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Industrial design is a process of
design A design is a plan or specification for the construction of an object or system or for the implementation of an activity or process, or the result of that plan or specification in the form of a prototype, product or process. The verb ''to design ...
applied to physical
products Product may refer to: Business * Product (business), an item that serves as a solution to a specific consumer problem. * Product (project management), a deliverable or set of deliverables that contribute to a business solution Mathematics * Produc ...
that are to be manufactured by
mass production Mass production, also known as flow production or continuous production, is the production of large amounts of standardized products in a constant flow, including and especially on assembly lines. Together with job production and batch product ...
. It is the creative act of determining and defining a product's form and features, which takes place in advance of the manufacture or production of the product. In contrast, manufacture consists purely of repeated, often automated, replication, while
craft A craft or trade is a pastime or an occupation that requires particular skills and knowledge of skilled work. In a historical sense, particularly the Middle Ages In the history of Europe, the Middle Ages or medieval period lasted fr ...
-based design is a process or approach in which the form of the product is determined by the product's creator largely concurrent with the act of its production. All manufactured products are the result of a design process, but the nature of this process can vary. It can be conducted by an individual or a team, and such a team could include people with varied expertise (e.g. designers, engineers, business experts, etc.). It can emphasize intuitive
creativity Creativity is a phenomenon whereby something somehow new and somehow valuable is formed. The created item may be intangible (such as an idea, a scientific theory, a musical composition, or a joke) or a physical object (such as an invention, a print ...
or calculated scientific decision-making, and often emphasizes a mix of both. It can be influenced by factors as varied as
material A material is a substance Substance may refer to: * Substance (Jainism), a term in Jain ontology to denote the base or owner of attributes * Chemical substance, a material with a definite chemical composition * Matter, anything that has mass and ...
s,
production processes Production may be: Economics and business * Production (economics) * Production, the act of manufacturing goods * Production, in the outline of industrial organization, the act of making products (goods and services) * Production as a statistic, g ...
,
business strategy In the field of management Management (or managing) is the administration of an organization, whether it is a business, a not-for-profit organization, or government body. Management includes the activities of setting the strategy of an ...
, and prevailing social, commercial, or aesthetic attitudes. Industrial design, as an
applied art The applied arts are all the arts that apply design and decoration to everyday and essentially practical objects in order to make them aesthetically pleasing."Applied art" in ''The Oxford Dictionary of Art''. Online edition. Oxford Unive ...
, most often focuses on a combination of aesthetics and user-focused considerations, but also often provides solutions for problems of form, function,
physical ergonomics Physical may refer to: *Physical examination In a physical examination, medical examination, or clinical examination, a medical practitioner examines a patient A patient is any recipient of health care Health care, health-care, or healthcare ...
, marketing, brand development, sustainability, and sales.


History


Precursors

For several millennia before the onset of
industrialization Industrialisation Industrialisation (or industrialization) is the period of social and economic change that transforms a human group from an agrarian society An agrarian society, or agricultural society, is any community whose economy is based ...
, design, technical expertise, and manufacturing was often done by individual craftsmen, who determined the form of a product at the point of its creation, according to their own manual skill, the requirements of their clients, experience accumulated through their own experimentation, and knowledge passed on to them through training or
apprenticeship An apprenticeship is a system for training a new generation of practitioners of a trade Trade involves the transfer of goods from one person or entity to another, often in exchange for money. Economists refer to a system A system is a gr ...

apprenticeship
. The
division of labour The division of labour is the separation of tasks in any economic system An economic system, or economic order, is a system of Production (economics), production, allocation of resources, resource allocation and Distribution (economics), distri ...
that underlies the practice of industrial design did have
precedents A precedent is a principle or rule established in a previous legal case A legal case is in a general sense a dispute between opposing parties which may be resolved by a court, or by some equivalent legal process. A legal case is typically based ...
in the pre-industrial era. The growth of trade in the medieval period led to the emergence of large workshops in cities such as
Florence Florence ( ; it, Firenze ) is a city in Central Italy and the capital city of the Tuscany Regions of Italy, region. It is the most populated city in Tuscany, with 383,084 inhabitants in 2013, and over 1,520,000 in its metropolitan area. Flor ...

Florence
,
Venice Venice ( ; it, Venezia ; vec, Venesia or ) is a city in northeastern Italy Italy ( it, Italia ), officially the Italian Republic ( it, Repubblica Italiana, links=no ), is a country consisting of a Northern Italy, continental part, del ...

Venice
,
Nuremberg Nuremberg ( ; german: link=no, Nürnberg ; in the local East Franconian dialect: ''Nämberch'' ) is the second-largest city of the Germany, German States of Germany, state of Bavaria after its capital Munich, and its 518,370 (2019) inhabitants ...

Nuremberg
, and
Bruges Bruges ( , nl, Brugge ; ; german: Brügge ) is the capital and largest city of the province A province is almost always an administrative division within a country or state. The term derives from the ancient Roman '' provincia'', which was ...
, where groups of more specialized craftsmen made objects with common forms through the repetitive duplication of models which defined by their shared training and technique. Competitive pressures in the early 16th century led to the emergence in
Italy Italy ( it, Italia ), officially the Italian Republic ( it, Repubblica Italiana, links=no ), is a country consisting of a Northern Italy, continental part, delimited by the Alps, a Italian Peninsula, peninsula and List of islands of Italy, se ...

Italy
and
Germany ) , image_map = , map_caption = , map_width = 250px , capital = Berlin , coordinates = , largest_city = capital , languages_type = Official language , languages = German language, German , demonym = Germans, German , government_ ...

Germany
of
pattern booksA pattern book, or architectural pattern book, is a book of architectural designs, usually providing enough for non-architects to build structures that are copies or significant derivatives of major architect-designed works. A number of pattern book ...
: collections of
engravings '' (1514), an engraving by Northern Renaissance The Northern Renaissance was the Renaissance The Renaissance ( , ) , from , with the same meanings. was a period in European history marking the transition from the Middle Ages ...

engravings
illustrating decorative forms and motifs which could be applied to a wide range of products, and whose creation took place in advance of their application. The use of
drawing Drawing is a form of visual art in which an artist uses instruments to mark paper Paper is a thin sheet material produced by mechanically and/or chemically processing cellulose fibres derived from wood, Textile, rags, poaceae, grasses or ...

drawing
to specify how something was to be constructed later was first developed by
architects An architect is a person who plans, designs and oversees the construction of buildings. To practice architecture means to provide services in connection with the design of buildings and the space within the site surrounding the buildings that ha ...
and
shipwrights Shipbuilding is the construction of ships and other Watercraft, floating vessels. It normally takes place in a specialized facility known as a shipyard. Shipbuilders, also called shipwrights, follow a specialized occupation that traces its root ...
during the
Italian Renaissance The Italian Renaissance ( it, Rinascimento ) was a period in Italian history The history of Italy covers the Ancient Period, the Middle Ages and the modern era. Since classical times, ancient Phoenicians, Magna Graecia, Greeks, Etruscan civil ...
. In the 17th century, the growth of
artistic Art is a diverse range of (products of) human activities involving creative imagination to express technical proficiency, beauty, emotional power, or conceptual ideas. There is no generally agreed definition of what constitutes art, and i ...
patronage in centralized monarchical states such as
France France (), officially the French Republic (french: link=no, République française), is a country primarily located in Western Europe, consisting of metropolitan France and Overseas France, several overseas regions and territories. The metro ...

France
led to large government-operated manufacturing operations epitomized by the Gobelins Manufactory, opened in
Paris Paris () is the Capital city, capital and List of communes in France with over 20,000 inhabitants, most populous city of France, with an estimated population of 2,175,601 residents as of 2018, in an area of more than . Since the 17th century, ...

Paris
in 1667 by
Louis XIV , house = House of Bourbon, Bourbon , father = Louis XIII, Louis XIII of France , mother = Anne of Austria , birth_date = , birth_place = Château de Saint-Germain-en-Laye, Saint-Germain-en-Laye, Kingdom of France, F ...

Louis XIV
. Here teams of hundreds of craftsmen, including specialist artists, decorators and engravers, produced sumptuously decorated products ranging from
tapestries Tapestry is a form of textile arts, textile art, traditionally Weaving, woven by hand on a loom. Tapestry is weft-faced weaving, in which all the warp (weaving), warp threads are hidden in the completed work, unlike most woven textiles, where bo ...
and
furniture Furniture refers to movable objects intended to support various human activities such as seating (e.g., chairs, stools, and sofas), eating (table (furniture), tables), and sleeping (e.g., beds). Furniture is also used to hold objects at a con ...

furniture
to
metalwork Metalworking is the process of shaping and reshaping metals to create useful objects, parts, assemblies, and large scale structures. As a term it covers a wide and diverse range of processes, skills, and tools for producing objects on every scale: ...
and
coaches Coach may refer to: Guidance/instruction * Coach (sport), a director of athletes' training and activities ** Coach (basketball) * Coaching, the practice of guiding an individual through a process ** Acting coach, a teacher who trains performers T ...
, all under the creative supervision of the King's leading artist
Charles Le Brun Charles Le Brun (baptised 24 February 1619 – 12 February 1690) was a French Painting, painter, Physiognomy, physiognomist, Aesthetics, art theorist, and a director of several art schools of his time. As court painter to Louis XIV of France, Loui ...
. This pattern of large-scale royal patronage was repeated in the court porcelain factories of the early 18th century, such as the Meissen porcelain workshops established in 1709 by the Grand Duke of Saxony, where patterns from a range of sources, including court goldsmiths, sculptors, and engravers, were used as models for the vessels and figurines for which it became famous. As long as reproduction remained craft-based, however, the form and artistic quality of the product remained in the hands of the individual craftsman, and tended to decline as the scale of production increased.


Birth of industrial design

The emergence of industrial design is specifically linked to the growth of industrialization and mechanization that began with the
industrial revolution The Industrial Revolution was the transition to new manufacturing processes in Great Britain, continental Europe Mainland or continental Europe is the contiguous continent of Europe, excluding its surrounding islands. It can also be ...
in
Great Britain Great Britain is an island in the North Atlantic Ocean off the northwest coast of continental Europe. With an area of , it is the largest of the British Isles, the List of European islands by area, largest European island, and the List of i ...

Great Britain
in the mid 18th century. The rise of industrial manufacture changed the way objects were made,
urbanisation Urbanization (or urbanisation) refers to the population shift from Rural area, rural to urban areas, the corresponding decrease in the proportion of people living in rural areas, and the ways in which societies adapt to this change. It is predom ...
changed patterns of
consumption Consumption may refer to: *Resource consumption *Tuberculosis, an infectious disease, historically in biology: * Consumption (ecology), receipt of energy by consuming other organisms in social sciences: * Consumption (economics), the purchasing of ...
, the
growth of empires
growth of empires
broadened tastes and diversified markets, and the emergence of a wider
middle class The middle class is a Social class, class of people in the middle of a social hierarchy. Its usage has often been vague whether defined in terms of job, occupation, income, education or social status. The definition by any author is often chosen f ...
created demand for fashionable styles from a much larger and more heterogeneous population. The first use of the term "industrial design" is often attributed to the industrial designer Joseph Claude Sinel in 1919 (although he himself denied this in interviews), but the discipline predates 1919 by at least a decade.
Christopher Dresser Christopher Dresser (4 July 1834 – 24 November 1904) was a British designer and design theorist, now widely known as one of the first and most important, independent designers. He was a pivotal figure in the Aesthetic Movement and a major cont ...
is considered among the first independent industrial designers. Industrial design's origins lie in the industrialization of consumer products. For instance, the
Deutscher Werkbund "Weißenhof chair", by Mies van der Rohe with canework upholstery by Lilly Reichhttp://www.cmoa.org/CollectionDetail.aspx?item=1022315 (ca. 1927) The Deutscher Werkbund (German Association of Craftsmen; ) is a Germany, German association of arti ...
, founded in 1907 and a precursor to the
Bauhaus The Staatliches Bauhaus (), commonly known as the Bauhaus (German: "building house"), was a German art school operational from 1919 to 1933 that combined crafts and the fine arts 250px, '' The Art of Painting''; by Johannes Vermeer; 16 ...

Bauhaus
, was a state-sponsored effort to integrate traditional crafts and industrial mass-production techniques, to put
Germany ) , image_map = , map_caption = , map_width = 250px , capital = Berlin , coordinates = , largest_city = capital , languages_type = Official language , languages = German language, German , demonym = Germans, German , government_ ...

Germany
on a competitive footing with Great Britain and the
United States The United States of America (USA), commonly known as the United States (U.S. or US), or America, is a country Contiguous United States, primarily located in North America. It consists of 50 U.S. state, states, a Washington, D.C., federal di ...

United States
. The earliest published use of the term may have been in ''The Art-Union'', 15 September 1840. ''The Practical Draughtsman's Book of Industrial Design'' by Jacques-Eugène Armengaud was printed in 1853. The subtitle of the (translated) work explains, that it wants to offer a "complete course of mechanical, engineering, and architectural drawing." The study of those types of technical drawing, according to Armengaud, belongs to the field of industrial design. This work paved the way for a big expansion in the field of drawing education in France, the United Kingdom, and the United States. Robert Lepper helped to establish one of the country's first industrial design degree programs in 1934 at
Carnegie Institute of Technology Carnegie Mellon University (CMU) is a private research university A research university is a university A university ( la, universitas, 'a whole') is an educational institution, institution of higher education, higher (or Tertiary educati ...
."Newsbriefs: Lepper show runs at Warhol."
Carnegie Mellon Magazine. Winter 2002. Retrieved January 17, 2014.


Education

Product design Product design as a verb is to create a new product to be sold by a business to its customers. A very broad coefficient and effective generation and development of ideas through a process that leads to new products. Thus, it is a major aspect of n ...
and industrial design overlap in the fields of
user interface design User interface (UI) design or user interface engineering is the design A design is a plan or specification for the construction of an object or system or for the implementation of an activity or process, or the result of that plan or specificati ...
,
information design Information design is the practice of presenting information in a way that fosters an efficient and effective understanding of the information. The term has come to be used for a specific area of graphic design Graphic design is the art, profe ...
, and
interaction design Interaction design, often abbreviated as IxD, is "the practice of designing interactive digital products, environments, systems, and services." Beyond the digital aspect, interaction design is also useful when creating physical (non-digital) product ...
. Various
schools A school is an educational institution An educational institution is a place where people of different ages gain an education, including preschools, childcare, primary-elementary schools, secondary-high schools, and universities. They provi ...

schools
of industrial design specialize in one of these aspects, ranging from pure art colleges and design schools (product styling), to mixed programs of engineering and design, to related disciplines such as exhibit design and interior design, to schools that almost completely subordinated aesthetic design to concerns of usage and ergonomics, the so-called ''functionalist'' school. Except for certain functional areas of overlap between industrial design and engineering design, the former is considered an applied art while the latter is an applied science. Educational programs in the U.S. for engineering require accreditation by the Accreditation Board for Engineering and Technology (ABET) in contrast to programs for industrial design which are accredited by the National Association of Schools of Art and Design (NASAD). Of course, engineering education requires heavy training in mathematics and physical sciences, which is not typically required in industrial design education.


Institutions

Most industrial designers complete a design or related program at a vocational school or university. Relevant programs include graphic design, interior design, industrial design, architectural technology, and drafting Diplomas and degrees in industrial design are offered at vocational schools and universities worldwide. Diplomas and degrees take two to four years of study. The study results in a Bachelor of Industrial Design (B.I.D.),
Bachelor of Science A Bachelor of Science (BS, BSc, SB, or ScB; from the Latin Latin (, or , ) is a classical language belonging to the Italic languages, Italic branch of the Indo-European languages. Latin was originally spoken in the area around Rome, known as L ...
(B.Sc) or
Bachelor of Fine Arts A Bachelor of Fine Arts (B.F.A. or BFA) is a standard undergraduate degree for students for pursuing a professional education in the visual, fine or performing arts. It is also called Bachelor of Visual Arts (BVA) in some cases. Background ...
(B.F.A.). Afterwards, the bachelor programme can be extended to postgraduate degrees such as
Master of DesignA Master of Design (MDes, M.Des. or M.Design) is a postgraduate academic master degree A master's degree (from Latin Latin (, or , ) is a classical language belonging to the Italic languages, Italic branch of the Indo-European languages. Latin wa ...
,
Master of Fine Arts Master or masters may refer to: Ranks or titles *Ascended master, a term used in the Theosophical religious tradition to refer to spiritually enlightened beings who in past incarnations were ordinary humans *Grandmaster (chess), National Master, I ...
and others to a
Master of Arts A Master of Arts ( la, Magister Artium or ''Artium Magister''; abbreviated MA or AM) is the holder of a master's degree A master's degree (from Latin ) is an academic degree awarded by University, universities or colleges upon completion of a co ...
or
Master of Science Master or masters may refer to: Ranks or titles *Ascended master, a term used in the Theosophical religious tradition to refer to spiritually enlightened beings who in past incarnations were ordinary humans *Grandmaster (chess), National Master, I ...
.


Definition

Industrial design studies function and form—and the connection between product, user, and environment. Generally, industrial design professionals work in small scale design, rather than overall design of complex systems such as buildings or ships. Industrial designers don't usually design motors, electrical circuits, or gearing that make machines move, but they may affect technical aspects through usability design and form relationships. Usually, they work with other professionals such as engineers who focus on the mechanical and other functional aspects of the product, assuring functionality and manufacturability, and with marketers to identify and fulfill customer needs and expectations. Design, itself, is often difficult to describe to non-designers because the meaning accepted by the design community is not made of words. Instead, the definition is created as a result of acquiring a critical framework for the analysis and creation of artifacts. One of the many accepted (but intentionally unspecific) definitions of design originates from Carnegie Mellon's School of Design, "Design is the process of taking something from its existing state and moving it to a preferred state" (Simon, Herbert A. "The sciences of the artificial." Cambridge, MA (1969, 1981, 1996)). This applies to new artifacts, whose existing state is undefined, and previously created artifacts, whose state stands to be improved. Industrial design can overlap significantly with
engineering design The engineering design process is a common series of steps that engineers use in creating functional products and processes. The process is highly iterative - parts of the process often need to be repeated many times before another can be entered ...
, and in different countries the boundaries of the two concepts can vary, but in general
engineering Engineering is the use of scientific method, scientific principles to design and build machines, structures, and other items, including bridges, tunnels, roads, vehicles, and buildings. The discipline of engineering encompasses a broad rang ...

engineering
focuses principally on functionality or utility of products, whereas industrial design focuses principally on ''aesthetic and user-interface'' aspects of products. In many jurisdictions this distinction is effectively defined by credentials and/or licensure required to engage in the practice of engineering. "Industrial design" as such does not overlap much with the engineering sub-discipline of industrial engineering, except for the latter's sub-specialty of ergonomics. At the 29th General Assembly in Gwangju, South Korea, 2015, the Professional Practise Committee unveiled a renewed definition of industrial design as follows: "Industrial Design is a strategic problem-solving process that drives innovation, builds business success and leads to a better quality of life through innovative products, systems, services and experiences." An extended version of this definition is as follows: "Industrial Design is a strategic problem-solving process that drives innovation, builds business success and leads to a better quality of life through innovative products, systems, services and experiences. Industrial Design bridges the gap between what is and what's possible. It is a trans-disciplinary profession that harnesses creativity to resolve problems and co-create solutions with the intent of making a product, system, service, experience or a business, better. At its heart, Industrial Design provides a more optimistic way of looking at the future by reframing problems as opportunities. It links innovation, technology, research, business and customers to provide new value and competitive advantage across economic, social and environmental spheres. Industrial Designers place the human in the centre of the process. They acquire a deep understanding of user needs through empathy and apply a pragmatic, user centric problem solving process to design products, systems, services and experiences. They are strategic stakeholders in the innovation process and are uniquely positioned to bridge varied professional disciplines and business interests. They value the economic, social and environmental impact of their work and their contribution towards co-creating a better quality of life. "ICSID web:DEFINITION OF INDUSTRIAL DESIGN


Design process

Model 1300 Volkswagen Beetle Although the process of design may be considered 'creative,' many analytical processes also take place. In fact, many industrial designers often use various design methodologies in their creative process. Some of the processes that are commonly used are user research, sketching, comparative product research, model making, prototyping and testing. These processes are best defined by the industrial designers and/or other team members. Industrial designers often utilize 3D software,
computer-aided industrial design Computer Aided Industrial Design (CAID) is a subset of computer-aided design (CAD) software that can assist in creating the look-and-feel or industrial design aspects of a product in development. CAID programs tend to provide designers with improv ...
and CAD programs to move from concept to production. They may also build a prototype first and then use
industrial CT scanning Industrial computed tomography (CT) scanning is any computer-aided tomographic process, usually X-ray computed tomography, that uses irradiation Irradiation is the process by which an object is exposed to radiation upThe international sym ...
to test for interior defects and generate a CAD model. From this the manufacturing process may be modified to improve the product. Product characteristics specified by industrial designers may include the overall form of the object, the location of details with respect to one another,
color Color (American English American English (AmE, AE, AmEng, USEng, en-US), sometimes called United States English or U.S. English, is the set of varieties of the English language native to the United States. Currently, American Englis ...
s, texture, form, and aspects concerning the use of the product. Additionally, they may specify aspects concerning the production process, choice of materials and the way the product is presented to the consumer at the
point of sale The point of sale (POS) or point of purchase (POP) is the time and place where a retail transaction is completed. At the point of sale, the merchant calculates the amount owed by the customer, indicates that amount, may prepare an invoice :''S ...
. The inclusion of industrial designers in a product development process may lead to added value by improving
usability Usability can be described as the capacity of a system to provide a condition for its users to perform the tasks safely, effectively, and efficiently while enjoying the experience. In software engineering, usability is the degree to which a soft ...

usability
, lowering production costs, and developing more appealing products. Industrial design may also focus on technical concepts, products, and processes. In addition to
aesthetics Aesthetics, or esthetics (), is a branch of philosophy Philosophy (from , ) is the study of general and fundamental questions, such as those about reason, Metaphysics, existence, Epistemology, knowledge, Ethics, values, Philosophy of ...
, usability, and ergonomics, it can also encompass engineering, usefulness, market placement, and other concerns—such as psychology, desire, and the emotional attachment of the user. These
values In ethics Ethics or moral philosophy is a branch of philosophy that "involves systematizing, defending, and recommending concepts of right and wrong action (philosophy), behavior".''Internet Encyclopedia of Philosophy'"Ethics"/ref> The field of ...
and accompanying aspects that form the basis of industrial design can vary—between different schools of thought, and among practicing designers.


Industrial design rights

Industrial design rights are
intellectual property Intellectual property (IP) is a category of property that includes intangible creations of the human intellect. There are many types of intellectual property, and some countries recognize more than others. The most well-known types are copyright ...
rights that make exclusive the visual design of objects that are not purely utilitarian. A design patent would also be considered under this category. An industrial design consists of the creation of a shape, configuration or composition of pattern or color, or combination of pattern and color in three-dimensional form containing aesthetic value. An industrial design can be a two- or three-dimensional pattern used to produce a product, industrial commodity or handicraft. Under the
Hague Agreement Concerning the International Deposit of Industrial Designs ' The Hague Agreement Concerning the International Deposit of Industrial Designs, also known as the ''Hague system'' provides a mechanism for registering an industrial design in several countries by means of a single application, filed in one langu ...
, a
WIPO The World Intellectual Property Organization (WIPO; french: Organisation mondiale de la propriété intellectuelle (OMPI)) is one of the 15 specialized agencies of the United Nations The United Nations (UN) is an intergovernmental orga ...
-administered treaty, a procedure for an international registration exists. An applicant can file for a single international deposit with WIPO or with the national office in a country party to the treaty. The design will then be protected in as many member countries of the treaty as desired.


Examples of industrial design

A number of industrial designers have made such a significant impact on culture and daily life that their work is documented by historians of social science.
Alvar Aalto Hugo Alvar Henrik Aalto (; 3 February 1898 – 11 May 1976) was a Finnish architect An architect is a person who plans, designs and oversees the construction of buildings. To practice architecture means to provide services in connection with ...
, renowned as an
architect An architect is a person who plans, designs and oversees the construction of buildings. To practice architecture means to provide services in connection with the design of buildings and the space within the site surrounding the buildings that ha ...

architect
, also designed a significant number of household items, such as chairs, stools, lamps, a tea-cart, and vases.
Raymond Loewy Raymond Loewy ( , ; November 5, 1893 – July 14, 1986) was a French-born American industrial designer who achieved fame for the magnitude of his design efforts across a variety of industries. He was recognized for this by '' Time'' magaz ...
was a prolific American designer who is responsible for the
Royal Dutch Shell Royal Dutch Shell plc (to be renamed Shell plc effective 24 January 2022), commonly known as Shell, is a British British may refer to: Peoples, culture, and language * British people The British people, or Britons, are the citizens of ...
corporate logo, the original BP logo (in use until 2000), the
PRR S1 The PRR S1 class steam locomotive climbing the ''Schiefe Ebene'' with DRG Class 01.10, 01 1066 as bank engine, pusher locomotive (video 34.4 MB) A steam locomotive is a type of railway locomotive that produces its Tractive force#Rail ...

PRR S1
steam locomotive, the
Studebaker Starlight The Starlight coupe was a unique 2-door body style offered by Studebaker Studebaker ( or British ) was an American wagon and automobile A car (or automobile) is a wheeled motor vehicle used for transportation. Most definitions of ''cars ...
(including the later bulletnose), as well as Schick electric razors,
Electrolux Electrolux AB, commonly referred to as simply Electrolux (), is a Swedish multinational home appliance manufacturer, headquartered in Stockholm Stockholm is the Capital city, capital of Sweden. It has the most populous urban area in Sw ...
refrigerators, short-wave radios,
Le Creuset Le Creuset (, meaning "the crucible") is a premium France, French Cookware and bakeware, cookware manufacturer best known for its colourfully-Vitreous enamel, enameled cast-iron cookware "French ovens", also known as "cocottes" or "coquelles" and ...

Le Creuset
French ovens, and a complete line of modern furniture, among many other items.
Dick Teague Richard Arthur Teague (December 26, 1923 – May 5, 1991) was an American industrial designer in the North American automotive industry. He held automotive design positions at General Motors, Packard, and Chrysler before becoming Vice President of ...
, who spent most of his career with the
American Motors Corporation American Motors Corporation (AMC; commonly referred to as American Motors) was an American automobile manufacturing company formed by the mergers and acquisitions, merger of Nash-Kelvinator, Nash-Kelvinator Corporation and Hudson Motor Car Compa ...
, originated the concept of using interchangeable body panels so as to create a wide array of different vehicles using the same stampings. He was responsible for such unique automotive designs as the ,
Gremlin A gremlin is an illiterate folkloric mischievous creature that causes malfunctions in aircraft An aircraft is a vehicle that is able to flight, fly by gaining support from the Atmosphere of Earth, air. It counters the force of gravity by usi ...
, Matador coupe,
Jeep Cherokee The Jeep Cherokee is a line of SUVs manufactured and marketed by Jeep over five generations. Originally marketed as a variant of the Jeep Wagoneer (SJ), Jeep Wagoneer, the Cherokee has evolved from a full-size Sport utility vehicle, SUV to one of ...
, and the complete interior of the
Eagle Premier The Eagle Premier is a full-size executive car Executive car is a British term for a large car which is equivalent to the European E-segment and American full-size car, full-size classifications. Executive cars are larger than compact executiv ...

Eagle Premier
. Milwaukee's
Brooks Stevens Clifford Brooks Stevens (June 7, 1911 – January 4, 1995) was an American industrial designer of home furnishings, appliances, automobile A car (or automobile) is a wheeled motor vehicle used for transportation. Most definitions of ''cars ...
was best known for his
Milwaukee Road The Chicago, Milwaukee, St. Paul and Pacific Railroad (CMStP&P), often referred to as the "Milwaukee Road" , was a Class I railroad that operated in the Midwestern United States, Midwest and Pacific Northwest, Northwest of the United States fro ...
Skytop Lounge The Skytop Lounges were a fleet of streamlined passenger cars with the parlor-lounge cars built by the Chicago, Milwaukee, St. Paul and Pacific Railroad ("the Milwaukee Road") and sleeper-lounges built by Pullman-Standard in 1948. The cars were ...
car and
Oscar Mayer Oscar Mayer is an American meat and cold cut production company, owned by the American food company Kraft Heinz based in Chicago, Illinois (''City in a Garden''); I Will , image_map = , map_caption = Interactive ...

Oscar Mayer
Wienermobile Image:Wienermobile-NAIAS-2005.jpg, upright=1.1, The 1952 Oscar Mayer Wienermobile at the 2005 North American International Auto Show. "Wienermobile" refers to a fleet of automobile, motor vehicles shaped like a hot dog on a Hot dog bun, bun which ...

Wienermobile
designs, among others. Viktor Schreckengost designed bicycles manufactured by Murray bicycles for Murray and Sears, Roebuck and Company. With engineer Ray Spiller, he designed the first truck with a cab-over-engine configuration, a design in use to this day. Schreckengost also founded The Cleveland Institute of Art's school of industrial design.
Oskar Barnack File:A Replica of the Ur-Leica.jpg, A replica of the first Leica camera, the Ur-Leica, developed by Oskar Barnack. This replica is on display at the company's headquarters in Wetzlar, Germany. Oskar Barnack (Nuthe-Urstromtal, Brandenburg, 1 Nov ...

Oskar Barnack
was a German optical engineer, precision mechanic, industrial designer, and the father of 35mm photography. He developed the , which became the hallmark for photography for 50 years, and remains a high-water mark for mechanical and optical design.
Charles and Ray Eames Charles Ormond Eames, Jr. (1907–1978) and Bernice Alexandra "Ray" Kaiser Eames (1912–1988) were an American married couple of industrial designers who made significant historical contributions to the development of modern architecture and ...
were most famous for their pioneering furniture designs, such as the Eames Lounge Chair Wood and
Eames Lounge Chair The Eames Lounge Chair and ottoman are furnishings made of molded plywood and leather, designed by Charles and Ray Eames for the Herman Miller (manufacturer), Herman Miller furniture company. They are officially titled Eames Lounge (670) and Otto ...
. Other influential designers included
Henry Dreyfuss Henry Dreyfuss (March 2, 1904 – October 5, 1972) was an industrial design pioneer. Dreyfuss is known for designing some of the most iconic devices found in American homes and offices throughout the twentieth century, including the Western Elect ...
,
Eliot Noyes Eliot Fette Noyes (August 12, 1910 – July 18, 1977) was a Harvard-trained American architect and industrial designer, who worked on projects for IBM, most notably the IBM Selectric typewriter and the IBM Aerospace Research Center in Los Angele ...
,
John Vassos John Vassos (October 23, 1898 – December 6, 1985, born John Plato Vassacopoulos) whose career as an American industrial designer and artist helped define the shape of radio, television, broadcasting equipment, and computers for the RCA, Radio C ...
, and
Russel Wright Russel Wright (April 3, 1904 – December 21, 1976) was an American Industrial designer Industrial design is a process of design applied to Product (business), products that are to be manufactured through techniques of mass production. A key cha ...
.
Dieter Rams Dieter Rams (born 20 May 1932 in Wiesbaden, Hessen) is a German industrial design Industrial design is a process of design applied to products that are to be manufactured through techniques of mass production. A key characteristic is that ...
is a German industrial designer closely associated with the consumer products company Braun and the Functionalist school of industrial design. Many of
Apple An apple is an edible fruit produced by an apple tree (''Malus domestica''). Apple fruit tree, trees are agriculture, cultivated worldwide and are the most widely grown species in the genus ''Malus''. The tree originated in Central Asia, wher ...
's recent products were designed by Sir
Jonathan Ive Sir Jonathan Paul Ive (born 27 February 1967) is a British-American industrial, product and architectural designer. Ive was Chief Design Officer (CDO) of Apple Inc., and serves as Chancellor#Educational_usage, Chancellor of the Royal Colleg ...
.


See also

*
Automotive design Automotive design is the process of developing the appearance, and to some extent the ergonomics, of motor vehicles, including automobiles, motorcycles, trucks, buses, Coach (vehicle), coaches, and vans. The functional design and development of a ...
*
Designer A designer is a person who plans the look or workings of something prior to it being made, by preparing drawings or plans. More formally, a designer is an agent that "specifies the structural properties of a design object".Ralph, P. and Wand, Y ...
* Creative engineering *
Engineering design process The engineering design process is a common series of steps that engineers use in creating functional products and processes. The process is highly iterative - parts of the process often need to be repeated many times before another can be entered ...

Engineering design process
*
Engineering design The engineering design process is a common series of steps that engineers use in creating functional products and processes. The process is highly iterative - parts of the process often need to be repeated many times before another can be entered ...
*
Product development In business Business is the activity of making one's living or making money by producing or buying and selling Product (business), products (such as goods and services). Simply put, it is "any activity or enterprise entered into for profit." ...
*
Product design Product design as a verb is to create a new product to be sold by a business to its customers. A very broad coefficient and effective generation and development of ideas through a process that leads to new products. Thus, it is a major aspect of n ...
* Rapid prototyping *
Form follows function Form follows function is a principle of design associated with late 19th and early 20th century architecture File:Plan d'exécution du second étage de l'hôtel de Brionne (dessin) De Cotte 2503c – Gallica 2011 (adjusted).jpg, upright=1.45 ...
* TU Delft Faculty of Industrial Design Engineering *
Industrial Designers Society of America The Industrial Designers Society of America (IDSA) is a membership-based not-for-profit organization that promotes the practice and education of industrial design Industrial design is a process of design applied to products that are to be manuf ...
*
Hardware Interface Design Hardware interface design (HID) is a cross-disciplinary design field that shapes the physical connection between people and technology in order to create new hardware interfaces that transform purely digital processes into analog methods of interac ...
*
Sustainable design Environmentally sustainable design (also called environmentally conscious design, eco design, etc.) is the philosophy of designing physical objects, the built environment, and services to comply with the principles of ecological sustainability.M ...
* Sensory design *
Chief experience officerA chief experience officer (CXO) is an executive responsible for the overall experience of an organization's products and services. As user experience (UX) is quickly becoming a key differentiator in the modern business landscape, the CXO is charged ...
(CXO) *
Communication design Communication design is a mixed discipline between design and information-development which is concerned with how media intervention such as printed, crafted, electronic media or presentations communicate with people. A communication design ap ...
* Core77 * Emotional Design by
Donald Norman Donald Arthur Norman (born December 25, 1935) is an American researcher, professor, and author. Norman is the director of The Design Lab at University of California, San Diego The University of California, San Diego (UC San Diego or, colloqu ...
*
Environmental design Environmental design is the process of addressing surrounding environmental parameters when devising plans, programs, policies, buildings, or products. It seeks to create spaces that will enhance the natural, social, cultural and physical environmen ...
*
Experience design User experience design (UXD, UED, or XD) is the process of supporting user behavior through usability Usability can be described as the capacity of a system to provide a condition for its users to perform the tasks safely, effectively, and eff ...
* Hague system *
Interaction design Interaction design, often abbreviated as IxD, is "the practice of designing interactive digital products, environments, systems, and services." Beyond the digital aspect, interaction design is also useful when creating physical (non-digital) product ...
*
Transgenerational designTransgenerational design is the practice of making products and environments compatible with those physical and sensory Disability, impairments associated with human aging and which limit major activities of daily living. The term ''transgeneration ...
* Virtual Product Development * WikID


Notes


References


Sources

* Barnwell, Maurice. ''Design, Creativity and Culture'', Black Dog, 2011, * Barnwell, Maurice. ''Design Evolution: Big Bang to Big Data,''Toronto, 2014. * * Forty, Adrian. ''Objects of Desire: Design and Society Since 1750''. Thames Hudson, May 1992. * Heskett, John. ''Industrial Design'', Thames & Hudson, 1980, * * Mayall, WH, ''Industrial Design for Engineers'', London: Iliffe Books, 1967, * Mayall, WH, ''Machines and Perception in Industrial Design'', London: Studio Vista, 1968, * Meikle, Jeffrey. ''Twentieth Century Limited: Industrial Design engineering in America, 1925 - 1939'', Philadelphia: Temple University Press, 1979 * *


External links

* '
Doodles, Drafts and Designs: Industrial Drawings from the Smithsonian
' (2004) Smithsonian Institution Libraries {{DEFAULTSORT:Industrial Design Industrial design, Product management Design history Design for X