduce the concept of Cold War, coining the ter ...
, David Brooks,
Fareed Zakaria Fareed Rafiq Zakaria (; born 20 January 1964) is an Indian-American journalist, political commentator, and author. He is the host of CNN Cable News Network (CNN) is a multinational news-based pay television channel headquartered in Atlant ...

Fareed Zakaria
,
Naomi Klein Naomi A. Klein (born May 8, 1970) is a Canadian author, social activist, and filmmaker known for her political analyses, support of ecofeminism, organized labour, left-wing politics and criticism of anti-globalisation, corporate globalization, f ...

Naomi Klein
,
Michael Pollan Michael Kevin Pollan (; born February 6, 1955) is an American author and journalist A journalist is an individual trained to collect/gather information in form of text, audio or pictures, processes them to a news-worthy form and disseminate ...

Michael Pollan
,
Thomas Friedman Thomas Loren Friedman (; born July 20, 1953) is an American political commentator and author. He is a three-time Pulitzer Prize The Pulitzer Prize () is an award for achievements in newspaper, magazine and online journalism, literature and mus ...
, and
Andrew Revkin Andrew C. Revkin is an American science and environmental journalist, author and educator. He has written on a wide range of subjects including destruction of the Amazon rain forest, the 2004 Indian Ocean earthquake and tsunami, 2004 Asian tsunami ...
, sees their role as researching complicated issues of fact or science which most laymen would not have the time or access to
information Information is processed, organised and structured data Data (; ) are individual facts, statistics, or items of information, often numeric. In a more technical sense, data are a set of values of qualitative property, qualitative or quant ...

information
to research themselves, then communicating an accurate and understandable version to the public as a teacher and policy advisor.
In his best-known books, ''Public Opinion'' (1922) and ''The Phantom Public'' (1925), Lippmann argued that most individuals lacked the capacity, time, and motivation to follow and analyze news of the many complex policy questions that troubled society. Nor did they often directly experience most social problems, or have direct access to expert insights. These limitations were made worse by a news media that tended to over-simplify issues and to reinforce
stereotypes Police officers buying doughnuts and coffee, an example of perceived stereotypical behavior in North America. Social psychology Social psychology is the Science, scientific study of how the thoughts, feelings, and behaviors of individu ...

stereotypes
, partisan viewpoints, and
prejudices Prejudice can be an affective feeling towards a person based on their perceived group membership. The word is often used to refer to a preconceived (usually unfavourable) evaluation or classification of another person based on that person's p ...
. As a consequence, Lippmann believed that the public needed journalists like himself who could serve as expert analysts, guiding “citizens to a deeper understanding of what was really important”.
In 2018, the United States Department of Labor's Occupational Outlook Handbook reported that employment for the category, "reporters, correspondents and broadcast news analysts," will decline 9 percent between 2016 and 2026.


Journalists today

A worldwide sample of 27,500 journalists in 67 countries in 2012-2016 produced the following profile: ::57 percent male; ::
mean There are several kinds of mean in mathematics Mathematics (from Ancient Greek, Greek: ) includes the study of such topics as quantity (number theory), mathematical structure, structure (algebra), space (geometry), and calculus, change (ma ...
age of 38 ::mean years of experience, 13 ::college degree, 56 percent; graduate degree, 29 percent ::61 percent specialized in journalism/communications at college ::62 percent identified as generalists and 23 percent as hard-news beat journalists ::47 percent were members of a professional association ::80 percent worked full-time ::50 percent worked in print, 23 percent in television, 17 percent in radio, and 16 percent online.


Journalistic freedom

Journalists sometimes expose themselves to danger, particularly when reporting in areas of
armed conflict War is an intense armed conflict between State (polity), states, governments, Society, societies, or paramilitary groups such as Mercenary, mercenaries, Insurgency, insurgents, and militias. It is generally characterized by extreme violence ...
or in states that do not respect the
freedom of the press Freedom, generally, is having the ability to act or change without constraint. Something is "free" if it can change easily and is not constrained in its present state. In philosophy and religion, it is associated with having free will and being w ...
.
Organizations An organization, or organisation (Commonwealth English The use of the English language English is a West Germanic languages, West Germanic language first spoken in History of Anglo-Saxon England, early medieval England, which has ...
such as the
Committee to Protect Journalists The Committee to Protect Journalists (CPJ) is an American independent non-profit, non-governmental organization, based in New York City New York City (NYC), often simply called New York, is the List of United States cities by population, m ...
and
Reporters Without Borders Reporters Without Borders (french: Reporters sans frontières; RSF) is an international non-profit and non-governmental organization with the stated aim of safeguarding the right to freedom of information. It describes its advocacy as founded on ...

Reporters Without Borders
publish reports on press freedom and advocate for journalistic freedom. As of November 2011, the Committee to Protect Journalists reports that 887 journalists have been killed worldwide since 1992 by
murder Murder is the of another without or valid , especially the unlawful killing of another human with . ("The killing of another person without justification or excuse, especially the crime of killing a person with malice aforethought or with ...

murder
(71%),
crossfire Depiction of crossfire A crossfire (also known as interlocking fire) is a military term for the siting of weapons (often automatic weapon An automatic firearm is a firearm that continuously Chamber (firearms), chambers and fires Cartridge (firea ...

crossfire
or
combat Combat (French language, French for ''fight'') is a purposeful violence, violent conflict meant to physically harm or kill the opposition. Combat may be armed (using weapons) or unarmed (Hand-to-hand combat, not using weapons). Combat is sometim ...

combat
(17%), or on dangerous assignment (11%). The "ten deadliest countries" for journalists since 1992 have been
Iraq Iraq ( ar, الْعِرَاق, translit=al-ʿIrāq; ku, عێراق, translit=Êraq), officially the Republic of Iraq ( ar, جُمْهُورِيَّة ٱلْعِرَاق '; ku, کۆماری عێراق, translit=Komarî Êraq), is a country i ...

Iraq
(230 deaths),
Philippines The Philippines (; fil, Pilipinas, links=no), officially the Republic of the Philippines ( fil, Republika ng Pilipinas, links=no), * bik, Republika kan Filipinas * ceb, Republika sa Pilipinas * cbk, República de Filipinas * hil, Republ ...

Philippines
(109),
Russia Russia ( rus, link=no, Россия, Rossiya, ), or the Russian Federation, is a country spanning Eastern Europe Eastern Europe is the eastern region of . There is no consistent definition of the precise area it covers, partly because th ...

Russia
(77),
Colombia Colombia ( , ; ), officially the Republic of Colombia, is a List of transcontinental countries, transcontinental country spanning South America and an Insular region of Colombia, insular region in North America. It is bordered by the Carib ...

Colombia
(76),
Mexico Mexico, officially the United Mexican States, is a List of sovereign states, country in the southern portion of North America. It is borders of Mexico, bordered to the north by the United States; to the south and west by the Pacific Ocean; to ...

Mexico
(69),
Algeria ) , image_map = Algeria (centered orthographic projection).svg , map_caption = , image_map2 = , capital = Algiers Algiers ( ; ar, الجزائر; Berber language, Berber: ''Dzayer;'' French language, French'': Alger'') is ...

Algeria
(61),
Pakistan Pakistan, . Pronounced variably in English as , , , and . officially the Islamic Republic of Pakistan, is a country in South Asia. It is the world's List of countries and dependencies by population, fifth-most populous country, with a popul ...

Pakistan
(59),
India India, officially the Republic of India (Hindi: ), is a country in South Asia. It is the List of countries and dependencies by area, seventh-largest country by area, the List of countries and dependencies by population, second-most populous ...

India
(49),
Somalia Somalia,, Osmanya script The Osmanya script ( so, Farta Cismaanya 𐒍𐒖𐒇𐒂𐒖 𐒋𐒘𐒈𐒑𐒛𐒒𐒕𐒖), also known as Far Soomaali (𐒍𐒖𐒇 𐒘𐒝𐒈𐒑𐒛𐒘, "Somali writing") and, in Arabic, as al-kitābah ...

Somalia
(45),
Brazil Brazil ( pt, Brasil; ), officially the Federative Republic of Brazil (Portuguese: ), is the largest country in both South America and Latin America. At 8.5 million square kilometers (3.2 million square miles) and with over 211 mill ...

Brazil
(31) and
Sri Lanka Sri Lanka (, ; si, ශ්‍රී ලංකාව, Śrī Laṅkā, translit-std=ISO (); ta, இலங்கை, Ilaṅkai, translit-std=ISO ()), formerly known as Ceylon, and officially the Democratic Socialist Republic of Sri Lanka, is ...

Sri Lanka
(30). The Committee to Protect Journalists also reports that as of 1 December 2010, 145 journalists were jailed worldwide for journalistic activities. Current numbers are even higher. The ten countries with the largest number of currently-imprisoned journalists are
Turkey Turkey ( tr, Türkiye ), officially the Republic of Turkey, is a country located mainly on Anatolia Anatolia,, tr, Anadolu Yarımadası), and the Anatolian plateau. also known as Asia Minor, is a large peninsula in Western Asia and ...

Turkey
(95),
China China (), officially the People's Republic of China (PRC; ), is a country in . It is the world's , with a of more than 1.4 billion. China spans five geographical and 14 different countries, the in the world after . Covering an area of ap ...

China
(34),
Iran Iran ( fa, ایران ), also called Persia, and officially the Islamic Republic of Iran, is a country in Western Asia Western Asia, West Asia, or Southwest Asia, is the westernmost subregion A subregion is a part of a larger regio ...

Iran
(34),
Eritrea Eritrea ( ), officially the State of Eritrea, is a country in the Horn of Africa region of East Africa, Eastern Africa, with its capital (and largest city) at Asmara. It is bordered by Ethiopia in the south, Sudan in the west, and Djibouti ...

Eritrea
(17),
Burma Myanmar (; my, မြန်မာ ) or Burma ( my, ဗမာ ), officially the Republic of the Union of Myanmar, is a country in Southeast Asia. Myanmar is bordered by Bangladesh and India to its northwest, China to its northeast, Laos a ...

Burma
(13),
Uzbekistan Uzbekistan (, ; uz, Ozbekiston, ), officially the Republic of Uzbekistan ( uz, Ozbekiston Respublikasi), is a landlocked country A country is a distinct territory, territorial body or political entity. It is often referred to as the land ...

Uzbekistan
(6),
Vietnam Vietnam ( vi, Việt Nam, ), officially the Socialist Republic of Vietnam,, group="n" is a country in Southeast Asia Southeast Asia, also spelled South East Asia and South-East Asia, and also known as Southeastern Asia or SEA, is the ...

Vietnam
(5),
Cuba Cuba ( , ), officially the Republic of Cuba ( es, República de Cuba, links=no ), is a country comprising the island of Cuba, as well as Isla de la Juventud Isla de la Juventud (; en, Isle of Youth) is the second-largest Cuban islan ...

Cuba
(4),
Ethiopia Ethiopia, officially the Federal Democratic Republic of Ethiopia, is a landlocked country in the Horn of Africa. It shares borders with Eritrea and Djibouti to the north, Somaliland to the northeast, Somalia to the east, Kenya to the sout ...

Ethiopia
(4), and
Sudan Sudan ( or ; ar, السودان, as-Sūdān), officially the Republic of the Sudan ( ar, جمهورية السودان, link=no, Jumhūriyyat as-Sūdān), is a country A country is a distinct territorial body or political entity A ...

Sudan
(3). Apart from physical harm, journalists are harmed psychologically. This applies especially to war reporters, but their editorial offices at home often do not know how to deal appropriately with the reporters they expose to danger. Hence, a systematic and sustainable way of psychological support for traumatized journalists is strongly needed. However, only little and fragmented support programs exist so far.


Journalist and source relationship

The relationship between a professional journalist and a source can be rather complex, and a source can sometimes have an effect on an article written by the journalist. The article 'A Compromised Fourth Estate' uses Herbert Gans' metaphor to capture their relationship. He uses a dance metaphor, "The Tango," to illustrate the co-operative nature of their interactions inasmuch as "It takes two to tango". Herbert suggests that the source often leads, but journalists commonly object to this notion for two reasons: # It signals source supremacy in news making. # It offends journalists’ professional culture, which emphasizes independence and editorial autonomy. The dance metaphor goes on to state:
A relationship with sources that is ''too cozy'' is potentially compromising of journalists’ integrity and risks becoming collusive. Journalists have typically favored a more robust, conflict model, based on a crucial assumption that if the media are to function as watchdogs of powerful economic and political interests, journalists must establish their independence of sources or risk the fourth estate being driven by the fifth estate of public relations.


The worst year on record for journalists

According to
Reporters Without Borders Reporters Without Borders (french: Reporters sans frontières; RSF) is an international non-profit and non-governmental organization with the stated aim of safeguarding the right to freedom of information. It describes its advocacy as founded on ...

Reporters Without Borders
' annual report, 2018 was the worst year on record for deadly violence and abuse toward journalists; there was a 15 per cent increase in such killings since 2017, with 80 killed, 348 imprisoned and 60 held hostage. Yaser Murtaja was shot by an Israeli army sniper. Rubén Pat was gunned down outside a beach bar in Mexico. Mexico was described by Reporters Without Borders as "one of world's deadliest countries for the media"; 90% of attacks on journalists the country reportedly go unsolved. Bulgarian Viktoria Marinova was beaten, raped and strangled. Saudi Arabian dissident
Jamal Khashoggi Jamal Ahmad Khashoggi (; ar, جمال أحمد خاشقجي, Jamāl ʾAḥmad Ḵāšuqjī, , tr, Cemal Ahmet Kaşıkçı; 13 October 1958 – 2 October 2018) was a Saudi Arabian journalist, dissident, author, columnist for ''The Washington Po ...

Jamal Khashoggi
was killed inside Saudi Arabia's consulate in Istanbul.


Gallery

File:Pn-telekanal-1998-staff.jpg, A program director sets the task for TV journalists, 1998. File: RFA reporter Helmand.jpg, A reporter interviews a man in
Helmand Province Helmand (Pashto Pashto (,; / , ), sometimes spelled Pukhto or Pakhto, is an Eastern Iranian language The Eastern Iranian languages are a subgroup of the Iranian languages The Iranian or Iranic languages are a branch of the Indo-I ...

Helmand Province
, Afghanistan, 2009. File: Cosplayers at Comicdom 2012 in Athens, Greece grant interviews to the MTV television channel 21.JPG, Journalist interviews a
cosplay Cosplay, a portmanteau A portmanteau (, ) or portmanteau word (from "Portmanteau (luggage), portmanteau") is a Blend word, blend of words
cosplay
er, 2012. File:InterviewAT.jpg, A reporter interviewing
Boris Johnson Alexander Boris de Pfeffel Johnson (; born 19 June 1964) is a British politician and writer serving as Prime Minister of the United Kingdom The prime minister of the United Kingdom is the head of government The head of government ...

Boris Johnson
when he was Mayor of London, 2014 File:A Mogadishu offiicial tastes the water at a new well donated by the African Union Mission in Somalia in front of local journalists in the country's capital on June 6. AMISOM Photo - Tobin Jones (14328499146).jpg, Official tastes the water of a new well in front of journalists in
Mogadishu, Somalia Mogadishu (, also ; so, Muqdisho or Xamar ; ar, مقديشو, Muqadīshū ; it, Mogadiscio ), locally known as Xamar or Hamar, is the capital city and most populous city of Somalia Somalia,; ar, الصومال, aṣ-Ṣūmāl officia ...

Mogadishu, Somalia
, 2014.


See also

* 24-hour news cycle *
Broadcast journalism Broadcast journalism is the field of news and journals which are broadcast Broadcasting is the distributionDistribution may refer to: Mathematics *Distribution (mathematics) Distributions, also known as Schwartz distributions or gen ...
*
Electronic field production Electronic field production (EFP) is a television Television (TV), sometimes shortened to tele or telly, is a telecommunication medium used for transmitting moving images in monochrome (black and white), or in color, and in two or three ...
(EFP) *
Electronic news-gathering Electronic news-gathering (ENG) is when reporters A journalist is an individual trained to collect/gather information in form of text, audio or pictures, processes them to a news-worthy form and disseminates it to the public. The act or pro ...
(ENG) *
Glossary of journalism This glossary of journalism is a list of definitions of terms and concepts used in journalism Journalism is the production and distribution of reports on current events based on facts and supported with proof or evidence. The word journalism ...
*
List of ITV journalists and newsreaders As the oldest commercial television network in the UK, ITV has employed many journalists and newsreaders to present its news programmes as well as to provide news reports and interviews during its history. Since the ITV network began, Independe ...
* List of journalists *
Local news In journalism Journalism is the production and distribution of report Image:Hurt Report cover page.png, 220px, Example of a front page of a report A report is a document that presents information in an organized format for a specific audie ...
*
News broadcasting News broadcasting is the medium of broadcasting of various news events and other information via television, radio, or internet in the field of broadcast journalism. The content is usually either video production, produced local programming, l ...
*
News presenter A news presenter – also known as a newsreader, newscaster (short for "news broadcaster"), anchorman or anchorwoman, news anchor or simply an anchor – is a person who presents news during a news program News broadcasting is the med ...
*
News program News broadcasting is the medium of broadcasting of various news events and other information via television, radio, or internet in the field of broadcast journalism. The content is usually either video production, produced local programming, l ...
*
Newsroom A newsroom is the central place where journalist A journalist is an individual trained to collect/gather information in form of text, audio or pictures, processes them to a news-worth form and disseminates it to the public. The act or process ...

Newsroom
*
Outside broadcasting Outside broadcasting (OB) is the electronic field production (EFP) of television Television (TV), sometimes shortened to tele or telly, is a telecommunication medium used for transmitting moving images in monochrome (black and white), ...
*
Student newspaper A student publication is a media outlet such as a newspaper, magazine, television show, or radio station produced by students at an educational institution. These publications typically cover local and school-related news, but they may also repor ...
*
War correspondent A war correspondent is a journalist A journalist is an individual trained to collect/gather information in form of text, audio or pictures, processes them to a news-worthy form and disseminates it to the public. The act or process mainly done ...


References


Bibliography

* Deuze, Mark. "What is journalism? Professional identity and ideology of journalists reconsidered." ''Journalism'' 6.4 (2005): 442-46
online
* Hanitzsch, Thomas, et al. eds. ''Worlds of Journalism: Journalistic Cultures around the Globe'' (1979
excerpt of the book
als
online review
* Hicks, Wynford, et al. ''Writing for journalists'' (Routledge, 2016) short textbook
excerpt
* Keeble, Richard. ''Ethics for journalists'' (Routledge, 2008). * Mellado, Claudia, et al. "Investigating the gap between newspaper journalists’ role conceptions and role performance in nine European, Asian, and Latin American countries." ''International Journal of Press/Politics'' (2020): 194016122091010
online
* Patterson, Thomas E., and Wolfgang Donsbagh. "News decisions: Journalists as partisan actors." ''Political communication'' 13.4 (1996): 455-468
online
* Randall, David
''The Universal Journalist.''
(
Pluto Press Pluto Press is a British independent book publisher based in London, founded in 1969. Originally, it was the publishing arm of the International Socialists (today known as the Socialist Workers Party), until it changed hands and was replaced b ...
, 2000).
OCLC 43481682
* Shoemaker, Pamela J., Tim P. Vos, and Stephen D. Reese. "Journalists as gatekeepers." in ''The handbook of journalism studies'' 73 (2009
online
* Stone, Melville Elijah.
''Fifty Years a Journalist.''
New York: Doubleday, Page and Company (1921). * Wettstein, Martin, et al. "News media as gatekeepers, critics, and initiators of populist communication: How journalists in ten countries deal with the populist challenge." ''International Journal of Press/Politics'' 23.4 (2018): 476-49
online


External links

*
Society of Professional Journalists
{{Authority control
Journalist killed as minibus hit by bomb in Kabul
Mass media occupations Journalism occupations * Broadcasting occupations
Television terminology {{CatAutoTOC Terminology Terminology is a general word for the group of specialized words or meanings relating to a particular field, and also the study of such terms and their use. This is also known as terminology science. Terms are words and ...