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A heliocentric orbit (also called circumsolar orbit) is an
orbit In celestial mechanics, an orbit is the curved trajectory of an physical body, object such as the trajectory of a planet around a star, or of a natural satellite around a planet, or of an satellite, artificial satellite around an object or po ...

orbit
around the
barycenter In astronomy Astronomy (from el, ἀστρονομία, literally meaning the science that studies the laws of the stars) is a natural science that studies astronomical object, celestial objects and celestial event, phenomena. It uses ...
of the
Solar System The Solar SystemCapitalization of the name varies. The International Astronomical Union, the authoritative body regarding astronomical nomenclature, specifies capitalizing the names of all individual astronomical objects but uses mixed "Sola ...

Solar System
, which is usually located within or very near the surface of the
Sun The Sun is the star A star is an astronomical object consisting of a luminous spheroid of plasma (physics), plasma held together by its own gravity. The List of nearest stars and brown dwarfs, nearest star to Earth is the Sun. Many othe ...

Sun
. All
planet A planet is an astronomical body orbiting a star or Stellar evolution#Stellar remnants, stellar remnant that is massive enough to be Hydrostatic equilibrium, rounded by its own gravity, is not massive enough to cause thermonuclear fusion, and ...

planet
s,
comet A comet is an icy, small Solar System body A small Solar System body (SSSB) is an object in the Solar System The Solar SystemCapitalization of the name varies. The International Astronomical Union, the authoritative body regarding astr ...

comet
s, and
asteroid An asteroid is a minor planet of the Solar System#Inner solar system, inner Solar System. Historically, these terms have been applied to any astronomical object orbiting the Sun that did not resolve into a disc in a telescope and was not observ ...

asteroid
s in the Solar System, and the Sun itself are in such orbits, as are many artificial probes and pieces of
debris Debris (, ) is rubble Rubble is broken , of irregular size, shape and texture; undressed especially as a filling-in. Rubble naturally found in the soil is known also as 'brash' (compare )."Rubble" def. 2., "Brash n. 2. def. 1. ''Oxford Engli ...
. The moons of planets in the Solar System, by contrast, are not in heliocentric orbits, as they orbit their respective planet (although the Moon has a convex orbit around the Sun). The barycenter of the Solar System, while always very near the Sun, moves through space as time passes, depending on where other large bodies in the Solar System, such as
Jupiter Jupiter is the fifth planet from the Sun and the List of Solar System objects by size, largest in the Solar System. It is a gas giant with a mass more than two and a half times that of all the other planets in the Solar System combined, but ...

Jupiter
and other large
gas planet A gas giant is a giant planet The giant planets constitute a diverse type of planet A planet is an astronomical body orbiting a star or Stellar evolution#Stellar remnants, stellar remnant that is massive enough to be Hydrostatic equilib ...
s, are located at that time. A similar phenomenon allows the detection of
exoplanets An exoplanet or extrasolar planet is a planet outside the Solar System. The first possible evidence of an exoplanet was noted in 1917, but was not recognized as such. The first confirmation of detection occurred in 1992. This was followed by the ...
by way of the radial-velocity method. The ''helio-'' prefix is derived from the
Greek#REDIRECT Greek Greek may refer to: Greece Anything of, from, or related to Greece Greece ( el, Ελλάδα, , ), officially the Hellenic Republic, is a country located in Southeast Europe. Its population is approximately 10.7 million as of ...
word "ἥλιος", meaning "Sun", and also
Helios Helios; Homeric Greek Homeric Greek is the form of the Greek language that was used by Homer in the ''Iliad'' and ''Odyssey'' and in the Homeric Hymns. It is a literary dialect of Ancient Greek consisting mainly of Ionic Greek, Ionic and Aeol ...

Helios
, the
personification Personification occurs when a thing or abstraction is represented as a person, in literature or art, as an anthropomorphic Anthropomorphism is the attribution of human Humans (''Homo sapiens'') are the most populous and widespread spec ...
of the Sun in
Greek mythology Greek mythology is the body of myth Myth is a folklore genre Folklore is the expressive body of culture shared by a particular group of people; it encompasses the tradition A tradition is a belief A belief is an Attitude (psyc ...
. The first spacecraft to be put in a heliocentric orbit was
Luna 1 ''Luna 1'', also known as ''Mechta'' (russian: Мечта , '' lit.'': ''Dream''), ''E-1 No.4'' and ''First Lunar Rover'', was the first spacecraft A spacecraft is a vehicle or machine designed to fly in outer space. A type of artific ...

Luna 1
in 1959. An incorrectly timed upper-stage burn caused it to miss its planned impact on the
Moon The Moon is Earth's only natural satellite. At about one-quarter the diameter of Earth (comparable to the width of Australia (continent), Australia), it is the largest natural satellite in the Solar System relative to the size of its plane ...

Moon
.


Trans-Mars injection

A ''trans-Mars injection (TMI)'' is a heliocentric orbit in which a propulsive maneuver is used to set a
spacecraft A spacecraft is a vehicle or machine designed to fly in outer space. A type of artificial satellite alt=, A full-size model of the Earth observation satellite ERS 2 ">ERS_2.html" ;"title="Earth observation satellite ERS 2">Earth obse ...

spacecraft
on a
trajectory A trajectory or flight path is the path that an with in follows through as a function of time. In , a trajectory is defined by via ; hence, a complete trajectory is defined by position and momentum, simultaneously. The mass might be a or ...

trajectory
, also known as Mars transfer orbit, which will place it as far as
Mars Mars is the fourth planet from the Sun and the second-smallest planet in the Solar System, being larger than only Mercury (planet), Mercury. In English, Mars carries the name of the Mars (mythology), Roman god of war and is often referred to ...
orbit. Every two years,
low-energy transfer A low-energy transfer, or low-energy trajectory, is a route in space that allows spacecraft to change orbits using very little fuel. These routes work in the Earth–Moon system and also in other systems, such as between the moons of Jupiter. ...
windows open up, which allow movement between planets with the lowest possible
energy In physics Physics is the that studies , its , its and behavior through , and the related entities of and . "Physical science is that department of knowledge which relates to the order of nature, or, in other words, to the regula ...
requirements. Transfer injections can place spacecraft into either a
Hohmann transfer orbit In orbital mechanics, the Hohmann transfer orbit () is an elliptical orbit used to transfer between two circular orbits of different radii around a central body in the same plane. The Hohmann transfer often uses the lowest possible amount of ...

Hohmann transfer orbit
or
bi-elliptic transfer In astronautics Astronautics (or cosmonautics) is the theory and practice of travel beyond atmosphere of Earth, Earth's atmosphere into outer space. Spaceflight is one of its main applications and space science its overarching field. The term ''as ...

bi-elliptic transfer
orbit. Trans-Mars injections can be either a single maneuver burn, such as that used by the
NASA The National Aeronautics and Space Administration (NASA; ) is an independent agency A regulatory agency or regulatory authority, is a Public benefit corporation Public-benefit corporation is a term that has different meanings in differen ...

NASA
MAVEN MAVEN is an American spacecraft orbiting Mars to study the loss of its atmospheric gases to space, providing insight into the history of the planet's climate and water. The spacecraft name is an acronym for "Mars Atmosphere and Volatile Evolu ...
orbiter in 2013, or a series of perigee kicks, such as that used by the
ISRO The Indian Space Research Organisation (ISRO ) is the national space agency of India India, officially the Republic of India (: ), is a country in . It is the by area, the country, and the most populous in the world. Bounded by the ...
Mars Orbiter Mission The Mars Orbiter Mission (MOM), also called ''Mangalyaan'' ("Mars-craft", from ''mangala'', "Mars" and ''yāna'', "craft, vehicle"), is a space probe A space probe or a spaceprobe is a robotic spacecraft that doesn't Earth orbit, orbit the ...
in 2013.Orbiter successfully placed in Mars Transfer Trajectory


See also

*
Astrodynamics Orbital mechanics or astrodynamics is the application of ballistics Ballistics is the field of mechanics Mechanics (Greek Greek may refer to: Greece Anything of, from, or related to Greece Greece ( el, Ελλάδα, , ), offici ...
*
Earth's orbit Earth orbits the Sun at an average distance of 149.60 million km (92.96 million mi), and one complete orbit takes  days (1 sidereal year), during which time Earth has traveled 940 million km (584 million mi). Jean Meeus, ''Astron ...
*
Geocentric orbit A geocentric orbit or Earth orbit involves any object orbit In celestial mechanics, an orbit is the curved trajectory of an physical body, object such as the trajectory of a planet around a star, or of a natural satellite around a planet, ...
*
Heliocentrism Heliocentrism is the astronomical Astronomy (from el, ἀστρονομία, literally meaning the science that studies the laws of the stars) is a natural science that studies celestial objects and phenomena. It uses mathematics ...
* List of artificial objects in heliocentric orbit *
List of orbits 249px , Comparison of geostationary Earth orbit with Galileo Galileo_di_Vincenzo_Bonaiuti_de'_Galilei_(;_15_February_1564 –_8_January_1642)_was_an_Italian_astronomer An_astronomer_is_a_scientist_in_the_field_of_astronomy_who_ ...
*
Low-energy transfer A low-energy transfer, or low-energy trajectory, is a route in space that allows spacecraft to change orbits using very little fuel. These routes work in the Earth–Moon system and also in other systems, such as between the moons of Jupiter. ...


References

{{Portal bar, Physics, Astronomy, Stars, Spaceflight, Outer space, Solar System, Science Orbits Astrodynamics Spacecraft propulsion Orbital maneuvers Exploration of Mars