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The ''History of the Peloponnesian War'' is a historical account of the
Peloponnesian War The Peloponnesian War (431–404 BC) was an ancient Greek Ancient Greek includes the forms of the Greek language Greek ( el, label=Modern Greek Modern Greek (, , or , ''Kiní Neoellinikí Glóssa''), generally referred to ...

Peloponnesian War
(431–404 BC), which was fought between the
Peloponnesian League The Peloponnesian League was an alliance in the Peloponnesus The Peloponnese (), Peloponnesia, or Peloponnesus (; el, Πελοπόννησος, Pelopónnēsos, ) is a peninsula A peninsula ( la, paeninsula from ' "almost" and ' "island") ...
(led by
Sparta Sparta (Doric Greek Doric or Dorian ( grc, Δωρισμός, Dōrismós) was an . Its variants were spoken in the southern and eastern as well as in , , , , , some islands in the southern and some cities on the south east coast of ...

Sparta
) and the
Delian League The Delian League, founded in 478 BC, was an association of Greek city-states, with the number of members numbering between 150 and 330 under the leadership of Athens , image_skyline = File:Athens Montage L.png, center, ...
(led by
Athens , image_skyline = File:Athens Montage L.png, center, 275px, alt=Athens montage. Clicking on an image in the picture causes the browser to load the appropriate article. rect 15 15 985 460 Acropolis of Athens rect 15 475 48 ...
). It was written by
Thucydides Thucydides (; grc-gre, Θουκυδίδης ; BC) was an Athenian , image_skyline = File:Athens Montage L.png, center, 275px, alt=Athens montage. Clicking on an image in the picture causes the browser to load the app ...
, an
Athenian , image_skyline = File:Athens Montage L.png, center, 275px, alt=Athens montage. Clicking on an image in the picture causes the browser to load the appropriate article. rect 15 15 985 460 Acropolis of Athens The Acropoli ...
historian who also served as an Athenian general during the war. His account of the conflict is widely considered to be a classic and regarded as one of the earliest scholarly works of history. The ''History'' is divided into eight books. Analyses of the ''History'' generally occur in one of two camps. On the one hand, some scholars such as J. B. Bury view the work as an objective and scientific piece of history. The judgment of J. B. Bury reflects this traditional interpretation of the History as "severe in its detachment, written from a purely intellectual point of view, unencumbered with platitudes and moral judgments, cold and critical." On the other hand, in keeping with more recent interpretations that are associated with
reader-response criticism Reader-response criticism is a school A school is an educational institution designed to provide learning spaces and learning environments for the teaching of students (or "pupils") under the direction of teachers. Most countries have syst ...
, the ''History'' can be read as a piece of literature rather than an objective record of the historical events. This view is embodied in the words of W. R. Connor, who describes Thucydides as "an artist who responds to, selects and skillfully arranges his material, and develops its symbolic and emotional potential."


Historical method

Thucydides is considered to be one of the key figures in the development of Western history, thus making his methodology the subject of much analysis in area of
historiography Historiography is the study of the methods of historians in developing history as an academic discipline, and by extension is any body of historical work on a particular subject. The historiography of a specific topic covers how historians hav ...

historiography
.


Chronology

Thucydides is one of the first western historians to employ a strict standard of chronology, recording events by year, with each year consisting of the summer campaign season and a less active winter season. This method contrasts sharply with
Herodotus Herodotus ( ; grc, Ἡρόδοτος, Hēródotos, ; BC) was an ancient Greek Ancient Greek includes the forms of the Greek language Greek ( el, label=Modern Greek Modern Greek (, , or , ''Kiní Neoellinikí Glóssa''), ge ...
.


Speeches

Thucydides also makes extensive use of speeches in order to elaborate on the event in question. While the inclusion of long first-person speeches is somewhat alien to modern
historical method The term historical method refers to the collection of techniques and guidelines that historians use to research and write history, histories of the past. Secondary sources, primary sources and material evidence such as that derived from archaeo ...
, in the context of
ancient Greek Ancient Greek includes the forms of the Greek language Greek ( el, label=Modern Greek Modern Greek (, , or , ''Kiní Neoellinikí Glóssa''), generally referred to by speakers simply as Greek (, ), refers collectively to the diale ...
oral culture Oral tradition, or oral lore, is a form of human communication wherein knowledge, art, ideas and cultural Culture () is an umbrella term which encompasses the social behavior and Norm (social), norms found in human Society, societies, as w ...
speeches are expected. These include addresses given to troops by their generals before battles and numerous political speeches, both by Athenian and Spartan leaders, as well as debates between various parties. Of the speeches, the most famous is the funeral oration of Pericles, which is found in Book Two. Being an Athenian general in the war, Thucydides heard some of these speeches himself. For the other speeches, he relied on eyewitness accounts. These speeches are suspect in the eyes of Classicists, however, inasmuch as it is not clear to what degree Thucydides altered these speeches in order to elucidate better the crux of the argument presented. Some of the speeches are probably fabricated according to his expectations of, as he puts it, "what was called for in each situation" (1.22.1).


Neutrality

Despite being an Athenian and a participant in the conflict, Thucydides is often regarded as having written a generally
unbiased Bias is a disproportionate weight ''in favor of'' or ''against'' an idea or thing, usually in a way that is closed-minded, prejudicial, or unfair. Biases can be innate or learned. People may develop biases for or against an individual, a group, ...

unbiased
account of the conflict with respect to the sides involved in it. In the introduction to the piece he states, "my work is not a piece of writing designed to meet the taste of an immediate public, but was done to last for ever" (1.22.4). There are scholars, however, who doubt this.
Ernst Badian Ernst Badian (August 8, 1925 – February 1, 2011) was an Austrian-born classical scholar who served as a professor at Harvard University from 1971 to 1998. Early life and education Born in Vienna in 1925, in 1938 he fled Nazi Europe with his fa ...
, for example, has argued that Thucydides has a strong pro-Athenian bias. In keeping with this sort of doubt, other scholars claim that Thucydides had an ulterior motive in his Histories, specifically to create an epic comparable to those of the past such as the works of
Homer Homer (; grc, Ὅμηρος , ''Hómēros'') was an ancient Greek Ancient Greek includes the forms of the Greek language Greek ( el, label=Modern Greek Modern Greek (, , or , ''Kiní Neoellinikí Glóssa''), generally re ...

Homer
, and that this led him to create a nonobjective dualism favoring the Athenians. The work does display a clear bias against certain people involved in the conflict, such as
Cleon Cleon (; grc-gre, wikt:Κλέων, Κλέων, ; died 422 BC) was an Classical Athens, Athenian strategos, general during the Peloponnesian War. He was the first prominent representative of the commercial class in Athenian politics, although he w ...
.


Role of religion

The gods play no active role in Thucydides' work. This is very different from Herodotus, who frequently mentions the role of the gods, as well as a nearly ubiquitous divine presence in the centuries-earlier poems of
Homer Homer (; grc, Ὅμηρος , ''Hómēros'') was an ancient Greek Ancient Greek includes the forms of the Greek language Greek ( el, label=Modern Greek Modern Greek (, , or , ''Kiní Neoellinikí Glóssa''), generally re ...

Homer
. Instead, Thucydides regards history as being caused by
the choices and actions of human beings
the choices and actions of human beings
. Despite the absence of actions of the gods, religion and piety play critical roles in the actions of the Spartans, and to a lesser degree, the Athenians. Thus natural occurrences such as earthquake and eclipses were viewed as religiously significant (1.23.3; 7.50.4)


Rationalization of myth

Despite the absence of the gods from Thucydides' work, he still draws heavily from the Greek mythos, especially from
Homer Homer (; grc, Ὅμηρος , ''Hómēros'') was an ancient Greek Ancient Greek includes the forms of the Greek language Greek ( el, label=Modern Greek Modern Greek (, , or , ''Kiní Neoellinikí Glóssa''), generally re ...

Homer
, whose works are prominent in Greek mythology. Thucydides references Homer frequently as a source of information, but always adds a distancing clause, such as "Homer shows this, if that is sufficient evidence," and "assuming we should trust Homer's poetry in this case too." However, despite Thucydides' skepticism in secondhand information such as Homer's, he does use the poet's epics to infer facts about the
Trojan War In Greek mythology, the Trojan War was waged against the city of Troy by the Achaeans (Homer), Achaeans (Greeks) after Paris (mythology), Paris of Troy took Helen of Troy, Helen from her husband Menelaus, king of Sparta. The war is one of the ...
. For instance, while Thucydides considered the number of over 1,000 Greek ships sent to
Troy Troy (Greek language, Greek: Τροία) or Ilium (Greek language, Greek: Ίλιον) was an ancient city located at Hisarlik in present-day Turkey, south-west of Çanakkale. It is known as the setting for the Greek mythology, Greek myth of the ...

Troy
to be a poetic exaggeration, he uses Homer's
Catalog of Ships The Catalogue of Ships ( grc, νεῶν κατάλογος, ''neōn katálogos'') is an epic catalogue An epic catalogue is a long, detailed list of objects, places or people that is a characteristic of epic poetry. Examples *In ''The Faerie Qu ...
to determine the approximate number of Greek soldiers who were present. Later, Thucydides claims that since Homer never makes reference to a united Greek state, the pre- Hellenic nations must have been so disjointed that they could not organize properly to launch an effective campaign. In fact, Thucydides claims that Troy could have been conquered in half the time had the Greek leaders allocated resources properly and not sent a large portion of the army on raids for supplies. Thucydides makes sure to inform his reader that he, unlike Homer, is not a poet prone to exaggeration, but instead a historian, whose stories may not give "momentary pleasure," but "whose intended meaning will be challenged by the truth of the facts." By distancing himself from the storytelling practices of Homer, Thucydides makes it clear that while he does consider mythology and epics to be evidence, these works cannot be given much credibility, and that it takes an impartial and empirically minded historian, such as himself, to accurately portray the events of the past.


Subject matter of the ''History''

The first book of the History, after a brief review of early Greek history and some programmatic historiographical commentary, seeks to explain why the Peloponnesian War broke out when it did and what its causes were. Except for a few short excursuses (notably 6.54–58 on the
Tyrant Slayers
Tyrant Slayers
), the remainder of the History (books 2 through 8) rigidly maintains its focus on the
Peloponnesian War The Peloponnesian War (431–404 BC) was an ancient Greek Ancient Greek includes the forms of the Greek language Greek ( el, label=Modern Greek Modern Greek (, , or , ''Kiní Neoellinikí Glóssa''), generally referred to ...

Peloponnesian War
to the exclusion of other topics. While the ''History'' concentrates on the
military A military, also known collectively as armed forces, is a heavily armed, highly organized force primarily intended for warfare War is an intense armed conflict between State (polity), states, governments, Society, societies, or pa ...

military
aspects of the Peloponnesian War, it uses these events as a medium to suggest several other themes closely related to the war. It specifically discusses in several passages the socially and culturally degenerative effects of war on humanity itself. The ''History'' is especially concerned with the lawlessness and atrocities committed by Greek citizens to each other in the name of one side or another in the war. Some events depicted in the ''History'', such as the
Melian dialogue The siege of Melos occurred in 416 BC during the Peloponnesian War, which was a war fought between Classical Athens, Athens and Sparta. Melos is an island in the Aegean Sea roughly 110 km east of mainland Ancient Greece, Greece. Though the M ...
, describe early instances of
realpolitik ''Realpolitik'' (from german: real; "realistic", "practical", or "actual"; and '; "politics", ) is politics or diplomacy based primarily on considerations of given circumstances and factors, rather than explicit ideological notions or moral and eth ...
or
power politics Power politics is a theory in international relations which contends that distributions of power Power typically refers to: * Power (physics) In physics, power is the amount of energy transferred or converted per unit time. In the Internat ...
. Noteworthy, there is a possibility that translation mistakes influenced the deductions of realists with regards to the work of
Thucydides Thucydides (; grc-gre, Θουκυδίδης ; BC) was an Athenian , image_skyline = File:Athens Montage L.png, center, 275px, alt=Athens montage. Clicking on an image in the picture causes the browser to load the app ...
. The ''History'' is preoccupied with the interplay of
justice Justice, in its broadest sense, is the principle that people receive that which they deserve, with the interpretation of what then constitutes "deserving" being impacted upon by numerous fields, with many differing viewpoints and perspectives, ...

justice
and power in political and military decision-making. Thucydides' presentation is decidedly ambivalent on this theme. While the ''History'' seems to suggest that considerations of justice are artificial and necessarily capitulate to power, it sometimes also shows a significant degree of empathy with those who suffer from the exigencies of the war. For the most part, the ''History'' does not discuss topics such as the
art Art is a diverse range of (products of) human activities Humans (''Homo sapiens'') are the most populous and widespread species of primates, characterized by bipedality, opposable thumbs, hairlessness, and intelligence allowing the use ...

art
and
architecture upright=1.45, alt=Plan d'exécution du second étage de l'hôtel de Brionne (dessin) De Cotte 2503c – Gallica 2011 (adjusted), Plan of the second floor (attic storey) of the Hôtel de Brionne in Paris – 1734. Architecture (Latin ''archi ...
of Greece.


Military technology

The ''History'' emphasizes the development of military technologies. In several passages (1.14.3, 2.75–76, 7.36.2–3), Thucydides describes in detail various innovations in the conduct of siegeworks or naval warfare. The ''History'' places great importance upon naval supremacy, arguing that a modern empire is impossible without a strong navy. He states that this is the result of the development of piracy and coastal settlements in earlier Greece. Important in this regard was the development, at the beginning of the classical period (c. 500 BC), of the
trireme A trireme (, ; derived from Latin: ''trirēmis'' "with three banks of oars"; 'triērēs'', ''literally "three-rower") was an ancient vessel and a type of galley A galley is a type of ship A ship is a large watercraft that travels the ...

trireme
, the supreme naval ship for the next several hundred years. In his emphasis on sea power, Thucydides resembles the modern naval theorist
Alfred Thayer Mahan Alfred Thayer Mahan (; September 27, 1840 – December 1, 1914) was a United States Navy, United States naval officer and historian, whom John Keegan called "the most important American strategist of the nineteenth century." His book ''The Infl ...
, whose influential work ''
The Influence of Sea Power upon History ''The Influence of Sea Power Upon History: 1660–1783'' is a history of naval warfare Naval warfare is human Humans (''Homo sapiens'') are the most populous and widespread species of primates, characterized by bipedality, opposable thumb ...

The Influence of Sea Power upon History
'' helped set in motion the naval arms race prior to World War I.


Empire

The ''History'' explains that the primary cause of the Peloponnesian War was the "growth in power of Athens, and the alarm which this inspired in Sparta" (1.23.6). Thucydides traces the development of Athenian power through the growth of the
Athenian empire The Delian League, founded in 478 BC, was an association of Greek city-states ''Polis'' (, ; grc-gre, πόλις, ), plural ''poleis'' (, , ), literally means "city A city is a large human settlement.Goodall, B. (1987) ''The Penguin Dict ...
in the years 479 BC to 432 BC in book one of the ''History'' (1.89–118). The legitimacy of the empire is explored in several passages, notably in the speech at 1.73–78, where an anonymous Athenian legation defends the empire on the grounds that it was freely given to the Athenians and not taken by force. The subsequent expansion of the empire is defended by these Athenians, "...the nature of the case first compelled us to advance our empire to its present height; fear being our principal motive, though honor and interest came afterward." (1.75.3) The Athenians also argue that, "We have done nothing extraordinary, nothing contrary to human nature in accepting an empire when it was offered to us and then in refusing to give it up." (1.76) They claim that anyone in their position would act in the same fashion. The
Sparta Sparta (Doric Greek Doric or Dorian ( grc, Δωρισμός, Dōrismós) was an . Its variants were spoken in the southern and eastern as well as in , , , , , some islands in the southern and some cities on the south east coast of ...

Sparta
ns represent a more traditional, circumspect, and less expansive power. Indeed, the Athenians are nearly destroyed by their greatest act of imperial overreach, the Sicilian expedition, described in books six and seven of the ''History''.


Earth science

Thucydides correlates, in his description of the 426 BC Malian Gulf tsunami, for the first time in the recorded history of
natural science Natural science is a branch A branch ( or , ) or tree branch (sometimes referred to in botany Botany, also called , plant biology or phytology, is the science of plant life and a branch of biology. A botanist, plant scientist or ph ...

natural science
, quakes and waves in terms of cause and effect.


Some difficulties of interpretation

Thucydides' ''History'' is extraordinarily dense and complex. His particular ancient Greek prose is also very challenging, grammatically, syntactically, and semantically. This has resulted in much scholarly disagreement on a cluster of issues of interpretation.


Strata of composition

It is commonly thought that Thucydides died while still working on the ''History'', since it ends in mid-sentence and only goes up to 410 BC, leaving six years of war uncovered. Furthermore, there is a great deal of uncertainty whether he intended to revise the sections he had already written. Since there appear to be some contradictions between certain passages in the ''History'', it has been proposed that the conflicting passages were written at different times and that Thucydides' opinion on the conflicting matter had changed. Those who argue that the ''History'' can be divided into various levels of composition are usually called "analysts" and those who argue that the passages must be made to reconcile with one another are called "unitarians". This conflict is called the "strata of composition" debate. The lack of progress in this debate over the course of the twentieth century has caused many Thucydidean scholars to declare the debate insoluble and to side-step the issue in their work.


Sources

The ''History'' is notoriously reticent about its sources. Thucydides almost never names his informants and alludes to competing versions of events only a handful of times. This is in marked contrast to
Herodotus Herodotus ( ; grc, Ἡρόδοτος, Hēródotos, ; BC) was an ancient Greek Ancient Greek includes the forms of the Greek language Greek ( el, label=Modern Greek Modern Greek (, , or , ''Kiní Neoellinikí Glóssa''), ge ...
, who frequently mentions multiple versions of his stories and allows the reader to decide which is true. Instead, Thucydides strives to create the impression of a seamless and irrefutable narrative. Nevertheless, scholars have sought to detect the sources behind the various sections of the ''History''. For example, the narrative after Thucydides' exile (4.108''ff.'') seems to focus on Peloponnesian events more than the first four books, leading to the conclusion that he had greater access to Peloponnesian sources at that time. Frequently, Thucydides appears to assert knowledge of the thoughts of individuals at key moments in the narrative. Scholars have asserted that these moments are evidence that he interviewed these individuals after the fact. However, the evidence of the
Sicilian Expedition The Sicilian Expedition was an Athenian , image_skyline = File:Athens Montage L.png, center, 275px, alt=Athens montage. Clicking on an image in the picture causes the browser to load the appropriate article. rect 15 ...

Sicilian Expedition
argues against this, since
Thucydides Thucydides (; grc-gre, Θουκυδίδης ; BC) was an Athenian , image_skyline = File:Athens Montage L.png, center, 275px, alt=Athens montage. Clicking on an image in the picture causes the browser to load the app ...
discusses the thoughts of the generals who died there and whom he would have had no chance to interview. Instead it seems likely that, as with the speeches, Thucydides is looser than previously thought in inferring the thoughts, feelings, and motives of principal characters in his ''History'' from their actions, as well as his own sense of what would be appropriate or likely in such a situation.


Critical evaluations

The historian J. B. Bury writes that the work of Thucydides "marks the longest and most decisive step that has ever been taken by a single man towards making history what it is today.” Historian H. D. Kitto feels that Thucydides wrote about the Peloponnesian War not because it was the most significant war in antiquity but because it caused the most suffering. Indeed, several passages of Thucydides' book are written "with an intensity of feeling hardly exceeded by
Sappho Sappho (; el, Σαπφώ ''Sapphō'' ; Aeolic Greek ''Psápphō''; c. 630 – c. 570 BC) was an Archaic Greek poet from Eresos or Mytilene on the island of Lesbos. Sappho is known for her Greek lyric, lyric poetry, written to be sung while a ...

Sappho
herself." In his '' Open Society and Its Enemies'',
Karl R. Popper Sir Karl Raimund Popper (28 July 1902 – 17 September 1994) was an Austrian-British philosopher, academic and social commentator. One of the 20th century's most influential philosophers of science, Popper is known for his rejection of the cl ...

Karl R. Popper
writes that Thucydides was the "greatest historian, perhaps, who ever lived." Thucydides' work, however, Popper goes on to say, represents "an interpretation, a point of view; and in this we need not agree with him." In the war between Athenian democracy and the "arrested oligarchic tribalism of Sparta," we must never forget Thucydides' "involuntary bias," and that "his heart was not with Athens, his native city:"
"Although he apparently did not belong to the extreme wing of the Athenian oligarchic clubs who conspired throughout the war with the enemy, he was certainly a member of the oligarchic party, and a friend neither of the Athenian people, the demos, who had exiled him, nor of its imperialist policy."


Influence

Thucydides' ''History'' has been enormously influential in both ancient and modern
historiography Historiography is the study of the methods of historians in developing history as an academic discipline, and by extension is any body of historical work on a particular subject. The historiography of a specific topic covers how historians hav ...

historiography
. It was embraced by many of the author's contemporaries and immediate successors with enthusiasm; indeed, many authors sought to complete the unfinished history. For example,
Xenophon Xenophon of Athens (; grc, Ξενοφῶν Xenophon of Athens (; grc-gre, Ξενοφῶν, , ''Xenophōn''; – 354 BC) was an Athenian , image_skyline = File:Athens Montage L.png, center, 275px, alt=Athens mont ...

Xenophon
wrote his ''
Hellenica ''Hellenica'' ( grc, Ἑλληνικά) simply means writings on Greek (Hellenic) subjects. Several histories of 4th-century Greece, written in the mould of Thucydides Thucydides (; grc, Θουκυδίδης ' ; BC) was an Athenian historian ...
'' as a continuation of Thucydides' work, beginning at the exact moment that Thucydides' ''History'' leaves off. Xenophon's work, however, is generally considered inferior in style and accuracy compared with Thucydides'. In later antiquity, Thucydides' reputation suffered somewhat, with critics such as
Dionysius of Halicarnassus Dionysius of Halicarnassus ( grc, Διονύσιος Ἀλεξάνδρου Ἁλικαρνασσεύς, ; – after 7 BC) was a Greek historian Hellenic historiography (or Greek historiography) involves efforts made by Greeks to track and r ...
rejecting the ''History'' as turgid and excessively austere.
Lucian Lucian of Samosata, '; la, Lucianus Samosatensis (Ancient Greek Ancient Greek includes the forms of the Greek language Greek ( el, label=Modern Greek Modern Greek (, , or , ''Kiní Neoellinikí Glóssa''), generally referre ...
also parodies it (among others) in his satire ''The True Histories''.
Woodrow Wilson Thomas Woodrow Wilson (December 28, 1856February 3, 1924) was an American politician and academic who served as the 28th president of the United States The president of the United States (POTUS) is the head of state and head of gove ...

Woodrow Wilson
read the ''History'' on his voyage across the Atlantic to the Versailles Peace Conference. In the 17th century, English philosopher
Thomas Hobbes Thomas Hobbes ( ; sometimes known as Thomas Hobbes of Malmesbury; 5 April 1588 – 4 December 1679) was an English English usually refers to: * English language English is a West Germanic languages, West Germanic language first sp ...
wrote about Thucydides as follows:
It hath been noted by divers, that Homer in poesy, Aristotle in philosophy, Demosthenes in eloquence, and others of the ancients in other knowledge, do still maintain their primacy: none of them exceeded, some not approached, by any in these later ages. And in the number of these is justly ranked also our Thucydides; a workman no less perfect in his work, than any of the former; and in whom (I believe with many others) the faculty of writing history is at the highest.


Manuscripts

The most important manuscripts include: Codex Parisinus suppl. Gr. 255, Codex Vaticanus 126, Codex Laurentianus LXIX.2, Codex Palatinus 252, Codex Monacensis 430, Codex Monacensis 228, and Codex Britannicus II, 727. Grenfell and Hunt discovered about 20 papyrus fragments copied some time between the 1st and 6th centuries AD in
Oxyrhynchus Oxyrhynchus (; grc-gre, Ὀξύρρυγχος, Oxýrrhynchos, sharp-nosed; ancient Egyptian language, Egyptian ''Pr-Medjed''; cop, or , ''Pemdje''; ar, البهنسا, ''Al-Bahnasa'') is a city in Middle Egypt located about 160 km sou ...

Oxyrhynchus
, including
Papyrus Oxyrhynchus 16 Papyrus Oxyrhynchus 16 (P. Oxy. 16) is a fragment of the fourth book of the ''History of the Peloponnesian War'' by Thucydides (chapters 36-41) in Greek language, Greek. It was discovered by Bernard Grenfell, Grenfell and Arthur Surridge Hunt, Hunt ...
and 17.


Outline of the work

* Book 1 ** The state of Greece from the earliest times to the commencement of the
Peloponnesian War The Peloponnesian War (431–404 BC) was an ancient Greek Ancient Greek includes the forms of the Greek language Greek ( el, label=Modern Greek Modern Greek (, , or , ''Kiní Neoellinikí Glóssa''), generally referred to ...

Peloponnesian War
, also known as the Archaeology. 1.1–1.19. ** Methodological excursus. 1.20–1.23 ** Causes of the war (433–432 BC) 1.24–1.66 *** The Affair of
Epidamnus The ancient Greek Ancient Greek includes the forms of the Greek language used in ancient Greece and the classical antiquity, ancient world from around 1500 BC to 300 BC. It is often roughly divided into the following periods: Mycenaean Gr ...
. 1.24–1.55 *** The Affair of
Potidaea __NOTOC__ Potidaea (; grc, Ποτίδαια, ''Potidaia'', also Ποτείδαια, ''Poteidaia'') was a colony In political science Political science is the scientific study of politics Politics (from , ) is the set of activi ...
. 1.56–1.66 ** Congress of the
Peloponnesian League The Peloponnesian League was an alliance in the Peloponnesus The Peloponnese (), Peloponnesia, or Peloponnesus (; el, Πελοπόννησος, Pelopónnēsos, ) is a peninsula A peninsula ( la, paeninsula from ' "almost" and ' "island") ...
at
Lacedaemon Sparta (Doric Greek: Σπάρτα, ''Spártā''; Attic Greek: wikt:Σπάρτη, Σπάρτη, ''Spártē'') was a prominent city-state in ancient Greece. In antiquity, the city-state was known as Lacedaemon (, ), while the name Sparta refe ...
. 1.67–1.88 *** The Speech of the Corinthians. 1.68–1.71 *** The Speech of the Athenian envoys. 1.73–1.78 *** The Speech of Archidamus. 1.80–1.85 *** The Speech of Sthenelaidas. 1.86 ** From the end of the Persian War to the beginning of the Peloponnesian War, also known as the Pentecontaetia. 1.89–1.117 *** The progress from supremacy to empire. ** Second congress at Lacedaemon and the Corinthian Speech. 1.119–1.125 ** Diplomatic maneuvering. 1.126–1.139 *** Excursus on Cylon. 1.126–1.127 *** Excursus on
PausaniasPausanias (; Greek language, Greek: Παυσανίας) is the name of several people: *Pausanias of Athens, lover of the poet Agathon and a character in Plato's ''Symposium'' *Pausanias (general), Spartan general and regent of the 5th century BC *Pa ...
and
Themistocles Themistocles (; grc-gre, Θεμιστοκλῆς ; "Glory of the Law"; c. 524–459 BC) was an Athenian , image_skyline = File:Athens Montage L.png, center, 275px, alt=Athens montage. Clicking on an image in ...

Themistocles
. 1.128–1.138 **
Pericles Pericles (; grc-gre, Περικλῆς; c. 495 – 429 BC) was a Greek#REDIRECT Greek Greek may refer to: Greece Anything of, from, or related to Greece Greece ( el, Ελλάδα, , ), officially the Hellenic Republic, is a country ...

Pericles
' first speech. 1.140–1.145 * Book 2 (431–428 BC) ** War begins with Thebes' attempt to subvert
Plataea Plataea or Plataia (; grc, wikt:Πλάταια, Πλάταια), also Plataeae or Plataiai (; grc, wikt:Πλαταιαί, Πλαταιαί), was an ancient city, located in Greece in southeastern Boeotia, south of Thebes (Boeotia), Thebes.Mi ...

Plataea
. 2.1–2.6 ** Account of the mobilization of and list of the allies of the two combatants. 2.7–2.9 ** First invasion of
Attica Attica ( el, Αττική, Ancient Greek Ancient Greek includes the forms of the Greek language Greek ( el, label=Modern Greek Modern Greek (, , or , ''Kiní Neoellinikí Glóssa''), generally referred to by speakers simply a ...

Attica
. 2.10–2.23 *** Archidamus leads the Peloponnesian army into Attica. 2.10–2.12 *** Athenian preparations and abandonment of the countryside. 2.13–2.14 *** Excursus on Athenian synoikism. 2.15–2.16 *** Difficult conditions in
Athens , image_skyline = File:Athens Montage L.png, center, 275px, alt=Athens montage. Clicking on an image in the picture causes the browser to load the appropriate article. rect 15 15 985 460 Acropolis of Athens rect 15 475 48 ...
for refugees from countryside. 2.17 *** Archidamus ravages Oenoe and
Acharnai Acharnae or Acharnai (; grc, Ἀχαρναί) was a ''deme'' of ancient Athens. It was part of the phyle Oineis. Acharnae, according to Thucydides, was the largest deme in Attica. In the fourth century BCE, 22 of the 500 members of the boul ...
. 2.18–2.20 *** Athenian fury and anger at
Pericles Pericles (; grc-gre, Περικλῆς; c. 495 – 429 BC) was a Greek#REDIRECT Greek Greek may refer to: Greece Anything of, from, or related to Greece Greece ( el, Ελλάδα, , ), officially the Hellenic Republic, is a country ...

Pericles
. 2.21–2.22 ** Athenian naval counterattacks along coast of
Peloponnese The Peloponnese (), Peloponnesia, or Peloponnesus (; el, Πελοπόννησος, Pelopónnēsos, ) is a peninsula A peninsula ( la, paeninsula from ' "almost" and ' "island") is a landform surrounded by water on most of its border while b ...
and islands. 2.23–2.32 **
Pericles' Funeral Oration "Pericles's Funeral Oration" (Ancient Greek Ancient Greek includes the forms of the Greek language Greek ( el, label=Modern Greek Modern Greek (, , or , ''Kiní Neoellinikí Glóssa''), generally referred to by speakers simply ...
. 2.34–2.46 ** The
plague of Athens The Plague of Athens ( grc, Λοιμὸς τῶν Ἀθηνῶν}, ) was an epidemic An epidemic (from Greek#REDIRECT Greek Greek may refer to: Greece Anything of, from, or related to Greece Greece ( el, Ελλάδα, , ), officially th ...
. 2.47–2.54 ** Second invasion of
Attica Attica ( el, Αττική, Ancient Greek Ancient Greek includes the forms of the Greek language Greek ( el, label=Modern Greek Modern Greek (, , or , ''Kiní Neoellinikí Glóssa''), generally referred to by speakers simply a ...

Attica
and Athenian naval counterattacks. 2.55–2.58 **
Pericles Pericles (; grc-gre, Περικλῆς; c. 495 – 429 BC) was a Greek#REDIRECT Greek Greek may refer to: Greece Anything of, from, or related to Greece Greece ( el, Ελλάδα, , ), officially the Hellenic Republic, is a country ...

Pericles
' third speech, defending his position and policy. 2.59–2.64 **
Thucydides Thucydides (; grc-gre, Θουκυδίδης ; BC) was an Athenian , image_skyline = File:Athens Montage L.png, center, 275px, alt=Athens montage. Clicking on an image in the picture causes the browser to load the app ...
' estimate of
Pericles Pericles (; grc-gre, Περικλῆς; c. 495 – 429 BC) was a Greek#REDIRECT Greek Greek may refer to: Greece Anything of, from, or related to Greece Greece ( el, Ελλάδα, , ), officially the Hellenic Republic, is a country ...

Pericles
' qualities and the causes for
Athens , image_skyline = File:Athens Montage L.png, center, 275px, alt=Athens montage. Clicking on an image in the picture causes the browser to load the appropriate article. rect 15 15 985 460 Acropolis of Athens rect 15 475 48 ...
' eventual defeat. 2.65 ** Diplomacy and skirmishes in
Thrace Thrace (; el, Θράκη, Thráki; bg, Тракия, Trakiya; tr, Trakya) or Thrake is a geographical and historical region in Southeast Europe, now split among Bulgaria, Greece, and Turkey, which is bounded by the Balkan Mountains to th ...
, the islands, and the Northeast. 2.66–2.69 ** Fall of Potidaea. 2.70 ** Investment of
Plataea Plataea or Plataia (; grc, wikt:Πλάταια, Πλάταια), also Plataeae or Plataiai (; grc, wikt:Πλαταιαί, Πλαταιαί), was an ancient city, located in Greece in southeastern Boeotia, south of Thebes (Boeotia), Thebes.Mi ...

Plataea
. 2.71–2.78 ** Naval victories of
Phormio Phormio ( el, Φορμίων ''Phormion'', ''gen''.: Φορμίωνος), the son of Asopius, was an Athenian , image_skyline = File:Athens Montage L.png, center, 275px, alt=Athens montage. Clicking on an image in the pi ...
in the Northeast. 2.80–2.92 ** Threat of raid on the
Piraeus Piraeus ( ; el, Πειραιάς ; grc, Πειραιεύς ) is a port city The Porticciolo del Cedas port in Trieste.html"_;"title="Barcola_near_Trieste">Barcola_near_Trieste,_a_small_local_port A_port_is_a_ Barcola_near_Tr ...

Piraeus
. 2.93–2.94 **
Thracian The Thracians (; grc, Θρᾷκες ''Thrāikes''; la, Thraci) were an Indo-European speaking people, who inhabited large parts of Eastern Eastern may refer to: Transportation *China Eastern Airlines, a current Chinese airline based in S ...
campaign in
Macedon Macedonia (; grc-gre, Μακεδονία), also called Macedon (), was an Classical antiquity, ancient monarchy, kingdom on the periphery of Archaic Greece, Archaic and Classical Greece, and later the dominant state of Hellenistic Greece. Th ...

Macedon
ia under
Sitalces Sitalces (Sitalkes) (; Ancient Greek Ancient Greek includes the forms of the Greek language Greek ( el, label=Modern Greek Modern Greek (, , or , ''Kiní Neoellinikí Glóssa''), generally referred to by speakers simply as Greek ...
. 2.95–2.101 * Book 3 (428–425 BC) ** Annual invasion of
Attica Attica ( el, Αττική, Ancient Greek Ancient Greek includes the forms of the Greek language Greek ( el, label=Modern Greek Modern Greek (, , or , ''Kiní Neoellinikí Glóssa''), generally referred to by speakers simply a ...

Attica
. 3.1 ** Revolt of Mytilene. 3.2–3.50 *** Speech of Mytilenian envoys to
Sparta Sparta (Doric Greek Doric or Dorian ( grc, Δωρισμός, Dōrismós) was an . Its variants were spoken in the southern and eastern as well as in , , , , , some islands in the southern and some cities on the south east coast of ...

Sparta
at Olympia, asking for help. 3.9–3.14 *** Sparta accepts
Lesbos Lesbos or Lesvos (, also ; el, Λέσβος, Lésvos ) is a Greek island located in the northeastern Aegean Sea The Aegean Sea ; tr, Ege Denizi is an elongated embayment A bay is a recessed, coastal body of water that directly con ...
as an ally and prepares to counter the Athenians. 3.15 ***
Mytilene Mytilene (; el, Μυτιλήνη, Mytilíni ) is the capital city, capital of the Greece, Greek island of Lesbos, and its port. It is also the capital and administrative center of the North Aegean Region, and hosts the headquarters of the Unive ...

Mytilene
surrenders to Athens despite Spartan support. 3.28 ***
Mytilenian Debate The Mytilenean Debate (also spelled "Mytilenaean Debate") was the Athenian Assembly The ekklesia in Athens convened on a hill called the Pnyx The ecclesia or ekklesia ( el, ) was the assembly of the citizens in the democratic city-states of a ...
. 3.37–3.50 ** Fall of
Plataea Plataea or Plataia (; grc, wikt:Πλάταια, Πλάταια), also Plataeae or Plataiai (; grc, wikt:Πλαταιαί, Πλαταιαί), was an ancient city, located in Greece in southeastern Boeotia, south of Thebes (Boeotia), Thebes.Mi ...

Plataea
. 3.20–3.24, 3.52–68 *** Some Plataeans escape. 3.20–3.24. ***
Plataea Plataea or Plataia (; grc, wikt:Πλάταια, Πλάταια), also Plataeae or Plataiai (; grc, wikt:Πλαταιαί, Πλαταιαί), was an ancient city, located in Greece in southeastern Boeotia, south of Thebes (Boeotia), Thebes.Mi ...

Plataea
surrenders. 3.52. *** Trial and execution of the Plataeans. 3.53–3.68. **** Speech of Plataeans, 3.53–3.59 **** Speech of the Thebans. 3.61–3.67 ** Revolution at
Corcyra Corfu (, ) or Kerkyra ( el, Κέρκυρα, Kérkyra, ), ; ; la, Corcyra. is a Greek islands, Greek island located in the Ionian Sea, of the Ionian Islands, and, including its small satellite islands, forms the margin of the northwestern fronti ...

Corcyra
. 3.70–3.85 ***
Thucydides Thucydides (; grc-gre, Θουκυδίδης ; BC) was an Athenian , image_skyline = File:Athens Montage L.png, center, 275px, alt=Athens montage. Clicking on an image in the picture causes the browser to load the app ...
' account of the evils of civil strife. 3.82–3.84 ** Athenian campaigns in
Sicily (man) it, Siciliana (woman) , population_note = , population_blank1_title = , population_blank1 = , demographics_type1 = Ethnicity , demographics1_footnotes = , demographi ...

Sicily
. 3.86, 3.90, 3.99, 3.103, 3.115–3.116 ** Tsunami and inquiry into its causes 3.89.2–5 ** Campaigns of
Demosthenes Demosthenes (; el, Δημοσθένης, translit=Dēmosthénēs; ; 384 – 12 October 322 BC) was a statesman and orator of . His constitute a significant expression of contemporary Athenian intellectual prowess and provide an insight in ...
in western Greece. 3.94–3.98, 3.100–3.102, 3.105–3.114 ** Spartans establish
Heraclea in Trachis , alternate_name = Trachis (Τραχίς) , image = Heraclea in Trachis.jpg , alt = , caption = The site of Heraclea in Trachis. , map_type = Greece , map_alt = , map_size = 250 , location = Greece Greece ( el, Ελλάδα, ...

Heraclea in Trachis
. 3.92–3.93 ** Athenians purify
Delos The island of Delos (; el, Δήλος ; Attic Greek, Attic: , Doric Greek, Doric: ), near Mykonos, near the centre of the Cyclades archipelago, is one of the most important mythological, historical, and archaeological sites in Greece. The excava ...

Delos
. 3.104 * Book 4 (425–423 BC) ** Annual invasion of Attica. 4.2 ** Athenians en route to
Sicily (man) it, Siciliana (woman) , population_note = , population_blank1_title = , population_blank1 = , demographics_type1 = Ethnicity , demographics1_footnotes = , demographi ...

Sicily
occupy Pylos in the
Peloponnese The Peloponnese (), Peloponnesia, or Peloponnesus (; el, Πελοπόννησος, Pelopónnēsos, ) is a peninsula A peninsula ( la, paeninsula from ' "almost" and ' "island") is a landform surrounded by water on most of its border while b ...
. 4.2–4.6 *** King Agis of
Sparta Sparta (Doric Greek Doric or Dorian ( grc, Δωρισμός, Dōrismós) was an . Its variants were spoken in the southern and eastern as well as in , , , , , some islands in the southern and some cities on the south east coast of ...

Sparta
cuts short the invasion of
Attica Attica ( el, Αττική, Ancient Greek Ancient Greek includes the forms of the Greek language Greek ( el, label=Modern Greek Modern Greek (, , or , ''Kiní Neoellinikí Glóssa''), generally referred to by speakers simply a ...

Attica
to return to the
Peloponnese The Peloponnese (), Peloponnesia, or Peloponnesus (; el, Πελοπόννησος, Pelopónnēsos, ) is a peninsula A peninsula ( la, paeninsula from ' "almost" and ' "island") is a landform surrounded by water on most of its border while b ...
. 4.6 ** Concerted Spartan attack on the Athenian fort at Pylos. 4.8–4.15 *** The Athenian general
Demosthenes Demosthenes (; el, Δημοσθένης, translit=Dēmosthénēs; ; 384 – 12 October 322 BC) was a statesman and orator of . His constitute a significant expression of contemporary Athenian intellectual prowess and provide an insight in ...
coordinates the defense of
Pylos Pylos (, ; el, Πύλος), historically also known as Navarino, is a town and a former municipality A municipality is usually a single administrative division Administrative division, administrative unitArticle 3(1). , country subdiv ...

Pylos
and rouses the troops with a speech. 4.9–4.10 *** The Spartan commander
Brasidas BrasidasBrasidas ( el, Βρασίδας, died 422 BC) was the most distinguished Spartan officer during the first decade of the Peloponnesian War. Biography Brasidas was the son of Tellis (Τέλλις) and Argileonis, and won his first laurels b ...
distinguishes himself for bravery. 4.11–4.12 ** The Athenians defeat the Spartan assault on Pylos and cut off a garrison of
Spartiates A Spartiates (cf. its plural Spartiatae 'Spartans') spärshēˈātē(z)or Spartiate spärshēˌāt(from respectively the Latin and French forms corresponding to Classical- el, and pl. Σπᾰρτῐᾱ́ται) or ''Homoios'' (pl. ''H ...

Spartiates
on the adjacent island of
Sphacteria Sphacteria ( el, Σφακτηρία - ''Sfaktiria'') also known as Sphagia (Σφαγία) is a small island at the entrance to the bay of Pylos in the Peloponnese, Greece. It was the site of three battles: *the 425 BC Battle of Sphacteria in the Pe ...

Sphacteria
. 4.13–4.14 ** The Spartans, concerned for the men on the island, conclude an immediate armistice and send an embassy to
Athens , image_skyline = File:Athens Montage L.png, center, 275px, alt=Athens montage. Clicking on an image in the picture causes the browser to load the appropriate article. rect 15 15 985 460 Acropolis of Athens rect 15 475 48 ...
to negotiate peace. 4.13–4.22 *** The speech of the Spartan ambassadors offers to peace and alliance to
Athens , image_skyline = File:Athens Montage L.png, center, 275px, alt=Athens montage. Clicking on an image in the picture causes the browser to load the appropriate article. rect 15 15 985 460 Acropolis of Athens rect 15 475 48 ...
in exchange for the return of the men on
Sphacteria Sphacteria ( el, Σφακτηρία - ''Sfaktiria'') also known as Sphagia (Σφαγία) is a small island at the entrance to the bay of Pylos in the Peloponnese, Greece. It was the site of three battles: *the 425 BC Battle of Sphacteria in the Pe ...

Sphacteria
. 4.17–4.20 *** The Athenian
Cleon Cleon (; grc-gre, wikt:Κλέων, Κλέων, ; died 422 BC) was an Classical Athens, Athenian strategos, general during the Peloponnesian War. He was the first prominent representative of the commercial class in Athenian politics, although he w ...
, speaking in the Assembly, encourages the Athenians to demand the return of the territories surrendered by Athens at the conclusion of the
First Peloponnesian War The First Peloponnesian War (460–445 BC) was fought between Sparta Sparta (Doric Greek Doric or Dorian ( grc, Δωρισμός, Dōrismós) was an . Its variants were spoken in the southern and eastern as well as in , , , , , ...
. 4.21–4.22 ** Events in Sicily. 4.24–4.25 ** Siege of the Spartiates on Sphacteria continues without result. 4.26–4.27 **
Cleon Cleon (; grc-gre, wikt:Κλέων, Κλέων, ; died 422 BC) was an Classical Athens, Athenian strategos, general during the Peloponnesian War. He was the first prominent representative of the commercial class in Athenian politics, although he w ...
takes command at Pylos. 4.27–4.29 **
Battle of Sphacteria The Battle of Sphacteria was a land battle of the Peloponnesian War, fought in 425 BC between Athens , image_skyline = File:Athens Montage L.png, center, 275px, alt=Athens montage. Clicking on an image in the picture ca ...
results in the capture of all the
Spartiates A Spartiates (cf. its plural Spartiatae 'Spartans') spärshēˈātē(z)or Spartiate spärshēˌāt(from respectively the Latin and French forms corresponding to Classical- el, and pl. Σπᾰρτῐᾱ́ται) or ''Homoios'' (pl. ''H ...

Spartiates
trapped there. 4.29–4.41 **
Nicias Nicias (; Νικίας ''Nikias''; c. 470–413 BC) was an Athenian , image_skyline = File:Athens Montage L.png, center, 275px, alt=Athens montage. Clicking on an image in the picture causes the browser to load the ap ...
leads an Athenian attack on
Corinth Corinth ( ; el, Κόρινθος, Kórinthos, ) is the successor to an ancient city, and is a former municipality A municipality is usually a single administrative division Administrative division, administrative unitArticle 3(1). ...

Corinth
. 4.42–4.45 ** End of Corcyraean revolution. 4.46–4.48 ** Athenians capture Cythera, an island off the
Peloponnese The Peloponnese (), Peloponnesia, or Peloponnesus (; el, Πελοπόννησος, Pelopónnēsos, ) is a peninsula A peninsula ( la, paeninsula from ' "almost" and ' "island") is a landform surrounded by water on most of its border while b ...
, and Thyrea, a town in the
Peloponnese The Peloponnese (), Peloponnesia, or Peloponnesus (; el, Πελοπόννησος, Pelopónnēsos, ) is a peninsula A peninsula ( la, paeninsula from ' "almost" and ' "island") is a landform surrounded by water on most of its border while b ...
.
Sparta Sparta (Doric Greek Doric or Dorian ( grc, Δωρισμός, Dōrismós) was an . Its variants were spoken in the southern and eastern as well as in , , , , , some islands in the southern and some cities on the south east coast of ...

Sparta
is hemmed in on all sides and desperate. 4.53–4.57 **
Sicilian
Sicilian
cities make peace in conference at
Gela Gela (, ; grc, Γέλα), is a city and ''comune The (; plural: ) is a Administrative division, local administrative division of Italy, roughly equivalent to a township or municipality. Importance and function The provides essentia ...

Gela
, frustrating Athenian designs on the island. 4.58–65 *** Speech of Hermocrates at Gela. 4.59–4.64 ** Athenian attack on Megara. 4.66–4.74 *** Capture of Nisaea. 4.69 *** Inconclusive engagements at Megara. 4.73 *** Megara eludes Athenian capture. 4.74 ** Invasion of Boeotia. 4.76, 4.89–4.101.2 *** Battle of Delium results in Athenian retreat into a temple, which the Boeotians attack and burn down. 4.90–4.100 **
Brasidas BrasidasBrasidas ( el, Βρασίδας, died 422 BC) was the most distinguished Spartan officer during the first decade of the Peloponnesian War. Biography Brasidas was the son of Tellis (Τέλλις) and Argileonis, and won his first laurels b ...
marches through Thessaly to
Thrace Thrace (; el, Θράκη, Thráki; bg, Тракия, Trakiya; tr, Trakya) or Thrake is a geographical and historical region in Southeast Europe, now split among Bulgaria, Greece, and Turkey, which is bounded by the Balkan Mountains to th ...
and begins to cause Athenian subject cities to revolt. 4.78–4.88 *** Speech of Brasidas to the Acanthians. 4.85–4.87 ** Battle of Amphipolis, Fall of Amphipolis to
Brasidas BrasidasBrasidas ( el, Βρασίδας, died 422 BC) was the most distinguished Spartan officer during the first decade of the Peloponnesian War. Biography Brasidas was the son of Tellis (Τέλλις) and Argileonis, and won his first laurels b ...
. 4.102–4.108 ** Continued successes of
Brasidas BrasidasBrasidas ( el, Βρασίδας, died 422 BC) was the most distinguished Spartan officer during the first decade of the Peloponnesian War. Biography Brasidas was the son of Tellis (Τέλλις) and Argileonis, and won his first laurels b ...
in
Thrace Thrace (; el, Θράκη, Thráki; bg, Тракия, Trakiya; tr, Trakya) or Thrake is a geographical and historical region in Southeast Europe, now split among Bulgaria, Greece, and Turkey, which is bounded by the Balkan Mountains to th ...
. 4.111–4.135 ***
Brasidas BrasidasBrasidas ( el, Βρασίδας, died 422 BC) was the most distinguished Spartan officer during the first decade of the Peloponnesian War. Biography Brasidas was the son of Tellis (Τέλλις) and Argileonis, and won his first laurels b ...
secures the revolt of the garrison of Torone. 4.110–4.116 *** One–year armistice between Athenians and Spartans. 4.117–4.118 *** Scione revolts from Athens to
Brasidas BrasidasBrasidas ( el, Βρασίδας, died 422 BC) was the most distinguished Spartan officer during the first decade of the Peloponnesian War. Biography Brasidas was the son of Tellis (Τέλλις) and Argileonis, and won his first laurels b ...
. 4.120–4.123 *** Truce breaks down. 4.122–4.123. *** Athenians retake Mende (Chalcidice), Mende and besiege Scione. 4.129–4.131. * Book 5 (422–415 BC) ** Death of
Cleon Cleon (; grc-gre, wikt:Κλέων, Κλέων, ; died 422 BC) was an Classical Athens, Athenian strategos, general during the Peloponnesian War. He was the first prominent representative of the commercial class in Athenian politics, although he w ...
and Brasidas. 5.10 ** Peace of Nicias. 5.13–5.24 ** Feeling against Sparta in the
Peloponnese The Peloponnese (), Peloponnesia, or Peloponnesus (; el, Πελοπόννησος, Pelopónnēsos, ) is a peninsula A peninsula ( la, paeninsula from ' "almost" and ' "island") is a landform surrounded by water on most of its border while b ...
** League of the Mantineans, Eleans, Argives, and Athenians. 5.27–5.48 ** Battle of Mantinea (418 BC), Battle of Mantinea and breaking up of the League. 5.63–5.81 ** The Melian Dialogue. 5.84–5.113 ** Fate of Melos. 5.116 * Book 6 (415–414 BC) ** The
Sicilian Expedition The Sicilian Expedition was an Athenian , image_skyline = File:Athens Montage L.png, center, 275px, alt=Athens montage. Clicking on an image in the picture causes the browser to load the appropriate article. rect 15 ...

Sicilian Expedition
. 6.8–6.52 *** Early history of Sicily. 6.1–6.6 *** Speeches of Nicias and Alcibiades. 6.8–6.26 *** Affair of the Hermae. 6.27–6.29, 6.53 *** Departure of the expedition to
Sicily (man) it, Siciliana (woman) , population_note = , population_blank1_title = , population_blank1 = , demographics_type1 = Ethnicity , demographics1_footnotes = , demographi ...

Sicily
. 6.30–6.32 *** Speeches of Hermocrates and Athenagoras at Syracuse, Sicily, Syracuse. 6.33–41 *** Arrival of Athenians in Sicily. 6.42–52 ** Digression on Harmodius and Aristogiton. 6.53–6.58 ** Recall and flight of Alcibiades. 6.60–6.61 ** Athenian victory at Syracuse. 6.62–6.71 *** Debate between Hermocrates and Euphemus at Camarina. 6.72–6.88 ** Alcibiades at Sparta. 6.88–6.93 ** Athenian victories at Syracuse. 6.94–103 *** Spartans dispatch Gylippus to Sicily and clash with Athens at Argos. 6.104–105 * Book 7 (414–413 BC) ** Arrival of Gylippus at Syracuse. 7.1–7.3 ** Fortification of Decelea. 7.19–7.30 ** Successes of the Syracusans. ** Arrival of
Demosthenes Demosthenes (; el, Δημοσθένης, translit=Dēmosthénēs; ; 384 – 12 October 322 BC) was a statesman and orator of . His constitute a significant expression of contemporary Athenian intellectual prowess and provide an insight in ...
** Defeat of the Athenians at Sicilian Expedition, Epipolae. 7.42–7.59 ** Folly and obstinacy of Nicias ** Battles in the Great Harbour ** Retreat and annihilation of the Athenian army. 7.72–7.87 * Book 8 (413–411 BC) ** Disbelief and despair in Athens. 8.1 ** Allies revolt. 8.2–4 ** Persians offer support to Sparta. 8.5 ** Isthmian Festival. 8.9 ** Alcamenes. 8.10 ** Alcibiades encourages Endius to revolt. 8.12 ** Alcibiades encourages Chios to revolt. 8.14 ** Athens reverses law on reserve funds. 8.15 ** Sparta and Persian alliance. 8.18 ** Chians encourage revolt. 8.19 ** Samos commons overthrow upper classes. 8.21 ** Chians and Spartans v Athens and Argos; Ionians defeat Dorians. 8.25 ** Hermocrates prepares “finishing blow” to Athens, Alcibiades in Teichiussa. 8.26 ** Phrynichus = a “man of sense” retreats. 8.27 ** Tissaphernes distributes pay to Spartans. 8.29 ** The Spartan treaty with Persia. 8.37 ** Conflict between Pedaitus and Astyochus. 8.39 ** Slaves desert Chios. 8.40 ** Lichas tries to renegotiate treaty with Persia. The Spartans give not liberty but a “Median master” to the Greeks. 8.43 ** Rhodes revolts. 8.44 ** Astyochus is ordered to kill Alcibiades, who flees from Sparta to Tissaphernes. 8.45 ** Alcibiades advises Tissaphernes to let Athens and Sparta wear each other out. 8.46 ** Alcibiades plots his return to Athens. 8.47–8.48 ** Pissander to pave way for Alcibiades’ return. 8.49 ** Alcibiades betrays Phrynichus. 8.50 ** Phrynichus fortifies Samos. 8.51 ** Alcibiades encourages Tissaphernes to befriend Athens. 8.52 ** Pisander in Athens proposes deal: alliance with Persia, end of democracy, return of Alcibiades. 8.53–8.54 ** Athens defeats Chians, Pedaritus. 8.55 ** Alcibiades’ plans w/ Tissaphernes unravel. 8.56 ** Tissaphernes resolves to keep both sides equal, pays Sparta. 8.57 ** another treaty bet Persia and Sparta. 8.58–8.59 ** Pisander est. oligarchy in Athens, confusion in Samos. 8.63 ** Oligarchy in Athens, popular leaders are killed. “government of the 5,000.” 8.65 ** Oligarchy triumphant. 8.65 ** Popular party suspicious of each other. 8.66 ** Commissioners to frame a new constitution = tyranny of the four hundred. 8.67 ** Pisander, Phrynichus, Theramenes = leaders of the oligarchy. 8.68 ** The 400 with daggers dismiss the council (Boule) . 8.69 ** Oligarchs offer to make peace with Sparta. 8.70 ** Spartan forces move to Athens’ walls. Oligarchs again offer peace w/ Sparta. 8.71 ** Seamen at Samos reject oligarchy. 8.72 ** Turmoil at Samos, the Athenian crews est democracy, kill 30 oligarchs. 8.73 ** Exaggerated report at Samos of horrors at Athens. 8.74 ** Thrasybullus and Thrasyllus leaders of the democratic faction in Samos. 8.75 ** The army replaces oligarchy in Samos, Alcibiades promises alliance with Persia. 8.76 ** Debate in Samos. 8.77 ** Pelop soldiers anxious to fight, Astyochus unwilling to fight at sea. Tissaphernes fleet never arrives. 8.78 ** Athenians reinforced, Pelop unwilling to fight. 8.79 ** Revolt of Byzantium. 8.80 ** Alcibiades recalled, promises Persian aid. 8.81 ** Alcibiades elected general, “put all their affairs in his hands. 8.82 ** Tissaphernes fails to pay Spartan soldiers. 8.83 ** Pelop sailors threaten Astyochus, who is recalled and replaced by Mindarus. 8.84 ** Hermocrates is banished from Syracuse, he opposes Sparta’s alliance with Persia. 8.85 ** Alcibiades prevents Samian soldiers’ attack on Athens, calls for end to the 400. 8.86 ** Tissaphernes/Persia continues policy of letting Athens and Sparta wear each other out. 8.87 ** Alcibiades knew Tissaphernes would never send ships to support Sparta. 8.88 ** Oligarchs in Athens break ranks, Thermenes and Aristocrates fear Alcibiades power in Samos. 8.89 ** Phrynichus, Aristarchus, Pisander, and Antiphon most opposed to Democracy, again appeal to Sparta. Fortify the Piraeus. 8.90 ** The oligarchs’ plans. 8.91 ** The oligarchy collapses. 8.92 ** Oligarchs and soldiers meet on Acropolis and agree to reforms. 8.93 ** Pelop ships appear. 8.94 ** Pelop ships defeat Athenians, Euboea revolts. 8.95 ** Athens despairs. “Lacedaemonians proved the most convenient people in the world for the Athenians to be at war with.” 8.96 ** The 400 are deposed, the 5000 the “best government” in Thuc's lifetime. A “hoplite democracy,” no pay for public service (i.e. no thetes). 8.97 ** Pisander and Alexicles withdraw to Decelea, Aristarchus takes barbarian archers to Oenoe. The oligarchy is over. 8.98 ** Thrasybulus and Thrasyllus victory at sea renews Athens’ hope. 8.103–8.106 ** Alcibiades returns. 8.108 ** Abrupt ending of the history. 8.109


Some translations

* Laurentius Valla, Treviso: J. Rubeus Vercellensis, 1483
Full text
Thomas Hobbes Thomas Hobbes ( ; sometimes known as Thomas Hobbes of Malmesbury; 5 April 1588 – 4 December 1679) was an English English usually refers to: * English language English is a West Germanic languages, West Germanic language first sp ...
, 1628 * William Smith (scholar), William Smith, 1753 * Johann David Heilmann, 1760
Full text
– Richard Crawley, 1874
Full text
– Benjamin Jowett, 1881
Full text
– Benjamin Jowett, 1881 (archival copy) * Edgar C. Marchant, 1900 * Charles Forster Smith, 1919–23
Loeb
* Rex Warner, 1954 * John H. Finley, Jr., 1963 * Walter Blanco, 1998 * Steven Lattimore, 1998 * Bryn Maw
review of Lattimore's translation
which discusses the other major translations as well. *Martin Hammond *Jeremy Mynott, 2013


See also

* Papyrus Oxyrhynchus 17


References


Citations


Bibliography

* Connor, W. Robert, ''Thucydides''. Princeton: Princeton University Press (1984). . * Crane, Gregory
''Thucydides and the Ancient Simplicity: the Limits of Political Realism''
Berkeley: University of California Press (1998). * Hornblower, Simon, ''A Commentary on Thucydides''. 2 vols. Oxford: Clarendon (1991–1996). (vol. 1), (vol. 2). * Hornblower, Simon, ''Thucydides''. London: Duckworth (1987). . * Clifford Orwin, Orwin, Clifford, ''The Humanity of Thucydides''. Princeton: Princeton University Press (1994). . * Pade, Marianne
"Thucydides"
''Catalogus Translationum et Commentariorum'', 8, pp. 104–81. Last accessed 1 March 2016 * Romilly, Jacqueline de, ''Thucydides and Athenian Imperialism''. Oxford: Basil Blackwell (1963). . * Rood, Tim, ''Thucydides: Narrative and Explanation''. Oxford: Oxford University Press (1998). . * Strassler, Robert B, ed. ''The Landmark Thucydides: A Comprehensive Guide to the Peloponnesian War''. New York: Free Press (1996). . * Thucydides
''Thucydidis, olori fil, De bello peloponnesiacoa libri VIII''
Versione Latina, (London 1819)


External links

* * * {{Authority control History books about ancient Greece Books about military history 5th-century BC history books Unfinished books Ancient Greek works Peloponnesian War Ancient Greek military books