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Imagination is the ability to produce and simulate novel objects, sensations, and ideas in the
mind The mind is the set of faculties responsible for mental Phenomenon, phenomena. Often the term is also identified with the phenomena themselves. These faculties include thought, imagination, memory, Will (philosophy), will and sensation. They are ...

mind
without any immediate input of the
senses Sense relates to any of the systems and corresponding organs involved in sensation, i.e. the physical process of responding to Stimulus (physiology), stimuli and providing data for perception. During sensation, sense organs collect stimuli for Tran ...

senses
. It is also described as the forming of experiences in one's mind, which can be re-creations of past experiences, such as vivid memories with imagined changes, or completely invented and possibly fantastic scenes. Imagination helps make knowledge applicable in solving problems and is fundamental to integrating experience and the
learning process Learning is the process of acquiring new understanding, knowledge, behaviors, skills, value (personal and cultural), values, attitudes, and preferences. The ability to learn is possessed by Human, humans, Animal, animals, and some machine learni ...
.Norman 2000 pp. 1-2
Brian Sutton-Smith Brian Sutton-Smith in the 1970s, alt= Brian Sutton Smith (July 15, 1924 – March 7, 2015), better known as Brian Sutton-Smith, was a play theorist who spent his lifetime attempting to discover the cultural significance of play Play most commonly ...
1988, p. 22
Kieran Egan 1992, pp. 50 A basic training for imagination is listening to
storytelling Storytelling describes the social and cultural activity of sharing narrative, stories, sometimes with improvisation, theatre, theatrics or embellishment. Every culture has its own stories or narratives, which are shared as a means of entertainmen ...

storytelling
(
narrative A narrative, story or tale is any account of a series of related events or experiences, whether nonfiction Nonfiction (also spelled non-fiction) is any document A document is a writing, written, drawing, drawn, presented, or memorialized repre ...

narrative
), in which the exactness of the chosen words is the fundamental factor to "evoke worlds". Imagination is a
cognitive process Cognition () refers to "the mental action or process of acquiring knowledge and understanding through thought, experience, and the senses". It encompasses many aspects of intellectual functions and processes such as: perception, attention, the f ...
used in mental functioning and sometimes used in conjunction with
psychological Psychology is the scientific Science (from the Latin Latin (, or , ) is a classical language belonging to the Italic languages, Italic branch of the Indo-European languages. Latin was originally spoken in the area around Rome, known ...

psychological
imagery Imagery is visual The visual system comprises the sensory organ (the eye) and parts of the central nervous system (the retina containing photoreceptor cells, the optic nerve The optic nerve, also known as cranial nerve II, or simply as C ...

imagery
. It is considered as such because it involves thinking about possibilities. The cognate term of mental imagery may be used in
psychology Psychology is the scientific Science (from the Latin Latin (, or , ) is a classical language belonging to the Italic languages, Italic branch of the Indo-European languages. Latin was originally spoken in the area around Rome, known ...

psychology
for denoting the process of reviving in the mind recollections of objects formerly given in sense perception. Since this use of the term conflicts with that of ordinary
language A language is a structured system of communication Communication (from Latin ''communicare'', meaning "to share" or "to be in relation with") is "an apparent answer to the painful divisions between self and other, private and public, and ...

language
, some psychologists have preferred to describe this process as "
imaging Imaging is the representation or reproduction of an object's form; especially a visual representation (i.e., the formation of an image). Imaging technology is the application of materials and methods to create, preserve, or duplicate images. I ...
" or "
imagery Imagery is visual The visual system comprises the sensory organ (the eye) and parts of the central nervous system (the retina containing photoreceptor cells, the optic nerve The optic nerve, also known as cranial nerve II, or simply as C ...
" or to speak of it as "
reproductive Reproduction (or procreation or breeding) is the biological process by which new individual organisms – "offspring" – are produced from their "parent" or parents. Reproduction is a fundamental feature of all known life; each individual orga ...
" as opposed to "productive" or "
constructive Although the general English usage of the adjective constructive is "helping to develop or improve something; helpful to someone, instead of upsetting and negative," as in the phrase "constructive criticism," in legal writing ''constructive'' has a ...
" imagination. Constructive imagination is further divided into voluntary imagination driven by the
lateral prefrontal cortex In human brain anatomy, the lateral prefrontal cortex (LPFC) is part of the prefrontal cortex (PFC). According to Striedter the PFC of humans can be delineated into two functionally, morphologically, and evolutionarily different regions: the Ventr ...
(LPFC) and involuntary imagination (LPFC-independent), such as REM-sleep
dream A dream is a succession of images, idea In philosophy Philosophy (from , ) is the study of general and fundamental questions, such as those about reason, Metaphysics, existence, Epistemology, knowledge, Ethics, values, Philosophy of ...

dream
ing,
daydreaming Daydreaming is the stream of consciousness that detaches from current external tasks when attention drifts to a more personal and internal direction. This phenomenon is common in people's daily life shown by a large-scale study in which particip ...

daydreaming
,
hallucinations A hallucination is a perception Perception (from the Latin ''perceptio'', meaning gathering or receiving) is the organization, identification, and interpretation of Sense, sensory information in order to represent and understand the pr ...
, and spontaneous
insight The Interior Exploration using Seismic Investigations, Geodesy and Heat Transport (''InSight'') mission is a robotic Robotics is an interdisciplinarity, interdisciplinary field that integrates computer science and engineering. Robotics inv ...

insight
. The voluntary types of imagination include integration of modifiers, and
mental rotation Mental rotation is the ability to rotate mental image, mental representations of dimension, two-dimensional and Three-dimensional space, three-dimensional objects as it is related to the visual representation of such rotation within the human mind. ...
. Imagined images, both novel and recalled, are seen with the "
mind's eye A mental image or mental picture is an experience that, on most occasions, significantly resembles the experience of visually perceiving some object, event, or scene, but occurs when the relevant object, event, or scene is not actually present t ...
". Imagination, however, is not considered to be exclusively a cognitive activity because it is also linked to the body and place, particularly that it also involves setting up relationships with materials and people, precluding the sense that imagination is locked away in the head. Imagination can also be expressed through stories such as
fairy tale A fairy tale, fairytale, wonder tale, magic tale, fairy story or ''Märchen'' is an instance of European folklore genre Folklore is the expressive body of culture shared by a particular group of people; it encompasses the traditions common ...

fairy tale
s or . Children often use such
narrative A narrative, story or tale is any account of a series of related events or experiences, whether nonfiction Nonfiction (also spelled non-fiction) is any document A document is a writing, written, drawing, drawn, presented, or memorialized repre ...

narrative
s and pretend play in order to exercise their imaginations. When children develop fantasy they play at two levels: first, they use
role playing Role-playing or roleplaying is the changing of one's behaviour to assume a role A role (also rôle or social role) is a set of connected behaviors, rights, moral obligation, obligations, beliefs, and social norm, norms as conceptualized by peo ...
to act out what they have developed with their imagination, and at the second level they play again with their make-believe situation by acting as if what they have developed is an actual reality.


History

Aristotle Aristotle (; grc-gre, Ἀριστοτέλης ''Aristotélēs'', ; 384–322 BC) was a Greek philosopher A philosopher is someone who practices philosophy Philosophy (from , ) is the study of general and fundamental quest ...

Aristotle
in ''
On the Soul ''On the Soul'' (Greek#REDIRECT Greek Greek may refer to: Greece Anything of, from, or related to Greece Greece ( el, Ελλάδα, , ), officially the Hellenic Republic, is a country located in Southeast Europe. Its population is approxi ...
'' considered the imagination (''phantasia'') as a capacity for making mental images, and distinguished it from perception and from thinking. He held however that thought was always accompanied by an image. The notion of a "mind's eye" goes back at least to
Cicero Marcus Tullius Cicero ( ; ; 3 January 106 BC – 7 December 43 BC) was a Ancient Rome, Roman statesman, lawyer, scholar, philosopher and Academic skepticism, Academic Skeptic, who tried to uphold optimate principles during crisis of ...

Cicero
's reference to ''mentis oculi'' during his discussion of the orator's appropriate use of
simile A simile () is a figure of speech A figure of speech or rhetorical figure is a word or phrase that entails an intentional deviation from ordinary language use in order to produce a rhetoric Rhetoric () is the Art (skill), art of pe ...
. In this discussion, Cicero observed that allusions to "the Syrtis of his patrimony" and "the
Charybdis Charybdis (; Ancient Greek Ancient Greek includes the forms of the Greek language Greek ( el, label=Modern Greek Modern Greek (, , or , ''Kiní Neoellinikí Glóssa''), generally referred to by speakers simply as Greek (, ), ref ...

Charybdis
of his possessions" involved similes that were "too far-fetched"; and he advised the orator to, instead, just speak of "the rock" and "the gulf" (respectively) — on the grounds that "the eyes of the mind are more easily directed to those objects which we have seen, than to those which we have only heard". In medieval
faculty psychologyFaculty psychology is the idea that the mind is separated into faculties, or sections, and that each of these faculties are assigned to certain mental tasks. Some examples of the mental tasks assigned to these faculties include judgement, compassion, ...
, the imagination was one of the inward wits along with
memory Memory is the faculty of the by which or is , stored, and retrieved when needed. It is the retention of information over time for the purpose of influencing future action. If s could not be remembered, it would be impossible for language, r ...

memory
and the
sensus communis Common sense is sound, practical judgment concerning everyday matters, or a basic ability to Perception, perceive, Nous, understand, and Phronesis, judge in a manner that is shared by (i.e. ''common to'') nearly all people. The first type of c ...
. It allowed the recombination of images, for example by combining perceptions of gold and mountain to obtain the idea of a golden mountain. The concept of "mind's eye" appeared in English in (c.1387) Man of Law's Tale in his
Canterbury Tales ''The Canterbury Tales'' ( enm, Tales of Caunterbury) is a collection of 24 stories that runs to over 17,000 lines written in Middle English Middle English (abbreviated to ME) was a form of the English language spoken after the Norman conque ...

Canterbury Tales
, where he tells us that one of the three men dwelling in a castle was blind, and could only see with "the eyes of his mind"; namely, those eyes "with which all men see after they have become blind". Galileo used the imagination to conduct
thought experiments A thought experiment is a hypothetical situation in which a hypothesis, theory, or principle is laid out for the purpose of thinking through its consequences. Johann Witt-Hansen established that Hans Christian Ørsted was the first to use the Germ ...
, such as asking readers to imagine what direction a stone released from a sling would fly.


Description

The common use of the term is for the process of forming new images in the mind that have not been previously experienced with the help of what has been seen, heard, or felt before, or at least only partially or in different combinations. This could also be involved with thinking out possible or impossible outcomes of something or someone in life's abundant situations and experiences. Some typical examples follow: *
Fairy tale A fairy tale, fairytale, wonder tale, magic tale, fairy story or ''Märchen'' is an instance of European folklore genre Folklore is the expressive body of culture shared by a particular group of people; it encompasses the traditions common ...

Fairy tale
*
Fiction Fiction is any creative work A creative work is a manifestation of creativity, creative effort including Work of art, fine artwork (sculpture, paintings, drawing, Sketch (drawing), sketching, performance art), dance, writing (literature), filmm ...

Fiction
* A form of
verisimilitude In philosophy Philosophy (from , ) is the study of general and fundamental questions, such as those about reason, Metaphysics, existence, Epistemology, knowledge, Ethics, values, Philosophy of mind, mind, and Philosophy of language, l ...
often invoked in
fantasy Fantasy is a genre of speculative fiction involving Magic (supernatural), magical elements, typically set in a fictional universe and sometimes inspired by mythology and folklore. Its roots are in oral traditions, which then became fantasy lit ...

fantasy
and
science fiction Science fiction (sometimes shortened to sci-fi or SF) is a genre of speculative fiction which typically deals with imagination, imaginative and futuristic concepts such as advanced science and technology, space exploration, time travel, Parall ...

science fiction
invites readers to pretend such stories are true by referring to objects of the mind such as fictional books or years that do not exist apart from an
imaginary world Imaginary may refer to: * Imaginary (sociology), a concept in sociology * The Imaginary (psychoanalysis), a concept by Jacques Lacan * Imaginary number, a concept in mathematics * Imaginary time, a concept in physics * Imagination Imagination ...
. Imagination, not being limited to the acquisition of exact knowledge by the requirements of practical necessity is largely free from objective restraints. The ability to imagine one's self in another person's place is very important to social relations and understanding.
Albert Einstein Albert Einstein ( ; ; 14 March 1879 – 18 April 1955) was a German-born theoretical physicist, widely acknowledged to be one of the greatest physicists of all time. Einstein is known for developing the theory of relativity The theo ...

Albert Einstein
said, "Imagination ... is more important than knowledge. Knowledge is limited. Imagination encircles the world." The same limitations beset imagination in the field of
scientific Science () is a systematic enterprise that Scientific method, builds and organizes knowledge in the form of Testability, testable explanations and predictions about the universe."... modern science is a discovery as well as an invention. ...

scientific
hypothesis A hypothesis (plural hypotheses) is a proposed explanation An explanation is a set of statements usually constructed to describe a set of facts which clarifies the causes, context Context may refer to: * Context (language use), the rel ...
. Progress in scientific research is due largely to provisional explanations which are developed by imagination, but such hypotheses must be framed in relation to previously ascertained facts and in accordance with the principles of the particular science. Imagination is an experimental partition of the mind used to develop theories and ideas based on functions. Taking objects from real perceptions, the imagination uses complex If-functions that involve both
Semantic Semantics (from grc, σημαντικός ''sēmantikós'', "significant") is the study of reference Reference is a relationship between objects in which one object designates, or acts as a means by which to connect to or link to, another o ...
and Episodic memory to develop new or revised ideas. This part of the mind is vital to developing better and easier ways to accomplish old and new tasks. In sociology, Imagination is used to part ways with reality and have an understanding of social interactions derived from a perspective outside of society itself. This leads to the development of theories through questions that wouldn't usually be asked. These experimental ideas can be safely conducted inside a virtual world and then, if the idea is probable and the function is true, the idea can be actualized in reality. Imagination is the key to new development of the mind and can be shared with others, progressing collectively. Regarding the volunteer effort, imagination can be classified as: * involuntary (the dream from the sleep, the daydream) * voluntary (the reproductive imagination, the creative imagination, the dream of perspective)


Psychology

Psychologists have studied imaginative thought, not only in its exotic form of
creativity Creativity is a phenomenon whereby something new and valuable is formed. The created item may be intangible (such as an idea In common usage and in philosophy Philosophy (from , ) is the study of general and fundamental questions, suc ...

creativity
and artistic expression but also in its mundane form of everyday imagination. Ruth M.J. Byrne has proposed that everyday imaginative thoughts about
counterfactual Counterfactual conditionals (also ''subjunctive'' or ''X-marked'') are conditional sentence Conditional sentences are sentences that express one thing contingency (philosophy), contingent on something else, e.g. "If it rains, the picnic will be c ...
alternatives to reality may be based on the same cognitive processes on which rational thoughts are also based. Children can engage in the creation of imaginative alternatives to reality from their very early years.
Cultural psychology Cultural psychology is the study of how cultures reflect and shape the psychological processes of their members.Heine, S. J. (2011). ''Cultural Psychology. ''New York: W. W. Norton & Company. The main tenet of cultural psychology has been and in mo ...
is currently elaborating a view of imagination as a higher mental function involved in a number of everyday activities both at the individual and collective level that enables people to manipulate complex meanings of both linguistic and iconic forms in the process of experiencing. The phenomenology of imagination is discussed In ''The Imaginary: A Phenomenological Psychology of the Imagination'' (french: L'Imaginaire: Psychologie phénoménologique de l'imagination), also published under the title ''The Psychology of the Imagination'', a 1940 book by
Jean-Paul Sartre Jean-Paul Charles Aymard Sartre (, ; ; 21 June 1905 – 15 April 1980) was a French people, French philosopher, playwright, novelist, screenwriter, political activist, biographer, and literary criticism, literary critic. He was one of the key ...

Jean-Paul Sartre
, in which he propounds his concept of the imagination and discusses what the existence of imagination shows about the nature of human consciousness. The imagination is also active in our perception of photographic images in order to make them appear real.


Memory

Memory and mental imagery, often seen as a part of the process of imagination, have been shown to be affected by one another. "Images made by functional magnetic resonance imaging technology show that remembering and imagining sends blood to identify parts of the brain." Various psychological factors can influence the mental processing of the brain and heighten its chance to retain information as either long-term memories or short-term memories. John Sweller indicated that experiences stored as long-term memories are easier to recall, as they are ingrained deeper in the mind. Each of these forms require information to be taught in a specific manner so as to use various regions of the brain when being processed. This information can potentially help develop programs for young students to cultivate or further enhance their creative abilities from a young age. The
neocortex The neocortex, also called the neopallium, isocortex, or the six-layered cortex, is a set of layers of the mammalian Mammals (from Latin language, Latin , 'breast') are a group of vertebrate animals constituting the class (biology), class ...

neocortex
and
thalamus The thalamus (from Greek language, Greek Wikt:θάλαμος, θάλαμος, "chamber") is a large mass of gray matter located in the wikt:dorsal, dorsal part of the diencephalon (a division of the forebrain). Nerve fibers project out of the tha ...

thalamus
are responsible for controlling the brain's imagination, along with many of the brain's other functions such as consciousness and abstract thought. Since imagination involves many different brain functions, such as emotions, memory, thoughts, etc., portions of the brain where multiple functions occur—such as the thalamus and neocortex—are the main regions where imaginative processing has been documented. The understanding of ''how'' memory and imagination are linked in the brain, paves the way to better understand one's ability to link significant past experiences with their imagination. Aphantasia is a disease that makes you not imagine.


Perception

posited that
perception Perception (from the Latin Latin (, or , ) is a classical language A classical language is a language A language is a structured system of communication Communication (from Latin ''communicare'', meaning "to share" o ...

perception
s depend on the world view of a person. The world view is the result of arranging perceptions into existing imagery by imagination. Piaget cites the example of a child saying that the moon is following her when she walks around the village at night. Like this, perceptions are integrated into the world view to make sense. Imagination is needed to make sense of perceptions.


Brain activation

A study using
fMRI Functional magnetic resonance imaging or functional MRI (fMRI) measures brain activity by detecting changes associated with blood flow Hemodynamics American and British English spelling differences#ae and oe, or haemodynamics are the Fluid dynamic ...

fMRI
while subjects were asked to imagine precise visual figures, to mentally disassemble them, or mentally blend them, showed activity in the
occipital The occipital bone () is a neurocranium, cranial dermal bone and the main bone of the occiput (back and lower part of the skull). It is Trapezoid, trapezoidal in shape and curved on itself like a shallow dish. The occipital bone overlies the occip ...

occipital
, frontoparietal,
posterior parietal The parietal lobe is one of the four Lobes of the brain, major lobes of the cerebral cortex in the brain of mammals. The parietal lobe is positioned above the temporal lobe and behind the frontal lobe and central sulcus. The parietal lobe integrate ...
,
precuneus The precuneus is the portion of the superior parietal lobule on the medial surface of each brain hemisphere Hemisphere may refer to: * A half of a sphere As half of the Earth * A hemispheres of Earth, hemisphere of Earth ** Northern Hemisphere * ...

precuneus
, and dorsolateral prefrontal regions of the subject's brains.


Evolution

Phylogenetic In biology Biology is the natural science that studies life and living organisms, including their anatomy, physical structure, Biochemistry, chemical processes, Molecular biology, molecular interactions, Physiology, physiological mechanism ...

Phylogenetic
acquisition of imagination was a gradual process. The simplest form of imagination, REM-sleep
dream A dream is a succession of images, idea In philosophy Philosophy (from , ) is the study of general and fundamental questions, such as those about reason, Metaphysics, existence, Epistemology, knowledge, Ethics, values, Philosophy of ...

dream
ing, evolved in
mammals Mammals (from Latin Latin (, or , ) is a classical language belonging to the Italic languages, Italic branch of the Indo-European languages. Latin was originally spoken in the area around Rome, known as Latium. Through the power of the R ...
with acquisition of
REM sleep Rapid eye movement sleep (REM sleep or REMS) is a unique phase of sleep Sleep is a naturally recurring state of mind and body, characterized by altered consciousness Consciousness, at its simplest, is or of internal and external ...
140 million years ago. Spontaneous
insight The Interior Exploration using Seismic Investigations, Geodesy and Heat Transport (''InSight'') mission is a robotic Robotics is an interdisciplinarity, interdisciplinary field that integrates computer science and engineering. Robotics inv ...

insight
improved in
primates A primate ( ) (from Latin , from 'prime, first rank') is a eutherian mammal constituting the Taxonomy (biology), taxonomic order (biology), order Primates (). Primates arose 85–55 million years ago first from small Terrestrial animal, ...
with acquisition of the
lateral prefrontal cortex In human brain anatomy, the lateral prefrontal cortex (LPFC) is part of the prefrontal cortex (PFC). According to Striedter the PFC of humans can be delineated into two functionally, morphologically, and evolutionarily different regions: the Ventr ...
70 million years ago. After
hominins The Hominini form a taxonomic tribe of the subfamily Homininae Homininae (), also called "African hominids" or "African apes", is a subfamily of Hominidae. It includes two tribes, with their extant as well as extinct species: 1) the tribe H ...
split from the
chimpanzee The chimpanzee (''Pan troglodytes''), also known simply as chimp, is a species of Hominidae, great ape native to the forest and savannah of tropical Africa. It has four confirmed subspecies and a fifth proposed subspecies. The chimpanzee and t ...

chimpanzee
line 6 million years ago they further improved their imagination. Prefrontal analysis was acquired 3.3 million years ago when hominins started to manufacture Mode One stone tools. Progress in stone tools culture to Mode Two stone tools by 2 million years ago signify remarkable improvement of prefrontal analysis. The most advanced mechanism of imagination,
prefrontal synthesis Prefrontal synthesis (PFS, also known as Mental Synthesis) is the conscious purposeful process of synthesizing novel mental images. PFS is neurologically different from the other types of imagination, such as simple memory recall and dreaming. Unl ...
, was likely acquired by humans around 70,000 years ago and resulted in behavioral modernity. This leap toward modern imagination has been characterized by paleoanthropologists as the "Cognitive revolution", "Upper Paleolithic Revolution", and the "Great Leap Forward".


Moral Imagination

Moral imagination usually describes the mental capacity to find answers to ethical questions and dilemmas through the process of a mental and intellectual imagination and visualization. Different definitions of "moral imagination" can be found in the literature. One of the most prominent definitions was provided by the philosopher Mark Johnson: "An ability to imaginatively discern various possibilities for acting in a given situation and to envision the potential help and harm that are likely to result from a given action." In an article recently published in the Journal of Management History, the authors argued that Hitler Assassin Claus von Stauffenberg decided to dare to overthrow the Nazi regime in particular (among other factors) as a result of a process of "moral imagination." His willingness to kill Hitler was less due to his compassion for his comrades, his family or friends living at that time (actual people living at that time), but originated rather from the fact that he was already thinking about the potential problems of later generations and people he did not know. In other words, through a process of “moral imagination” he developed empathy for "abstract" people (for examples, Germans of later generations, people who were not yet alive).


See also

* Artificial imagination *
Cognitive dissonance In the field of psychology Psychology is the scientific Science () is a systematic enterprise that builds and organizes knowledge Knowledge is a familiarity or awareness, of someone or something, such as facts A fact is an o ...

Cognitive dissonance
*
Creative visualization Creative visualization is the cognitive Cognition () refers to "the mental action or process of acquiring knowledge and understanding through thought, experience, and the senses". It encompasses many aspects of intellectual functions and pro ...
*
Creativity Creativity is a phenomenon whereby something new and valuable is formed. The created item may be intangible (such as an idea In common usage and in philosophy Philosophy (from , ) is the study of general and fundamental questions, suc ...

Creativity
* Decatastrophizing *
Exaggeration Exaggeration is the representation of something as more extreme or dramatic than it really is. Exaggeration may occur intentionally or unintentionally. Exaggeration can be a rhetorical device In rhetoric Rhetoric () is the art ...
*
Fantasy (psychology) In psychology, fantasy is a broad range of mental experiences, mediated by the faculty of imagination Imagination is the ability to produce and simulate novel objects, sensations, and ideas in the mind The mind is the set of faculties respo ...
*
Fictional countries '' A fictional country is a country that is made up for fictional stories, and does not exist in real life, or one that people believe in without proof. Sailors have always mistaken low clouds for land masses, and in later times this was given t ...
*
Guided imagery Guided imagery (also known as guided affective imagery, or katathym-imaginative psychotherapy (KIP)) is a mind-body intervention by which a trained practitioner or teacher helps a participant or patient to evoke and generate mental image A menta ...
*
Imagery Imagery is visual The visual system comprises the sensory organ A sense is a biological system A biological system is a complex network which connects several biologically relevant entities. Biological organization spans several scales a ...

Imagery
*
The Imaginary (psychoanalysis) The Imaginary (or Imaginary Order) is one of three terms in the psychoanalytic Psychoanalysis (from Greek: + ) is a set of theories and therapeutic techniques"What is psychoanalysis? Of course, one is supposed to answer that it is many things ...
*
Imaginary (sociology) The imaginary (or social imaginary) is the set of Value (ethics), values, institutions, laws, and symbols through which people imagine their social whole. It is common to the members of a particular social group and the corresponding society. The ...
*
Imagination Age The Imagination Age is a theoretical period beyond the Information Age The Information Age (also known as the Computer Age, Digital Age, or New Media Age) is a historical periodHuman history is commonly divided into three main Era, eras — Anc ...
* Imagination inflation *
Intuition (psychology) Intuition is the ability to acquire knowledge Knowledge is a familiarity, awareness, or understanding of someone or something, such as facts ( descriptive knowledge), skills (procedural knowledge), or objects (Knowledge by acquaintance, acqu ...
*
Magic realism Magic realism (also known as magical realism or marvelous realism) is a style of fiction Fiction generally is a narrative form, in any media (communication), medium, consisting of people, events, or places that are imagination, imaginary—in o ...
*
Mental image A mental image or mental picture is an experience that, on most occasions, significantly resembles the experience of visually perceiving some object, event, or scene, but occurs when the relevant object, event, or scene is not actually present ...
*
Mimesis Mimesis (; grc, μίμησις, ''mīmēsis'') is a term used in literary criticism Literary criticism (or literary studies) is the study, evaluation, and interpretation of literature. Modern literary criticism is often influenced by li ...

Mimesis
* Royal Commission on Animal Magnetism *
Sociological imagination The term "sociological imagination" was coined by the American sociologist C. Wright Mills in his 1959 book ''The Sociological Imagination'' to describe the type of insight offered by the discipline of sociology. The term is used in introductory t ...
*
Truth Truth is the property of being in accord with fact A fact is something that is true True most commonly refers to truth Truth is the property of being in accord with fact or reality.Merriam-Webster's Online Dictionarytruth 2005 In ...

Truth
*
Tulpa Tulpa is a concept in Theosophy Theosophy is a religion established in the United States during the late 19th century. It was founded primarily by the Russian immigrant Helena Blavatsky and draws its teachings predominantly from Blavatsky's writ ...
*
Verisimilitude In philosophy Philosophy (from , ) is the study of general and fundamental questions, such as those about reason, Metaphysics, existence, Epistemology, knowledge, Ethics, values, Philosophy of mind, mind, and Philosophy of language, l ...


References


Further reading

;Books * Byrne, R. M. J. (2005). ''The Rational Imagination: How People Create Alternatives to Reality.'' Cambridge, MA: MIT Press * Egan, Kieran (1992). ''Imagination in Teaching and Learning''. Chicago: University of Chicago Press.
Fabiani, Paolo "The Philosophy of the Imagination in Vico and Malebranche". F.U.P. (Florence UP), Italian edition 2002, English edition 2009.
* Frye, N. (1963). ''The Educated Imagination''. Toronto: Canadian Broadcasting Corporation. * Norman, Ron (2000) ''Cultivating Imagination in Adult Education'' Proceedings of the 41st Annual Adult Education Research. * Salazar, Noel B. (2010)
Envisioning Eden: Mobilizing imaginaries in tourism and beyond.
' Oxford: Berghahn. * Sutton-Smith, Brian. (1988). ''In Search of the Imagination''. In K. Egan and D. Nadaner (Eds.), Imagination and Education. New York, Teachers College Press. * ;Articles * Salazar, Noel B. (2020)
On imagination and imaginaries, mobility and immobility: Seeing the forest for the trees.
''Culture & Psychology'' 1-10. * * Watkins, Mary: "Waking Dreams" arper Colophon Books, 1976and "Invisible Guests - The Development of Imaginal Dialogues" he Analytic Press, 1986* Moss, Robert: "The Three "Only" Things: Tapping the Power of Dreams, Coincidence, and Imagination" [New World Library, September 10, 2007] * Three philosophers for whom imagination is a central concept are Kendall Walton, John Sallis and Richard Kearney. See in particular: * Kendall Walton, ''Mimesis as Make-Believe: On the Foundations of the Representational Arts.'' Harvard University Press, 1990. (pbk.). * John Sallis, ''Force of Imagination: The Sense of the Elemental'' (2000) * John Sallis, ''Spacings-Of Reason and Imagination. In Texts of Kant, Fichte, Hegel'' (1987) * Richard Kearney, ''The Wake of Imagination.'' Minneapolis: University of Minnesota Press (1988); 1st Paperback Edition- () * Richard Kearney, "Poetics of Imagining: Modern to Post-modern." Fordham University Press (1998)


External links

* *
Imagination, Mental Imagery, Consciousness, and Cognition: Scientific, Philosophical and Historical ApproachesTwo-Factor Imagination Scale
at the Open Directory Project * {{Authority control Imagination, Cognition Mental processes