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An intergovernmental organization (IGO) is an organization composed primarily of sovereign states (referred to as ''member states''), or of other organizations through formal treaties for handling/serving common interests and governed by international laws.Timothy M. R. Kukula, 2021, School of Social Sciences, Nkumba University- Uganda IGOs are established by a treaty that acts as a charter creating the group. Treaties are formed when lawful representatives (governments) of several states go through a ratification process, providing the IGO with an international legal personality. Intergovernmental organizations are an important aspect of public international law. Intergovernmental organizations in a legal sense should be distinguished from simple groupings or coalitions of states, such as the G7 or the
Quartet In music Music is the art of arranging sounds in time through the elements of melody, harmony, rhythm, and timbre. It is one of the universal cultural aspects of all human societies. General definitions of music include common elements su ...
. Such groups or associations have not been founded by a constituent document and exist only as
task group A task force (TF) is a unit or formation established to work on a single defined task or activity. Originally introduced by the United States Navy ), (unofficial)."''Non sibi sed patriae''" ( en, "Not for self but for country") (unofficial) ...
s. Intergovernmental organizations must also be distinguished from treaties. Many treaties (such as the
North American Free Trade Agreement The North American Free Trade Agreement (NAFTA; es, Tratado de Libre Comercio de América del Norte, TLCAN; french: Accord de libre-échange nord-américain, ALÉNA) was an agreement signed by Canada Canada is a country in the north ...
, or the
General Agreement on Tariffs and Trade The General Agreement on Tariffs and Trade (GATT) is a between many countries, whose overall purpose was to promote by reducing or eliminating s such as or . According to its preamble, its purpose was the "substantial reduction of tariffs a ...
before the establishment of the
World Trade Organization The World Trade Organization (WTO) is an intergovernmental organization that regulates and facilitates international trade between nations. Governments use the organization to establish, revise, and enforce the rules that govern international ...
) do not establish an organization and instead rely purely on the parties for their administration becoming legally recognized as an ''ad hoc'' commission. Other treaties have established an administrative apparatus which was not deemed to have been granted international legal personality. The broader concept wherein relations among three or more states are organized according to certain principles they hold in common is
multilateralism In international relations, multilateralism refers to an alliance of multiple countries pursuing a common goal. Definitions Multilateralism, in the form of membership in international institutions, serves to bind powerful nations, discourage ...
.


Types and purpose

Intergovernmental organizations differ in function, membership, and membership criteria. They have various goals and scopes, often outlined in the treaty or
charter A charter is the grant of authority In the fields of sociology Sociology is the study of society, human social behaviour, patterns of social relationships, social interaction, and culture that surrounds everyday life. It is a social scien ...
. Some IGOs developed to fulfill a need for a neutral forum for debate or negotiation to resolve disputes. Others developed to carry out mutual interests with unified aims to preserve peace through
conflict resolution Conflict-of-interest editing on Wikipedia, Conflict resolution is conceptualized as the methods and processes involved in facilitating the peaceful ending of Conflict (process), conflict and Revenge, retribution. Committed group members attempt ...

conflict resolution
and better
international relations International relations (IR), international affairs (IA) or international studies (IS) is the scientific study of interactions between sovereign states. In a broader sense, it concerns all activities between states—such as war, diplomacy ...
, promote international cooperation on matters such as
environmental protection Environmental protection is the practice of protecting the natural environment The natural environment or natural world encompasses all and non-living things occurring , meaning in this case not . The term is most often applied to the or s ...
, to promote
human rights Human rights are Morality, moral principles or Norm (social), normsJames Nickel, with assistance from Thomas Pogge, M.B.E. Smith, and Leif Wenar, 13 December 2013, Stanford Encyclopedia of PhilosophyHuman Rights Retrieved 14 August 2014 for ...
, to promote social development (education,
health care Healthcare is the maintenance or improvement of health Health is a state of physical, mental and social well-being Well-being, also known as ''wellness'', ''prudential value'' or ''quality of life'', refers to what is intrinsically valuab ...

health care
), to render
humanitarian aid Humanitarian aid is material and logistic assistance to people who need help. It is usually short-term help until the long-term help by the government and other institutions replaces it. Among the people in need are the homeless Home ...
, and to
economic development In the economic An economy (; ) is an area of the Production (economics), production, Distribution (economics), distribution and trade, as well as Consumption (economics), consumption of Goods (economics), goods and Service (economics), servi ...
. Some are more general in scope (the
United Nations The United Nations (UN) is an intergovernmental organization An intergovernmental organization (IGO) is an organization composed primarily of sovereign states (referred to as ''member states''), or of other organizations through formal ...

United Nations
) while others may have subject-specific missions (such as
INTERPOL The International Criminal Police Organization (ICPO; french: link=no, Organisation internationale de police criminelle), commonly known as Interpol ( , ), is an that facilitates worldwide police cooperation and crime control. Headquartere ...

INTERPOL
or the
International Telecommunication Union The International Telecommunication Union is a list of specialized agencies of the United Nations, specialized agency of the United Nations responsible for all matters related to information and communications technology, information and co ...

International Telecommunication Union
and other
standards organization A standards organization, standards body, standards developing organization (SDO), or standards setting organization (SSO) is an organization whose primary function is developing, coordinating, promulgating, revising, amending, reissuing, interpr ...
s). Common types include: * Worldwide or global organizations — generally open to nations worldwide as long as certain criteria are met: This category includes the United Nations (UN) and its specialized agencies, the
World Health Organization The World Health Organization (WHO) is a specialized agency of the United Nations United Nations Specialized Agencies are autonomous organizations working with the United Nations and each other through the co-ordinating machinery of the Unite ...
, the
International Telecommunication Union The International Telecommunication Union is a list of specialized agencies of the United Nations, specialized agency of the United Nations responsible for all matters related to information and communications technology, information and co ...

International Telecommunication Union
(ITU), the
World Bank The World Bank is an international financial institution An international financial institution (IFI) is a financial institution that has been established (or chartered) by more than one country, and hence is subject to international law. Its o ...
, and the
International Monetary Fund The International Monetary Fund (IMF) is an international financial institution, headquartered in Washington, D.C. ) , image_skyline = , image_caption = Clockwise from top left: the Washington Monu ...

International Monetary Fund
(IMF). It also includes globally operating intergovernmental organizations that are not an agency of the UN, including for example the
Hague Conference on Private International Law The Hague Conference on Private International Law (HCCH) is an Intergovernmental organization, intergovernmental organisation in the area of private international law (also known as ''conflict of laws''), that administers several international c ...
, a globally operating intergovernmental organization based in
The Hague The Hague ( ; nl, Den Haag or ) is a List of cities in the Netherlands by province, city and Municipalities of the Netherlands, municipality on the western coast of the Netherlands on the North Sea. It is the administrative and royal capital ...

The Hague
that pursues the progressive unification of
private international law Private or privates may refer to: Music * "In Private", by Dusty Springfield from the 1990 album ''Reputation'' * Private (band), a Denmark-based band * Private (Ryōko Hirosue song), "Private" (Ryōko Hirosue song), from the 1999 album ''Private' ...
, and the
CGIAR CGIAR (formerly the Consultative Group for International Agricultural Research) is a global partnership that unites s engaged in research about food security. CGIAR research aims to reduce rural poverty, increase food security, improve human h ...

CGIAR
(formerly the Consultative Group for International Agricultural Research), a global partnership that unites intergovernmental organizations engaged in research for a food-secured future. International Human Rights Commission ''(IHRC)'' is working to strengthen & support all Nations capacity to engage in sustainable development through educational access, relief programs, ecological & bioethical reflections & actions, while taking in to consideration the traditional, social & cultural values of each Nation. * Cultural, linguistic, ethnic, religious, or historical organizations — open to members based on some cultural, linguistic, ethnic, religious, or historical link: Examples include the
Commonwealth of Nations The Commonwealth of Nations, generally known simply as the Commonwealth, is a political association of 54 member states, almost all of which are former territorial evolution of the British Empire, territories of the British Empire. The chief ins ...

Commonwealth of Nations
,
Arab League The Arab League ( ar, الجامعة العربية, '), formally the League of Arab States ( ar, جامعة الدول العربية, '), is a regional organization in the Arab world, which is located in Africa and Western Asia. The Arab L ...

Arab League
,
Organisation internationale de la Francophonie The Organisation internationale de la Francophonie (OIF; sometimes shortened to the Francophonie, french: La Francophonie , but also called International Organisation of La Francophonie in English-language context) is an international organiza ...
,
Community of Portuguese Language Countries The Community of Portuguese Language Countries (Portuguese language, Portuguese: ''Comunidade dos Países de Língua Portuguesa''; abbreviated as the CPLP), also known as the Lusophone Commonwealth (''Comunidade Lusófona''), is an international o ...
,
Turkic Council The Turkic Council, officially the Cooperation Council of Turkic-Speaking States, is an international organization ''International Organization'' is a quarterly peer-reviewed academic journal that covers the entire field of international relation ...

Turkic Council
, International Organization of Turkic Culture,
Organisation of Islamic Cooperation The Organisation of Islamic Cooperation (OIC; ar, منظمة التعاون الإسلامي, Munaẓẓama at-Taʿāwun al-ʾIslāmiyy; french: Organisation de la coopération islamique), formerly the Organisation of the Islamic Conference ...
, and
Commonwealth of Independent States The Commonwealth of Independent States (CIS; russian: Содружество Независимых Государств, СНГ, translit=Sodruzhestvo Nezavisimykh Gosudarstv, SNG) is a regional intergovernmental organization in Eastern Euro ...

Commonwealth of Independent States
(CIS). * Economic organizations — based on macro-economic policy goals: Some are dedicated to
free trade Free trade is a trade policy A commercial policy (also referred to as a trade policy or international trade policy) is a government's policy governing international trade International trade is the exchange of capital, goods, and service ...
and reduction of trade barriers, e.g.
World Trade Organization The World Trade Organization (WTO) is an intergovernmental organization that regulates and facilitates international trade between nations. Governments use the organization to establish, revise, and enforce the rules that govern international ...
,
International Monetary Fund The International Monetary Fund (IMF) is an international financial institution, headquartered in Washington, D.C. ) , image_skyline = , image_caption = Clockwise from top left: the Washington Monu ...

International Monetary Fund
. Others are focused on
international development International development or global development is a broad concept denoting the idea that societies and countries have differing levels of "development" on an international scale. It is the basis for international classifications such as develo ...
. International
cartel A cartel is a group of independent market participants who Collusion, collude with each other in order to improve their profits and dominate the market. Cartels are usually associations in the same sphere of business, and thus an alliance of r ...

cartel
s, such as
OPEC The Organization of the Petroleum Exporting Countries (OPEC, ) is an intergovernmental organization An intergovernmental organization (IGO) is an organization composed primarily of sovereign states (referred to as ''member states''), or o ...

OPEC
, also exist. The Organisation for Economic Co-operation and Development (OECD) was founded as an economic-policy-focused organization. An example of a recently formed economic IGO is the
Bank of the South The Bank of the South ( es, Banco del Sur, links=no, pt, Banco do Sul, links=no, nl, Bank van het Zuiden, links=no) or BancoSur is a monetary fund and lending organization established on 26 September 2009 by Argentina, Brazil, Paraguay, Uruguay, ...
. * Educational organizations — centered around tertiary-level study. EUCLID University was chartered as a university and umbrella organization dedicated to sustainable development in signatory countries;
United Nations University The (UNU) is the academic and research arm of the United Nations The United Nations (UN) is an intergovernmental organization that aims to maintain international peace and international security, security, develop friendly relations am ...

United Nations University
researches pressing global problems that are the concern of the United Nations, its Peoples and Member States. * Health and Population Organizations — based on common perceived health and population goals. These are formed to address those challenges collectively, for example the intergovernmental partnership for population and development Partners in Population and Development. *
Regional organization and Turkey Turkey ( tr, Türkiye ), officially the Republic of Turkey, is a country straddling Southeastern Europe and Western Asia. It shares borders with Greece Greece ( el, Ελλάδα, , ), officially the Hellenic Republic, is ...
s — open to members from a particular continent or other specific region of the world. This category includes the
Community of Latin American and Caribbean States The Community of Latin American and Caribbean States (CELAC), french: link=no, Communauté des États latino-américains et caribéens, nl, Gemeenschap van Latijns-Amerikaanse en Caraïbische Staten is a regional bloc of Latin American and Ca ...

Community of Latin American and Caribbean States
(CLACS),
Council of Europe The Council of Europe (CoE; french: Conseil de l'Europe, ) is an international organization, international organisation founded in the wake of World War II to uphold European Convention on Human Rights, human rights, democracy and the Law in Eu ...

Council of Europe
(CoE),
European Union The European Union (EU) is a political and economic union of member states that are located primarily in Europe Europe is a which is also recognised as part of , located entirely in the and mostly in the . It comprises the wester ...

European Union
(EU),
Eurasian Economic Union The Eurasian Economic Union (EAEU)EAEU is the acronym is used in thorganisation’s website However, many media outlets use the acronym EEU. is an economic union of states located in Eastern Europe Eastern Europe is the region of the Europea ...

Eurasian Economic Union
(EAEU),
Energy Community
Energy Community
,
North Atlantic Treaty Organization The North Atlantic Treaty Organization (NATO, ; french: Organisation du traité de l'Atlantique nord, ), also called the North Atlantic Alliance, is an intergovernmental military alliance between 30 European and North American countries. Th ...
(NATO),
Economic Community of West African States The Economic Community of West African States, also known as ECOWAS ( in French), is a regional political Politics (from , ) is the set of activities that are associated with Decision-making, making decisions in Social group, groups, or o ...
(ECOWAS),
Organization for Security and Co-operation in Europe The Organization for Security and Co-operation in Europe (OSCE) is the world's largest security-oriented . Its mandate includes issues such as , promotion of , , and fair elections. It employs around 3,460 people, mostly in its field operations ...
,
African Union The African Union (AU) is a continental union A continental union is a regional organization which facilitates pan-continental integration. Continental unions vary from collaborative intergovernmental organization, intergovernmental organiza ...

African Union
(AU),
Organization of American States The Organization of American States (OAS; es, Organización de los Estados Americanos, pt, Organização dos Estados Americanos, french: Organisation des États américains; ''OEA'') is an international organization that was founded on 30 April ...

Organization of American States
(OAS),
Association of Caribbean States The Association of Caribbean States (ACS; es, Asociación de Estados del Caribe; french: Association des États de la Caraïbe) is a union of nations centered on the Caribbean Basin. It was formed with the aim of promoting consultation, cooper ...

Association of Caribbean States
(ACS),
Association of Southeast Asian Nations ASEAN; ( , ) officially the Association of Southeast Asian Nations, is an economic union comprising 10 member states in Southeast Asia Southeast Asia or Southeastern Asia is the United Nations geoscheme for Asia#South-eastern Asia, southe ...

Association of Southeast Asian Nations
(ASEAN),
Islamic Development Bank The Islamic Development Bank (Arabic: البنك الإسلامي للتنمية) is a multilateral development finance institution that is focused on Islamic finance located in Jeddah Jeddah ( ), also spelled Jedda, Jiddah or Jidda ( ; ar, ...

Islamic Development Bank
,
Union of South American Nations The Union of South American Nations (USAN; es, links=no, Unión de Naciones Suramericanas, UNASUR; pt, links=no, União de Nações Sul-Americanas, UNASUL; nl, links=no, Unie van Zuid-Amerikaanse Naties, UZAN; and sometimes referred to as t ...
,
Asia Cooperation Dialogue The Asia Cooperation Dialogue (ACD) is an intergovernmental organization An intergovernmental organization (IGO) or international organization is an organization composed primarily of sovereign states (referred to as ''member states''), or of ...
(ACD),
Pacific Islands Forum The Pacific Islands Forum (PIF) is an inter-governmental organization An organization, or organisation ( Commonwealth English; see spelling differences), is an entity – such as a company, an institution, or an association – comp ...

Pacific Islands Forum
, South Asian Association for Regional Cooperation Asian-African Legal Consultative Organization (AALCO) and the
Organisation of Eastern Caribbean States The Organisation of Eastern Caribbean States (OECS; French: ''Organisation des États de la Caraïbe orientale'', OECO) is an inter-governmental organisation dedicated to economic harmonisation and integration, protection of human and legal righ ...

Organisation of Eastern Caribbean States
(OECS).


Historicity and Evolution

The origin of IGOs can be traced way back from the Congress of Vienna of 1814–1815, which was an international diplomatic conference to reconstitute the European political order after the downfall of the French Emperor Napoleon. States then became the main decision makers who preferred to maintain their sovereignty as of 1648 at the West Phalian treaty that closed the 30 years’ war in Europe. But in the scholarly world, the origin of IGOs is most reflected at the birth of the League of Nations (LoN), which was the first worldwide intergovernmental organization founded on 10 January 1920 with a principal mission of maintaining world peace after World War I. The League of Nations was succeeded by the United Nations (UN) in 1945, which was also predicted on the notion that continued cooperation among states would ensure global security. This was signed on 26 June 1945, in San Francisco, at the conclusion of the United Nations Conference on International Organization, and came into force on 24 October 1945. () Currently, the UN is the main IGO with its arms such as the United Nations Security Council (UNSC), the General Assembly (UNGA), the International Court of Justice (ICJ), the Secret Ariat (UNSA), the Trusteeship Council (UNTC) and the Economic and Social Council (ECOSOC). Other IGOs include the Multi- National Companies (MNCs) like SHELL, Regional and Continental bodies/ blocks like European Union (EU), African Union (AU), East African Community (EAC) among others.


Expansion and growth

Held and McGrew counted thousands of IGOs worldwide in 2002 and this number continues to rise. This may be attributed to globalization, which increases and encourages the co-operation among and within states and which has also provided easier means for IGO growth as a result of increased international relations. This is seen economically, politically, militarily, as well as on the domestic level. Economically, IGOs gain material and non-material resources for economic prosperity. IGOs also provide more political stability within the state and among differing states. Military alliances are also formed by establishing common standards in order to ensure security of the members to ward off outside threats. Lastly, the formation has encouraged autocratic states to develop into democracies in order to form an effective and internal government. According to a different estimate, the number of IGOs in the world has increased from less than 100 in 1949 to about 350 in 2000.


Participation and involvement

There are several different reasons a state may choose membership in an intergovernmental organization. But there are also reasons membership may be rejected. Reasons for participation: * Economic rewards: In the case of the
North American Free Trade Agreement The North American Free Trade Agreement (NAFTA; es, Tratado de Libre Comercio de América del Norte, TLCAN; french: Accord de libre-échange nord-américain, ALÉNA) was an agreement signed by Canada Canada is a country in the north ...
(NAFTA), membership in the free trade agreement benefits the parties’ economies. For example, Mexican companies are given better access to
U.S. The United States of America (USA), commonly known as the United States (U.S. or US), or America, is a country primarily located in North America North America is a continent entirely within the Northern Hemisphere and almost all ...

U.S.
markets due to their membership. * Political influence: Smaller countries, such as
Portugal Portugal, officially the Portuguese Republic ( pt, República Portuguesa, links=yes ), is a country A country is a distinct territorial body or political entity A polity is an identifiable political entity—any group of people who ...

Portugal
and
Belgium Belgium ( nl, België ; french: Belgique ; german: Belgien ), officially the Kingdom of Belgium, is a country in Western Europe Western Europe is the western region of Europe. The region's countries and territories vary depending on cont ...

Belgium
, who do not carry much political clout on the international stage, are given a substantial increase in influence through membership in IGOs such as the
European Union The European Union (EU) is a political and economic union of member states that are located primarily in Europe Europe is a which is also recognised as part of , located entirely in the and mostly in the . It comprises the wester ...

European Union
. Also for countries with more influence such as
France France (), officially the French Republic (french: link=no, République française), is a List of transcontinental countries, transcontinental country spanning Western Europe and Overseas France, overseas regions and territories in the Ame ...

France
and
Germany ) , image_map = , map_caption = , map_width = 250px , capital = Berlin Berlin (; ) is the and by both area and population. Its 3,769,495 inhabitants, as of 31 December 2019 makes it the , according to population within city l ...

Germany
, IGOs are beneficial as the nation increases influence in the smaller countries’ internal affairs and expanding other nations dependence on themselves, so to preserve allegiance. * Security: Membership in an IGO such as
NATO The North Atlantic Treaty Organization (NATO, ; french: Organisation du traité de l'Atlantique nord, ), also called the North Atlantic Alliance, is an intergovernmental organization, intergovernmental military alliance between 27 European ...
gives security benefits to member countries. This provides an arena where political differences can be resolved. * Democracy: It has been noted that member countries experience a greater degree of democracy and those democracies survive longer. Reasons for rejecting membership: * Loss of
sovereignty Sovereignty is the supreme authority within a territory. Sovereignty entails hierarchy within the state, as well as external autonomy for states. In any state, sovereignty is assigned to the person, body, or institution that has the ultimate a ...
: Membership often comes with a loss of state sovereignty as treaties are signed that require co-operation on the part of all member states. * Insufficient benefits: Often membership does not bring about substantial enough benefit to warrant membership in the organization.


Privileges and immunities

Intergovernmental organizations are provided with privileges and immunities that are intended to ensure their independent and effective functioning. They are specified in the treaties that give rise to the organization (such as the
Convention on the Privileges and Immunities of the United Nations The Convention on the Privileges and Immunities of the United Nations, passed by the United Nations General Assembly on 13 February 1946 in New York, and sometimes referred to as the New York Convention, defines and specifies numerous issues rel ...
and the Agreement on the Privileges and Immunities of the International Criminal Court), which are normally supplemented by further multinational agreements and national regulations (for example the '' International Organizations Immunities Act'' in the United States). The organizations are thereby immune from the jurisdiction of national courts. Rather than by national jurisdiction, legal
accountability Accountability, in terms of ethics and governance, is equated with answerability, blameworthiness, legal liability, liability, and the expectation of account-giving. As in an aspect of governance, it has been central to discussions related to probl ...

accountability
is intended to be ensured by legal mechanisms that are internal to the intergovernmental organization itself and access to administrative tribunals. In the course of many court cases where private parties tried to pursue claims against international organizations, there has been a gradual realization that alternative means of dispute settlement are required as states have fundamental human rights obligations to provide plaintiffs with access to court in view of their
right to a fair trial A trial which is observed by a judge without being partial is a fair trial. Various rights associated with a fair trial are explicitly proclaimed in Article 10 of the Universal Declaration of Human Rights, the Sixth Amendment to the United States ...
.Pdf.
Otherwise, the organizations’ immunities may be put in question in national and international courts. Some organizations hold proceedings before tribunals relating to their organization to be confidential, and in some instances have threatened disciplinary action should an employee disclose any of the relevant information. Such confidentiality has been criticized as a lack of
transparency Transparency, transparence or transparent most often refer to transparency and translucency, the physical property of allowing the transmission of light through a material. They may also refer to: Literal uses * Transparency (photography), a sti ...
. The immunities also extend to
employment law Labour laws (also known as labor laws or employment laws) are those that mediate the relationship between workers, employing entities, trade union A trade union (or a labor union in American English), often simply referred to as a union, is ...
. In this regard, immunity from national jurisdiction necessitates that reasonable alternative means are available to effectively protect employees’ rights; in this context, a first instance Dutch court considered an estimated duration of proceedings before the Administrative Tribunal of the International Labour Organization of 15 years to be too long.EPO: no immunity in labor cases?
, dvdw.nl, 27 August 2013
:


Strengths and weaknesses

These are some of the strengths and weaknesses of IGOs. Strengths: * They hold state authority. * Their institutions are permanent. * They provide a forum for discussion. * They are issue-specific. * They provide information. * They allow multilateral co-operation. Weaknesses: * Membership is limited. IGOs’ legal basis prohibit membership of private citizens, making them undemocratic. In addition, not all IGOs allow universal state membership. * IGOs often overlap, resulting in an overly complex network. * States have to give up part of their sovereignty, which weakens the states’ ability to assert authority. * Inequality among state members creates biases and can lead powerful states to misuse these organizations. They can be deemed unfair as countries with a higher percentage voting power have the right to veto any decision that is not in their favor, leaving the smaller countries powerless.


See also

*
Intergovernmentalism In international relations, intergovernmentalism treats states (and national governments in particular) as the primary actors in the integration process. Intergovernmentalist approaches claim to be able to explain both periods of radical change in ...
*
International financial institutions An international financial institution (IFI) is a financial institution Financial institutions, otherwise known as banking institutions, are corporation A corporation is an organization—usually a group of people or a company—authorized ...
*
International organisations in EuropeThe following table lists the independent Europe#Political geography, European states, and their memberships in selected organisations and treaties. Table 1 These countries are currently not participating in the EU's single market (EEA), but t ...
*
International relations International relations (IR), international affairs (IA) or international studies (IS) is the scientific study of interactions between sovereign states. In a broader sense, it concerns all activities between states—such as war, diplomacy ...
*
International trade International trade is the exchange of capital Capital most commonly refers to: * Capital letter Letter case (or just case) is the distinction between the letters that are in larger uppercase or capitals (or more formally ''majuscul ...
** Index of international trade topics *
List of intergovernmental organizations The following is a list of the major existing intergovernmental organizations (IGOs). For a more complete listing, see the '' Yearbook of International Organizations'', which includes 25,000 international non-governmental organizations (INGOs), ...
* List of organizations with .int domain names *
List of supranational environmental agencies A variety of supranational environmental government agency, agencies, commissions, programs and secretariats exist across the world today. Some are global in nature, others regional; they may be multi- or bilateral in character. Some are responsib ...
*
Multilateralism In international relations, multilateralism refers to an alliance of multiple countries pursuing a common goal. Definitions Multilateralism, in the form of membership in international institutions, serves to bind powerful nations, discourage ...
*
Non-aggression pact A non-aggression pact or neutrality pact is a treaty A treaty is a formal legally binding written agreement between actors in international law. It is usually entered into by sovereign states and international organizations, but can sometime ...
*
Supranational aspects of international organizationsMany international organizations also have Supranationalism, supranational aspects, meaning that decisions can be made by the organization as a whole that are binding on member states that disagree. Definition ''Political Unification Revisited: O ...
*
Supranational union A supranational union is a type of multinational political union where negotiated power is delegated to an authority by governments of member states. The term is sometimes used to describe the European Union The European Union (EU) ...
*
Trade bloc A trade bloc is a type of intergovernmental agreement, often part of a regional intergovernmental organization An intergovernmental organization (IGO) is an organization composed primarily of sovereign states (referred to as ''member states'') ...
*
World government World government or global government, sometimes called one-worldism or cosmocracy, is the concept of a single authority for all humanity. It generally entails some form of through a single or with jurisdiction over the entire . Such a gover ...

World government


References


Further reading

*
IGO search
Free service allowing search through websites of all intergovernmental organizations (IGOs) as recognized and profiled by the
Union of International Associations The Union of International Associations (UIA) is a non-profit A nonprofit organization (NPO), also known as a non-business entity, not-for-profit organization, or nonprofit institution, is a legal entity organized and operated for a collect ...
. * * *


External links


IGO Search
IGO/NGO google custom search engine built by th
Govt Documents Round Table (GODORT)
of the American Library Association. {{DEFAULTSORT:Intergovernmental Organization Globalization