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A humid subtropical climate is a zone of climate characterized by hot and humid summers, and cool to mild winters. These climates normally lie on the southeast side of all continents, generally between
latitude In geography Geography (from Greek: , ''geographia'', literally "earth description") is a field of science devoted to the study of the lands, features, inhabitants, and phenomena of the Earth and planets. The first person to use the ...

latitude
s 25° and 40° and are located poleward from adjacent tropical climates. It is also known as warm temperate climate in some climate classifications. Under the
Köppen climate classification The Köppen climate classification is one of the most widely used systems. It was first published by German-Russian (1846–1940) in 1884, with several later modifications by Köppen, notably in 1918 and 1936. Later, the climatologist (1894- ...
, ''Cfa'' and ''Cwa'' climates are either described as humid subtropical climates or warm temperate climates. This climate features mean temperature in the coldest month between or and and mean temperature in the warmest month or higher. However, while some climatologists have opted to describe this climate type as a "humid subtropical climate", Köppen himself never used this term. The humid subtropical climate classification was officially created under the
Trewartha climate classification Trewartha and Andrewartha are Cornish family name In some cultures, a surname, family name, or last name is the portion of one's personal name that indicates their family, tribe or community. Practices vary by culture. The family name may ...
. In this classification, climates are termed humid subtropical when they have at least 8 months with a mean temperature above . While many subtropical climates tend to be located at or near coastal locations, in some cases, they extend inland, most notably in
China China (), officially the People's Republic of China (PRC; ), is a country in . It is the world's , with a of more than 1.4 billion. China spans five geographical and 14 different countries, the in the world after . Covering an area of ap ...

China
and the
United States The United States of America (U.S.A. or USA), commonly known as the United States (U.S. or US) or America, is a country Continental United States, primarily located in North America. It consists of 50 U.S. state, states, a Washington, D.C., ...

United States
, where they exhibit more pronounced seasonal variations and sharper contrasts between summer and winter, as part of a gradient between the more tropical climates of the southern coasts and the more continental climates to the north and further inland. As such, the climate can be said to exhibit somewhat different features depending on whether it is found inland, or in a maritime position.


Characteristics

In a humid subtropical climate, summers are typically long, hot and humid. Monthly mean summer temperatures are normally between . A deep current of tropical air dominates the humid subtropics at the time of high sun, and daily intense (but brief) convective thundershowers are common. Summer high temperatures are typically in the high 20s to mid-30s °C (80s or 90s °F), while overnight lows in the summer are typically in the lower 20s °C (70s °F). Monthly mean temperatures in winter are often mild, typically averaging . Daytime highs in winter normally are in the range, while overnight lows are from , though the poleward boundaries of this climate feature colder temperatures. Rainfall often shows a summer peak, especially where
monsoon A monsoon () is traditionally a seasonal reversing wind accompanied by corresponding changes in precipitation In meteorology Meteorology is a branch of the (which include and ), with a major focus on . The study of meteorology ...

monsoon
s are well developed, as in
Southeast Asia Southeast Asia, also spelled South East Asia and South-East Asia, and also known as Southeastern Asia or SEA, is the geographical United Nations geoscheme for Asia#South-eastern Asia, southeastern subregion of Asia, consisting of the regions ...

Southeast Asia
and
South Asia South Asia is the southern region of Asia, which is defined in both geography, geographical and culture, ethno-cultural terms. The region consists of the countries of Afghanistan, Bangladesh, Bhutan, India, Maldives, Nepal, Pakistan, and Sri La ...
. Other areas have a more uniform or varying rainfall cycles, but consistently lack any predictably dry summer months. Most summer rainfall occurs during
thunderstorms A thunderstorm, (also known as an electrical storm or a lightning storm) is a storm characterized by the presence of lightning and its acoustic effect on the Earth's atmosphere, known as thunder. (There are relativitly weak thunderstorms, ...
that build up due to the intense surface heating and strong subtropical sun angle. Weak
tropical low A tropical cyclone is a rapidly rotating storm, storm system characterized by a Low-pressure area, low-pressure center, a closed low-level atmospheric circulation, Beaufort scale, strong winds, and a spiral arrangement of thunderstorms that p ...

tropical low
s that move in from adjacent warm tropical oceans, as well as infrequent tropical storms often contribute to summer seasonal rainfall peaks. Winter rainfall is often associated with large storms in the
westerlies The westerlies, anti-trades, or prevailing westerlies, are prevailing winds from the west toward the east in the middle latitudes between 30 and 60 degrees latitude. They originate from the high-pressure areas in the horse latitudes and trend tow ...
that have fronts that reach down into subtropical latitudes. However, many subtropical climates such as southeast Asia and Florida in the United States have very dry winters, with frequent brush fires and water shortages. Under the
Holdridge life zones 600px, Holdridge life zone classification scheme. Although conceived as three-dimensional by its originator, it is usually shown as a two-dimensional array of hexagons in a triangular frame. The Holdridge life zones system is a global bioclimatic s ...
classification, the subtropical climates have a biotemperature between the frost or critical temperature line, (depending on locations in the world) and , and these climates are humid (or even perhumid or superhumid) when the
potential evapotranspiration Evapotranspiration (ET) is the sum of water evaporation File:10. Ладење при испарување.ogv, 280px, Demonstration of evaporative cooling. When the sensor is dipped in ethanol and then taken out to evaporate, the instrument sh ...
(PET) ratio (= PET / Precipitation) is less than 1. In the Holdridge classification, the humid subtropical climates coincide more or less with the warmest ''Cfa'' and ''Cwa'' climates and the less warm humid tropical "Köppen" climates (''Aw'', ''Am'' and ''Af'').


Breakdown of letters

''Cfa'': ''C'' = Mild temperate ''f'' = Fully humid ''a'' = Hot Summer ''Cwa'': ''C'' = Mild temperate ''w'' = Dry Winter ''a'' = Hot Summer


Locations


Africa

In Africa, humid subtropical climates are primarily found in the southern hemisphere of the continent. The ''Cwa'' climate is found over a large portion of the interior of the
Middle
Middle
and Eastern African regions. This area includes central
Angola , national_anthem = "Angola Avante "Angola Avante" (, ) is the national anthem A national anthem is a song that officially symbolizes a country A country is a distinct territory, territorial body or political entity. It is often r ...

Angola
, northeastern
Zimbabwe Zimbabwe (), officially the Republic of Zimbabwe, is a landlocked country A landlocked country is a country A country is a distinct territory, territorial body or political entity. It is often referred to as the land of an individ ...

Zimbabwe
, the
Niassa #REDIRECT Niassa Province Niassa is a province A province is almost always an administrative division within a country or state. The term derives from the ancient Roman '' provincia'', which was the major territorial and administrative unit ...
, Manica and
Tete Tete is the capital city of in . It is located on the , and is the site of two of the four bridges crossing the river in Mozambique. A trade center before the , Tete continues to dominate the west-central part of the country and region, and is ...
provinces of
Mozambique Mozambique (), officially the Republic of Mozambique ( pt, Moçambique or , ; ny, Mozambiki; sw, Msumbiji; ts, Muzambhiki), is a country located in Southeastern Africa bordered by the Indian Ocean The Indian Ocean is the third-lar ...

Mozambique
, the southern
Congo
Congo
provinces, southwest
Tanzania Tanzania (; ), officially the United Republic of Tanzania ( sw, Jamhuri ya Muungano wa Tanzania), is a country in East Africa East Africa or Eastern Africa is the eastern subregion of the Africa Africa is the world's second-larges ...

Tanzania
, and the majority of
Malawi Malawi (; or aláwi, officially the Republic of Malawi, is a landlocked country A landlocked country is a country A country is a distinct territory, territorial body or political entity. It is often referred to as the land of ...

Malawi
, and
Zambia Zambia (), officially the Republic of Zambia (Bemba language, Bemba:'' Icalo ca Zambia''; Tonga language (Zambia and Zimbabwe), Tonga: ''Cisi ca Zambia''; Lozi language, Lozi: ''Naha ya Zambia''; Chewa language, Nyanja: ''Dziko la Zambia''), ...

Zambia
. Some lower portions of the
Ethiopian Highlands The Ethiopian Highlands is a rugged mass of mountain A mountain is an elevated portion of the Earth's crust, generally with steep sides that show significant exposed bedrock. A mountain differs from a plateau in having a limited summit are ...
also have this climate. The climate is also found in the narrow coastal sections of southern and eastern
South Africa South Africa, officially the Republic of South Africa (RSA), is the Southern Africa, southernmost country in Africa. With over Demographics of South Africa, 60 million people, it is the world's List of countries by population, 23rd-most ...

South Africa
, primarily in
KwaZulu-Natal KwaZulu-Natal (, also referred to as KZN and known as "the garden province"; zu, iKwaZulu-Natali; xh, KwaZulu-Natala; af, KwaZoeloe-Natal) is a Provinces of South Africa, province of South Africa that was created in 1994 when the Zulu people, ...
and the
Eastern Cape The Eastern Cape ( xh, eMpuma-Kapa, af, Oos-Kaap, st, Kapa Botjhabela) is one of the provinces of South Africa. Its capital is Bisho, but its two largest cities are East London, Eastern Cape, East London and Gqeberha. The second largest provinc ...
provinces. South Africa's version of this climate features heavy oceanic influences resulting in generally milder temperatures. This is particularly evident in its winters when temperatures do not drop as low as in many other regions within the humid subtropical category.


Asia


East Asia

In
East
East
and
Southeast Asia Southeast Asia, also spelled South East Asia and South-East Asia, and also known as Southeastern Asia or SEA, is the geographical United Nations geoscheme for Asia#South-eastern Asia, southeastern subregion of Asia, consisting of the regions ...

Southeast Asia
, this climate type is found in the southeastern quarter of
mainland China The term "mainland China" refers to the area directly governed by the People's Republic of China China (), officially the People's Republic of China (PRC; ), is a country in East Asia. It is the world's List of countries and dependencies b ...

mainland China
from Hong Kong north to Nanjing, the northern half of
Taiwan Taiwan, officially the Republic of China (ROC), is a country in East Asia East Asia is the eastern region of Asia Asia () is Earth's largest and most populous continent, located primarily in the Eastern Hemisphere, Eastern and N ...

Taiwan
, northern Myanmar, northern Vietnam, north through southern and central Japan (
Kyushu is the third largest island of 's and the most southerly of the four largest islands (excluding ). In the past, it has been known as , and . The historical regional name referred to Kyushu and its surrounding islands. In the 8th-century re ...

Kyushu
,
Shikoku is one of the five main islands of Japan Japan ( ja, 日本, or , and formally ) is an in . It is situated in the northwest , and is bordered on the west by the , while extending from the in the north toward the and in the sout ...

Shikoku
and half of
Honshu , historically called , is the largest and most populous main island of Japan Japan ( ja, 日本, or , and formally ) is an in . It is situated in the northwest , and is bordered on the west by the , while extending from the in the n ...
), and the most southern regions of Korea (the south coast and
Jeju island Jeju Island (; ) is the largest island in South Korea South Korea, officially the Republic of Korea (ROK), is a country A country is a distinct territory, territorial body or political entity. It is often referred to as the lan ...

Jeju island
). Cities near the equatorward boundary of this zone include
Hong Kong Hong Kong (; , ), officially the Hong Kong Special Administrative Region of the People's Republic of China (HKSAR), is a List of cities in China, city and Special administrative regions of China, special administrative region of China on the ...

Hong Kong
,
Hanoi , population_total = 8,053,663 ( 2nd) , population_as_of = 2019 , population_demonym = Hanoian , population_density_km2 = auto , population_urban = 3,962,310 , population_density_urban_km2 = 14708.8 , popula ...

Hanoi
and
Taipei Taipei (), officially Taipei City, is the Capital city, capital and a Special municipality (Taiwan), special municipality of the Taiwan, Republic of China (Taiwan). Located in Regions of Taiwan, Northern Taiwan, Taipei City is an enclave of t ...

Taipei
; while
Tokyo Tokyo (Japanese language, Japanese: , ''Tōkyō'' ), historically known in the west as Tokio and officially the Tokyo Metropolis (, ''Tōkyō-to''), is capital of Japan, the capital and most populous Prefectures of Japan, prefecture of Japan ...

Tokyo
,
Busan Busan (), formerly romanized as Pusan and now officially known as is South Korea South Korea, officially the Republic of Korea (ROK), is a country in East Asia, constituting the southern part of the Korea, Korean Peninsula and shar ...

Busan
and
Qingdao Qingdao (, also spelled Tsingtao; , Mandarin: ) is a major city in eastern Shandong Shandong (; alternately romanized as Shantung) is a coastal province A province is almost always an administrative division Administrative divi ...

Qingdao
are near the northern boundary. The influence of the strong
Siberian anticyclone The Siberian High (also Siberian Anticyclone; russian: Азиатский антициклон ''Aziatsky antitsiklon'') is a massive collection of cold dry air that accumulates in the northeastern part of Eurasia from September until April. It is ...
in East Asia brings colder winter temperatures than in the humid subtropical zones in North America, South America, and Australia. The isotherm reaches as far south as the valleys of the
Yellow Yellow is the color between green and Orange (colour), orange on the Visible spectrum, spectrum of visible light. It is evoked by light with a dominant wavelength of roughly 575585 Nanometre, nm. It is a primary color in subtractive color syst ...
and Wei rivers, roughly latitude 34° N. At
Hainan Island Hainan (, ; ) is the smallest and southernmost province A province is almost always an administrative division Administrative division, administrative unitArticle 3(1). , country subdivision, administrative region, subnational entity, ...
and in Taiwan, the climate transitions from subtropical into tropical. In most of this region, the winter monsoon is very well developed, as such eastern Asian humid subtropical zones have a strong winter dry season and heavy summer rainfall. Only in inland areas below the Yangtze River and coastal areas between approximately the
Huai River The Huai River (), formerly romanized Romanization or romanisation, in linguistics Linguistics is the scientific study of language A language is a structured system of communication used by humans, including speech (spoken ...
and the beginning of the coast of
Guangdong Guangdong (, ), alternately romanized as Canton Province or Kwangtung, is a coastal province A province is almost always an administrative division Administrative division, administrative unitArticle 3(1). , country subdivision, admin ...

Guangdong
is there sufficient winter rainfall to produce a ''Cfa'' climate; even in these areas, rainfall and
streamflow Streamflow, or channel runoff, is the flow of water Water is an Inorganic compound, inorganic, Transparency and translucency, transparent, tasteless, odorless, and Color of water, nearly colorless chemical substance, which is the main cons ...
display a highly pronounced summer peak, unlike other regions of this climate type.
Drought A drought is an event of prolonged shortages in the water supply, whether atmospheric (below-average precipitation In meteorology Meteorology is a branch of the atmospheric sciences Atmospheric science is the study of the Earth's atm ...

Drought
can be severe and often catastrophic to agriculture in the ''Cwa'' zone. The only area where winter precipitation equals or even exceeds the summer rain is around the
San'in region The is an area in the southwest of Honshū, the main island of Japan. It consists of the northern part of the Chūgoku region, facing the Sea of Japan. Etymology The name San'in in the Japanese language is formed from two kanji characters. The f ...
at the western coast of Japan, which during winter is on the windward side of the westerlies. The winter precipitation in these regions is usually produced by low-pressure systems off the east coast that develop in the onshore flow from the Siberian high. Summer rainfall comes from the East Asian Monsoon and from frequent
typhoon A typhoon is a mature tropical cyclone A tropical cyclone is a rapidly rotating storm, storm system characterized by a Low-pressure area, low-pressure center, a closed low-level atmospheric circulation, Beaufort scale, strong winds, and a ...

typhoon
s. Annual rainfall is generally over , and in areas below the Himalayas can be much higher still.


South Asia

Humid subtropical climates can also be found in
South Asia South Asia is the southern region of Asia, which is defined in both geography, geographical and culture, ethno-cultural terms. The region consists of the countries of Afghanistan, Bangladesh, Bhutan, India, Maldives, Nepal, Pakistan, and Sri La ...

South Asia
. However, the
humid subtropical A humid subtropical climate is a zone of climate characterized by hot and humid summers, and cold to mild winters. These climates normally lie on the southeast side of all continents, generally between latitudes 25° and 40° (sometimes 45°) a ...
climates exhibited here typically differ markedly from those in
East Asia East Asia is the eastern region of Asia, which is defined in both Geography, geographical and culture, ethno-cultural terms. The modern State (polity), states of East Asia include China, Japan, Mongolia, North Korea, South Korea, and Taiwan. ...

East Asia
(and for that matter a good portion of the globe). Winters here are typically mild, dry and relatively short. They also tend to be foggy. Summers tend to be long and very hot, starting from mid-April and peaking in May and early June with high temperatures often exceeding . They also tend to be extremely dry, complete with
dust storm A dust storm, also called a sandstorm, is a meteorological phenomenon common in arid A region is arid when it is characterized by a severe lack of available water, to the extent of hindering or preventing the growth and development Deve ...

dust storm
s, traits usually associated with
arid A region is arid when it is characterized by a severe lack of available water, to the extent of hindering or preventing the growth and development Development or developing may refer to: Arts *Development hell, when a project is stuck in d ...
or
semi-arid climate A semi-arid climate, semi-desert climate, or steppe climate is the climate Climate is the long-term average of weather, typically averaged over a period of 30 years. More rigorously, it is the mean and variability of meteorological variables ove ...
s. During this period many native trees defoliate to save water. This is followed by the cooler
monsoon A monsoon () is traditionally a seasonal reversing wind accompanied by corresponding changes in precipitation In meteorology Meteorology is a branch of the (which include and ), with a major focus on . The study of meteorology ...

monsoon
s, where the region experiences heavy rains on almost a daily basis. Average high temperatures decrease during the monsoon season, but humidity increases. This results in hot and humid conditions, similar to summers in other humid subtropical climates. Cities such as
New Delhi New Delhi (, ''Naī Dillī'') is the capital Capital most commonly refers to: * Capital letter Letter case (or just case) is the distinction between the letters that are in larger uppercase or capitals (or more formally ''majusc ...

New Delhi
,
Lucknow Lucknow (, ) is the List of state and union territory capitals in India, capital city of the List of state and union territory capitals in India, Indian state of Uttar Pradesh, and is also the administrative headquarters of the eponymous Lu ...

Lucknow
,
Kanpur Kanpur ( ), is a metropolitan city in the background A metropolis () is a large city or conurbation which is a significant economic, political, and cultural center for a country or region, and an important hub for regional or internatio ...

Kanpur
and
Patna Patna ( ), historically known as ''Pataliputra'', is the List of state and union territory capitals in India, capital and largest city of the state of Bihar in India. According to the United Nations, as of 2018, Patna had a population of 2.35&n ...

Patna
exhibit this atypical version of the climate in India. In Pakistan, the twin cities of
Islamabad Islamabad (; ur, , translit=Islām Ābād) is the capital city A capital or capital city is the municipality holding primary status in a Department (country subdivision), department, country, Constituent state, state, province, or othe ...

Islamabad
and
Rawalpindi Rawalpindi ( or ; Punjabi Panjābī (pʌnˈdʒɑːbi) (ਪੰਜਾਬੀ) (پنجابی) Punjabi or Panjabi most often refers to: * Something of, from, or related to Punjab Punjab ( Gurmukhi: ; Shahmukhi: ; , ; , ; ; also romanised as ...

Rawalpindi
, as well as the city of
Swabi Swabi ( ps, صوابۍ; ur, ) is a city in Khyber Pakhtunkhwa province of Pakistan,
in Khyber Pakhtunkhwa, feature this weather pattern. In
Bangladesh Bangladesh (, bn, বাংলাদেশ, ), officially the People's Republic of Bangladesh, is a country in South Asia South Asia is the southern region of Asia, which is defined in both geography, geographical and culture, ethno-c ...

Bangladesh
, cities like Rangpur, Saidpur and
Dinajpur Dinajpur ( bn, দিনাজপুর ) is a city and the District headquarters of Dinajpur district situated in Rangpur Division Rangpur Division ( bn, রংপুর বিভাগ) is one the Divisions in Bangladesh. It was formed on ...
in
northern regionNorthern Region may refer to: *Northern Region, Ghana *Northern Region, Eastern Cape, South Africa *Northern Region, Malawi *Northern Region, Malta *Northern Region, Manitoba, Canada, a region situated on the Canadian Shield including Manitoba's Huds ...
features the monsoon variant (''Cwa''), where rainfall peaks at the monsoon season. Like neighboring Northern Indian plains, this region also shows a distinct three season pattern- relatively dry and very hot summer (March- early june), extremely wet, cooler
Monsoon A monsoon () is traditionally a seasonal reversing wind accompanied by corresponding changes in precipitation In meteorology Meteorology is a branch of the (which include and ), with a major focus on . The study of meteorology ...

Monsoon
seson (June- September), and mild, foggy winter and autumn (Late October- February) Humid subtropical climates can also be found in
Nepal Nepal (; ne, नेपाल ), officially the Federal Democratic Republic of Nepal ( ne, सङ्घीय लोकतान्त्रिक गणतन्त्र नेपाल ), is a landlocked country in South Asia. It is ma ...

Nepal
. However the Nepalese version of the climate generally do not feature the extreme hot spells that are commonplace for many other South Asian locations with this climate. In Nepal cities such as
Kathmandu , pushpin_map = Nepal Bagmati Province#Nepal#Asia , coordinates = , subdivision_type = Country , subdivision_name = , subdivision_type1 = Province A province is almost always an administrative d ...

Kathmandu
,
Pokhara Pokhara ( ne, पोखरा, ) is a metropolis, metropolitan city in Nepal, which serves as the capital of Gandaki Pradesh, Gandaki Province. It is the country's largest metropolitan city in terms of area and second-largest in terms of population ...

Pokhara
,
Butwal Butwal ( ne, बुटवल), officially Butwal Sub-Metropolitan City ( ne, बुटवल उपमहानगरपालिका), is one of the twin cities of rapidly growing Butwal- Bhairahawa urban agglomeration An urban area, or bu ...

Butwal
,
Birgunj Birgunj (''also'' Birganj; ne, बीरगञ्ज) is a metropolitan city in Parsa District in Province No. 2 of southern Nepal. It lies south of the capital Kathmandu , image_map = , mapsize ...

Birgunj
and
Biratnagar Biratnagar () is a metropolitan city in the background A metropolis () is a large city or conurbation which is a significant economic, political, and cultural center for a country or region, and an important hub for regional or internation ...

Biratnagar
feature this iteration of the climate. In South Asia, humid subtropical climates generally border on continental climates as altitude increases, or on winter-rainfall climates in western areas of Pakistan and northwestern India (e.g.
Peshawar Peshawar (; ps, پېښور ; hnd, ; ; ur, ) is the capital of the Pakistani province of and its . It is the , and the largest -majority city in the country. Situated in the broad east of the historic , close to the , Peshawar's record ...

Peshawar
in northwestern Pakistan or
Srinagar Srinagar (English : , ), is the largest city and the summer capital of the Indian union territory of Jammu and Kashmir. It lies in the Kashmir Valley on the banks of the Jhelum River , name_other = Hydaspes, Bidaspes, Vitastā, ...

Srinagar
in the
Kashmir Valley #REDIRECT Kashmir Valley The Kashmir Valley, also known as the ''Vale of Kashmir'', is an intermontane valley in Kashmir Kashmir, ks, کٔشیٖر, kaśīr is the northernmost geographical region of the Indian subcontinent. Until t ...

Kashmir Valley
in India, where the primary precipitation peak occurs in March, not July or August). Further east, in highland areas with lengthier monsoons such as Nepal, seasonal temperature variation is lower than in the lowlands.


Western Asia

Although humid subtropical climates in Asia are mostly confined to the southeastern quarter of the continent, there are two narrow areas along the coast of the
Caspian Sea The Caspian Sea (also known as Mazandaran Sea, Hyrcanian Ocean, or Khazar Sea), tk, Hazar deňzi, az, Xəzər Dənizi, russian: Каспийское море, script=Latn, fa, دریای مازندران، دریای خزر, script=Latn, tly, ...

Caspian Sea
and
Black Sea , with the skyline of Batumi Batumi (; ka, ბათუმი ) is the second largest city of Georgia Georgia usually refers to: * Georgia (country) Georgia ( ka, საქართველო; ''Sakartvelo''; ) is a country locat ...

Black Sea
with humid subtropical climates. Summers in these locations are cooler than typical humid subtropical climates and snowfall in winter is relatively common, but is usually of a short duration. In
Western Asia Western Asia, West Asia, or Southwest Asia, is the westernmost subregion of the larger geographical region of Asia, as defined by some academics, UN bodies and other institutions. It is almost entirely a part of the Middle East, and includes Anat ...

Western Asia
, the climate is prevalent in the
Gilan Gilan Province ( fa, استان گیلان, ''Ostān-e Gīlān''), is one of the 31 . It lies along the , in Iran's , west of the province of , east of the province of , and north of the provinces of and . It borders () in the north. The nor ...

Gilan
and Māzandarān Provinces of
Iran Iran ( fa, ایران ), also called Persia, and officially the Islamic Republic of Iran, is a country in Western Asia Western Asia, West Asia, or Southwest Asia, is the westernmost subregion A subregion is a part of a larger regio ...

Iran
, in parts of the
Caucasus The Caucasus (), or Caucasia (), is a region spanning Europe and Asia. It is situated between the Black Sea and the Caspian Sea and mainly occupied by Armenia, Azerbaijan, Georgia (country), Georgia, and parts of Southern Russia. It is home to ...
, in
Azerbaijan Azerbaijan (, ; az, Azərbaycan ), officially the Republic of Azerbaijan ( az, Azərbaycan Respublikası ), is a country in the Transcaucasia, Caucasus region of Eurasia. Located at the crossroads of Eastern Europe and Western Asia, it is boun ...

Azerbaijan
and in
Georgia Georgia usually refers to: * Georgia (country), a country in the Caucasus region of Eurasia * Georgia (U.S. state), one of the states of the United States of America Georgia may also refer to: Historical states and entities * Democratic Republ ...
wedged between the
Caspian
Caspian
and
Black Black is a color which results from the absence or complete absorption of visible light Light or visible light is electromagnetic radiation within the portion of the electromagnetic spectrum that can be visual perception, perceived by t ...

Black
seas and coastal (
Black Sea , with the skyline of Batumi Batumi (; ka, ბათუმი ) is the second largest city of Georgia Georgia usually refers to: * Georgia (country) Georgia ( ka, საქართველო; ''Sakartvelo''; ) is a country locat ...

Black Sea
) Turkey, albeit having more oceanic influence. Annual rainfall ranges from around at
Sari A sari (sometimes also shari or Hunterian transliteration, misspelled as saree)The name of the garment in various Languages of South Asia, regional languages include: * as, শাৰী, xārī, translit-std=ISO * bn, শাড়ি, śā ...
to over at
Bandar-e Anzali Bandar-e Anzali ( fa, بندرانزلی, also Romanize Romanization or romanisation, in linguistics Linguistics is the science, scientific study of language. It encompasses the analysis of every aspect of language, as well as the me ...

Bandar-e Anzali
, and is heavy throughout the year, with a maximum in October or November when Bandar-e Anzali can average 400 millimetres (16 inches). Temperatures are generally moderate in comparison with other parts of Western Asia. During winter, the coastal areas can receive snowfall, which is usually of a short duration. In
Rasht Rasht ( fa, رشت, Rašt ; glk, Rəšt, script=Latn; also romanized Romanization or romanisation, in linguistics Linguistics is the scientific study of language A language is a structured system of communication used by humans, ...

Rasht
, the average maximum in July is around but with near-saturation
humidity Humidity is the concentration of water vapour (99.9839 °C) , - , Boiling point , , - , specific gas constant , 461.5 J/( kg·K) , - , Heat of vaporization , 2.27 MJ/kg , - , Heat capacity , 1.864 kJ/(kg·K) Water vapo ...

humidity
, whilst in January it is around . The heavy, evenly distributed rainfall extends north into the Caspian coastal strip of
Azerbaijan Azerbaijan (, ; az, Azərbaycan ), officially the Republic of Azerbaijan ( az, Azərbaycan Respublikası ), is a country in the Transcaucasia, Caucasus region of Eurasia. Located at the crossroads of Eastern Europe and Western Asia, it is boun ...

Azerbaijan
up to its northern border but this climate in Azerbaijan is, however, a ''Cfb''/''Cfa'' (''Oceanic climate''/''Humid subtropical climate'') borderline case. Western
Georgia Georgia usually refers to: * Georgia (country), a country in the Caucasus region of Eurasia * Georgia (U.S. state), one of the states of the United States of America Georgia may also refer to: Historical states and entities * Democratic Republ ...
(
Batumi Batumi (; ka, ბათუმი ) is the second largest city of Georgia (country), Georgia and the capital of the Autonomous Republic of Adjara, located on the coast of the Black Sea in Georgia's southwest. It is situated in a subtropical zone ...

Batumi
and
Kutaisi Kutaisi (, ka, ქუთაისი ) is one of the List of oldest continuously inhabited cities, oldest continuously inhabited cities in the world and the List of cities and towns in Georgia (country), third-most populous city in Georgia (countr ...

Kutaisi
) in the
Kolkheti Lowland
Kolkheti Lowland
and the northeast coast of
Turkey Turkey ( tr, Türkiye ), officially the Republic of Turkey, is a country located mainly on Anatolia Anatolia,, tr, Anadolu Yarımadası), and the Anatolian plateau. also known as Asia Minor, is a large peninsula in Western Asia and ...

Turkey
(
Giresun Giresun (), formerly Cerasus (Ancient Greek Ancient Greek includes the forms of the Greek language used in ancient Greece and the classical antiquity, ancient world from around 1500 BC to 300 BC. It is often roughly divided into the foll ...

Giresun
), have a climate similar to that of Gilan and Mazandaran in Iran and very similar to that of southeastern and northern Azerbaijan. Temperatures range from in summer to in winter and rainfall is even heavier than in Caspian Iran, up to per year in
Hopa Hopa is a city and district of Artvin Province in northeast Turkey Turkey ( tr, Türkiye ), officially the Republic of Turkey, is a country straddling Southeastern Europe and Western Asia. It shares borders with Greece Greece ( el, ...
(Turkey). These climates are a ''Cfb''/''Cfa'' (''Oceanic climate''/''Humid subtropical climate'') borderline case.


North America

In North America, humid subtropical climates are found in the American Gulf and lower East Coast states, including
Texas Texas (, ; Spanish language, Spanish: ''Texas'', ''Tejas'') is a state in the South Central United States, South Central region of the United States. At 268,596 square miles (695,662 km2), and with more than 29.1 million residents in 2020, ...

Texas
,
Oklahoma Oklahoma () is a U.S. state, state in the South Central United States, South Central region of the United States, bordered by the state of Texas on the south and west, Kansas on the north, Missouri on the northeast, Arkansas on the east, New ...
,
Louisiana Louisiana (Standard French Standard French (in French: ''le français standard'', ''le français normé'', ''le français neutre'' eutral Frenchor ''le français international'' nternational French is an unofficial term for a standard ...

Louisiana
,
Arkansas Arkansas () is a U.S. state, state in the South Central United States, South Central region of the United States, home to more than three million people as of 2018. Its name is from the Osage language, a Dhegihan languages, Dhegiha Siouan la ...

Arkansas
,
Alabama (We dare defend our rights) , anthem = "Alabama (state song), Alabama" , image_map = Alabama in United States.svg , seat = Montgomery, Alabama, Montgomery , LargestCity = Birmin ...

Alabama
,
Mississippi Mississippi () is a U.S. state, state in the Southeastern United States, Southeastern region of the United States, bordered to the north by Tennessee; to the east by Alabama; to the south by the Gulf of Mexico; to the southwest by Louisiana; a ...
,
Tennessee Tennessee (, ), officially the State of Tennessee, is a state State may refer to: Arts, entertainment, and media Literature * ''State Magazine'', a monthly magazine published by the U.S. Department of State * The State (newspaper), ''The S ...

Tennessee
,
North Carolina North Carolina () is a state State may refer to: Arts, entertainment, and media Literature * ''State Magazine'', a monthly magazine published by the U.S. Department of State * The State (newspaper), ''The State'' (newspaper), a daily news ...

North Carolina
,
South Carolina South Carolina () is a U.S. state, state in the coastal Southeastern United States, Southeastern region of the United States. It is bordered to the north by North Carolina, to the southeast by the Atlantic Ocean, and to the southwest by Georgia ...

South Carolina
,
Georgia Georgia usually refers to: * Georgia (country), a country in the Caucasus region of Eurasia * Georgia (U.S. state), one of the states of the United States of America Georgia may also refer to: Historical states and entities * Democratic Republ ...
, and
Florida Florida is a U.S. state, state located in the Southeastern United States, Southeastern region of the United States. Florida is bordered to the west by the Gulf of Mexico, to the northwest by Alabama, to the north by Georgia (U.S. state), Geor ...

Florida
. On the Florida peninsula, the humid subtropical climate gives way to the
tropical climate Tropical climate is one of the five major climate groups in the . Tropical climates are characterized by monthly average temperatures of 18 °C (64.4 °F) or higher year-round and feature hot temperatures. Annual precipitation is often ...
of
South Florida South Florida is the southernmost region of the U.S. state In the United States The United States of America (USA), commonly known as the United States (U.S. or US), or America, is a country Contiguous United States, primarily loca ...
and the
Florida Keys The Florida Keys are a coral island, coral cay archipelago located off the southern coast of Florida, forming the southernmost part of the continental United States. They begin at the southeastern coast of the Florida peninsula, about south of ...
Under Köppen's climate classification, this zone includes locations further north, primarily
Virginia Virginia (), officially the Commonwealth of Virginia, is a state State may refer to: Arts, entertainment, and media Literature * ''State Magazine'', a monthly magazine published by the U.S. Department of State * The State (newspaper), '' ...

Virginia
,
Kentucky Kentucky ( , ), officially the Commonwealth of Kentucky, is a state State may refer to: Arts, entertainment, and media Literature * ''State Magazine'', a monthly magazine published by the U.S. Department of State * The State (newspaper), ...
, the lower elevations of
West Virginia West Virginia () is a U.S. state, state in the Appalachian region, Appalachian, Mid-Atlantic (United States), Mid-Atlantic and Southeastern United States, Southeastern regions of the United States.The United States Census Bureau, Census Burea ...
,
Maryland Maryland ( ) is a state State may refer to: Arts, entertainment, and media Literature * ''State Magazine'', a monthly magazine published by the U.S. Department of State * The State (newspaper), ''The State'' (newspaper), a daily newspaper ...

Maryland
,
Delaware Delaware ( ) is a state in the Mid-Atlantic (United States), Mid-Atlantic region of the United States, bordering Maryland to its south and west; Pennsylvania to its north; and New Jersey and the Atlantic Ocean to its east. The state takes i ...
,
Washington, D.C. ) , image_skyline = , image_caption = Clockwise from top left: the Washington Monument The Washington Monument is an obelisk within the National Mall The National Mall is a Landscape architecture, landscaped ...
,
New Jersey New Jersey is a U.S. state, state in the Mid-Atlantic States, Mid-Atlantic and Northeastern United States, Northeastern regions of the United States. It is bordered on the north and east by the state of New York (state), New York; on the ea ...
, southeastern
Pennsylvania Pennsylvania ( , elsewhere ; pdc, Pennsilfaani), officially the Commonwealth of Pennsylvania, is a landlocked A landlocked country is a country that does not have territory connected to an ocean or whose coastlines lie on endorheic basi ...

Pennsylvania
, extreme southern
New York New York most commonly refers to: * New York City, the most populous city in the United States, located in the state of New York * New York (state), a state in the northeastern United States New York may also refer to: Film and television * New ...
around
New York City New York, often called New York City to distinguish it from New York State New York is a state State may refer to: Arts, entertainment, and media Literature * ''State Magazine'', a monthly magazine published by the U.S. Department of ...

New York City
and sections of
Long Island Long Island is a densely populated island in the southeast part of the U.S. state In the United States The United States of America (USA), commonly known as the United States (U.S. or US), or America, is a country Contiguous Unit ...
. It can also be found in the lower Midwest, primarily in the central and southern portions of
Kansas Kansas () is a U.S. state, state in the Midwestern United States, Midwestern United States. Its Capital city, capital is Topeka and its largest city is Wichita, Kansas, Wichita. Kansas is a landlocked state bordered by Nebraska to the north; ...

Kansas
and
Missouri Missouri is a state State may refer to: Arts, entertainment, and media Literature * ''State Magazine'', a monthly magazine published by the U.S. Department of State * The State (newspaper), ''The State'' (newspaper), a daily newspaper in ...

Missouri
, and the far southern portions of
Illinois Illinois ( ) is a in the region of the . Of the fifty U.S. states, it has the , population, and the . is the state's largest city and the fifth with the capital in , located in the center of the state; other major metropolitan areas in ...

Illinois
,
Indiana Indiana () is a U.S. state in the Midwestern United States, Midwestern United States. It is the List of U.S. states and territories by area, 38th-largest by area and the List of U.S. states and territories by population, 17th-most populous o ...

Indiana
and
Ohio Ohio () is a state State may refer to: Arts, entertainment, and media Literature * ''State Magazine'', a monthly magazine published by the U.S. Department of State * The State (newspaper), ''The State'' (newspaper), a daily newspaper in Co ...

Ohio
. In
Mexico Mexico, officially the United Mexican States, is a List of sovereign states, country in the southern portion of North America. It is borders of Mexico, bordered to the north by the United States; to the south and west by the Pacific Ocean; to ...

Mexico
, there are small areas of ''Cfa'' and ''Cwa'' climates. The climate can be found in small areas scattered around the northeastern part of the country, in proximity to the
Gulf of Mexico The Gulf of Mexico ( es, Golfo de México) is an ocean basin 400px, Diagrammatic cross-section of an ocean basin, showing the various geographic features In hydrology Hydrology (from Greek: wikt:ὕδωρ, ὕδωρ, "hýdōr" meaning ...

Gulf of Mexico
. Other areas where the climate can be found is in the high elevations of Trans-Mexican Volcanic Belt and Sierra Madre Oriental. Despite being located at higher elevations, these locations have summers that are too warm to qualify as a subtropical highland climate.
Guadalajara Guadalajara ( , ) is a metropolis in the background A metropolis () is a large city or conurbation which is a significant economic, political, and cultural center for a country or region, and an important hub for regional or international ...

Guadalajara
's climate is a major example of this. Outside of isolated sections of Mexico, the southernmost limits of this climate zone in
North America North America is a continent A continent is any of several large landmasses. Generally identified by convention (norm), convention rather than any strict criteria, up to seven geographical regions are commonly regarded as continen ...

North America
lie just north of South Florida and around southern coastal Texas. Cities at the southernmost limits, such as Tampa and Orlando and along the Texas coast around Corpus Christi down toward Brownsville generally feature warm weather year-round and minimal temperature differences between seasons. In contrast, cities at the northernmost limits of the climate zone such as New York, Philadelphia and
Louisville Louisville (, , ) is the largest city A city is a large human settlement In geography, statistics and archaeology, a settlement, locality or populated place is a community in which people live. The complexity of a settlement can ra ...
feature hot, humid summers and chilly winters. These areas have average winter temperatures at the coldest limit of climates classed as humid subtropical.
Snowfall Snow comprises individual ice Ice is water Water is an Inorganic compound, inorganic, Transparency and translucency, transparent, tasteless, odorless, and Color of water, nearly colorless chemical substance, which is the mai ...

Snowfall
varies greatly in this climate zone. In locations at the southern limits of this zone and areas around the
Gulf Coast The Gulf Coast of the United States is the coastline The coast, also known as the coastline or seashore, is defined as the area where land meets the sea or ocean, or as a line that forms the boundary between the land and the ocean T ...

Gulf Coast
, cities such as Orlando, Tampa, Houston, New Orleans, and Savannah rarely see snowfall, which occurs, at most, a few times per generation. In Southern cities farther north or inland, such as
Atlanta Atlanta () is the capital city, capital and List of municipalities in Georgia (U.S. state), most populous city of the U.S. state of Georgia (U.S. state), Georgia. With an estimated 2019 population of 506,811, it is also the List of United ...

Atlanta
,
Birmingham Birmingham ( ) is a city A city is a large .Goodall, B. (1987) ''The Penguin Dictionary of Human Geography''. London: Penguin.Kuper, A. and Kuper, J., eds (1996) ''The Social Science Encyclopedia''. 2nd edition. London: Routledge. It can ...
,
Charlotte Charlotte ( ) is the List of municipalities in North Carolina, most populous city in the U.S. state of North Carolina. Located in the Piedmont (United States), Piedmont region, it is the county seat of Mecklenburg County, North Carolina, Meckle ...

Charlotte
,
Dallas Dallas (), colloquially referred to as Big D, is a city in the U.S. state In the United States The United States of America (USA), commonly known as the United States (U.S. or US), or America, is a country Contiguous United State ...
,
Memphis Memphis is the name of: *Memphis, Egypt , alternate_name = , image = , alt = , caption = Ruins of the pillared hall of Ramesses IIat Mit Rahina , map_type = Egypt , map_alt = , map_size = , reli ...
,
Nashville Nashville is the capital Capital most commonly refers to: * Capital letter Letter case (or just case) is the distinction between the letters that are in larger uppercase or capitals (or more formally ''majuscule'') and smaller lowerca ...
,
Oklahoma City Oklahoma City (), officially the City of Oklahoma City, and often shortened to OKC, is the capital Capital most commonly refers to: * Capital letter Letter case (or just case) is the distinction between the letters that are in larger ...
, and
Raleigh Raleigh (; ) is the capital Capital most commonly refers to: * Capital letter Letter case (or just case) is the distinction between the letters that are in larger uppercase or capitals (or more formally ''majuscule'') and smaller lo ...
, snow only occasionally falls and is usually three inches or less. However, for the majority of the winter here, temperatures remain above or well above freezing. At the northernmost limits of this zone, cities such as New York City,
Philadelphia Philadelphia (colloquially known simply as Philly) is the largest city in the Commonwealth (U.S. state), Commonwealth of Pennsylvania in the United States. It is the List of United States cities by population, sixth-most-populous city in the ...

Philadelphia
, and
Baltimore Baltimore ( , locally: ) is the most populous city The United Nations uses three definitions for what constitutes a city, as not all cities in all jurisdictions are classified using the same criteria. Cities may be defined as the city prop ...

Baltimore
typically see snowfall during the winter, with occasional heavy snowstorms. Still, average temperatures during a typical winter hover just above freezing at these locations. Precipitation is plentiful in the humid subtropical climate zone in North America – but with significant variations in terms of wettest/driest months and seasons. Much of the interior South, including Tennessee, Kentucky, and the northern halves of Mississippi and Alabama, tends to have a winter or spring (not summer) precipitation maximum. Closer to the and Gulf coasts, there is a summer maximum, with July or August usually the wettest month – as at Norfolk, Cape Hatteras and Jacksonville, North Carolina, Charleston, South Carolina, Mobile, Alabama and New Orleans. A semblance of a monsoon pattern (dry winters/wet summers) is evident along the Atlantic coast from southern North Carolina (Wilmington, North Carolina area) south to Florida. The seasonal monsoon is much stronger on the Florida peninsula, as most locations in Florida have dry winters and wet summers. In addition, areas in Texas that are slightly inland from the Gulf of Mexico, such as Austin and San Antonio that border the
semi-arid climate A semi-arid climate, semi-desert climate, or steppe climate is the climate Climate is the long-term average of weather, typically averaged over a period of 30 years. More rigorously, it is the mean and variability of meteorological variables ove ...
zone, generally see a peak of precipitation in May, a drought-like nadir in mid-summer and a secondary, if not equal, precipitation peak in September or October. Areas further south along
South Texas South Texas is a region of the U.S. state of Texas Texas (, ; : ''Texas'', ''Tejas'') is a state in the region of the . At 268,596 square miles (695,662 km2), and with more than 29.1 million residents in 2020, it is the second-largest ...
' Gulf Coast (Brownsville), which closely border tropical climate classification, typically have a strong September precipitation maximum, and a tendency toward dry conditions in winter with rain increasing in spring, with December or January often the driest months.


South America

Humid subtropical climates are found in a sizable portion of South America. The climate extends over a few states of southern Brazil, including Paraná, into sections of
Paraguay Paraguay (; ), officially the Republic of Paraguay ( es, República del Paraguay, links=no; gn, Tetã Paraguái, links=no), is a country in South America South America is a entirely in the and mostly in the , with a relatively sma ...

Paraguay
, all of
Uruguay Uruguay (; ; pt, Uruguai), officially the Oriental Republic of Uruguay ( es, República Oriental del Uruguay), is a country in South America. It shares borders with Argentina to its west and southwest and Brazil to its north and northeast; whi ...

Uruguay
, and the
Río de la Plata The Río de la Plata (, "river of silver"), called River Plate in British English British English (BrE) is the standard dialect of the English language English is a West Germanic languages, West Germanic language first spoken in H ...

Río de la Plata
region in Argentina. Major cities such as
São Paulo São Paulo (, ; Portuguese for 'Saint Paul') is a city in the Southeast Region, Brazil, Southeast Region of Brazil. Listed by the Globalization and World Cities Research Network, GaWC as an global city, alpha global city, the Municipalities of ...

São Paulo
,
Buenos Aires Buenos Aires ( or ; ), officially Autonomous City of Buenos Aires, is the capital Capital most commonly refers to: * Capital letter Letter case (or just case) is the distinction between the letters that are in larger uppercase or cap ...

Buenos Aires
,
Porto Alegre Porto Alegre (, , Brazilian ; ) is the capital and largest city of the Brazil Brazil ( pt, Brasil; ), officially the Federative Republic of Brazil (Portuguese: ), is the largest country in both South America and Latin America. At 8.5&nbs ...

Porto Alegre
and
Montevideo Montevideo () is the Capital city, capital and List of cities in Uruguay, largest city of Uruguay. According to the 2011 census, the city proper has a population of 1,319,108 (about one-third of the country's total population) in an area of . ...

Montevideo
, have a humid subtropical climate, generally in the form of hot and humid summers, and mild to cool winters. These areas, which include the
Pampas The Pampas (from the qu, pampa, meaning "plain") are fertile South America South America is a continent A continent is one of several large landmasses. Generally identified by convention (norm), convention rather than any str ...

Pampas
, generally feature a ''Cfa'' climate categorization. At 38°S, the Argentine city of
Bahía Blanca Bahía Blanca (; English: White Bay) is a city in the southwest of the province of Buenos Aires Buenos Aires ( or ; ), officially Autonomous City of Buenos Aires, is the Capital city, capital and largest city of Argentina. The city is located ...

Bahía Blanca
lies on the southern limit of the humid subtropical zone. The ''Cwa'' climate occurs in parts of tropical highlands of
São Paulo state Sao may refer to: * Sáo, a Vietnamese flute * Sao (moon), a satellite of Neptune * Sao civilisation, in Middle Africa from 6th century BC to 16th century AD * Sao, or Thao language, of the Thao people in central Taiwan * Sao, a town in Bouss ...
,
Mato Grosso do Sul Mato Grosso do Sul () is one of the Midwestern states of Brazil. Neighboring Brazilian states are (from north clockwise) Mato Grosso, Goiás, Minas Gerais, São Paulo (state), São Paulo and Paraná (state), Paraná. It also borders the countries ...
and near the Andean highland in northwestern
Argentina Argentina (), officially the Argentine Republic ( es, link=no, República Argentina), is a country located mostly in the southern half of South America. Sharing the bulk of the Southern Cone with Chile to the west, the country is also bordered ...

Argentina
. These highland areas feature summer temperatures that are warm enough to fall outside the
subtropical highland climate An oceanic climate, also known as a maritime climate or marine climate, is the Köppen climate classification, Köppen classification of climate typical of west coasts in higher middle latitudes of continents, generally featuring mild summer ...
category.


Australia

The humid subtropical climate zone predominantly lies in eastern Australia, which begins from the coastal strip of
Mackay, Queensland } Mackay () is a city in the Mackay Region on the eastern or Coral Sea coast of Queensland, Australia. It is located about north of Brisbane, on the Pioneer River. Mackay is nicknamed the sugar capital of Australia because its region produces ...
and stretches down to the southern coast of
Sydney Sydney ( ; Dharug The Darug or Dharug people are an Aboriginal Australian people, who share strong ties of kinship and, in Colonial Australia, pre-colonial times, survived as skilled hunters in family groups or clans, scattered througho ...

Sydney
, where it transitions into the cooler, oceanic climates. From
NewcastleNewcastle usually refers to either: *Newcastle upon Tyne Newcastle upon Tyne (, ), often simply Newcastle, is the most populous City status in the United Kingdom, city and metropolitan borough in North East England. It forms the Tyneside conurbati ...
, approximately northeast of Sydney, the ''Cfa'' zone would extend to inland
New South Wales New South Wales (abbreviated as NSW) is a state State may refer to: Arts, entertainment, and media Literature * ''State Magazine'', a monthly magazine published by the U.S. Department of State * The State (newspaper), ''The State'' (newspape ...
, excluding the highland regions (which have an oceanic climate), stretching towards
Dubbo Dubbo is a city in the Orana (New South Wales), Orana Region of New South Wales, Australia. It is the largest population centre in the Orana region, with a population of 38,392 at June 2018. The city is located at the intersection of the Newe ...
to the northwest and
Wagga Wagga Wagga Wagga (; informally called Wagga) is a major regional city in the Riverina region of New South Wales, Australia. Straddling the Murrumbidgee River, with an urban population of more than 56,000 as of June 2018, Wagga Wagga is the state's la ...
to the south, ending at the New South Wales/
Victoria Victoria most commonly refers to: * Victoria (Australia), a state of the Commonwealth of Australia * Victoria, British Columbia, provincial capital of British Columbia, Canada * Victoria (mythology), Roman goddess of Victory * Victoria, Seychelles ...
border (
Albury–Wodonga Albury–Wodonga is the broad settlement incorporating the twin List of cities in Australia, Australian cities of Albury and Wodonga, which are separated geographically by the Murray River and politically by a state border: Albury on the north of ...
). To note, these places would have characteristics of the semi-arid and/or Mediterranean climates. Furthermore, the inland ''Cfa'' climates generally have drier summers, or at least summers with low humidity. Extreme heat is more often experienced in Sydney than in other large cities in Australia's ''Cfa'' zone, especially in the western suburbs, where highs over are not uncommon. Frost is prevalent in the more inland areas of Sydney, such as
Richmond Richmond may refer to: People * Richmond (surname) * Earl of Richmond * Duke of Richmond * Richmond C. Beatty (1905–1961), American academic, biographer and critic * Richmond Avenal, character in British sitcom List of The IT Crowd characters#R ...
. Average annual rainfall in the Sydney region ranges between . There is usually a distinct summer rainfall maximum that becomes more pronounced moving northwards. In Brisbane, the wettest month (February) receives five times the rainfall of the driest month (September). Temperatures are very warm to hot but are not excessive: the average maximum in February is usually around and in July around . Frosts are extremely rare except at higher elevations, but temperatures over are not common on the coast. North of the ''Cfa'' climate zone there is a zone centred upon
Rockhampton Rockhampton is a city in the Rockhampton Region The Rockhampton Region is a Local Government Area in Central Queensland, Australia, located on the Tropic of Capricorn about north of Brisbane. Rockhampton is the region's major city; the regi ...
which extends north to the Köppen ''Cwa'' classified climate zone of the Atherton Tablelands region. This region has a very pronounced dry winter period, with often negligible rainfall between June and October. Winter temperatures generally only fall slightly below , which would classify the region as a tropical savanna, or ''Aw'', climate. Annual rainfall within Australia's humid subtropical climate zone can reach as high as in coastal locations and is generally or above. The most intense 2-3 day rainfall periods that occur in this coastal zone however are the outcome of east coast lows forming to the north of a anticyclone, large high pressure system, there can be great variation in rainfall amounts from year to year as a result of these systems. As an example Lismore, New South Wales, Lismore which lies in the centre of this zone, the annual rainfall can range from less than in 1915 to more than in 1950.


Europe

As the continent lacks a major southeastern sea, humid subtropical climate in Europe is limited to relatively small areas on the margins of the Mediterranean basin. ''Cfa'' zones are generally transitional between the Mediterranean climate zones along the coast and oceanic and humid continental zones to the west and north. The Po Valley, in Northern Italy, including major cities such as Milan, Turin, Bologna, and Verona, has a humid subtropical climate, featuring hot, humid summers with frequent thunderstorms; winters are foggy, damp and chilly, with sudden bursts of frost. Some parts of the valley have a mild continental climate. Places along the shores of Lake Maggiore, Lake Lugano, Lake Como (Como and Verbania in Italy and Lugano in Switzerland) have a humid subtropical climate with a distinctive high amount of rainfall during summer. Budapest, Hungary, is just warm enough to qualify, due to recent warming. At 47th parallel north, 47°N, the city lies on the northern limit of the humid subtropical zone. The coastal areas in the northern half of the Adriatic Sea also fall within this climate zone. The cities include Trieste, Venice, and Rimini in Italy, Rijeka and Split, Croatia, Split in Croatia, Koper in Slovenia and Kotor in Montenegro. Other Southern European areas in the ''Cfa'' zone include the central valleys and coast of Catalonia of Girona and Barcelona in Spain, some on the north-east of Spain (Huesca), West Macedonia in Greece (Kozani), the Garonne, Garonne Valley (Toulouse) and Rhone, Rhone Valley (Valence (city), Valence) in France. Along the
Black Sea , with the skyline of Batumi Batumi (; ka, ბათუმი ) is the second largest city of Georgia Georgia usually refers to: * Georgia (country) Georgia ( ka, საქართველო; ''Sakartvelo''; ) is a country locat ...

Black Sea
coast of Bulgaria (Varna, Bulgaria, Varna), coast of Romania (Constanta and Mamaia), Sochi, Russia and Crimea, have summers too warm (> in the warmest month) to qualify as oceanic, no freezing month, and enough summer precipitation and sometimes humid conditions, where they would be fit to be classed under ''Cfa'', though they closely border the Humid continental climate, humid continental zone. All these areas are subject to occasional, in some cases repeated snowfalls and freezes during winter. In Central Europe, a small area of humid subtropical climates are located in transitional areas between the oceanic and continental climates in areas where higher summer temperature do not quite qualify it for inclusion in the Oceanic climate schema (but, in the
Trewartha climate classification Trewartha and Andrewartha are Cornish family name In some cultures, a surname, family name, or last name is the portion of one's personal name that indicates their family, tribe or community. Practices vary by culture. The family name may ...
, this type of climate is included in that typical of the other areas of central-west Europe, classified as Do -the Temperate Oceanic climate-) and mild winters do not allow their inclusion into continental climates. Average summer temperatures in areas of Europe with this climate are generally not as hot as most other subtropical zones around the world. In the Azores, some islands have this climate, with very mild and rainy winters (>) and no snowfall, warm summers (>) but with no dry season during the warmest period, which means that they can neither be classified as oceanic climate, oceanic, nor as Mediterranean climate, Mediterranean, only as humid subtropical, as with Corvo Island. In many other climate classification systems outside of the Köppen, most of these locations would not be included in the humid subtropical grouping. The higher summer precipitation and poleward flow of tropical air-masses in summer are not present in Europe as they are in eastern Australia or the southern United States.


Examples

* Astara, Azerbaijan, Astara,
Azerbaijan Azerbaijan (, ; az, Azərbaycan ), officially the Republic of Azerbaijan ( az, Azərbaycan Respublikası ), is a country in the Transcaucasia, Caucasus region of Eurasia. Located at the crossroads of Eastern Europe and Western Asia, it is boun ...

Azerbaijan
(''Cfa'') * Asunción,
Paraguay Paraguay (; ), officially the Republic of Paraguay ( es, República del Paraguay, links=no; gn, Tetã Paraguái, links=no), is a country in South America South America is a entirely in the and mostly in the , with a relatively sma ...

Paraguay
(''Cfa'', bordering on ''Aw'') * Atlanta, Georgia , Atlanta,
United States The United States of America (U.S.A. or USA), commonly known as the United States (U.S. or US) or America, is a country Continental United States, primarily located in North America. It consists of 50 U.S. state, states, a Washington, D.C., ...

United States
(''Cfa'') *
Buenos Aires Buenos Aires ( or ; ), officially Autonomous City of Buenos Aires, is the capital Capital most commonly refers to: * Capital letter Letter case (or just case) is the distinction between the letters that are in larger uppercase or cap ...

Buenos Aires
,
Argentina Argentina (), officially the Argentine Republic ( es, link=no, República Argentina), is a country located mostly in the southern half of South America. Sharing the bulk of the Southern Cone with Chile to the west, the country is also bordered ...

Argentina
(''Cfa'') * Belgrade, Serbia, Belgrade, Serbia (''Cfa'') * Bologna, Italy (''Cfa'') * Brisbane, Australia (''Cfa'') * Chongqing,
China China (), officially the People's Republic of China (PRC; ), is a country in . It is the world's , with a of more than 1.4 billion. China spans five geographical and 14 different countries, the in the world after . Covering an area of ap ...

China
(''Cfa'', bordering on ''Cwa'') *
Dallas Dallas (), colloquially referred to as Big D, is a city in the U.S. state In the United States The United States of America (USA), commonly known as the United States (U.S. or US), or America, is a country Contiguous United State ...
,
Texas Texas (, ; Spanish language, Spanish: ''Texas'', ''Tejas'') is a state in the South Central United States, South Central region of the United States. At 268,596 square miles (695,662 km2), and with more than 29.1 million residents in 2020, ...

Texas
,
United States The United States of America (U.S.A. or USA), commonly known as the United States (U.S. or US) or America, is a country Continental United States, primarily located in North America. It consists of 50 U.S. state, states, a Washington, D.C., ...

United States
(''Cfa'') * Durban, South Africa, Durban,
South Africa South Africa, officially the Republic of South Africa (RSA), is the Southern Africa, southernmost country in Africa. With over Demographics of South Africa, 60 million people, it is the world's List of countries by population, 23rd-most ...

South Africa
(''Cfa'') * Florianópolis, Brazil (''Cfa'') * Guangzhou,
China China (), officially the People's Republic of China (PRC; ), is a country in . It is the world's , with a of more than 1.4 billion. China spans five geographical and 14 different countries, the in the world after . Covering an area of ap ...

China
(''Cfa'') * Jeju Island, Jeju, South Korea (''Cfa'') * Krasnodar, Russia (''Cfa'') * Lismore, New South Wales , Lismore, Australia (''Cfa'') * Lugano, Switzerland (''Cfa'', bordering on ''Cfb'') * Lyon, France (''Cfa'', bordering on ''Cfb'') * Milan, Italy (''Cfa'') *
Montevideo Montevideo () is the Capital city, capital and List of cities in Uruguay, largest city of Uruguay. According to the 2011 census, the city proper has a population of 1,319,108 (about one-third of the country's total population) in an area of . ...

Montevideo
,
Uruguay Uruguay (; ; pt, Uruguai), officially the Oriental Republic of Uruguay ( es, República Oriental del Uruguay), is a country in South America. It shares borders with Argentina to its west and southwest and Brazil to its north and northeast; whi ...

Uruguay
(''Cfa'') * Osaka, Japan (''Cfa'') * Pelotas, Brazil (''Cfa'') *
Porto Alegre Porto Alegre (, , Brazilian ; ) is the capital and largest city of the Brazil Brazil ( pt, Brasil; ), officially the Federative Republic of Brazil (Portuguese: ), is the largest country in both South America and Latin America. At 8.5&nbs ...

Porto Alegre
, Brazil (''Cfa'') *
Rasht Rasht ( fa, رشت, Rašt ; glk, Rəšt, script=Latn; also romanized Romanization or romanisation, in linguistics Linguistics is the scientific study of language A language is a structured system of communication used by humans, ...

Rasht
,
Iran Iran ( fa, ایران ), also called Persia, and officially the Islamic Republic of Iran, is a country in Western Asia Western Asia, West Asia, or Southwest Asia, is the westernmost subregion A subregion is a part of a larger regio ...

Iran
(''Cfa'', bordering on ''Csa'') * Rosario,
Argentina Argentina (), officially the Argentine Republic ( es, link=no, República Argentina), is a country located mostly in the southern half of South America. Sharing the bulk of the Southern Cone with Chile to the west, the country is also bordered ...

Argentina
(''Cfa'') * Samsun,
Turkey Turkey ( tr, Türkiye ), officially the Republic of Turkey, is a country located mainly on Anatolia Anatolia,, tr, Anadolu Yarımadası), and the Anatolian plateau. also known as Asia Minor, is a large peninsula in Western Asia and ...

Turkey
(''Cfa'') *
São Paulo São Paulo (, ; Portuguese for 'Saint Paul') is a city in the Southeast Region, Brazil, Southeast Region of Brazil. Listed by the Globalization and World Cities Research Network, GaWC as an global city, alpha global city, the Municipalities of ...

São Paulo
, Brazil (''Cfa'') * Shanghai,
China China (), officially the People's Republic of China (PRC; ), is a country in . It is the world's , with a of more than 1.4 billion. China spans five geographical and 14 different countries, the in the world after . Covering an area of ap ...

China
(''Cfa'') * Sochi, Russia (''Cfa'') * Split, Croatia, Split, Croatia (''Cfa'', bordering on ''Csa'') *
Srinagar Srinagar (English : , ), is the largest city and the summer capital of the Indian union territory of Jammu and Kashmir. It lies in the Kashmir Valley on the banks of the Jhelum River , name_other = Hydaspes, Bidaspes, Vitastā, ...

Srinagar
, India (''Cfa'') *
Sydney Sydney ( ; Dharug The Darug or Dharug people are an Aboriginal Australian people, who share strong ties of kinship and, in Colonial Australia, pre-colonial times, survived as skilled hunters in family groups or clans, scattered througho ...

Sydney
, Australia (''Cfa'') * Tbilisi,
Georgia Georgia usually refers to: * Georgia (country), a country in the Caucasus region of Eurasia * Georgia (U.S. state), one of the states of the United States of America Georgia may also refer to: Historical states and entities * Democratic Republ ...
(''Cfa'') * Tirana, Albania (''Cfa'') *
Tokyo Tokyo (Japanese language, Japanese: , ''Tōkyō'' ), historically known in the west as Tokio and officially the Tokyo Metropolis (, ''Tōkyō-to''), is capital of Japan, the capital and most populous Prefectures of Japan, prefecture of Japan ...

Tokyo
, Japan (''Cfa'') * Toulouse, France (''Cfa'') * Venice, Italy (''Cfa'') *
Washington, D.C. ) , image_skyline = , image_caption = Clockwise from top left: the Washington Monument The Washington Monument is an obelisk within the National Mall The National Mall is a Landscape architecture, landscaped ...
,
United States The United States of America (U.S.A. or USA), commonly known as the United States (U.S. or US) or America, is a country Continental United States, primarily located in North America. It consists of 50 U.S. state, states, a Washington, D.C., ...

United States
(''Cfa'') *
Busan Busan (), formerly romanized as Pusan and now officially known as is South Korea South Korea, officially the Republic of Korea (ROK), is a country in East Asia, constituting the southern part of the Korea, Korean Peninsula and shar ...

Busan
, South Korea (''Cwa'') * Campinas, Brazil (''Cwa'', bordering on ''Aw'') * Chengdu,
China China (), officially the People's Republic of China (PRC; ), is a country in . It is the world's , with a of more than 1.4 billion. China spans five geographical and 14 different countries, the in the world after . Covering an area of ap ...

China
(''Cwa'') * Córdoba, Argentina , Córdoba,
Argentina Argentina (), officially the Argentine Republic ( es, link=no, República Argentina), is a country located mostly in the southern half of South America. Sharing the bulk of the Southern Cone with Chile to the west, the country is also bordered ...

Argentina
(''Cwa'') * Delhi, India (''Cwa'', bordering on ''BSh'') * Guadalajara, Mexico, Guadalajara,
Mexico Mexico, officially the United Mexican States, is a List of sovereign states, country in the southern portion of North America. It is borders of Mexico, bordered to the north by the United States; to the south and west by the Pacific Ocean; to ...

Mexico
(''Cwa'') * Guwahati, India (''Cwa'') *
Hong Kong Hong Kong (; , ), officially the Hong Kong Special Administrative Region of the People's Republic of China (HKSAR), is a List of cities in China, city and Special administrative regions of China, special administrative region of China on the ...

Hong Kong
(''Cwa'') * Haikou,
China China (), officially the People's Republic of China (PRC; ), is a country in . It is the world's , with a of more than 1.4 billion. China spans five geographical and 14 different countries, the in the world after . Covering an area of ap ...

China
(''Cwa'') * Hanoi, Vietnam, Hanoi, Vietnam (''Cwa'') *
Islamabad Islamabad (; ur, , translit=Islām Ābād) is the capital city A capital or capital city is the municipality holding primary status in a Department (country subdivision), department, country, Constituent state, state, province, or othe ...

Islamabad
, Pakistan (''Cwa'') *
Kathmandu , pushpin_map = Nepal Bagmati Province#Nepal#Asia , coordinates = , subdivision_type = Country , subdivision_name = , subdivision_type1 = Province A province is almost always an administrative d ...

Kathmandu
,
Nepal Nepal (; ne, नेपाल ), officially the Federal Democratic Republic of Nepal ( ne, सङ्घीय लोकतान्त्रिक गणतन्त्र नेपाल ), is a landlocked country in South Asia. It is ma ...

Nepal
(''Cwa'') * Lilongwe,
Malawi Malawi (; or aláwi, officially the Republic of Malawi, is a landlocked country A landlocked country is a country A country is a distinct territory, territorial body or political entity. It is often referred to as the land of ...

Malawi
(''Cwa'') * Lubumbashi, Democratic Republic of Congo (''Cwa'') *
Lucknow Lucknow (, ) is the List of state and union territory capitals in India, capital city of the List of state and union territory capitals in India, Indian state of Uttar Pradesh, and is also the administrative headquarters of the eponymous Lu ...

Lucknow
, India (''Cwa'') * Lusaka,
Zambia Zambia (), officially the Republic of Zambia (Bemba language, Bemba:'' Icalo ca Zambia''; Tonga language (Zambia and Zimbabwe), Tonga: ''Cisi ca Zambia''; Lozi language, Lozi: ''Naha ya Zambia''; Chewa language, Nyanja: ''Dziko la Zambia''), ...

Zambia
(''Cwa'') * Macau (''Cwa'') * Mackay, Queensland , Mackay, Australia (''Cwa'') * Pretoria,
South Africa South Africa, officially the Republic of South Africa (RSA), is the Southern Africa, southernmost country in Africa. With over Demographics of South Africa, 60 million people, it is the world's List of countries by population, 23rd-most ...

South Africa
(''Cwa'') * Rangpur,
Bangladesh Bangladesh (, bn, বাংলাদেশ, ), officially the People's Republic of Bangladesh, is a country in South Asia South Asia is the southern region of Asia, which is defined in both geography, geographical and culture, ethno-c ...

Bangladesh
(''Cwa'') * Santiago del Estero,
Argentina Argentina (), officially the Argentine Republic ( es, link=no, República Argentina), is a country located mostly in the southern half of South America. Sharing the bulk of the Southern Cone with Chile to the west, the country is also bordered ...

Argentina
(''Cwa'') * Santa Rosa de Copán, Honduras (''Cwa'') * Sialkot, Pakistan (''Cwa'') * Taunggyi, Myanmar (''Cwa'') *
Taipei Taipei (), officially Taipei City, is the Capital city, capital and a Special municipality (Taiwan), special municipality of the Taiwan, Republic of China (Taiwan). Located in Regions of Taiwan, Northern Taiwan, Taipei City is an enclave of t ...

Taipei
,
Taiwan Taiwan, officially the Republic of China (ROC), is a country in East Asia East Asia is the eastern region of Asia Asia () is Earth's largest and most populous continent, located primarily in the Eastern Hemisphere, Eastern and N ...

Taiwan
(''Cfa'') * Yeosu, South Korea (''Cwa'') * Zhengzhou,
China China (), officially the People's Republic of China (PRC; ), is a country in . It is the world's , with a of more than 1.4 billion. China spans five geographical and 14 different countries, the in the world after . Covering an area of ap ...

China
(''Cwa'')


See also

*Subtropics *Subtropical ridge *List of locations with a subtropical climate


References

{{Koppen Köppen climate types