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Hegemony (, () or ) is the political, economic, or military predominance or control of one
state State may refer to: Arts, entertainment, and media Literature * ''State Magazine'', a monthly magazine published by the U.S. Department of State * ''The State'' (newspaper), a daily newspaper in Columbia, South Carolina, United States * ''Our Sta ...
over others. In
ancient Greece Ancient Greece ( el|Ἑλλάς|Hellás) was a civilization belonging to a period of Greek history from the Greek Dark Ages of the 12th–9th centuries BC to the end of antiquity ( AD 600). This era was immediately followed by the Early Middle ...
(8th century BC – 6th century AD), hegemony denoted the politico-military dominance of a
city-state A city-state is an independent sovereign city which serves as the center of political, economic, and cultural life over its contiguous territory. They have existed in many parts of the world since the dawn of history, including cities such as ...
over other city-states. The dominant state is known as the ''hegemon''. In the 19th century, hegemony came to denote the "Social or cultural predominance or ascendancy; predominance by one group within a society or milieu". Later, it could be used to mean "a group or regime which exerts undue influence within a society". Also, it could be used for the geopolitical and the cultural predominance of one country over others, from which was derived ''hegemonism'', as in the idea that the
Great Powers#REDIRECT Great power#REDIRECT Great power#REDIRECT Great power {{R from other capitalisation ... {{R from other capitalisation ...
{{R from other capitalisation ...
meant to establish European hegemony over
Africa Africa is the world's second-largest and second-most populous continent, after Asia in both cases. At about 30.3 million km2 (11.7 million square miles) including adjacent islands, it covers 6% of Earth's total surface area and 20% of it ...

Africa
,
Asia Asia () is Earth's largest and most populous continent, located primarily in the Eastern and Northern Hemispheres. It shares the continental landmass of Eurasia with the continent of Europe and the continental landmass of Afro-Eurasia with b ...
and
Latin America * pt|América Latina|link=no |image = Latin America (orthographic projection).svg |area = |population = ( est.) |density = |religions = |demonym = Latin American |countries = 20 |dependencies = 14 |languages = Romance languages Ot ...
. In
cultural imperialism Cultural imperialism, also called cultural colonialism, comprises the cultural aspects of imperialism. "Imperialism" here refers to the creation and maintenance of unequal relationships between civilisations, favouring a more powerful civilisatio ...
, the leader state dictates the internal politics and the
societal A society is a group of individuals involved in persistent social interaction, or a large social group sharing the same spatial or social territory, typically subject to the same political authority and dominant cultural expectations. Societi ...

societal
character of the subordinate states that constitute the hegemonic
sphere of influence In the field of international relations, a sphere of influence (SOI) is a spatial region or concept division over which a state or organization has a level of cultural, economic, military, or political exclusivity. While there may be a formal al ...
, either by an internal, sponsored government or by an external, installed government. In
international relations theory International relations theory is the study of international relations (IR) from a theoretical perspective. It seeks to explain causal and constitutive effects in international politics. Ole Holsti describes international relations theories as act ...
, hegemony denotes a situation of (i) great material asymmetry in favour of one state, that has (ii) enough military power to systematically defeat any potential contester in the system, (iii) controls the access to raw materials, natural resources, capital and markets, (iv) has competitive advantages in the production of value added goods, (v) generates an accepted ideology reflecting this status quo; and (vi) is functionally differentiated from other states in the system, being expected to provide certain public goods such as security, or commercial and financial stability. The
Marxist Marxism is a method of socioeconomic analysis that uses a materialist interpretation of historical development, better known as historical materialism, to understand class relations and social conflict as well as a dialectical perspective to vi ...
theory of
cultural hegemony In Marxist philosophy, cultural hegemony is the domination of a culturally diverse society by the ruling class which manipulates the culture of that society — the beliefs and explanations, perceptions, values, and mores — so that the imposed, ...
, associated particularly with
Antonio Gramsci Antonio Francesco Gramsci (, ; ; 22 January 1891 – 27 April 1937) was an Italian Marxist philosopher, journalist, linguist, writer and politician. He wrote on philosophy, political theory, sociology, history and linguistics. He was a founding ...
, is the idea that the
ruling class The ruling class is the social class of a given society that decides upon and sets that society's political agenda. Examples In Marxist philosophy, capitalism is seen to have two social classes, the bourgeoisie which is the ruling class (capital ...
can manipulate the
value system In ethics, value denotes the degree of importance of some thing or action, with the aim of determining what actions are best to do or what way is best to live (normative ethics), or to describe the significance of different actions. Value systems ...
and
mores 300px|A 19th-century children's book informs its readers that the Dutch were a "very industrious race", and that Chinese children were "very obedient to their parents". Mores ( sometimes ; from Latin ''mōrēs'', , plural form of singular ''mōs'' ...
of a society, so that their view becomes the world view (''
Weltanschauung upright=1.8|Religious practices will tie closely to a religion's worldview. A worldview or world-view is the fundamental cognitive orientation of an individual or society encompassing the whole of the individual's or society's knowledge and poi ...
''): in
Terry Eagleton Terence Francis Eagleton (born 1943) is a British literary theorist, critic, and public intellectual. He is currently Distinguished Professor of English Literature at Lancaster University. Eagleton has published over forty books, but remains be ...
's words, "Gramsci normally uses the word hegemony to mean the ways in which a governing power wins consent to its rule from those it subjugates". In contrast to
authoritarian Authoritarianism is a form of government characterized by the rejection of political plurality, the use of a strong central power to preserve the political ''status quo'', and reductions in the rule of law, separation of powers, and democratic v ...
rule, cultural hegemony "is hegemonic only if those affected by it also consent to and struggle over its common sense".


Etymology

From the post-classical Latin word ''hegemonia'' (1513 or earlier) from the Greek word ἡγεμονία ''hēgemonía'', meaning "authority, rule, political supremacy", related to the word ἡγεμών ''hēgemōn'' "leader".


Historical examples


8th–1st centuries BC

In the Greco–Roman world of 5th century BC European
classical antiquity#REDIRECT Classical antiquity#REDIRECT Classical antiquity#REDIRECT Classical antiquity#REDIRECT Classical antiquity {{Redirect category shell|1= {{R from other capitalisation ... {{Redirect category shell|1= {{R from other capitalisation ... {{ ...
, the
city-state A city-state is an independent sovereign city which serves as the center of political, economic, and cultural life over its contiguous territory. They have existed in many parts of the world since the dawn of history, including cities such as ...
of
Sparta Sparta (Doric Greek: Σπάρτα, ''Spártā''; Attic Greek: Σπάρτη, ''Spártē'') was a prominent city-state in ancient Greece. In antiquity, the city-state was known as Lacedaemon (, ), while the name Sparta referred to its main se ...

Sparta
was the ''hegemon'' of the
Peloponnesian League The Peloponnesian League was an alliance in the Peloponnesus from the 6th to the 4th centuries BC, dominated by Sparta. It is known mainly for being one of the two rivals in the Peloponnesian War (431–404 BC), against the Delian League, which was ...
(6th to 4th centuries BC) and King
Philip II of Macedon Philip II of Macedon ( grc-gre|Φίλιππος Β΄ ὁ Μακεδών; 382–336 BC) was the king (basileus) of the kingdom of Macedon from until his assassination in . He was a member of the Argead dynasty of Macedonian kings, the third ...
was the hegemon of the
League of Corinth The League of Corinth, also referred to as the Hellenic League (from Greek Ἑλληνικός ''Hellenikos'', "pertaining to Greece and Greeks"), was a confederation of Greek states created by Philip II during the winter of 338 BC/337 BC after ...
in 337 BC (a kingship he willed to his son,
Alexander the Great Alexander III of Macedon ( grc-gre|Αλέξανδρος}, ; 20/21 July 356 BC – 10/11 June 323 BC), commonly known as Alexander the Great, was a king (''basileus'') of the ancient Greek kingdom of Macedon and a member of the Argead dynasty. ...
). Likewise, the role of
Athens | image_skyline = File:Athens Montage L.png|center|275px|alt=Athens montage. Clicking on an image in the picture causes the browser to load the appropriate article. rect 15 15 985 460 Acropolis of Athens rect 15 475 485 874 ...
within the short-lived
Delian League The Delian League, founded in 478 BC, was an association of Greek city-states, with the number of members numbering between 150 and 330 under the leadership of Athens, whose purpose was to continue fighting the Persian Empire after the Greek vict ...
(478–404 BC) was that of a "hegemon". The super-regional Persian
Achaemenid Empire The Achaemenid Empire (; peo|𐎧𐏁𐏂|translit=Xšāça|translation=The Empire), also called the First Persian Empire, was an ancient Iranian empire based in Western Asia founded by Cyrus the Great. Ranging at its greatest extent from the B ...

Achaemenid Empire
of 550 BC–330 BC dominated these sub-regional hegemonies prior to its collapse. Ancient historians such as
Herodotus Herodotus (; grc|Ἡρόδοτος, ''Hēródotos'', ; BC) was an ancient Greek historian who was born in Halicarnassus in the Persian Empire (modern-day Bodrum, Turkey). He is known for having written the book ''The Histories'' ( grc|Ἱσ ...
( – ).
Xenophon Xenophon of Athens (; grc-gre|Ξενοφῶν, , ''Xenophōn''; – 354 BC) was an Athenian-born military leader, philosopher, and historian. At the age of 30, Xenophon was elected a commander of one of the biggest Greek mercenary armies, the T ...

Xenophon
( – 354 BC) and
Ephorus Ephorus of Cyme (; grc-gre|Ἔφορος ὁ Κυμαῖος, ''Ephoros ho Kymaios''; c. 400330 BC) was an ancient Greek historian known for his universal history. Biography Information on his biography is limited. He was born in Cyme, Aeolia ...
( – 330 BC) pioneered the use of the term ''hēgemonía'' in the modern sense of ''hegemony''. In Ancient
East Asia East Asia is the eastern region of Asia, which is defined in both geographical and ethno-cultural terms. The modern states of East Asia include China, Japan, Mongolia, North Korea, South Korea, and Taiwan. The East Asian states of China, North ...
, Chinese hegemony existed during the
Spring and Autumn period The Spring and Autumn period was a period in Chinese history from approximately 771 to 476 BCE (or according to some authorities until 403 BCE) which corresponds roughly to the first half of the Eastern Zhou period. The period's name derives fro ...
(c. 770–480 BC), when the weakened rule of the
Eastern Zhou Dynasty The Eastern Zhou (; zh|c=|p=Dōngzhōu; 770–256 BC) was the second half of the Zhou dynasty of ancient China. It is divided into two periods: the Spring and Autumn and the Warring States. History In 770 BCE, the capital of the Zhou Kingdom w ...
led to the relative autonomy of the
Five Hegemons The Five Hegemons () refers to several especially powerful rulers of Chinese states of the Spring and Autumn period of Chinese history (770 to 476 BCE), sometimes alternatively referred to as the "Age of Hegemons". There are various lists of five ...
(''Ba'' in Chinese . They were appointed by
feudal Feudalism, also known as the feudal system, was a combination of the legal, economic, military, and cultural customs that flourished in Medieval Europe between the 9th and 15th centuries. Broadly defined, it was a way of structuring society aroun ...
lord conferences, and thus were nominally obliged to uphold the
imperium In ancient Rome, ''imperium'' was a form of authority held by a citizen to control a military or governmental entity. It is distinct from ''auctoritas'' and ''potestas'', different and generally inferior types of power in the Roman Republic and E ...
of the Zhou Dynasty over the subordinate states.


1st–14th centuries AD

1st and 2nd century Europe was dominated by the hegemonic peace of the ''
Pax Romana 400px|AR Antoninianus of [[Gordian III, struck [[Antioch">Gordian_III.html" style="text-decoration: none;"class="mw-redirect" title="Antoninianus of [[Gordian III">Antoninianus of [[Gordian III, struck [[Antioch 243–244 AD with Pax Augusta on ...
''. It was instituted by the emperor [[Augustus, and was accompanied by a series of brutal military campaigns. From the 7th century to the 12th century, the [[Umayyad Caliphate and later [[Abbasid Caliphate dominated the vast territories they governed, with other states like the
Byzantine Empire The Byzantine Empire, also referred to as the Eastern Roman Empire, or Byzantium, was the continuation of the Roman Empire in its eastern provinces during Late Antiquity and the Middle Ages, when its capital city was Constantinople. It surviv ...
paying tribute. In 7th century
India India (Hindi: ), officially the Republic of India (Hindi: ), is a country in South Asia. It is the second-most populous country, the seventh-largest country by land area, and the most populous democracy in the world. Bounded by the Indian Oce ...

India
,
Harsha Harsha (c. 590–647 CE), also known as Harshavardhana, was an Indian emperor who ruled North India from 606 to 647 CE. He was a member of the Vardhana dynasty; and was the son of Prabhakaravardhana who defeated the Alchon Huna invaders, and t ...
, ruler of a large empire in northern India from AD 606 to 647, brought most of the north under his hegemony. He preferred not to rule as a central government, but left "conquered kings on their thrones and contenting himself with tribute and homage." From the late 9th to the early 11th century, the empire developed by
Charlemagne Charlemagne (; ) or Charles the Great or ''Carolus'', whence in English or in German (for this individual, specifically ''Karl der Große''). The French form and the Italian or () come from his nickname ("Charles the Great")., ''Karil' ...

Charlemagne
achieved hegemony in Europe, with dominance over France, Italy and
Burgundy Burgundy (; french: link=no|Bourgogne ) is a historical territory and a former administrative region of east-central France. It is named for the Burgundians, an East Germanic people who moved westwards beyond the Rhine during the late Roman peri ...
. During the 14th century, the
Crown of Aragon The Crown of Aragon (; an|Corona d'Aragón; ca|Corona d'Aragó; es|Corona de Aragón)' ()' (, , )' ()' (). was a composite monarchy, also nowadays referred to as a confederation of individual polities or kingdoms ruled by one king, originated ...
became the hegemon in the Mediterranean Sea.


15th–19th centuries

In ''The Politics of International Political Economy'', Jayantha Jayman writes "If we consider the
Western Western may refer to: Places *Western, Nebraska, a village in the US *Western, New York, a town in the US *Western Creek, Tasmania, a locality in Australia *Western Junction, Tasmania, a locality in Australia *Western world, countries that ide ...
dominated global system from as early as the 15th century, there have been several hegemonic powers and contenders that have attempted to create the world order in their own images." He lists several contenders for historical hegemony.
* Portugal 1494 to 1580 (end of
Italian Wars The Italian Wars, often referred to as the Great Wars of Italy and sometimes as the Habsburg–Valois Wars, were a long series of wars fought between 1494 and 1559 in Italy during the Renaissance. The Italian peninsula, economically advanced but ...
to Spanish-Portuguese Union). Based on [[Portuguese discoveries|Portugal's dominance in navigation. *[[Habsburg Spain|Spain 1516 to 1659 (Ascension of [[Charles I of Spain to [[Treaty of the Pyrenees). Based on the [[Tercio|Spanish dominance of the European battlefields and the global exploration and colonization of the [[New World. * [[Dutch Golden Age|The Netherlands 1580 to 1688 ([[Union of Utrecht|1579 Treaty of Utrecht marks the foundation of the [[Dutch Republic to the [[Glorious Revolution, William of Orange's arrival in England). Based on [[Economic history of the Netherlands (1500–1815)|Dutch control of credit and money. * [[France 1643 to 1763 Since [[Louis XIV to [[Seven Years' War * [[Early modern Britain|Britain 1688 to 1792 (Glorious Revolution to [[Napoleonic Wars). Based on British textiles and command of the high seas. * [[French Revolution and [[Napoleonic France 1789 to 1815 * [[History of the British Isles#19th century|Britain 1815 to 1914 ([[Congress of Vienna to [[World War I). Based on British industrial supremacy and railroads.
[[Philip IV of Spain|Phillip IV tried to restore the Habsburg dominance but, by the middle of the 17th century "Spain's pretensions to hegemony (in Europe) had definitely and irremediably failed." In late 16th and 17th-century Holland, the Dutch Republic's [[Mercantilism|mercantilist dominion was an early instance of commercial hegemony, made feasible with the development of wind power for the efficient production and delivery of goods and services. This, in turn, made possible the Amsterdam [[stock market and concomitant dominance of world trade. In France, King [[Louis XIV of France|Louis XIV (1638–1715) and ([[Emperor of the French|Emperor) [[Napoleon I (1799–1815) attempted French true hegemony via economic, cultural and military domination of most of [[Continental Europe. However, Jeremy Black writes that, because of Britain, France "was unable to enjoy the benefits" of this hegemony. After the defeat and exile of Napoleon, hegemony largely passed to the [[British Empire, which became the largest empire in history, with [[Queen Victoria (1837–1901) ruling over one-quarter of the world's land and population at its zenith. Like the Dutch, the British Empire was primarily seaborne; many British possessions were located around the rim of the [[Indian Ocean, as well as numerous islands in the [[Pacific Ocean and the [[Caribbean Sea. Britain also controlled the [[Indian subcontinent and large portions of
Africa Africa is the world's second-largest and second-most populous continent, after Asia in both cases. At about 30.3 million km2 (11.7 million square miles) including adjacent islands, it covers 6% of Earth's total surface area and 20% of it ...

Africa
. In Europe, Germany, rather than Britain, may have been the strongest power after 1871, but Samuel Newland writes:
Bismarck defined the road ahead as … no expansion, no push for hegemony in Europe. Germany was to be the strongest power in Europe but without being a hegemon. … His basic axioms were first, no conflict among major powers in Central Europe; and second, German security without German hegemony."


20th century

The early 20th century, like the late 19th century was characterized by multiple [[Great Powers but no global hegemon. World War I strengthened the United States and, to a lesser extent, Japan. Both of these states' governments pursued policies to expand their regional [[spheres of influence, the US in [[Banana Wars|Latin America and Japan in [[Empire of Japan|East Asia. France, the UK, Italy, the Soviet Union and later [[Nazi Germany (1933–1945) all either maintained imperialist policies based on spheres of influence or attempted to conquer territory but none achieved the status of a global hegemonic power. After the [[Second World War, the [[United Nations was established and the five strongest [[Global Power|global powers (China, France, the UK, the US, and the USSR) were given permanent seats on the [[U.N. Security Council, the organization's most powerful decision making body. Following the war, the US and the USSR were the two strongest global powers and this created a bi-polar power dynamic in international affairs, commonly referred to as the [[Cold War. The hegemonic conflict was [[Ideology|ideological, between [[communism and [[capitalism, as well as geopolitical, between the [[Warsaw Pact countries (1955–1991) and [[NATO/[[SEATO/[[CENTO countries (1949–present). During the Cold War both hegemons competed against each other directly (during the [[arms race) and indirectly (via [[proxy wars). The result was that many countries, no matter how remote, were drawn into the conflict when it was suspected that their governments' policies might destabilize the [[balance of power (international relations)|balance of power. Reinhard Hildebrandt calls this a period of "dual-hegemony", where "two dominant states have been stabilizing their European spheres of influence ''against and alongside each other''." Proxy wars became battle grounds between forces supported either directly or indirectly by the hegemonic powers and included the [[Korean War, the [[Laotian Civil War, the [[Arab–Israeli conflict, the [[Vietnam War, the [[War in Afghanistan (1978–present)|Afghan War, the [[Angolan Civil War, and the [[Central American crisis|Central American Civil Wars. Following the [[dissolution of the Soviet Union in 1991 the United States was the world's sole hegemonic power.


21st century

Various perspectives on whether the US was or continues to be a hegemon have been presented since the end of the [[Cold War. The American political scientists [[John Mearsheimer and [[Joseph Nye have argued that the US is not a genuine global hegemon because it has neither the financial nor the military resources to impose a proper, formal, global hegemony. Mearsheimer does describe the U.S. as a regional hegemon however. On the other hand, Anna Cornelia Beyer, in her book about counter-terrorism, argues that [[global governance is a product of American leadership and describes it as hegemonic governance. Within [[NATO, moreover, the US remains a dispensable hegemonic force, as seen in the decline in the alliance's external value profile. The [[Socialist Party (France)|French Socialist politician [[Hubert Védrine in 1999 described the US as a hegemonic [[hyperpower, because of its unilateral military actions worldwide. [[United States Department of Defense|Pentagon strategist [[Edward Luttwak, in ''The Grand Strategy of the Roman Empire'', outlined three stages, with hegemonic being the first, followed by imperial. In his view the transformation proved to be fatal and eventually led to the fall of the Roman Empire. His book gives implicit advice to [[Washington, D.C.|Washington to continue the present hegemonic strategy and refrain from establishing an empire. In 2006, author [[Zhu Zhiqun claimed that China is already on the way to becoming the world hegemon and that the focus should be on how a [[peaceful transition of power|peaceful transfer of power can be achieved between the US and China, but has faced opposition to this claim. According to the recent study published in 2019, the authors argued that a "third‐way hegemony" or Dutch‐style hegemony apart from a peaceful or violent hegemonic rise may be the most feasible option to describe [[Chinese Century|China in its global hegemony in the future.


Political science

[[File:Gramsci.png|upleft|
Antonio Gramsci Antonio Francesco Gramsci (, ; ; 22 January 1891 – 27 April 1937) was an Italian Marxist philosopher, journalist, linguist, writer and politician. He wrote on philosophy, political theory, sociology, history and linguistics. He was a founding ...
(1891–1937), the [[Intellectual|theoretician of
cultural hegemony In Marxist philosophy, cultural hegemony is the domination of a culturally diverse society by the ruling class which manipulates the culture of that society — the beliefs and explanations, perceptions, values, and mores — so that the imposed, ...
In the historical writing of the 19th century, the denotation of ''hegemony'' extended to describe the predominance of one country upon other countries; and, by extension, ''hegemonism'' denoted the Great Power politics (c. 1880s – 1914) for establishing hegemony (indirect imperial rule), that then leads to a definition of [[imperialism (direct foreign rule). In the early 20th century, in the field of [[international relations, the Italian [[Marxist philosophy|Marxist philosopher
Antonio Gramsci Antonio Francesco Gramsci (, ; ; 22 January 1891 – 27 April 1937) was an Italian Marxist philosopher, journalist, linguist, writer and politician. He wrote on philosophy, political theory, sociology, history and linguistics. He was a founding ...
developed the theory of [[Cultural hegemony|cultural domination (an analysis of [[economic class) to include [[social class; hence, the philosophic and sociologic theory of
cultural hegemony In Marxist philosophy, cultural hegemony is the domination of a culturally diverse society by the ruling class which manipulates the culture of that society — the beliefs and explanations, perceptions, values, and mores — so that the imposed, ...
analysed the [[Norm (sociology)|social norms that established the [[social structures (social and economic classes) with which the
ruling class The ruling class is the social class of a given society that decides upon and sets that society's political agenda. Examples In Marxist philosophy, capitalism is seen to have two social classes, the bourgeoisie which is the ruling class (capital ...
establish and exert cultural [[Dominance hierarchy|dominance to impose their ''
Weltanschauung upright=1.8|Religious practices will tie closely to a religion's worldview. A worldview or world-view is the fundamental cognitive orientation of an individual or society encompassing the whole of the individual's or society's knowledge and poi ...
'' (world view)—justifying the social, political, and economic ''[[status quo''—as natural, inevitable, and beneficial to every social class, rather than as artificial [[social constructs beneficial solely to the ruling class. From the Gramsci analysis derived the [[political science denotation of hegemony as ''leadership''; thus, the historical example of [[Prussia as the militarily and culturally predominant province of the [[German Empire (Second Reich 1871–1918); and the personal and intellectual predominance of [[Napoleon I|Napoleon Bonaparte upon the [[French Consulate (1799–1804). Contemporarily, in ''[[Hegemony and Socialist Strategy'' (1985), [[Ernesto Laclau and [[Chantal Mouffe defined hegemony as a political relationship of [[power (philosophy)|power wherein a sub-ordinate society (collectivity) perform social tasks that are culturally unnatural and not beneficial to them, but that are in exclusive benefit to the [[Imperialism|imperial interests of the hegemon, the superior, ordinate power; hegemony is a military, political, and economic relationship that occurs as an [[Articulation (sociology)|articulation within political [[discourse. Beyer analysed the contemporary hegemony of the United States at the example of the Global War on Terrorism and presented the mechanisms and processes of American exercise of power in 'hegemonic governance'. According to John Mearsheimer, global hegemony is unlikely due to the difficulties in projecting power over large bodies of water.


Sociology

Academics have argued that in the [[Praxis (process)|praxis of hegemony, imperial dominance is established by means of
cultural imperialism Cultural imperialism, also called cultural colonialism, comprises the cultural aspects of imperialism. "Imperialism" here refers to the creation and maintenance of unequal relationships between civilisations, favouring a more powerful civilisatio ...
, whereby the leader state (hegemon) dictates the internal politics and the
societal A society is a group of individuals involved in persistent social interaction, or a large social group sharing the same spatial or social territory, typically subject to the same political authority and dominant cultural expectations. Societi ...

societal
character of the subordinate states that constitute the hegemonic
sphere of influence In the field of international relations, a sphere of influence (SOI) is a spatial region or concept division over which a state or organization has a level of cultural, economic, military, or political exclusivity. While there may be a formal al ...
, either by an internal, sponsored government or by an external, installed government. The imposition of the hegemon's way of life—an imperial ''[[lingua franca'' and [[Bureaucracy|bureaucracies (social, economic, educational, governing)—transforms the concrete imperialism of direct military domination into the abstract [[Political power|power of the ''status quo'', indirect imperial domination. Critics have said that this view is "deeply condescending" and "treats people ... as blank slates on which global capitalism's moving finger writes its message, leaving behind another cultural automaton as it moves on." Culturally, hegemony also is established by means of [[language, specifically the imposed ''lingua franca'' of the hegemon (leader state), which then is the official source of [[information for the people of the society of the sub-ordinate state. Writing on language and power, Andrea Mayr says, "As a practice of power, hegemony operates largely through language." In contemporary society, an example of the use of language in this way is in the way Western countries set up educational systems in African countries mediated by Western languages. Suggested examples of cultural imperialism include the latter-stage [[Spanish Empire|Spanish and [[British Empires, the 19th- and 20th-century [[Reichs of [[German Unification|unified Germany (1871–1945), and by the end of the 20th century, the United States.


See also

* [[1954 Guatemalan coup d'état|1954 Guatemalan ''coup d'état'' * [[Noam Chomsky * [[Colonialism * [[Dominant ideology * [[David Harvey * [[Hegemonic masculinity * ''[[Imperialism, the Highest Stage of Capitalism'' * [[Monetary hegemony * [[Post-hegemony * [[Regional hegemony * [[Soft power * [[Edward Soja * [[State collapse * [[Supremacism


References


Further reading

* Anderson, Perry (2017). ''The H-Word: The Peripeteia of Hegemony.'' London: Verso. * * * * * * * *


External links

* * *
Mike Dorsher, Ph.D., ''Hegemony Online: The Quiet Convergence of Power, Culture and Computers''


* [https://www.nytimes.com/2008/01/27/magazine/27world-t.html?ex=1359176400&en=1af8c9c386cc212d&ei=5124&partner=permalink&exprod=permalink Parag Khanna, ''Waving Goodbye to Hegemony''] {{Authority control [[Category:Hegemony| [[Category:Power (international relations) [[Category:International relations theory [[Category:Marxist theory