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An international airport is an
airport An airport is an with extended facilities, mostly for commercial air transport. Airports often have facilities to park and maintain aircraft, and a . An airport consists of a , which comprises an aerially accessible open space including a ...

airport
with
customs Customs is an authority In the fields of sociology Sociology is the study of society, human social behaviour, patterns of social relationships, social interaction, and culture that surrounds everyday life. It is a social science that u ...

customs
and
border control Border control is the measures taken by a or a bloc of states to monitor its s and regulate the movement of people, animals, and goods across the border. History States and rulers have always regarded the ability to determine who enters or re ...
facilities enabling passengers to travel between
countries A country is a distinct territorial body or political entity A polity is an identifiable political entity—any group of people who have a collective identity, who are organized by some form of Institutionalisation, institutionalized social ...

countries
. International airports are usually larger than
domestic airport A domestic airport is an airport An airport is an aerodrome with extended facilities, mostly for commercial air transport. Airports often have facilities to park and maintain aircraft, and a control tower. An airport consists of a landin ...
s and must feature longer
runway According to the International Civil Aviation Organization The International Civil Aviation Organization (ICAO) is a specialized and funding agency of the United Nations. It changes the principles and techniques of international ai ...

runway
s and facilities to accommodate the heavier aircraft such as the Boeing 747 (Jumbo Jet) commonly used for international and intercontinental travel. International airports often also host
domestic flight A domestic flight is a form of commercial flight within civil aviation where the departure and the arrival take place in the same country A country is a distinct territorial body or political entity. It may be an independent sovereign s ...
s, which often help feed both passengers and cargo into international ones (and vice-versa). Buildings, operations and management have become increasingly sophisticated since the mid-20th century, when international airports began to provide infrastructure for international civilian flights. Detailed technical standards have been developed to ensure safety and common coding systems implemented to provide global consistency. The physical structures that serve millions of individual passengers and flights are among the most complex and interconnected in the world. By the second decade of the 21st century, there were over 1,200 international airports and almost two billion international passengers along with 50 million metric tonnes of cargo passing through them annually.


History

In August 1919,
Hounslow Heath Aerodrome Hounslow Heath Aerodrome was a grass airfield, operational 1914–1920. It was in the London borough of Hounslow Hounslow () is a large suburban town in West London located west-southwest of Charing Cross. The majority of Hounslow is si ...
, in
London London is the Capital city, capital and List of urban areas in the United Kingdom, largest city of England and the United Kingdom. It stands on the River Thames in south-east England at the head of a estuary down to the North Sea, and has b ...

London
,
England England is a that is part of the . It shares land borders with to its west and to its north. The lies northwest of England and the to the southwest. England is separated from by the to the east and the to the south. The country cover ...

England
, was the first airport to operate scheduled international commercial services. It was closed and supplanted by
Croydon Airport Croydon Airport (former International Civil Aviation Organization airport code, ICAO code: EGCR) was the UK's only international airport during the interwar period. Located in Croydon, Surrey, England, it opened in 1920, built in a Neoclassical ...
in March 1920. In the United States, Douglas Municipal Airport in
Arizona Arizona ( ; nv, Hoozdo Hahoodzo ; ood, Alĭ ṣonak) is a state State may refer to: Arts, entertainment, and media Literature * ''State Magazine'', a monthly magazine published by the U.S. Department of State * The State (newspaper), ...

Arizona
became the first international airport of the Americas in 1928. The precursors to international airports were airfields or
aerodrome An aerodrome (Commonwealth English The use of the English language English is a West Germanic languages, West Germanic language first spoken in History of Anglo-Saxon England, early medieval England, which has eventually become th ...

aerodrome
s. In the early days of
international flight An international flight is a form of commercial flight Commercial aviation is the part of civil aviation Civil aviation is one of two major categories of flying, representing all non-military and non-state aviation Aviation is the activ ...
s, there was limited infrastructure, "although if engine problems arose there were plenty of places where aircraft could land". Since four-engined land planes were unavailable for over-water operations to international destinations, flying boats became part of the solution. At the far end of the longest international route (which became the
Kangaroo Route The Kangaroo Route refers to air routes flown between Australia Australia, officially the Commonwealth of Australia, is a Sovereign state, sovereign country comprising the mainland of the Australia (continent), Australian continent, the ...
), on-water landing areas were found in places such as
Surabaya Surabaya (; Javanese : ꦱꦸꦫꦧꦪ read : Suråbåyå; Van Ophuijsen Spelling (Old Spelling) : Soerabaja) is the capital of the Indonesian province of East Java East Java ( id, Jawa Timur) is a Provinces of Indonesia, province of Indo ...

Surabaya
and in the open sea off
Kupang Kupang ( id, Kota Kupang, ) is the capital of the Indonesian province of East Nusa Tenggara East Nusa Tenggara ( id, Nusa Tenggara Timur – NTT) is the southernmost province A province is almost always an administrative division Admini ...

Kupang
. In
Sydney Sydney ( ; Dharug The Darug or Dharug people are an Aboriginal Australian people, who share strong ties of kinship and, in Colonial Australia, pre-colonial times, survived as skilled hunters in family groups or clans, scattered througho ...

Sydney
,
Rose Bay, New South Wales Rose Bay is a harbourside, eastern suburb of Sydney Sydney ( ; Dharug language, Dharug: ) is the List of Australian capital cities, capital city of the state of New South Wales, and the List of cities in Australia by population, most popu ...
, was chosen as the flying boat landing area. International airports sometimes serve military as well as commercial purposes and their viability is also affected by technological developments.
Canton Island Airport Canton Island Airport is an airport located on Kanton Island, a sparsely populated island in the Phoenix Islands of the Republic of Kiribati. It has a single asphalt runway measuring in length. Once a major stop on commercial trans-Pacific air ...
, for example, in the
Phoenix Islands The Phoenix Islands, or Rawaki, are a group of eight atoll An atoll (), sometimes known as a coral atoll, is a ring-shaped coral reef, including a coral rim that encircles a lagoon partially or completely. There may be coral islands or ...

Phoenix Islands
(
Kiribati Kiribati (), officially the Republic of Kiribati (Gilbertese language, Gilbertese: '' ibaberikiKiribati''),
), after serving as a military airport during
World War II World War II or the Second World War, often abbreviated as WWII or WW2, was a global war A world war is "a war War is an intense armed conflict between states State may refer to: Arts, entertainment, and media Literatur ...
, was used as a refuelling stop by commercial aircraft such as
Qantas Qantas Airways Limited ( ) is the of Australia and its largest airline by fleet size, international flights and international destinations. It is the , having been founded in November 1920; it began international passenger flights in May 1935 ...

Qantas
which stationed ground crew there in the late 1950s. The advent in the early 1960s of jet aircraft such as the
Boeing 707 The Boeing 707 is an American long-range narrow-body airliner A narrow-body aircraft or single-aisle aircraft is an airliner arranged along a single aisle, permitting up to 6-abreast airline seat, seating in a aircraft cabin, cabin below of ...

Boeing 707
with the range to fly non-stop between Australia or New Zealand and Hawaii, meant that a mid-Pacific stop was no longer needed and the airport was closed to regular commercial use. Other international airports, such as
Kai Tak Airport Kai may refer to: Arts and entertainment Fictional entities * Kai (name) lists fictional characters called Kai * The Kai, a fictional society in the ''Lone Wolf'' gamebooks * Cobra Kai, a fictional Karate dojo in ''The Karate Kid'' movies and C ...
in Hong Kong, have been decommissioned and replaced when they reached capacity or technological advances rendered them inadequate.


Design and construction

The construction and operation of an international airport depends on a complicated set of decisions that are affected by technology, politics, economics and geography as well as both local and international law. Designing an airport even for domestic traffic or as "non-hub" has, from the beginning, required extensive co-ordination between users and interested parties – architects, engineers, managers and staff all need to be involved. Airports may also be regarded as emblematic of national pride and so the design may be architecturally ambitious. An example was the planned New Mexico City international airport, intended to replace an airport that has reached capacity. Airports can be towered or non-towered, depending on air traffic density and available funds. Because of high capacity and busy
airspace Airspace is the portion of the atmosphere controlled by a country A country is a distinct territorial body or political entity A polity is an identifiable political entity—any group of people who have a collective identity, who are or ...

airspace
, many international airports have air traffic control located on site. Some international airports require construction of additional
infrastructure Infrastructure is the set of fundamental facilities and systems that support the sustainable functionality of households and firms. Serving a country, city, or other area, including the services and facilities necessary for its economy An eco ...

infrastructure
outside of the airport, such as at the
Hong Kong International Airport Hong Kong International Airport is Hong Kong's main airport, built on Land reclamation in Hong Kong, reclaimed land on the Islands and peninsulas of Hong Kong#Islands, island of Chek Lap Kok. The airport is also referred to as Chek Lap Kok In ...

Hong Kong International Airport
, which included the construction of a high-speed railway and automobile
expressway Expressway may refer to: *Controlled-access highway, the highest-grade type of highway with access ramps, lane dividers, etc., for high-speed traffic. *Limited-access road, a lower grade of highway or arterial road. *Expressway, the fictional slidew ...
to connect the airport to the urban areas of Hong Kong. Construction of the expressway included the construction of two bridges (the Tsing Ma suspension bridge and Kap Shui Mun cable bridge) and the Ma Wan
viaduct A viaduct is a specific type of bridge that consists of a series of arches, s or s supporting a long elevated railway or road. Typically a viaduct connects two points of roughly equal elevation, allowing direct across a wide valley, road, river, ...

viaduct
on Ma Wan island to connect the bridges. Each bridge carries rail and automobile traffic.


Operations and management

International airports have commercial relationships with and provide services to airlines and passengers from around the world. Many also serve as hubs, or places where non-direct flights may land and passengers may switch planes, while others serve primarily direct point-to-point flights. This affects airport design factors, including the number and placement of terminals as well as the flow of passengers and baggage between different areas of the airport. An airport specializing in point-to-point transit can have international and domestic terminals, each in their separate building equipped with separate baggage handling facilities. In a hub airport, however, spaces and services are shared. Airport management have to take into account a wide range of factors, among which are the performance of airlines, the technical requirements of aircraft, airport-airline relationships, services for travelling customers, security and environmental impacts.


Standards

Technical standards for safety and operating procedures at international airports are set by international agreements. The
International Air Transport Association The International Air Transport Association (IATA ) is a trade association A trade association, also known as an industry trade group, business association, sector association or industry body, is an organization founded and funded by busine ...
(IATA), formed in 1945, is the association of the airline companies. The
International Civil Aviation Organization The International Civil Aviation Organization (ICAO) is a specialized and funding agency of the United Nations The United Nations (UN) is an intergovernmental organization that aims to maintain international peace and international s ...
(ICAO) is a body of the
United Nations The United Nations (UN) is an intergovernmental organization aiming to maintain international peace and international security, security, develop friendly relations among nations, achieve international cooperation, and be a centre for harm ...

United Nations
succeeding earlier international committees going back to 1903. These two organizations served to create regulations over airports which the airports themselves had no authority to debate. This eventually sparked an entire subject of air travel politics. In January 1948, 19 representatives from various US commercial airports met for the first time in New York City to seek resolution to common problems they each faced, which initiated the formation of the Airport Operators Council, which later became
Airports Council International Airports Council International (ACI) is a global trade representative of the world's Airport authority, airport authorities. Established in 1991, ACI represents airports' interests with governments and international organizations, develops standa ...
– North America (ACI-NA). This group included representatives from Baltimore, Boston, Chicago, Cleveland, Dallas, Denver, Detroit, Jacksonville, Kansas City, Los Angeles, Memphis, Miami, Minneapolis-St. Paul, New York-Newark, Philadelphia, Pittsburgh, St. Louis, San Francisco and Washington.


Flight logistics

International airports have extensive operations in managing flight
logistics Logistics is generally the detailed organization and implementation of a complex operation. In a general business sense, logistics is the management of the flow of things between the point of origin and the point of consumption to meet the requ ...

logistics
, such as
air traffic control Air traffic control (ATC) is a service provided by ground-based air traffic controller Air traffic control specialists, abbreviated ATCS, are personnel responsible for the safe, orderly, and expeditious flow of air traffic in the global ...

air traffic control
. The latter service is provided by ground-based controllers who coordinate and direct aircraft on the ground and through controlled airspace. Air traffic control also provides advisory services to aircraft in non-controlled airspace.


Customs and immigration

Airports with international flights have customs and
immigration Immigration is the international movement of people to a destination country A country is a distinct territorial body or political entity A polity is an identifiable political entity—any group of people who have a collective ident ...

immigration
facilities, which allow right of entry. These change over time but are generally designated by law. However, as some countries have agreements that allow connecting flights without customs and immigrations, such facilities do not define an international airport.


Security and safety

The current trend of enhancing
security Security is freedom from, or resilience against, potential Potential generally refers to a currently unrealized ability. The term is used in a wide variety of fields, from physics Physics is the natural science that studies matter, its El ...
at the cost of passenger and baggage handling efficiency at international airports is expected to continue in the future. This places financial burden on airports, risks the flow of servicing processes, and has implications for the privacy of passengers. International flights often require a higher level of physical security than do domestic airports, although in recent years, many countries have adopted the same level of security for both. Most international airports feature a "sterile lounge", an area after security checkpoints within which passengers are free to move without further security checks. This area can have services such as duty-free shops that sell goods that have been selected and screened with safety in mind, so that purchasing and bringing them on board flights poses no security risks. In addition to employees, only processed passengers with a valid ticket are allowed inside the sterile lounge. Admittance into the sterile area is done in centralized security checkpoints in contrast to e.g. individual checkpoints at each
gate A gate or gateway is a point of entry to or from a space enclosed by wall A wall is a structure and a surface that defines an area; carries a load; provides security Security is freedom from, or resilience against, potential Potentia ...
. This allows for more efficient processing of passengers with fewer staff, as well as makes it possible to detect both delays and security threats well ahead of
boarding Boarding may refer to: *Boarding, used in the sense of " room and board", i.e. lodging and meals as in a: **Boarding house **Boarding school *Boarding (horses) (also known as a livery yard, livery stable, or boarding stable), is a stable where hor ...
. To ensure the viability of airport operations, new and innovative security systems are being developed. For instance, the old security checkpoints can be replaced by a "total security area" encompassing an entire airport, coupled with automatic surveillance of passengers from the moment they enter the airport until they embark on a plane. Passengers connecting to domestic flights from an international flight generally must take their checked luggage through customs and re-check their luggage at the domestic airline counter, requiring extra time in the process. In some cases in
Europe Europe is a continent A continent is any of several large landmass A landmass, or land mass, is a large region In geography Geography (from Greek: , ''geographia'', literally "earth description") is a field of scienc ...

Europe
, luggage can be transferred to the final destination even if it is a domestic connection. In some cases, travelers and the aircraft can clear customs and immigration at the departure airport. An example of this would be that some airports in
Canada Canada is a country in the northern part of North America North America is a continent A continent is any of several large landmasses. Generally identified by convention (norm), convention rather than any strict criteria, ...

Canada
,
Ireland Ireland ( ; ga, Éire ; Ulster Scots dialect, Ulster-Scots: ) is an island in the Atlantic Ocean, North Atlantic. It is separated from Great Britain to its east by the North Channel (Great Britain and Ireland), North Channel, the Irish Sea ...

Ireland
, and the
United Kingdom The United Kingdom of Great Britain and Northern Ireland, commonly known as the United Kingdom (UK) or Britain,Usage is mixed. The Guardian' and Telegraph' use Britain as a synonym for the United Kingdom. Some prefer to use Britain as shorth ...

United Kingdom
, along with several other countries, have
United States border preclearance United States border preclearance facilities are prescreening border controls operated by the United States Department of Homeland Security The United States Department of Homeland Security (DHS) is the Federal government of the United S ...
facilities. This allows flights from those airports to fly into US airports that do not have customs and immigration facilities. Luggage from such flights can also be transferred to a final destination in the U.S. through the
airport of entry In general, a port of entry (POE) is a place where one may lawfully enter a country. It typically has border control, border security staff and facilities to check passports and Travel visa, visas, and inspect luggage to assure that contraband is ...
. A crucial safety aspect of international airports is medical facilities and practices. In particular, controlling transmissible disease, such as
SARS Severe acute respiratory syndrome (SARS) is a viral respiratory disease Respiratory diseases, or lung diseases, are pathology, pathological conditions affecting the organs and tissues that make gas exchange difficult in Breathing, air-breathing ...
, is deemed important at international airports. While these standards are regulated by
ICAO The International Civil Aviation Organization (ICAO) is a specialized and funding agency of the United Nations The United Nations (UN) is an intergovernmental organization that aims to maintain international peace and international s ...

ICAO
Standards And Recommended Practices #REDIRECT Standards and Recommended Practices Standards And Recommended Practices (SARPs) are technical specifications adopted by the Council of ICAO The International Civil Aviation Organization (ICAO) is a specialized agency of the United Na ...
(SARPs) and
WHO The World Health Organization (WHO) is a specialized agency of the United Nations United Nations Specialized Agencies are autonomous organizations working with the United Nations and each other through the co-ordinating machinery of the Unite ...

WHO
's
International Health Regulations The International Health Regulations (IHR), first adopted by the World Health Assembly in 1969 and last revised in 2005, are a legally binding instrument of international law that aims for international collaboration "to prevent, protect against, c ...
(IHR), local authorities have considerable say in how they are implemented.


Transportation

Among the most important airport services are further transportation connections, including rail networks, taxi and shuttle services at curbside pick-up areas, and public buses. Large areas for automobile
parking Parking is the act of stopping and disengaging a vehicle and leaving it unoccupied. Parking on one or both sides of a road is often permitted, though sometimes with restrictions. Some buildings have parking facilities for use of the buildings' ...

parking
, often in co-located
multi-storey car park A multistory car parkhttps://dictionary.cambridge.org/dictionary/english/parking-garage?a=britishhttps://en.oxforddictionaries.com/definition/car_park (British English, British and Singapore English, Singapore English language, English) or pa ...
s, are also typical to find at airports. Some airports provide shuttle services to parking garages for passengers and airport employees. Due to the very large scale of international airports, some have constructed shuttle services to transport passengers between terminals. Such systems operate for example, in
Singapore Changi Airport Singapore Changi Airport, commonly known as Changi Airport , is a major civilian airport that serves Singapore Singapore (), officially the Republic of Singapore, is a sovereign state, sovereign island city-state in maritime Southeast A ...
and
Zurich Airport Zurich Airport (german: Flughafen Zürich, ) is the largest international airport of Switzerland and the airline hub, principal hub of Swiss International Air Lines. It serves Zürich, Switzerland's largest city, and, with its surface transport l ...

Zurich Airport
. At some U.S. international airports, such as
O'Hare International Airport O'Hare International Airport , typically referred to as O'Hare Airport, Chicago O'Hare, or simply O'Hare, is an international airport located on the Northwest Side of Chicago, Illinois, northwest of the Chicago Loop, Loop business district. ...
in Chicago, some seating and waiting areas are located away from the terminal building, with passengers being shuttled to terminals. These areas may be referred to as ground transportation centers or intermodal centers. Amenities at ground transportation centers typically include restrooms and seating, and may also provide ticket counters, food and beverage sales and retail goods such as magazines. Some ground transportation centers have heating and air conditioning and covered boarding areas (to protect passengers from the elements). File:Madrid 5.JPG, An internal motorized moving footway to transport passengers within
Adolfo Suárez Madrid–Barajas Airport Adolfo Suárez Madrid–Barajas Airport ( es, link=no, Aeropuerto Adolfo Suárez Madrid-Barajas ) , commonly known as Madrid–Barajas Airport, is the main international airport serving Madrid Madrid ( , ) is the capital and most populous ...
, Spain File:CairoIntlAirportTerminal3.jpg, Curbside passenger pick up area at Terminal 3
Cairo International Airport Cairo International Airport (; ''Maṭār El Qāhira El Dawly'') is the principal international airport An international airport is an airport An airport is an with extended facilities, mostly for commercial air transport. Airpor ...

Cairo International Airport
, Egypt File:Cdgval val208 gareTGV 3.jpg, Rail service at Terminal 2 of
Charles de Gaulle Airport Paris Charles de Gaulle Airport (french: Aéroport de Paris-Charles-de-Gaulle, ), also known as Roissy Airport, is the List of the busiest airports in France, largest international airport in France and one of the List of the busiest airports in ...
in France


Services and amenities

Standard amenities include public restrooms, passenger waiting areas and retail stores for dining and shopping, including
duty-free shop Duty-free stores at Ben Gurion Airport in Tel Aviv, Israel in Oslo, Norway A duty-free shop (or store) is a retailing, retail outlet whose goods are exempt from the payment of certain local or national taxes and duty (tax), duties, on the requ ...
s. Dining establishments may be consolidated in
food court A food court (in Asia-Pacific also called food hall or hawker centre) is generally an indoor plaza or common area within a facility that is contiguous with the counters of multiple food vendors and provides a common area for self-serve dinner. It ...

food court
s. Some international airports may offer retail sales of
luxury goods In economics Economics () is a social science Social science is the branch A branch ( or , ) or tree branch (sometimes referred to in botany Botany, also called , plant biology or phytology, is the science of plant ...
at duty-free stores, such as at Terminal 3 at
Indira Gandhi International Airport Indira Gandhi International Airport is the primary international airport serving Delhi, India as well as the rest of northern India. The airport, spread over an area of , is situated in Palam, Delhi, south-west of the New Delhi Railway Station ...

Indira Gandhi International Airport
in India. This terminal has been described as having become a significant retail destination in India.
Wi-Fi Wi-Fi () is a family of wireless network A wireless network is a computer network that uses wireless data connections between network nodes. Wireless networking is a method by which homes, telecommunications networks and business installa ...

Wi-Fi
service and access, offices for
bureau de change A bureau de change (plural bureaux de change, both ) (British English British English (BrE) is the standard dialect A standard language (also standard variety, standard dialect, and standard) is a language variety that has undergone subst ...
(
currency A currency, "in circulation", from la, currens, -entis, literally meaning "running" or "traversing" in the most specific sense is money Money is any item or verifiable record that is generally accepted as payment for goods and services ...

currency
exchange) and
tourism Tourism is travel Travel is the movement of people between distant geographical location In geography Geography (from Greek: , ''geographia'', literally "earth description") is a field of science devoted to the study of th ...

tourism
advice are common, although the availability of service varies across airports. Some international airports provide secure areas for stranded passengers to rest and sleep. The more usual service is hotels that are available on the premises. File:Tel Aviv, Ben Gurion Airport, Departure Hall.jpg, Duty-free shops at
Ben Gurion International Airport Ben Gurion Airport ( he, נמל התעופה בן-גוריון; ar, مطار بن غوريون الدولي) , commonly known by its Hebrew acronym as ''Natbag'' (), is the main international airport of Israel and the busiest one in the countr ...
in
Tel Aviv Tel Aviv-Yafo ( he, תֵּל־אָבִיב-יָפוֹ, ''Tel Aviv-Yafo'' ; ar, تَلّ أَبِيب - يَافَا, ''Tall ʾAbīb-Yāfā''), often referred to as just Tel Aviv, is the most populous city in the metropolitan area of . Locate ...

Tel Aviv
, Israel (2012) File:Cots for stranded passengers - O'Hare International Airport.jpg, For passengers stranded overnight, secure area at O'Hare International Airport with dimmed lights, cots, pillows, blankets, and toiletries (2008) File:Hong Kong International Airport, Terminal 1, Food Court in the Restricted Area (Hong Kong).jpg, The food court in the restricted area of Terminal 1 at Hong Kong International Airport (2013)


Customer satisfaction awards

The World Airport Awards are voted by consumers in an independent global customer satisfaction survey.
Singapore Changi Airport Singapore Changi Airport, commonly known as Changi Airport , is a major civilian airport that serves Singapore Singapore (), officially the Republic of Singapore, is a sovereign state, sovereign island city-state in maritime Southeast A ...

Singapore Changi Airport
was the first-place winner in 2020. Other winners include
Incheon International Airport Incheon International Airport (IIA; ) (sometimes referred to as Seoul–Incheon International Airport) is the largest List of airports in South Korea, airport in South Korea. It is the primary airport serving the Seoul Capital Area and one of ...

Incheon International Airport
(South Korea) and
Amsterdam Airport Schiphol Amsterdam Airport Schiphol , Pars pro toto, known informally as Schiphol Airport ( nl, Luchthaven Schiphol, ), is the main international airport of the Netherlands. It is located 9 kilometres (5.6 miles) southwest of Amsterdam, in the municipalit ...

Amsterdam Airport Schiphol
(The Netherlands).


Airport names

Toponymy Toponymy, toponymics, or toponomastics (from grc, τόπος / , 'place', and / , 'name') is the study of ''toponyms Toponymy, also toponymics or toponomastics (from grc, τόπος / , 'place', and / , 'name') is the study of ''wikt: ...
is one of the most common sources for the naming of airports. A number of areas close to them have lent their names, including villages, estates, city districts, historical areas and regions, islands and even a waterfall. Sometimes the toponym is combined with or renamed to incorporate another name from another source such as from one of the following: * Athletes such as
George Best Belfast City Airport George Best Belfast City Airport is a single-runway airport An airport is an with extended facilities, mostly for commercial air transport. Airports often have facilities to park and maintain aircraft, and a . An airport consists ...
in Belfast, Northern Ireland. * Aviators such as pilots (civil and military) and others who played a role in the development of aviation- like Jorge Chavez International Airport in Lima, Peru, named after Peruvian-French pilot
Jorge Chavez Jorge is a Spanish Language, Spanish and Portuguese Language, Portuguese given name. It is derived from the Greek name Γεώργιος (''Georgios'') via Latin ''Georgius''; the former is derived from (''georgos''), meaning "farmer" or "earth ...
. * Cultural leaders (poets, artists, writers, musicians) - like the in the English city of
Liverpool Liverpool is a City status in the United Kingdom, city and metropolitan borough in Merseyside, England. With a population of in 2019, it is the List of English districts by population, tenth largest English district by population, and its ...

Liverpool
, where
John Lennon John Winston Ono Lennon (born John Winston Lennon; 9 October 19408 December 1980) was an English singer, songwriter, musician and peace activist A peace movement is a social movement A social movement is a loosely organized effort by ...
and
The Beatles The Beatles were an English rock Rock most often refers to: * Rock (geology) A rock is any naturally occurring solid mass or aggregate of minerals or mineraloid matter. It is categorized by the minerals included, its Chemical compou ...

The Beatles
came from, and Rafael Hernandez Airport in Aguadilla, Puerto Rico, named for Puerto Rican singer and actor . * Ethnic groups, such as
Minangkabau International Airport Minangkabau International Airport ( id, Bandar Udara Internasional Minangkabau), is the principal airport serving the province of West Sumatra West Sumatra ( id, Sumatera Barat) is a Provinces of Indonesia, province of Indonesia. On the west ...

Minangkabau International Airport
in Padang, Indonesia, named after the local
Minangkabau people Minangkabau people ( min, Urang Minang; Indonesian Indonesian is anything of, from, or related to Indonesia, an archipelagic country in Southeast Asia. It may refer to: * Indonesians, citizens of Indonesia ** Native Indonesians, diverse gro ...
. * Ideals in combination with toponyms, such as
Newark Liberty International Airport Newark Liberty International Airport , originally Newark Metropolitan Airport and later Newark International Airport, is an international airport An international airport is an airport An airport is an aerodrome with extended facilit ...
. * Mythology and religion, such as heroes of epics and myths, church hierarchs and saints and similar names. * Politicians and statesmen such as the O. R. Tambo International Airport in
Johannesburg Johannesburg (, also ; ; Zulu language, Zulu and xh, eGoli ), informally known as Jozi, Joburg, or "The City of Gold", is the largest city in South Africa, classified as a Megacity#List of megacities, megacity, and is List of urban areas by ...

Johannesburg
,
South Africa South Africa, officially the Republic of South Africa (RSA), is the southernmost country in Africa. With over 60 million people, it is the world's 23rd-most populous nation and covers an area of . South Africa has three capital citie ...

South Africa
which was named after O.R. Tambo who was a
South Africa South Africa, officially the Republic of South Africa (RSA), is the southernmost country in Africa. With over 60 million people, it is the world's 23rd-most populous nation and covers an area of . South Africa has three capital citie ...

South Africa
n anti-
apartheid Apartheid (South African English South African English (SAfrE, SAfrEng, SAE, en-ZA) is the set of English language dialects native to South Africans. History British British may refer to: Peoples, culture, and language * B ...

apartheid
politician A politician is a person active in party politics A political party is an organization that coordinates candidate A candidate, or nominee, is the prospective recipient of an award or honor, or a person seeking or being considered for some ...

politician
and
Ninoy Aquino International Airport Ninoy Aquino International Airport ( fil, Paliparang Pandaigdig ng Ninoy Aquino) or NAIA (, locally ), formerly known and still commonly referred to as Manila International Airport as well as by its codename Nichols Field (Nichols), is the ai ...
in
Manila Manila ( , ; fil, Maynila, ), officially the City of Manila ( fil, Lungsod ng Maynila, ), is the capital Capital most commonly refers to: * Capital letter Letter case (or just case) is the distinction between the letters that are ...

Manila
,
Philippines The Philippines (; fil, Pilipinas, links=no), officially the Republic of the Philippines ( fil, Republika ng Pilipinas, links=no), * bik, Republika kan Filipinas * ceb, Republika sa Pilipinas * cbk, República de Filipinas * hil, Republ ...

Philippines
to honour the former
Senator of the Philippines The Senate of the Philippines ( Filipino: ''Senado ng Pilipinas'', also ''Mataas na Kapulungan ng Pilipinas'' or "upper chamber") is the upper house of Congress, the bicameral legislature A legislature is a deliberative assembly with the au ...
,
Benigno Aquino Jr. Benigno Simeon "Ninoy" Aquino Jr., (November 27, 1932 – August 21, 1983) was a Filipino Filipino may refer to: * Something from or related to the Philippines The Philippines (; fil, Pilipinas or ''Filipinas'' ), officially the Re ...
who was
assassinated Assassination is the act of deliberately killing a prominent or important person, such as heads of state A head of state (or chief of state) is the public persona who officially embodies a state Foakes, pp. 110–11 " he head of state ...
at the exact airport in 1983. Some airports have been named after dictators during their dictatorship; such is the case of the Robert Mugabe International Airport in Harare, Zimbabwe, named after Robert Mugabe, and, in the past Saddam International Airport in Baghdad, Iraq, so named after Saddam Hussein. * Public figures (advocates, engineers, doctors, teachers, journalists or sportspeople). *Royalty (kings, queens) such as King Shaka International Airport in Durban,
South Africa South Africa, officially the Republic of South Africa (RSA), is the southernmost country in Africa. With over 60 million people, it is the world's 23rd-most populous nation and covers an area of . South Africa has three capital citie ...

South Africa
which was named after Shaka, King Shaka who was one of the most influential monarchs of the Zulu Kingdom. * Scientists such as Copernicus Airport Wroclaw which was named after Nicolaus Copernicus. A study found that 44 percent of the world's international airports are named by toponyms: named for politicians (thirty percent), aviators (seven percent), mythology and religion (three percent), public figures (two percent), people of science (two percent) and other (one percent). Airports also use an IATA airport code, IATA-3 letter code to abbreviate the names of all the international airports.


Notable airports


By historical event

* 1919 (August)
Hounslow Heath Aerodrome Hounslow Heath Aerodrome was a grass airfield, operational 1914–1920. It was in the London borough of Hounslow Hounslow () is a large suburban town in West London located west-southwest of Charing Cross. The majority of Hounslow is si ...
begins operating scheduled international commercial services from England to France. * 1933 Douglas International Airport in
Arizona Arizona ( ; nv, Hoozdo Hahoodzo ; ood, Alĭ ṣonak) is a state State may refer to: Arts, entertainment, and media Literature * ''State Magazine'', a monthly magazine published by the U.S. Department of State * The State (newspaper), ...

Arizona
is honored by Eleanor Roosevelt as "the first international airport of the Americas", having reached this capacity in 1928.


By passenger numbers

* , Hartsfield–Jackson Atlanta International Airport, Hartsfield Jackson Atlanta International had the greatest number of travelers of all international airports with 107 million passengers, more than Beijing Capital International with 100 million passengers. * Los Angeles International Airport is considered to have the greatest number of passengers who start or end their travel there as opposed to continuing on to a connecting flight. Overall, LAX is considered to be the 7th busiest airport in the world. * Dubai International Airport is the busiest airport in the world by international passenger traffic, with 83,105,798 international passengers. Dubai is the third busiest airport worldwide.


Other

* Svalbard Airport, Longyear, Svalbard Airport in Svalbard, Norway is the northernmost airport to which tourists can book tickets. It is primarily used for transporting miners to and from a cluster of islands with a heavy mining industry. * King Fahd International Airport, Dammam, Saudi Arabia is the largest airport in the world, encompassing over .


See also

* Busiest airports in Europe by passenger traffic * Customs airport * List of international airports by country * List of the largest airports in the Nordic countries * World's busiest airport * World's busiest airports by cargo traffic * World's busiest airports by passenger traffic * World's busiest airports by traffic movements


References


External links


Airport World
– published by Airports Council International
World Airport in the map
- provided by chaoo13 {{Authority control Airports by type International air transport