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A hat is a head covering which is worn for various reasons, including protection against weather conditions, ceremonial reasons such as university graduation, religious reasons, safety, or as a
fashion accessory Burberry-brand handbag A fashion Fashion is a form of self-expression, at a particular period and place and in a specific context, of clothing File:KangaSiyu1.jpg, A kanga (African garment), kanga, worn throughout the African Great Lakes ...
. In the past, hats were an indicator of
social status Social status is the level of social value a person is considered to hold. More specifically, it refers to the relative level of respect, honour Honour ( British English) or honor (American English American English (AmE, AE, AmEng, USEng ...
. In the
military A military, also known collectively as armed forces, is a heavily armed, highly organized force primarily intended for warfare War is an intense armed conflict between State (polity), states, governments, Society, societies, or pa ...

military
, hats may denote nationality, branch of service, rank or
regiment A regiment is a military unit Military organization or military organisation is the structuring of the armed forces of a state so as to offer such military capability as a national defense policy may require. In some countries param ...
. Police typically wear distinctive hats such as peaked caps or brimmed hats, such as those worn by the
Royal Canadian Mounted Police The Royal Canadian Mounted Police (RCMP; french: Gendarmerie royale du Canada; french: GRC, label=none), often known as the Mounties, are the federal and national police service of Canada, providing law enforcement at the federal level. The ...

Royal Canadian Mounted Police
. Some hats have a protective function. As examples, the
hard hat A hard hat is a type of helmet predominantly used in workplace environments such as industrial or construction sites to protect the Human head, head from injury due to falling objects, impact with other objects, debris, rain, and electric shock ...
protects construction workers' heads from injury by falling objects, a British police
Custodian helmet The custodian helmet is the modern name applied to the helmet worn by male police officers in the United Kingdom The United Kingdom of Great Britain and Northern Ireland, commonly known as the United Kingdom (UK) or Britain,Usage is mixed ...
protects the officer's head, a
sun hat A sun hat (also known as the floppy hat, harvest hat or field hatInternational Hat Company International Hat Company, formerly named the International Harvest Hat Company, was a St. Louis, Missouri-based manufacturer of commercial hats and milit ...
shades the face and shoulders from the sun, a
cowboy hat The cowboy hat is a high-crowned, wide-brimmed hat A collection of 18th and 19th century men's beaver felt hats A hat is a head covering which is worn for various reasons, including protection against weather conditions, ceremonial reasons ...

cowboy hat
protects against sun and rain and an
ushankaAn ushanka ( rus, уша́нка, p=ʊˈʂankə, ), also called an ''ushanka- hat'' ( rus, ша́пка-уша́нка, p=ˈʂapkə ʊˈʂankə), is a Russian fur cap with ear covering flaps that can be tied up to the crown of the cap, or fastene ...
fur hat with fold-down earflaps keeps the head and ears warm. Some hats are worn for ceremonial purposes, such as the
mortarboard in 1921, wearing a mortarboard and academic dress Academic dress is a traditional form of clothing for academia, academic settings, mainly tertiary education, tertiary (and sometimes secondary schools, secondary) education, worn mainly by t ...

mortarboard
, which is worn (or carried) during university graduation ceremonies. Some hats are worn by members of a certain profession, such as the
Toque A toque ( or ) is a type of with a narrow or no brim at all. Toques were popular from the 13th to the 16th century in Europe, especially France. The mode was revived in the 1930s. Now it is primarily known as the traditional headgear for prof ...
worn by chefs. Some hats have religious functions, such as the
mitre The Mitre Corporation (stylized as The MITRE Corporation and MITRE) is an American not-for-profit A nonprofit organization (NPO), also known as a non-business entity, not-for-profit organization, or nonprofit institution, is a legal entity ...

mitre
s worn by Bishops and the
turban A turban (from Persian Persian may refer to: * People and things from Iran, historically called ''Persia'' in the English language ** Persians, Persian people, the majority ethnic group in Iran, not to be conflated with the Iranian peoples ** Pers ...

turban
worn by
Sikh Sikhs ( or ; pa, ਸਿੱਖ, ', ) are people who adhere to Sikhism, a Monotheism, monotheistic religion that originated in the late 15th century in the Punjab region of the Indian subcontinent, based on the revelation of Guru Nanak. The te ...

Sikh
s.


History

While there are not many official records of hats before 3,000 BC, they probably were commonplace before that. The 27,000-to-30,000-year-old
Venus of Willendorf The Venus of Willendorf is an Venus figurine estimated to have been made around 25,000 years ago. It was found on August 7, 1908, by a workman named Johann Veran or Josef Veram during excavations conducted by archaeologist Archaeology or ...
figurine may depict a woman wearing a woven hat. One of the earliest known confirmed hats was worn by a
Bronze Age The Bronze Age is a prehistoric Periodization, period that was characterized by the use of bronze, in some areas proto-writing, and other early features of urban civilization. The Bronze Age is the second principal period of the Three-age sys ...
man (nicknamed
Ötzi Ötzi, also called the Iceman, is the natural mummy A mummy is a dead human Humans (''Homo sapiens'') are the most abundant and widespread species In biology Biology is the natural science that studies life and living orga ...
) whose body (including his hat) was found frozen in a mountain between Austria and Italy, where he had been since around 3250 BC. He was found wearing a bearskin cap with a chin strap, made of several hides stitched together, essentially resembling a Russian fur hat without the flaps. One of the first pictorial depictions of a hat appears in a tomb painting from
Thebes, Egypt , image = Decorated pillars of the temple at Karnac, Thebes, Egypt. Co Wellcome V0049316.jpg , alt = , caption = Pillars of the Great Hypostyle Hall The Great Hypostyle Hall is located within the Karnak, Karnak temple comple ...
, which shows a man wearing a conical straw hat, dated to around 3200 BC. Hats were commonly worn in ancient Egypt. Many upper-class Egyptians shaved their heads, then covered it in a
headdress Headgear, headwear, or headdress is the name given to any element of clothing A kanga, worn throughout the African Great Lakes region Clothing (also known as clothes, apparel, and attire) are items worn on the body. Typically, clothin ...
intended to help them keep cool. Ancient Mesopotamians often wore conical hats or ones shaped somewhat like an inverted vase. Other early hats include the Pileus, a simple skull-like cap; the
Phrygian cap The Phrygian cap () or liberty cap is a soft conical with the apex bent over, associated in with several peoples in Eastern Europe and , including the , , and , where the name originated. Although Phrygian caps did not originally function ...

Phrygian cap
, worn by freed slaves in Greece and Rome (which became iconic in America during the
Revolutionary WarRevolutionary War(s) may refer to: * American Revolutionary War (1775–1783), the armed conflict between Great Britain and 13 of its North American colonies, which had declared themselves the independent United States of America * French Revolution ...
and the
French Revolution The French Revolution ( ) was a period of radical political and societal change in France France (), officially the French Republic (french: link=no, République française), is a spanning and in the and the , and s. Its ...

French Revolution
, as a symbol of the struggle for liberty against the Monarchy); and the Greek
petasos A ''petasos'' or petasus ( el, πέτασος) is a broad brimmed hat of Thessalian origin worn by ancient Greeks, Thracians and Etruscan civilization, Etruscans, often in combination with the chlamys cape. It was made of wool felt, leather, straw ...

petasos
, the first known hat with a brim. Women wore veils, kerchiefs, hoods, caps and wimples. Like Ötzi, the
Tollund Man The Tollund Man is a naturally mummified corpse of a man who lived during the 4th century BC, during the period characterised in Scandinavia Scandinavia, Sami languages, Sami: ''Skadesi-suolu''/''Skađsuâl'' ( ) is a Subregion#Europe, su ...
was preserved to the present day with a hat on, probably having died around 400 BC in a Danish bog, which mummified him. He wore a pointed cap made of sheepskin and wool, fastened under the chin by a hide thong. St. Clement, the
patron saint A patron saint, patroness saint, patron hallow or heavenly protector is a saint who in Catholic Church, Catholicism, Anglicanism, or Eastern Orthodoxy is regarded as the heavenly advocacy, advocate of a nation, place, craft, activity, class, c ...
of
felt Felt is a textile material that is produced by matting, condensing and pressing fibers together. Felt can be made of natural fibers such as wool Wool is the textile fiber obtained from sheep and other animals, including Cashmere wool, ca ...
hatmakers, is said to have discovered felt when he filled his sandals with
flax Flax, also known as common flax or linseed, is a flowering plant Flowering plants include multiple members of the clade Angiospermae (), commonly called angiosperms. The term "angiosperm" is derived from the Greek#REDIRECT Greek Greek may ...

flax
fibers to protect his feet, around 800 AD. In the Middle Ages, hats were a marker of social status and used to single out certain groups. The 1215
Fourth Council of the Lateran The Fourth Council of the Lateran or Lateran IV was convoked by Pope Innocent III in April 1213 and opened at the Lateran Palace in Rome on 11 November 1215. Due to the great length of time between the Council's convocation and meeting, many bi ...
required that all Jews identify themselves by wearing the Judenhat ("Jewish hat"), marking them as targets for
anti-Semitism Antisemitism (also spelled anti-semitism or anti-Semitism) is hostility to, prejudice, or discrimination against Jews Jews ( he, יְהוּדִים ISO 259-2 , Israeli pronunciation ) or Jewish people are an ethnoreligious group and ...
. The hats were usually
yellow Yellow is the color between green and Orange (colour), orange on the Visible spectrum, spectrum of visible light. It is evoked by light with a dominant wavelength of roughly 575585 Nanometre, nm. It is a primary color in subtractive color syst ...
and were either pointed or square. In the Middle Ages, hats for women ranged from simple scarves to elaborate
hennin The hennin (; nl, henninck ‘cock’ > french: hennin) was a headdress Headgear, headwear or headdress is the name given to any element of clothing which is worn on one's Human head, head. Headgears serve a variety of purposes: * protective ...

hennin
,Vibbert, Marie, ''Headdresses of the 14th and 15th Centuries,'' No. 133, SCA monograph series (August 2006) and denoted social status. Structured hats for women similar to those of male courtiers began to be worn in the late 16th century. The term 'milliner' comes from the Italian city of
Milan Milan (, , Milanese: ; it, Milano ) is a city in northern Italy, capital of Lombardy, and the List of cities in Italy, second-most populous city proper in Italy after Rome. The city proper has a population of about 1.4 million, while its ...

Milan
, where the best quality hats were made in the 18th century. Millinery was traditionally a woman's occupation, with the milliner not only creating hats and bonnets but also choosing lace, trimmings and accessories to complete an outfit. In the first half of the 19th century, women wore bonnets that gradually became larger, decorated with ribbons, flowers, feathers, and gauze
trims Trim or TRIM may refer to: Cutting * Cutting or wiktionary:trim#English, trimming small pieces off something to remove them ** Book trimming, a stage of the publishing process ** Pruning, trimming as a form of pruning often used on trees Decorat ...
. By the end of the century, many other styles were introduced, among them hats with wide brims and flat crowns, the flower pot and the toque. By the middle of the 1920s, when women began to cut their hair short, they chose hats that hugged the head like a helmet. The tradition of wearing hats to
horse racing Horse racing is an equestrian The word equestrian is a reference to Equestrianism, horseback riding, derived from Latin ' and ', "horse". Horseback riding (or Riding in British English) Notable examples of this are: *List of equestrian spo ...

horse racing
events began at the
Royal Ascot Ascot Racecourse ("ascot" pronounced , often pronounced ) is a dual-purpose British racecourse, located in Ascot, Berkshire Ascot () is a town A town is a human settlement. Towns are generally larger than villages and smaller t ...
in Britain, which maintains a strict dress code. All guests in the Royal Enclosure must wear hats. This tradition was adopted at other horse racing events, such as the
Kentucky Derby The Kentucky Derby is a horse racing, horse race held annually in Louisville, Kentucky, United States, almost always on the first Saturday in May, capping the two-week-long Kentucky Derby Festival. The competition is a graded stakes race, Gr ...
in the United States. Extravagant hats were popular in the 1980s, and in the early 21st century, flamboyant hats made a comeback, with a new wave of competitive young milliners designing creations that include turban caps,
trompe-l'œil ''Trompe-l'œil'' ( , ; ) is an art technique that uses realistic imagery to create the optical illusion that the depicted objects exist in three dimensions. Forced perspective is a comparable illusion in architecture. History in painting Th ...

trompe-l'œil
-effect felt hats and tall headpieces made of human hair. Some new hat collections have been described as "wearable sculpture". Many pop stars, among them
Lady Gaga Stefani Joanne Angelina Germanotta ( ; born March 28, 1986), known professionally as Lady Gaga, is an American singer, songwriter, and actress. She is known for her image reinventions and musical versatility. Gaga began performing as a teenag ...

Lady Gaga
, have commissioned hats as publicity stunts.Millinery Madness: Hat Makers With Attitude
/ref>


Famous hatmakers

One of the most famous London hatters is James Lock & Co. of
St James's Street St James's Street is the principal street in the district of St James's St James's is a central district in the City of Westminster, London, forming part of the West End. In the 17th century the area developed as a residential location for th ...
. The shop claims to be the oldest operating hat shop in the world. Another was Sharp & Davis of 6 Fish Street Hill. In the late 20th century, museums credited London-based David Shilling with reinventing hats worldwide. Notable
Belgian Belgian may refer to: * Something of, or related to, Belgium Belgium, ; french: Belgique ; german: Belgien officially the Kingdom of Belgium, is a country in Western Europe Western Europe is the region of Europe Europe is a contine ...

Belgian
hat designers are Elvis Pompilio and Fabienne Delvigne ( Royal warrant of appointment holder), whose hats are worn by European royals.
Philip Treacy Philip Anthony Treacy (born 26 May 1967) is an Irish award-winning haute couture up Ruth Ford in 1947 (photographed by Carl Van Vechten">Ruth_Ford_(actress).html" ;"title="Pierre Balmain adjusting a dress on model Ruth Ford (actress)">Ruth F ...
OBE The Most Excellent Order of the British Empire is a British order of chivalry An order of chivalry, order of knighthood, chivalric order, or equestrian order is an order of knights typically founded during or inspired by the original Cathol ...
is an Irish milliner whose hats have been commissioned by top designers and worn at royal weddings. In North America, the well-known cowboy-hat manufacturer
Stetson Stetson is a brand of hat manufactured by the John B. Stetson Company. Founded in 1865, John B. Stetson Company began when John B. Stetson headed west and created the original hat of the pioneering American West, the “ Boss of the Plains ...

Stetson
made the headgear for the
Royal Canadian Mounted Police The Royal Canadian Mounted Police (RCMP; french: Gendarmerie royale du Canada; french: GRC, label=none), often known as the Mounties, are the federal and national police service of Canada, providing law enforcement at the federal level. The ...

Royal Canadian Mounted Police
and the Texas Rangers. John Cavanagh was one of the notable American hatters. Italian hat maker
Borsalino Giuseppe Borsalino (1834–1900), the founder of Borsalino Borsalino is the oldest Italian company specializing in the manufacture of luxury hats. Since 1857, the manufacture has been based in Alessandria, Piedmont. The founder, Giuseppe Borsali ...
has covered the heads of Hollywood stars and the world's rich and famous.


Collections

The Philippi Collection The Philippi Collection is a collection of clerical, religious and spiritual headdresses. The collection demonstrates the history, shared roots and diversity of religious-clerical head coverings. The Collection The Philippi Collection is a pr ...
is a collection of religious headgear assembled by a German entrepreneur, Dieter Philippi, located in
Kirkel Kirkel is a municipality in the Saarpfalz Saarpfalz (''Saar-Palatinate'') is a Kreis (district) in the south-east of the Saarland, Germany. Neighboring districts are (from west clockwise) Saarbrücken (district), Saarbrücken, Neunkirchen (German ...
. The collection features over 500 hats, and is currently the world's largest collection of clerical, ecclesiastical and religious head coverings.


Styles

This is a short list of some common and iconic examples of hats. There is a longer version at
List of hat styles This is a list of various kinds of hat, contemporary or traditional. Headgear has been common throughout the history of humanity, present on some of the very earliest preserved human bodies and art. __TOC__ See also *List of headgear References ...
.


Size

Hat sizes are determined by measuring the
circumference In geometry Geometry (from the grc, γεωμετρία; ' "earth", ' "measurement") is, with , one of the oldest branches of . It is concerned with properties of space that are related with distance, shape, size, and relative position ...
of a person's head about above the ears. Inches or centimeters may be used depending on the manufacturer.
Felt Felt is a textile material that is produced by matting, condensing and pressing fibers together. Felt can be made of natural fibers such as wool Wool is the textile fiber obtained from sheep and other animals, including Cashmere wool, ca ...
hats can be stretched for a custom fit. Some hats, like
hard hat A hard hat is a type of helmet predominantly used in workplace environments such as industrial or construction sites to protect the Human head, head from injury due to falling objects, impact with other objects, debris, rain, and electric shock ...
s and
baseball cap A baseball cap is a type of soft cap with a rounded crown and a stiff bill projecting in front. The front of the cap typically displays a design or a logo (historically, usually only a sports team, namely a baseball Baseball is a bat ...

baseball cap
s, are adjustable. Cheaper hats come in "standard sizes", such as small, medium, large, extra large: the mapping of measured size to the various "standard sizes" varies from maker to maker and style to style, as can be seen by studying various catalogues, such as
Hammacher Schlemmer Hammacher Schlemmer is an American retailer and catalog company based in Niles, Illinois. History Hammacher Schlemmer began as a hardware store specializing in hard-to-find tools in the Bowery district of New York City in 1848. Owned by propri ...
.
Note that US hat size is a measurement of head diameter in inches. It can be computed from a measurement of circumference in centimeters by dividing by 8, because multiplying 2.54 (the number of centimeters per inch) by (the multiplier to give circumference from diameter) is almost exactly 8.


Gallery

File:Hermes warrior Louvre G515.jpg,
Hermes Hermes (; grc-gre, Ἑρμῆς) is an Olympian deity in ancient Greek religion and Greek mythology, mythology. Hermes is considered the herald of the gods. He is also considered the protector of human heralds, travellers, thieves, mercha ...

Hermes
wearing a
petasos A ''petasos'' or petasus ( el, πέτασος) is a broad brimmed hat of Thessalian origin worn by ancient Greeks, Thracians and Etruscan civilization, Etruscans, often in combination with the chlamys cape. It was made of wool felt, leather, straw ...

petasos
hat, Attic
red-figure Red-figure vase painting is one of the most important styles of figural Greek vase painting Ancient Greek pottery, due to its relative durability, comprises a large part of the archaeological record of ancient Greece, and since there is so much ...
krater A krater or crater ( grc-gre, , ''kratēr'', literally "mixing vessel") was a large vase in Ancient Greece, used for the dilution of wine with water. Form and function At a Greek symposium, kraters were placed in the center of the room. They ...

krater
, . File:Altes Museum-Tanagra-lady with fan.jpg,
Ancient Greek Ancient Greek includes the forms of the Greek language Greek ( el, label=Modern Greek Modern Greek (, , or , ''Kiní Neoellinikí Glóssa''), generally referred to by speakers simply as Greek (, ), refers collectively to the diale ...
statue of a lady with blue and gilt garment, a fan and a sun hat, from
Tanagra Tanagra ( el, Τανάγρα) is a town and a municipality north of Athens , image_skyline = File:Athens Montage L.png, center, 275px, alt=Athens montage. Clicking on an image in the picture causes the browser to load ...
, . File:1822-Millinery-shop-Paris-Chalon.jpg,
Paris Paris () is the Capital city, capital and List of communes in France with over 20,000 inhabitants, most populous city of France, with an estimated population of 2,175,601 residents , in an area of more than . Since the 17th century, Paris ha ...

Paris
millinery '' The Millinery Shop'' by Edgar Degas Hat-making or millinery is the design A design is a plan or specification for the construction of an object or system or for the implementation of an activity or process, or the result of that plan or spe ...
shop, France, 1822. File:Ion Theodorescu-Sion - Iluzie optică, Furnica, 30 oct 1908.JPG, Hat fashions have sometimes been the subject of ridicule. This 1908 cartoon by
Ion Theodorescu-Sion Ion Theodorescu-Sion (; also known as Ioan Theodorescu-Sion or Teodorescu-Sion; January 2, 1882 – March 31, 1939) was a Romania Romania ( ; ro, România ) is a country located at the crossroads of Central Europe, Central, Eastern Europe, ...
, which first appeared in a
Romania Romania ( ; ro, România ) is a country at the crossroads of Central Central is an adjective usually referring to being in the center (disambiguation), center of some place or (mathematical) object. Central may also refer to: Directions ...

Romania
n publication, satirised the popularity of mushroom hats. File:Mode. Hattar. Modeplansch från 1911 - Nordiska Museet - NMA.0033994.jpg, Women's
picture hat A picture hat or Gainsborough hat is an elaborate woman's hat with a wide brim. It has been suggested that the name may be derived from the way the broad brim frames the face to create a "picture". This is a very broad category of hat; some versi ...
s from 1911. File:Douglas Fairbanks at third Liberty Loan rally HD-SN-99-02174.JPEG,
New York City New York, often called New York City to distinguish it from New York State New York is a state State may refer to: Arts, entertainment, and media Literature * ''State Magazine'', a monthly magazine published by the U.S. Department of ...

New York City
, 1918: A large crowd of people, almost all wearing hats. File:Heatfacroty 1.jpg, Family-owned hat factory in
Montevarchi Montevarchi is a town and ''comune The (; plural: ) is a basic Administrative division, constituent entity of Italy, roughly equivalent to a township or municipality. Importance and function The provides many of the basic civil functions ...
, Italy, date unknown. File:A customer tries on a new hat in the millinery department of Bourne and Hollingsworth on London's Oxford Street in 1942. D6596.jpg, Millinery department of Bourne & Hollingsworth, in London's
Oxford Street Oxford Street is a major road in the City of Westminster The City of Westminster is a City status in the United Kingdom, city and London boroughs, borough in Inner London which forms a core part of Central London. It is the site of the Un ...

Oxford Street
in 1942. Unlike most other clothing, hats were not strictly rationed in wartime Britain and there was an explosion of adventurous millinery styles. File:John Paul II Medal of Freedom 2004.jpg,
John Paul II Pope John Paul II ( la, Ioannes Paulus II; it, Giovanni Paolo II; pl, Jan Paweł II; born Karol Józef Wojtyła ; 18 May 19202 April 2005) was the head of the Catholic Church The Catholic Church, often referred to as the Roman Ca ...
wearing a zuchetto.


See also

*
Headgear Headgear, headwear, or headdress is the name given to any element of clothing A kanga, worn throughout the African Great Lakes region Clothing (also known as clothes, apparel, and attire) are items worn on the body. Typically, clothin ...

Headgear
*
List of hat styles This is a list of various kinds of hat, contemporary or traditional. Headgear has been common throughout the history of humanity, present on some of the very earliest preserved human bodies and art. __TOC__ See also *List of headgear References ...
*
List of headgear This is an incomplete list of headgear (that is, anything worn on the head), both modern and historical. Hats File:Akubra-style hat.jpg, Akubra File:98-5-E Helmet, Flight, U.S. Army Air Corps, Type A-II (5123665596).jpg, Leather flight helmet ...
*
List of outerwear Outerwear is clothing File:KangaSiyu1.jpg, A kanga (African garment), kanga, worn throughout the African Great Lakes region Clothing (also known as clothes, apparel and attire) are items worn on the body. Clothing is typically made of fabrics ...


References


External links

* * * {{Authority control Hat makers History of fashion Milliners