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The Holarctic realm is a
biogeographic realm A biogeographic realm or ecozone is the broadest biogeography, biogeographic division of Earth's land surface, based on distributional patterns of terrestrial animal, terrestrial organisms. They are subdivided into ecoregions, which are classif ...
that comprises the majority of habitats found throughout the continents in the Northern Hemisphere. It corresponds to the floristic
Boreal Kingdom '' on Lüneburg Heath near Schneverdingen Lüneburg Heath (german: Lüneburger Heide) is a large area of heath (habitat), heath, geest Geest is a type of landform, slightly raised above the surrounding countryside, that occurs on the plai ...
. It includes both the
Nearctic The Nearctic realm is one of the eight biogeographic realms constituting the Earth's land surface. Image:Ecozone Nearctic.svg, 400px, The Nearctic realm The Nearctic realm covers most of North America, including Greenland, Central Florida, and t ...

Nearctic
zoogeographical region (which covers most of
North America North America is a continent A continent is any of several large landmasses. Generally identified by convention (norm), convention rather than any strict criteria, up to seven geographical regions are commonly regarded as continen ...

North America
), and
Alfred Wallace Alfred Russel Wallace (8 January 18237 November 1913) was a British natural history, naturalist, explorer, geographer, anthropologist, biologist and illustrator. He is best known for independently conceiving the theory of evolution throug ...
's
Palearctic The Palearctic or Palaearctic is the largest of the eight biogeographic realms of the Earth. It stretches across all of Eurasia north of the foothills of the Himalayas, and North Africa. The realm consists of several bioregions: the Euro-Siberi ...

Palearctic
zoogeographical region Zoogeography is the branch of the science of biogeography that is concerned with geographic distribution (present and past) of animal Animals (also called Metazoa) are multicellular eukaryotic organisms that form the Kingdom (biology), bi ...
(which covers
North Africa North Africa or Northern Africa is a region encompassing the northern portion of the African continent. There is no singularly accepted scope for the region, and it is sometimes defined as stretching from the Atlantic shores of Mauritania in th ...

North Africa
,
Southeast Asia Southeast Asia, also spelled South East Asia and South-East Asia, and also known as Southeastern Asia or SEA, is the geographical United Nations geoscheme for Asia#South-eastern Asia, southeastern subregion of Asia, consisting of the regions ...

Southeast Asia
, the Indian subcontinent), and all of
Eurasia Eurasia () is the largest continent A continent is any of several large landmass A landmass, or land mass, is a large region In geography Geography (from Greek: , ''geographia'', literally "earth description") is a ...

Eurasia
except for the southern
Arabian Peninsula The Arabian Peninsula (; ar, شِبْهُ الْجَزِيرَةِ الْعَرَبِيَّة, , "Arabian Peninsula" or , , "Island of the Arabs") is a peninsula of Western Asia, situated northeast of Africa on the Arabian Plate. At , the ...
. These regions are further subdivided into a variety of
ecoregions An ecoregion (ecological region) or ecozone (ecological zone) is an ecologically Ecology (from el, οἶκος, "house" and el, -λογία, label=none, "study of") is the study of the relationships between living organisms, including h ...

ecoregions
. Many
ecosystems An ecosystem (or ecological system) consists of all the organisms and the physical environment with which they interact. These biotic and abiotic components are linked together through nutrient cycles and energy flows. Energy enters the syste ...
and the animal and plant communities that depend on them extend across a number of continents and cover large portions of the Holarctic realm. This continuity is the result of those regions’ shared glacial history.


Major ecosystems

Within the Holarctic realm, there are a variety of ecosystems. The type of ecosystem found in a given area depends on its latitude and the local geography. In the far north, a band of Arctic
tundra In physical geography Physical geography (also known as physiography) is one of the two fields of geography Geography (from Greek Greek may refer to: Greece Anything of, from, or related to Greece Greece ( el, Ελλάδα ...

tundra
encircles the shore of the
Arctic Ocean The Arctic Ocean is the smallest and shallowest of the world's five major s. It spans an area of approximately and is also known as the coldest of all the oceans. The (IHO) recognizes it as an ocean, although some call it the Arctic Medit ...

Arctic Ocean
. The ground beneath this land is
permafrost Permafrost is ground that continuously remains below 0 °C (32 °F) for two or more years, located on land or under the ocean The ocean (also the or the world ocean) is the body of that covers approximately 70.8% of the surfa ...

permafrost
(frozen year-round). In these difficult growing conditions, few plants can survive. South of the tundra, the
boreal forest Taiga (; rus, тайга́, p=tɐjˈɡa; relates to Mongolic languages, Mongolic and Turkic languages, Turkic languages), generally referred to in North America as a boreal forest or snow forest, is a biome characterized by pinophyta, conifero ...
stretches across North America and Eurasia. This land is characterized by
coniferous trees Conifers are a group of cone-bearing seed plants, a subset of gymnosperm The gymnosperms, also known as Acrogymnospermae, are a group of seed-producing plants that includes conifers, cycads, '' Ginkgo'', and gnetophytes. The term "gymno ...

coniferous trees
. Further south, the ecosystems become more diverse. Some areas are
temperate grassland Temperate grasslands, savannas, and shrublands is a terrestrial biome A biome is a collection of plants and animals that have common characteristics for the environment they exist in. They can be found over a range of continents. Biomes are d ...
, while others are
temperate forest A temperate forest is a forest found between the tropical The tropics are the region of Earth surrounding the Equator. They are delimited in latitude by the Tropic of Cancer in the Northern Hemisphere at N and the Tropic of Capricorn in ...
s dominated by
deciduous trees In the fields of horticulture and botany, the term ''deciduous'' (; ) means "falling off at maturity" and "tending to fall off", in reference to tree In botany, a tree is a perennial plant with an elongated Plant stem, stem, or trunk (bo ...
. Many of the southernmost parts of the Holarctic are
desert A desert is a barren area of landscape where little precipitation occurs and, consequently, living conditions are hostile for plant and animal life. The lack of vegetation exposes the unprotected surface of the ground to the processes of ...

desert
s, which are dominated by plants and animals adapted to the dry conditions.


Animal species with a Holarctic distribution

A variety of animal species are distributed across continents, throughout much of the Holarctic realm. These include the brown bear, grey wolf, red fox, wolverine, moose, caribou, golden eagle and common raven. The
brown bear The brown bear (''Ursus arctos'') is a large bear Bears are carnivoran mammals of the family (biology), family Ursidae. They are classified as caniforms, or doglike carnivorans. Although only eight species of bears are extant, they are ...

brown bear
(''Ursus arctos'') is found in mountainous and semi-open areas distributed throughout the Holarctic. It once occupied much larger areas, but has been driven out by human development and the resulting
habitat fragmentation Habitat fragmentation describes the emergence of discontinuities (fragmentation) in an organism's preferred environment Environment most often refers to: __NOTOC__ * Natural environment, all living and non-living things occurring naturally * Biop ...
. Today it is only found in remaining wilderness areas. The
grey wolf The wolf (''Canis lupus''), also known as the gray wolf or grey wolf, is a large canine Canine may refer to: Zoology * dog-like mammals (i.e. members of the canid subfamily Caninae) ** ''Canis'', a genus including dogs, wolves, coyotes, an ...

grey wolf
(''Canis lupus'') is found in a wide variety of habitats from tundra to desert, with different populations adapted for each. Its historical distribution encompasses the vast majority of the Holarctic realm, though human activities such as development and active extermination have
extirpated Local extinction, also known as extirpation, is the condition of a species In biology, a species is the basic unit of biological classification, classification and a taxonomic rank of an organism, as well as a unit of biodiversity. A specie ...
the species from much of this range. The
red fox The red fox (''Vulpes vulpes'') is the largest of the true foxes and one of the most widely distributed members of the order Order or ORDER or Orders may refer to: * Orderliness Orderliness is associated with other qualities such as cleanli ...

red fox
(''Vulpes vulpes'') is a highly adaptable predator. It has the widest distribution of any terrestrial carnivore, and is adapted to a wide range of habitats, including areas of intense human development. Like the wolf, it is distributed throughout the majority of the Holarctic, but it has avoided extirpation. The
wolverine The wolverine () (also spelled wolverene), ''Gulo gulo'' (''Gulo'' is Latin Latin (, or , ) is a classical language A classical language is a language A language is a structured system of communication Communication (from ...

wolverine
(''Gulo gulo'') is a large member of the
weasel family The Mustelidae (; from Latin ''mustela'', weasel) are a family of carnivora, carnivorous mammals, including weasels, badgers, otters, ferrets, martens, minks, and wolverines, among others. Mustelids () are a diverse group and form the largest fami ...
found primarily in the arctic and in boreal forests, ranging south in mountainous regions. It is distributed in such areas throughout Eurasia and North America. The
moose The moose (in North America) or elk (in Eurasia) (''Alces alces'') is a member of the New World deer subfamily and is the largest and heaviest extant Extant is the opposite of the word extinct Extinction is the termination of a kind of ...

moose
(''Alces alces'') is the largest member of the deer family. It is found throughout most of the boreal forest through continental Eurasia into Scandinavia, eastern North America, and boreal and
montane Montane ecosystems are found on the slopes of mountain A mountain is an elevated portion of the Earth's crust, generally with steep sides that show significant exposed bedrock. A mountain differs from a plateau in having a limited summit area ...
regions of western North America. In some areas it ranges south into the deciduous forest. The caribou, or
reindeer The reindeer (''Rangifer tarandus''), also known as the caribou in North America, is a species of deer with circumpolar distribution, native to Arctic, subarctic, tundra, boreal, and mountainous regions of northern Europe, Siberia, and North ...

reindeer
(''Rangifer tarandus'') is found in boreal forest and tundra in the northern parts of the Holarctic. In Eurasia, it has been domesticated. It is divided into several subspecies, which are adapted to different habitats and geographic areas. The
golden eagle The golden eagle (''Aquila chrysaetos'') is a bird of prey living in the Northern Hemisphere. It is the most widely distributed species of eagle. Like all eagles, it belongs to the family Accipitridae. They are one of the best-known bird of pr ...

golden eagle
(''Aquila chrysaetos'') is one of the best-known birds of prey in the Northern Hemisphere. It is the most widely distributed species of eagle. Golden eagles use their agility and speed combined with powerful feet and massive, sharp talons to snatch up a variety of prey (mainly hares, rabbits, marmots and other ground squirrels). The
common raven The common raven (''Corvus corax''), also known as the western raven or northern raven when discussing the raven at the subspecies level, is a large all-black passerine bird. Found across the Northern Hemisphere, it is the most widely distr ...
(''Corvus corax'') is the most widespread of the
corvids Corvidae is a Cosmopolitan distribution, cosmopolitan family (biology), family of oscine passerine birds that contains the crows, ravens, rook (bird), rooks, jackdaws, jays, magpies, treepies, choughs, and nutcracker (bird), nutcrackers. In Engli ...

corvids
, and one of the largest. It is found in a variety of habitats, but primarily wooded northern areas. It has been known to adapt well to areas of human activity. Their distribution also makes up most of the Holarctic realm. ''
Leptothorax acervorum ''Leptothorax acervorum'' is a small brown to yellow ant in the subfamily Myrmicinae. It was first described by Johan Christian Fabricius in 1793. ''L. acervorum'' is vastly distributed across the globe, most commonly found in the coniferous fores ...
'' is a small red Holarctic ant widely distributed across Eurasia, ranging from central Spain and Italy to the northernmost parts of Scandinavia and Siberia. ''
Zygiella x-notata ''Zygiella x-notata'', sometimes known as the missing sector orb weaver or the silver-sided sector spider,Factsheet 6: Missing-sector Orbweaver (Zygiella x-notata)', British Arachnological Society, 2016. Retrieved 27 November 2016 is a spider spe ...

Zygiella x-notata
'' is a species of orb-weaving spider with a Holarctic distribution, mostly inhabiting urban and suburban regions of Europe and parts of North America.


Origin

The continuity of the northern parts of the Holarctic results from their shared
glacial A glacial period (alternatively glacial or glaciation) is an interval of time (thousands of years) within an ice age#REDIRECT Ice age {{Redirect category shell, 1= {{R from move {{R from ambiguous term {{R from other capitalisation {{R unprintwor ...
history. During the
Pleistocene The Pleistocene ( , often referred to as the ''Ice Age'') is the geological Epoch (geology), epoch that lasted from about 2,580,000 to 11,700 years ago, spanning the earth’s most recent period of repeated glaciations. Before a change finally ...
(Ice Age), these areas were subjected to repeated glaciations. Icecaps expanded, scouring the land of life and reshaping its topography. During glacial periods, species survived in
refugia Refugium, plural refugia, the Latin for "refuge" or "hideaway", may refer to: * Refugium (fishkeeping), an appendage to a marine, brackish, or freshwater fish tank that shares the same water supply * Refugium (population biology), a location of an i ...
, small areas that maintained a suitable climate due to local geography. These areas are believed to have been primarily in southern regions, but some genetic and paleontological evidence points to additional refugia in the sheltered areas of the north. Wherever these areas were found, they became source populations during interglacial periods. When the glaciers receded, plants and animals spread rapidly into the newly opened areas. Different taxa responded to these rapidly changing conditions in different ways. Tree species spread outward from refugia during interglacial periods, but in varied patterns, with different trees dominating in different periods.
Insects Insects (from Latin ') are pancrustacean Hexapoda, hexapod invertebrates of the class (biology), class Insecta. They are the largest group within the arthropod phylum. Insects have a chitinous exoskeleton, a three-part body (head, Thorax (ins ...

Insects
, on the other hand, shifted their ranges with the climate, maintaining consistency in species for the most part throughout the period. Their high degree of mobility allowed them to move as the glaciers advanced or retreated, maintaining a constant habitat despite the climatic oscillations. Despite their apparent lack of mobility, plants managed to colonize new areas rapidly as well. Studies of fossil pollen indicate that trees recolonized these lands at an exponential rate. Mammals recolonized at varying rates. Brown bears, for instance, moved quickly from refugia with the receding glaciers, becoming one of the first large mammals to recolonize the land. The Last Glacial Period ended about 10,000 years ago, resulting in the present distribution of ecoregions. Another factor contributing to the continuity of Holarctic ecosystems is the movement between continents allowed by the
Bering land bridge Beringia is defined today as the land and maritime area bounded on the west by the Lena River The Lena (russian: link=no, Ле́на, ; evn, Елюенэ, ''Eljune''; sah, Өлүөнэ, ''Ölüöne''; bua, Зүлхэ, ''Zülkhe''; mn, З ...
, which was exposed by the lowering of sea level due to the expansion of the ice caps. The communities found in the
Palearctic The Palearctic or Palaearctic is the largest of the eight biogeographic realms of the Earth. It stretches across all of Eurasia north of the foothills of the Himalayas, and North Africa. The realm consists of several bioregions: the Euro-Siberi ...
and the
Nearctic The Nearctic realm is one of the eight biogeographic realms constituting the Earth's land surface. Image:Ecozone Nearctic.svg, 400px, The Nearctic realm The Nearctic realm covers most of North America, including Greenland, Central Florida, and t ...
are different, but have many species in common. This is the result of several faunal interchanges that took place across the Bering land bridge. However, these migrations were mostly limited to large, cold-tolerant species. Today it is mainly these species which are found throughout the realm.


Threats

As the Holarctic is an enormous area, it is subject to environmental problems of international scale. The primary threats throughout the region result from
global warming Contemporary climate change includes both the global warming caused by humans, and its impacts on Earth's weather patterns. There have been previous periods of climate change, but the current changes are more rapid than any known even ...

global warming
and
habitat fragmentation Habitat fragmentation describes the emergence of discontinuities (fragmentation) in an organism's preferred environment Environment most often refers to: __NOTOC__ * Natural environment, all living and non-living things occurring naturally * Biop ...
. The former is of particular concern in the north, as these ecosystems are adapted to cold. The latter is more of a concern in the south, where development is prevalent. Global warming is a threat to all the Earth's ecosystems, but it is a more immediate threat to those found in cold climates. The communities of species found at these latitudes are adapted to the cold, so any significant warming can upset the balance. For instance, insects struggle to survive the cold winters typical of the boreal forest. Many do not make it, especially in harsh winters. However, recently the winters have grown milder, which has had a drastic effect on the forest. Winter mortality of some insect species drastically decreased, allowing the population to build on itself in subsequent years. In some areas the effects have been severe.
Spruce beetle ''Dendroctonus rufipennis'', the spruce beetle, is a species of bark beetle native to British Columbia, Newfoundland and Labrador, Nova Scotia, Ontario, Quebec, Northern Manitoba, the Yukon, Colorado, Wyoming, Montana, and Maine. They are known to ...
outbreaks have wiped out up to ninety percent of the
Kenai Peninsula The Kenai Peninsula ( Dena'ina: ''Yaghenen'') is a large peninsula A peninsula ( la, paeninsula from ' "almost" and ' "island") is a landform surrounded by water on most of its border while being connected to a mainland from which it extends. ...
's spruce trees; this is blamed primarily on a series of unusually warm years since 1987. In this case a native species has caused massive disturbance of habitat as a result of climate change. Warming temperatures may also allow pest species to enlarge their range, moving into habitats that were previously unsuitable. Studies of potential areas for outbreaks of
bark beetle A bark beetle is one of about 6,000 species In biology, a species is the basic unit of biological classification, classification and a taxonomic rank of an organism, as well as a unit of biodiversity. A species is often defined as the larges ...
s indicate that as the climate shifts, these beetles will expand to the north and to higher elevations than they have previously affected. With warmer temperatures, insect infestation will become a greater problem throughout the northern parts of the Holarctic. Another potential effect of global warming to northern ecosystems is the melting of
permafrost Permafrost is ground that continuously remains below 0 °C (32 °F) for two or more years, located on land or under the ocean The ocean (also the or the world ocean) is the body of that covers approximately 70.8% of the surfa ...

permafrost
. This can have significant effects on the plant communities that are adapted to the frozen soil, and may also have implications for further climate change. As permafrost melts, any trees growing above it may die, and the land shifts from forest to
peatland , one of the largest fens in Estonia. A mire, peatland or quagmire is a wetland A wetland is a distinct ecosystem An ecosystem is a community (ecology), community of living organisms in conjunction with the nonliving components of thei ...
. In the far north, shrubs may later take over what was formerly tundra. The precise effect depends on whether the water that was locked up is able to drain off. In either case, the habitat will undergo a shift. Melting permafrost may also accelerate climate change in the future. Within the permafrost, vast quantities of
carbon Carbon (from la, carbo "coal") is a with the C and 6. It is lic and —making four s available to form s. It belongs to group 14 of the periodic table. Carbon makes up only about 0.025 percent of Earth's crust. Three occur naturally, ...

carbon
are locked up. If this soil melts, the carbon may be released into the air as either
carbon dioxide Carbon dioxide (chemical formula A chemical formula is a way of presenting information about the chemical proportions of s that constitute a particular or molecule, using symbols, numbers, and sometimes also other symbols, such as pare ...

carbon dioxide
or
methane Methane (, ) is a chemical compound with the chemical formula A chemical formula is a way of presenting information about the chemical proportions of s that constitute a particular or molecule, using symbols, numbers, and sometimes a ...
. Both of these are
greenhouse gas A greenhouse gas (GHG or GhG) is a gas that Absorption (electromagnetic radiation), absorbs and Emission (electromagnetic radiation), emits radiant energy within the thermal infrared range, causing the greenhouse effect. The primary greenhou ...
es. Habitat fragmentation threatens a wide variety of habitats throughout the world, and the Holarctic is no exception. Fragmentation has a variety of negative effects on populations. As populations become cut off, their
genetic diversity Genetic diversity is the total number of genetic characteristics in the genetic makeup of a species, it ranges widely from the number of species to differences within species In biology, a species is the basic unit of biological classificati ...
suffers and they become susceptible to sudden disasters and extinction. While the northern parts of the Holarctic represent some of the largest areas of wilderness left on Earth, the southern parts are in some places extensively developed. This realm contains most of the world's
developed countries A developed country (or industrialized country, high-income country, more economically developed country (MEDC), advanced country) is a sovereign state A sovereign state is a political entity that is represented by one centralized governmen ...
, including the United States and the nations of Western Europe. Temperate forests were the primary ecosystem in many of the most developed areas today. These lands are now used for intensive agriculture or have become urbanized. As lands have been developed for agricultural uses and human occupation, natural habitat has for the most part become limited to areas considered unsuitable for human use, such as slopes or rocky areas. This pattern of development limits the ability of animals, especially large ones, to migrate from place to place. Large carnivores are particularly affected by habitat fragmentation. These mammals, such as brown bears and wolves, require large areas of land with relatively intact habitat to survive as individuals. Much larger areas are required to maintain a sustainable population. They may also serve as
keystone species A keystone species is a species In biology, a species is the basic unit of biological classification, classification and a taxonomic rank of an organism, as well as a unit of biodiversity. A species is often defined as the largest group o ...
, regulating the populations of the species they prey on. Thus, their conservation has direct implications for a wide range of species, and is difficult to accomplish politically due to the large size of the areas they need. With increasing development, these species in particular are at risk, which could have effects that carry down throughout the ecosystem.


Conservation actions

The threats to the Holarctic realm are not going unrecognized. Many efforts are being made to mitigate these threats, with the hope of preserving the biodiversity of the region. International agreements to combat global warming may help to lessen the
effects of climate change The effects of climate change span the physical environment A biophysical environment is a biotic and abiotic surrounding of an organism In biology, an organism (from Ancient Greek, Greek: ὀργανισμός, ''organismos'') is ...
on this region. Efforts are also underway to fight habitat fragmentation, both on local and regional scales. The most comprehensive effort to combat global warming to date is the
Kyoto Protocol The Kyoto Protocol was an international treaty A treaty is a formal, legally binding written agreement between actors in international law International law, also known as public international law and law of nations, is the set of ru ...

Kyoto Protocol
. Developed countries who sign this protocol agree to cut their collective greenhouse gas emissions by five percent since 1990 by sometime between 2008 and 2012. The vast majority of these nations are found within the Holarctic. Each country is given a target for emission levels, and they may trade emissions credits in a market-based system that includes developing countries as well. Once this period is ended, a new agreement will be written to further mitigate the effects of climate change. The process of drafting a new agreement has already begun. In late 2007, an international meeting in
Bali Bali () ( ban, ) is a province of Indonesia Indonesia ( ), officially the Republic of Indonesia ( id, Republik Indonesia, links=yes ), is a country in Southeast Asia Southeast Asia, also spelled South East Asia and South-East Asia ...

Bali
was held to begin planning for the successor to the Kyoto Protocol. This agreement will aim to build on the successes and failures of Kyoto to produce a more effective method of cutting greenhouse gas emissions (
UNFCCC The United Nations Framework Convention on Climate Change (UNFCCC) established an international International is an adjective (also used as a noun) meaning "between nations". International may also refer to: Music Albums * ''International'' ...
). If these efforts are successful, the biodiversity of the Holarctic and the rest of the world will see fewer effects of climate change. Fighting habitat fragmentation is a major challenge in conserving the wide-ranging species of the Holarctic. Some efforts are limited to a local scale of protection, while others are regional in scope. Local efforts include creating
reserves Reserve or reserves may refer to: Places * Reserve, Kansas, a US city * Reserve, Louisiana, a census-designated place in St. John the Baptist Parish * Reserve, Montana, a census-designated place in Sheridan County * Reserve, New Mexico, a US vil ...
and establishing safe routes for animals to cross roads and other human-made barriers. Regional efforts to combat habitat fragmentation take a broader scope. One major such effort in the Holarctic is the Yellowstone to Yukon Conservation Initiative. This organization was started in 1997 to help establish a contiguous network of protection for the northern
Rocky Mountains The Rocky Mountains, also known as the Rockies, are a major mountain range A mountain range is a series of mountains ranged in a line and connected by high ground. A mountain system or mountain belt is a group of mountain ranges with simila ...

Rocky Mountains
, from mid
Wyoming Wyoming () is a U.S. state, state in the Mountain states, Mountain West subregion of the Western United States. The List of U.S. states and territories by area, 10th largest state by area, it is also the List of U.S. states and territories b ...
to the border between
Alaska Alaska (; ale, Alax̂sxax̂; ; ems, Alas'kaaq; Central Alaskan Yup'ik language, Yup'ik: ''Alaskaq''; tli, Anáaski) is a U.S. state in the Western United States, on the northwest extremity of the country's West Coast of the United State ...

Alaska
and Canada's
Yukon Yukon ( ; ; formerly called Yukon Territory and sometimes referred to as The Yukon) is the smallest and westernmost of Canada's three territories. It also is the least populated province or territory in Canada, with a population of 35,874 peo ...

Yukon
. It brings together a wide variety of environmental organizations for a shared purpose. The goal of the Initiative is to create a core of protected areas, connected by corridors and surrounded by buffer zones. This will build on the many existing protected areas in this region, with a focus on integrating existing and future human activities into the conservation plan rather than seeking to exclude them (Yellowstone to Yukon). If these efforts are successful, they will be especially beneficial to wide-ranging species such as
grizzly bear The grizzly bear (''Ursus arctos horribilis''), also known as the North American brown bear or simply grizzly, is a population Population typically refers the number of people in a single area whether it be a city or town, region, countr ...
s. If these species can survive, other members of the communities they live in will survive as well.


References

* United Nations Framework Convention on Climate Change. Available at: http://unfccc.int/2860.php. Accessed December 2007. * Yellowstone to Yukon Conservation Initiative. Updated 2006. Available at http://www.y2y.net. Accessed December 2007. {{Authority control Biogeographic realms Biogeography