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Gymnastics is a
sport Sport pertains to any form of competitive Competition is a rivalry A rivalry is the state of two people or groups engaging in a lasting competitive relationship. Rivalry is the "against each other" spirit between two competing sides. ...

sport
that includes physical exercises requiring
balance Balance may refer to: Common meanings * Balance (ability) in biomechanics * Balance (accounting) * Balance or weighing scale Arts and entertainment Film * Balance (1983 film), ''Balance'' (1983 film), a Bulgarian film * Balance (1989 film), ''Bal ...
,
strength Physical strength *Physical strength, as in people or animals *Hysterical strength, extreme strength occurring when people are in life-and-death situations *Superhuman strength, great physical strength far above human capability *A common attrib ...
,
flexibility Stiffness is the extent to which an object resists deformation Deformation can refer to: * Deformation (engineering), changes in an object's shape or form due to the application of a force or forces. ** Deformation (mechanics), such changes co ...
,
agility Agility or nimbleness is an ability to change the body's position efficiently, and requires the integration of isolated movement skills using a combination of balance Balance may refer to: Common meanings * Balance (ability) in biomechanics * B ...

agility
, coordination, and endurance. The movements involved in gymnastics contribute to the development of the arms, legs, shoulders, back, chest, and
abdominal The abdomen (colloquially called the belly, tummy, midriff or stomach) is the part of the body between the thorax The thorax or chest is a part of the anatomy of humans, mammals, other tetrapod animals located between the neck and the abdomen. I ...

abdominal
muscle groups. Gymnastics evolved from exercises used by the ancient
Greeks The Greeks or Hellenes (; el, Έλληνες, ''Éllines'' ) are an and native to the and the regions, namely , , , , , and, to a lesser extent, other countries surrounding the . They also form a significant , with Greek communities esta ...
that included skills for mounting and dismounting a horse, and from circus performance skills. The most common form of competitive gymnastics is
artistic gymnastics Artistic gymnastics is a discipline of gymnastics Gymnastics is a sport Sport pertains to any form of Competition, competitive physical activity or game that aims to use, maintain or improve physical ability and skills while providing ...
(AG), which consists of, for women (WAG), the events floor, vault, uneven bars, and beam; and for men (MAG), the events floor, vault, rings, pommel horse, parallel bars, and horizontal bar. The governing body for gymnastics throughout the world is the
Fédération Internationale de Gymnastique The International Gymnastics Federation (French: Fédération Internationale de Gymnastique, FIG) is the governing body of competitive gymnastics Gymnastics is a sport that includes physical exercises requiring Balance (ability), balance, S ...

Fédération Internationale de Gymnastique
(FIG). Eight sports are governed by the FIG, which include Gymnastics for All, Men's and Women’s
Artistic Gymnastics Artistic gymnastics is a discipline of gymnastics Gymnastics is a sport Sport pertains to any form of Competition, competitive physical activity or game that aims to use, maintain or improve physical ability and skills while providing ...
,
Rhythmic Gymnastics Rhythmic gymnastics is a sport in which gymnasts perform on a floor with an apparatus: hoop (rhythmic gymnastics), hoop, ball (rhythmic gymnastics), ball, Clubs (rhythmic gymnastics), clubs, ribbon (rhythmic gymnastics), ribbon or Rope (rhythmic ...
, Trampoline (including Double Mini-trampoline), Tumbling,
Acrobatic Acrobatics (from Ancient Greek Ancient Greek includes the forms of the Greek language used in ancient Greece and the classical antiquity, ancient world from around 1500 BC to 300 BC. It is often roughly divided into the following period ...
,
Aerobic Aerobic means "requiring Earth's atmosphere, air," in which "air" usually means oxygen. Aerobic may also refer to * Aerobic exercise, prolonged exercise of moderate intensity * Aerobics, a form of aerobic exercise * Cellular respiration#Aerobic r ...
and
Parkour Parkour () is a training Image:Christer Fuglesang underwater EVA simulation for STS-116.jpg, An astronaut in training for an extravehicular activity mission using an underwater simulation environment on Earth. Training is teaching, or developi ...

Parkour
. Disciplines not currently recognized by FIG include
Wheel gymnastics Wheel gymnastics (German: :de:Rhönradturnen, Rhönradturnen) is a form of gymnastics that originated in Germany. Wheel gymnasts do exercises in a large wheel or hooping, hoop known as the Rhönrad, gymnastics wheel, gym wheel, or German wheel, i ...
,
Aesthetic group gymnastics Aesthetic Group Gymnastics (AGG) is a discipline of gymnastics developed from Finnish "Women's Gymnastics" (naisvoimistelu). The discipline is reminiscent of Rhythmic Gymnastics Rhythmic gymnastics is a sport in which gymnasts perform on a floor ...
, Men's Rhythmic Gymnastics,
TeamGym TeamGym is a form of competition created by the European Union of Gymnastics. The first official competition was held in Finland in 1996. Originally named EuroTeam, TeamGym received its current name in 2002. From 1996 to 2008, the European Cham ...
, and
Mallakhamba Mallakhamb is a traditional sport, originating from the Indian subcontinent, in which a gymnast performs aerial yoga or gymnastic postures and wrestling grips in concert with a vertical stationary or hanging wooden pole, cane, or rope. The word ...
. Participants in gymnastics-related sports can include young children, recreational-level athletes, and competitive athletes at varying levels of skill, including world-class athletes.


Etymology

The word gymnastics derives from the common Greek adjective γυμνός (), by way of the related verb γυμνάζω (''gymnazo''), whose meaning is to "train naked", "train in gymnastic exercise", generally "to train, to exercise". The verb had this meaning because athletes in ancient times exercised and competed without clothing.


History

Gymnastics can be traced to exercise in ancient Greece- in Sparta and Athens. That exercise for that time was documented by Philostratus' work ''Gymnastics''. Exercise in the gymnasium in later dates prepared men for war. The original term for the practice of gymnastics is from the related verb γυμνάζω (gymnazo), which translates as "to exercise naked" because young men exercising trained without clothing. In ancient Greece, physical fitness was a highly valued attribute in both men and women. It wasn't until after the Romans conquered Greece in 146BC that gymnastics became more formalized and used to train men in warfare. Based on Philostratus' claim that gymnastics is a form of wisdom, comparable to philosophy, poetry, music, geometry, and astronomy, Athens combined this more physical training with the education of the mind. At the Palestra, a physical education training center, the discipline of educating the body and educating the mind were combined allowing for a form of gymnastics that was more aesthetic and individual and which left behind the form that focused on strictness, discipline, the emphasis on defeating records, and focus on strength. Don Francisco Amorós y Ondeano, was born on February 19, 1770, in Valencia and died on August 8, 1848, in Paris. He was a Spanish colonel, and the first person to introduce educative gymnastic in France. The German
Friedrich Ludwig Jahn Friedrich Ludwig Jahn (11 August 1778 – 15 October 1852) was a German gymnastics educator and nationalism, nationalist whose writing is credited with the founding of the German gymnastics (turners, Turner) movement as well as influencing the Ger ...

Friedrich Ludwig Jahn
started the German gymnastics movement in 1811 which led to the invention of the parallel bars,
rings Ring most commonly refers either to a hollow circular shape or to a high-pitched sound. It thus may refer to: *Ring (jewellery) A ring is a round band, usually of metal A metal (from Ancient Greek, Greek μέταλλον ''métallon'', "mine ...
, , the
pommel horse The pommel horse is an artistic gymnastics Artistic gymnastics is a discipline of gymnastics Gymnastics is a sport Sport pertains to any form of Competition, competitive physical activity or game that aims to use, maintain or improve ...
and the vault horse. Germans
Charles Beck Charles Beck or Karl Beck (August 19, 1798 – March 19, 1866) was a German-born American classical Classical may refer to: European antiquity *Classical antiquity, a period of history from roughly the 7th or 8th century B.C.E. to the 5th centur ...

Charles Beck
and
Charles Follen Charles (Karl) Theodor Christian Friedrich Follen (September 6, 1796 – January 13, 1840) was a Germans, German poet and patriot, who later moved to the United States and became the first professor of German language, German at Harvard University, ...
and American John Neal brought the first wave of gymnastics to the United States in the 1820s. Beck opened the first gymnasium in the US in 1825 at the
Round Hill SchoolThe Round Hill School for Boys was a short-lived experimental school in Northampton, Massachusetts The city of Northampton is the county seat of Hampshire County, Massachusetts, Hampshire County, Massachusetts, United States. As of the 2010 United ...
in Northampton, Massachusetts. Follen opened the first college gymnasium and the first public gymnasium in the US in 1826 at
Harvard College Harvard College is the undergraduate education, undergraduate college of Harvard University, an Ivy League research university in Cambridge, Massachusetts. Founded in 1636, Harvard College is the original school of Harvard University, the oldest ...
and in Boston, Massachusetts, respectively. Neal was the first American to open a public gymnasium in the US in Portland, Maine in 1827. He also documented and promoted these early efforts in the ''American Journal of Education'' and '' The Yankee'', helping to establish the American branch of the movement. The (FIG) was founded in Liege in 1881. By the end of the nineteenth century, men's gymnastics competition was popular enough to be included in the first modern
Olympic Games The modern Olympic Games or Olympics (french: Jeux olympiques) are leading international sporting events featuring summer and winter sports competitions in which thousands of athletes from around the world participate in a multi-sport event ...
in 1896. From then on until the early 1950s, both national and international competitions involved a changing variety of exercises gathered under the rubric, ''gymnastics'', that included, for example, synchronized team floor calisthenics, rope climbing, high jumping, running, and horizontal ladder. During the 1920s, women organized and participated in gymnastics events. The first women's Olympic competition was limited, only involving synchronized calisthenics and track and field. These games were held in 1928, in Amsterdam. By 1954, Olympic Games apparatus and events for both men and women had been standardized in modern format, and uniform grading structures (including a point system from 1 to 15) had been agreed upon. At this time,
Soviet The Soviet Union,. officially the Union of Soviet Socialist Republics. (USSR),. was a socialist state A socialist state, socialist republic, or socialist country, sometimes referred to as a workers' state or workers' republic, is a sovere ...
gymnasts astounded the world with highly disciplined and difficult performances, setting a precedent that continues. Television has helped publicize and initiate a modern age of gymnastics. Both men's and women's gymnastics now attract considerable international interest, and excellent gymnasts can be found on every continent. In 2006, a new points system for Artistic gymnastics was put into play. With an A Score (or D score) being the difficulty score, which as of 2009 is based on the top 8 high scoring elements in a routine (excluding Vault). The B Score (or E Score), is the score for execution and is given for how well the skills are performed.


FIG-recognized disciplines

The following disciplines are governed by FIG.


Artistic gymnastics

Artistic Gymnastics is usually divided into Men's and Women's Gymnastics. Men compete on six events:
Floor Exercise In gymnastics, the floor refers to a specially prepared exercise surface, which is considered an apparatus. It is used by both male and female gymnasts. The event in gymnastics performed on floor is called floor exercise. The English abbreviation f ...
,
Pommel Horse The pommel horse is an artistic gymnastics Artistic gymnastics is a discipline of gymnastics Gymnastics is a sport Sport pertains to any form of Competition, competitive physical activity or game that aims to use, maintain or improve ...
,
Still Rings The rings, also known as steady rings or still rings (in contrast to flying rings), is an artistic gymnastics apparatus and the event that uses it. It is traditionally used only by male gymnasts, due to its extreme upper body strength requirements ...
,
Vault Vault may refer to: * Jumping, the act of propelling oneself upwards Architecture * Vault (architecture), an arched form above an enclosed space * Bank vault, a reinforced room or compartment where valuables are stored * Burial vault (enclosure) ...
, Parallel Bars, and
Horizontal Bar The horizontal bar, also known as the high bar, is an apparatus used by male Male (♂) is the sex of an organism that produces the gamete known as sperm. A male gamete can fuse with a larger female gamete, or ovum, in the process of fertiliza ...

Horizontal Bar
, while women compete on four:
Vault Vault may refer to: * Jumping, the act of propelling oneself upwards Architecture * Vault (architecture), an arched form above an enclosed space * Bank vault, a reinforced room or compartment where valuables are stored * Burial vault (enclosure) ...
,
Uneven Bars File:Paksaltoliukin.jpg, Nastia Liukin The uneven bars or asymmetric bars is an artistic gymnastics apparatus. It is made of a steel frame. The bars are made of fiberglass with wood coating, or less commonly wood. The English abbreviation for th ...

Uneven Bars
,
Balance Beam The balance beam is a rectangular artistic gymnastics apparatus, as well as the event performed using the apparatus. Both the apparatus and the event are sometimes simply referred to as "beam". The English abbreviation for the event in gymnastics sc ...

Balance Beam
, and
Floor Exercise In gymnastics, the floor refers to a specially prepared exercise surface, which is considered an apparatus. It is used by both male and female gymnasts. The event in gymnastics performed on floor is called floor exercise. The English abbreviation f ...
. In some countries, women at one time competed on the rings, high bar, and parallel bars (for example, in the 1950s in the
USSR The Soviet Union,. officially the Union of Soviet Socialist Republics. (USSR),. was a socialist state that spanned Eurasia during its existence from 1922 to 1991. It was nominally a Federation, federal union of multiple national Republics of ...

USSR
). In 2006, FIG introduced a new point system for Artistic gymnastics in which scores are no longer limited to 10 points. The system is used in the US for elite level competition. Unlike the old code of points, there are two separate scores, an execution score and a difficulty score. In the previous system, the execution score was the only score. It was and still is out of 10.00, except for short exercises. During the gymnast's performance, the judges deduct this score only. A fall, on or off the event, is a 1.00 deduction, in elite level gymnastics. The introduction of the difficulty score is a significant change. The gymnast's difficulty score is based on what elements they perform and is subject to change if they do not perform or complete all the skills, or they do not connect a skill meant to be connected to another. Connection bonuses are where deviation happens most common between the intended and actual difficulty scores, as it can be difficult to connect multiple flight elements. It is very hard to connect skills if the first skill is not performed correctly. The new code of points allows the gymnasts to gain higher scores based on the difficulty of the skills they perform as well as their execution. There is no maximum score for difficulty, as it can keep increasing as the difficulty of the skills increase.


Competitive events for women in artistic gymnastics


= Vault

= In the vaulting events, gymnasts sprint down a runway, to take off onto a vault board (or perform a roundoff or handspring entry onto a vault board), to land momentarily inverted on the hands on the vaulting horse or vaulting table (pre-flight segment), then propel themselves forward or backward off that platform to a two-footed landing (post-flight segment). Every gymnast starts at a different point on the vault runway depending on their height and strength. The post-flight segment may include one or more multiple saltos, or twisting movements. A round-off entry vault, called a Yurchenko, is a commonly performed vault in the higher levels in gymnastics. When performing a Yurchenko, gymnasts round-off so their hands are on the runway while their feet land on the vault board. From the round-off position, the gymnast travels backwards so that the hands land on the vaulting table. The gymnast then blocks off the vaulting platform into various twisting and/or somersaulting combinations. The post-flight segment brings the gymnast to her feet. Less difficult vaults include take off from the vault board with both feet at the same time and either doing a front handspring or round-off onto the vaulting table. In 2001, the traditional vaulting horse was replaced with a new apparatus, sometimes known as a tongue, horse, or vaulting table. The new apparatus is more stable, wider, and longer than the older vaulting horse, approximately 1 m in length and 1 m in width, giving gymnasts a larger blocking surface. This apparatus is thus considered safer than the vaulting horse used in the past. With the addition of this new, safer vaulting table, gymnasts are attempting more difficult vaults.


= Uneven bars

= On the uneven bars, the gymnast performs a timed routine on two parallel horizontal bars set at different heights. These bars are made of
fiberglass Fiberglass (American English American English (AmE, AE, AmEng, USEng, en-US), sometimes called United States English or U.S. English, is the set of varieties of the English language native to the United States. Currently, American Englis ...
covered in wood
laminate Lamination is the technique/process of manufacturing a material Material is a substance Substance may refer to: * Substance (Jainism), a term in Jain ontology to denote the base or owner of attributes * Chemical substance, a material with a ...

laminate
, to prevent them from breaking. In the past, bars were made of wood, but the bars were prone to breaking, providing an incentive to switch to newer technologies. The width and height of the bars may be adjusted to the size needed by individual gymnasts. In the past, the uneven parallel bars were closer together. The bars have been moved increasingly further apart, allowing gymnasts to perform swinging, circling, transitional, and release moves that may pass over, under, and between the two bars. At the Elite level, movements must pass through the handstand. Gymnasts often mount the uneven bars using a
springboard A springboard or diving board is used for Diving (sport), diving and is a board that is itself a Spring (device), spring, i.e. a linear flex-spring, of the cantilever type. Springboards are commonly fixed by a hinge at one end (so they can be f ...
or a small mat. Gymnasts may use chalk (MgCO3) and grips (a leather strip with holes for fingers to protect hands and improve performance) when performing this event. The chalk helps take the moisture out of gymnasts' hands to decrease friction and prevent rips (tears to the skin of the hands); dowel grips help gymnasts grip the bar.


= Balance beam

= The gymnast performs a choreographed routine of up to 90 seconds in length consisting of leaps, acrobatic skills, somersaults, turns and dance elements on a padded beam. The beam is from the ground, long, and wide. This stationary object can also be adjusted, to be raised higher or lower. The event requires balance, flexibility, grace, poise, and strength.


= Floor

= The event in gymnastics performed on the floor is called floor exercise. The English abbreviation for the event in gymnastics scoring is FX. In the past, the floor exercise event was executed on the bare floor or mats such as wrestling mats. The floor event now occurs on a carpeted 12m × 12m square, usually consisting of hard foam over a layer of
plywood Plywood is a material manufactured from thin layers or "plies" of wood veneer In woodworking, veneer refers to thin slices of wood and sometimes bark, usually thinner than 3 mm (1/8 inch), that typically are glued onto core panels (typic ...

plywood
, which is supported by springs generally called a spring floor. This provides a firm surface that provides extra bounce or spring when compressed, allowing gymnasts to achieve greater height and a softer landing after the composed skill. Gymnasts perform a choreographed routine for up to 90 seconds in the floor exercise event. Depending on the level, the gymnast may choose their own routine; however some levels have compulsory routines, where default music must be played. Levels three to six the music is the same for each levels along with the skills within the routine. However, recently, the levels have switched. Now, levels 6–10 are optional levels and they get to have custom routines made. In the optional levels (levels six to ten) there are skill requirements for the routine but the athlete is able to pick her own music without any words. The routine should consist of tumbling passes, series of jumps, leaps, dance elements, acrobatic skills, and turns, or pivots, on one foot. A gymnast can perform up to four tumbling passes, each of which usually includes at least one flight element without hand support. Each level of gymnastics requires the athlete to perform a different number of tumbling passes. In level 7 in the United States, a gymnast is required to do 2–3, and in levels 8–10, at least 3–4 tumbling passes are required.


= Scoring

= Scoring for both Junior Olympic and NCAA level gymnastics uses a 10.0 scale. Levels below Level 9 start from a 10.0 automatically if all requirements for an event are met. Levels 9 and 10, and NCAA gymnastics all start below a 10.0 and require gymnastics to acquire bonus points through connections and skills to increase their start value to a 10.0. During a routine, deductions will be made by the judges for flaws in the form of the technique of a skill. For example, steps on landings or flexed feet can range from .05-.1 off, depending on the severity of the mistake.


Competitive events for men in artistic gymnastics


= Floor

= Male gymnasts also perform on a 12meter x 12meter spring floor. A series of tumbling passes are performed to demonstrate flexibility, strength, and balance. Strength skills include circles, scales, and press handstands. Men's floor routines usually have multiple passes that have to total between 60–70 seconds and are performed without music, unlike the women's event. Rules require that male gymnasts touch each corner of the floor at least once during their routine.


= Pommel horse

= A typical pommel horse exercise involves both single leg and double leg work. Single leg skills are generally found in the form of scissors, an element often done on the pommels. Double leg work, however, is the main staple of this event. The gymnast swings both legs in a circular motion (clockwise or counterclockwise depending on preference) and performs such skills on all parts of the apparatus. To make the exercise more challenging, gymnasts will often include variations on a typical circling skill by turning (moores and spindles) or by straddling their legs (Flares). Routines end when the gymnast performs a dismount, either by swinging his body over the horse or landing after a handstand variation.


= Still rings

= The rings are suspended on wire cable from a point 5.75 meters from the floor. The gymnasts must perform a routine demonstrating balance, strength, power, and dynamic motion while preventing the rings themselves from swinging. At least one static strength move is required, but some gymnasts may include two or three. A routine ends with a dismount.


= Vault

= Gymnasts sprint down a runway, which is a maximum of 25 meters in length, before hurdling onto a springboard. The gymnast is allowed to choose where they start on the runway. The body position is maintained while punching (blocking using only a shoulder movement) the vaulting platform. The gymnast then rotates to a standing position. In advanced gymnastics, multiple twists and somersaults may be added before landing. Successful vaults depend on the speed of the run, the length of the hurdle, the power the gymnast generates from the legs and shoulder girdle, the kinesthetic awareness in the air, how well they stuck the landing, and the speed of rotation in the case of more difficult and complex vaults.


= Parallel bars

= Men perform on two bars executing a series of swings, balances, and releases that require great strength and coordination. The width between the bars is adjustable depending upon the actual needs of the gymnasts and usually 2m high.


= Horizontal bar

= A 2.8  cm thick steel or fiberglass bar raised 2.5 m above the landing area is all the gymnast has to hold onto as he performs giant swings or ''giants'' (forward or backward revolutions around the bar in the handstand position), release skills, twists, and changes of direction. By using all of the momentum from giants and then releasing at the proper point, enough height can be achieved for spectacular dismounts, such as a triple-back salto. Leather grips are usually used to help maintain a grip on the bar. As with women, male gymnasts are also judged on all of their events including their execution,
degree of difficulty Degree of difficulty (DD, sometimes called tariff or grade) is a concept used in several sport Sport pertains to any form of Competition, competitive physical activity or game that aims to use, maintain or improve physical ability and skills ...
, and overall presentation skills.


Rhythmic gymnastics

According to FIG rules, only women compete in rhythmic gymnastics. This is a sport that combines elements of
ballet Ballet () is a type of performance dance that originated during the Italian Renaissance in the fifteenth century and later developed into a concert dance form in France and Russia. It has since become a widespread and highly technical form of ...

ballet
, gymnastics,
dance Dance is a performing art art form, form consisting of sequences of movement, either improvised or purposefully selected. This movement has aesthetic and often symbolism (arts), symbolic value. Dance can be categorized and described by its ...

dance
, and apparatus manipulation. The sport involves the performance of five separate routines with the use of five apparatus; ball, ribbon, hoop, clubs, rope—on a floor area, with a much greater emphasis on the aesthetic rather than the acrobatic. There are also group routines consisting of 5 gymnasts and 5 apparatuses of their choice. Rhythmic routines are scored out of a possible 30 points; the score for artistry (choreography and music) is averaged with the score for the difficulty of the moves and then added to the score for execution. International competitions are split between Juniors, under sixteen by their year of birth; and Seniors, for women sixteen and over again by their year of birth. Gymnasts in Russia and Europe typically start training at a very young age and those at their peak are typically in their late teens (15–19) or early twenties. The largest events in the sport are the
Olympic Games The modern Olympic Games or Olympics (french: Jeux olympiques) are leading international sporting events featuring summer and winter sports competitions in which thousands of athletes from around the world participate in a multi-sport event ...
,
World Championships A world championship is generally an international competition open to elite competitors from around the world, representing their nations, and winning such an event will be considered the highest or near highest achievement in the sport, game, or ...
,
European ChampionshipsA European Championship is the top level International sport, international sports competition between Europe, European athletes or sports teams representing their respective countries or professional sports club, sports clubs. In the plural, the E ...
,
World Cup A world cup is a global sport Sport pertains to any form of Competition, competitive physical activity or game that aims to use, maintain or improve physical ability and skills while providing enjoyment to participants and, in some cases ...
and Grand-Prix Series. The first World Championships were held in 1963 with its first appearance at the Olympics in 1984.


Rhythmic gymnastics apparatus

;
Ball A ball is a round object (usually spherical of a sphere A sphere (from Greek language, Greek —, "globe, ball") is a geometrical object in three-dimensional space Three-dimensional space (also: 3-space or, rarely, tri-dimensional s ...
:The ball is made of either rubber or synthetic material (pliable plastic) provided it possesses the same elasticity as rubber. It is from 18 to 20  cm in diameter and must have a minimum weight of 400g. The ball can be of any color and should rest in the gymnast's hand, not the wrist. Fundamental elements of a ball routine include throwing, bouncing, and rolling. The gymnast must use both hands and work on the whole floor area while showing continuous flowing movement. The ball is to emphasize the gymnast's flowing lines and body difficulty. ; Hoop: A hoop is an apparatus in rhythmic gymnastics and may be made of plastic or wood, provided that it retains its shape during the routine. The interior diameter is from 51 to 90  cm and the hoop must weigh a minimum of 300g. The hoop may be of natural color or be part of fully covered by one or several colors, and it may be covered with adhesive tape either of the same or different colors as the hoop. Fundamental requirements of a hoop routine include rotation around the hand or body and rolling, as well as swings, circles, throws, and passes through and over the hoop. The routines in hoop involve mastery in both apparatus handling and body difficulties like leaps, jumps, and pivots. ;
Ribbon A ribbon or riband is a thin band of material, typically cloth A textile is a flexible material made by creating an interlocking network of yarns or threads, which are produced by spinning raw fibres (from either natural or synthetic ...

Ribbon
: The ribbon is made of satin or another similar material cloth of any color and may be multi-colored as well as have designs on it. The ribbon itself must be at least 35g (1 oz), 4–6 cm (1.6–2.4") in width and for senior category a minimum length of 6m (20') (5m (16.25') for juniors). The ribbon must be in one piece. The end that is attached to the stick is doubled for a maximum length of 1m (3'). This is stitched down both sides. At the top, a very thin reinforcement or rows of machine stitching for a maximum length of 5  cm is authorized. This extremity may end in a strap, or have an eyelet (a small hole, edged with buttonhole stitch or a metal circle), to permit attaching the ribbon. The ribbon is fixed to the stick by means of a supple attachment such as thread, nylon cord, or a series of articulated rings. The attachment has a maximum length of 7 cm (2.8"), not counting the strap or metal ring at the end of the stick where it will be fastened. Compulsory elements for the ribbon include flicks, circles, snakes and spirals, and throws. It requires a high degree of co-ordination to form the spirals and circles as any knots which may accidentally form in the ribbon are penalised. During a ribbon routine, large, smooth and flowing movements are looked for. ;
Clubs Club may refer to: Arts, entertainment, and media * Club (magazine), ''Club'' (magazine) * Club, a ''Yie Ar Kung-Fu'' character * Clubs (suit), a suit of playing cards * Club music * "Club", by Kelsea Ballerini from the album ''kelsea'' Brands an ...
: Multi-piece clubs are the most popular clubs. The club is built along an internal rod, providing a base on which a handle made of polyolefin plastic is wrapped, providing an airspace between it and the internal rod. This airspace provides flex, cushioning impact, making the club softer on the hands. Foam ends and knobs further cushion the club. Multi-piece clubs are made in both a thin European style or larger bodied American style and in various lengths, generally ranging from 19 to 21 inches (480 to 530 mm). The handles and bodies are typically wrapped with decorative plastics and tapes. The skills involved are apparatus mastery and body elements, Clubs are thrown from alternate hands; each passes underneath the other clubs and is caught in the opposite hand to the one from which it was thrown. At its simplest, each club rotates once per throw, the handle moving down and away from the throwing hand at first. However, double and triple spins are frequently performed, allowing the club to be thrown higher for more advanced patterns and to allow tricks such as 360s to be performed underneath. ;
Rope A rope is a group of yarns, Plying, plies, fibers or strands that are twisted or braided together into a larger and stronger form. Ropes have tensile strength and so can be used for dragging and lifting. Rope is thicker and stronger than simil ...
: This apparatus may be made of hemp or a synthetic material which retains the qualities of lightness and suppleness. Its length is in proportion to the size of the gymnast. The rope should, when held down by the feet, reach both of the gymnasts' armpits. One or two knots at each end are for keeping hold of the rope while doing the routine. At the ends (to the exclusion of all other parts of the rope) an anti-slip material, either coloured or neutral may cover a maximum of 10 cm (3.94 in). The rope must be coloured, either all or partially and may either be of a uniform diameter or be progressively thicker in the center provided that this thickening is of the same material as the rope. The fundamental requirements of a rope routine include leaps and skipping. Other elements include swings, throws, circles, rotations and figures of eight. In 2011, the
FIG The fig is the edible fruit of ''Ficus carica'', a species of small tree in the flowering plant family Moraceae. Native plant, Native to the Mediterranean and western Asia, it has been cultivated since ancient times and is now widely grown throug ...
decided to remove the use of rope from the program of senior individual competitions. It is still used in junior competitions and occasionally on the program for senior group competitions (eg. 2017–2018).


Trampolining


Trampolining

Trampolining and tumbling consists of four events, individual and synchronized trampoline, double mini trampoline, and tumbling (also known as power tumbling or rod floor). Since 2000, individual trampoline has been included in the Olympic Games. The first World Championships were held in 1964.


=Individual trampoline

= Individual routines in trampolining involve a build-up phase during which the gymnast jumps repeatedly to achieve height, followed by a sequence of ten bounces without pause during which the gymnast performs a sequence of aerial skills. Routines are marked out of a maximum score of 10 points. Additional points (with no maximum at the highest levels of competition) can be earned depending on the difficulty of the moves and the length of time taken to complete the ten skills which is an indication of the average height of the jumps. In high level competitions, there are two preliminary routines, one which has only two moves scored for difficulty and one where the athlete is free to perform any routine. This is followed by a final routine which is optional. Some competitions restart the score from zero for the finals, other add the final score to the preliminary results.


=Synchronized trampoline

= Synchronized trampoline is similar except that both competitors must perform the routine together and marks are awarded for synchronization as well as the form and difficulty of the moves.


=Double-mini trampoline

= Double mini trampoline involves a smaller trampoline with a run-up, two scoring moves are performed per routine. Moves cannot be repeated in the same order on the double-mini during a competition. Skills can be repeated if a skill is competed as a mounter in one routine and a dismount in another. The scores are marked in a similar manner to individual trampoline.


Tumbling

In Tumbling, athletes perform an explosive series of flips and twists down a sprung tumbling track. Scoring is similar to trampolining. Tumbling was originally contested as one of the events in Men's Artistic Gymnastics at the
1932 Summer Olympics The 1932 Summer Olympics, officially known as the Games of the X Olympiad, was an international multi-sport event that was held from July 30 to August 14, 1932, in Los Angeles Los Angeles ( ; xgf, Tovaangar; es, Los Ángeles, , ), co ...
, and in 1955 and 1959 at the
Pan American Games The Pan American Games (also known colloquially as the Pan Am Games) is a continental Continental may refer to: Places * Continent * Continental, Arizona, a small community in Pima County, Arizona, US * Continental, Ohio, a small town in Pu ...
. From
1974 Major events in 1974 include the aftermath of the 1973 oil crisis and the resignation of United States President The president of the United States (POTUS) is the head of state A head of state (or chief of state) is the public ...
to
1998 1998 was designated as the ''International Year of the Ocean''. Events January * January 2 – Russia begins to Monetary reform in Russia, 1998, circulate new rubles to stem inflation and promote confidence. * January 4 – Wilaya of Reliza ...
it was included as an event for both genders at the
Acrobatic Gymnastics World ChampionshipsThe Acrobatic Gymnastics World Championships are the World Championships for acrobatic gymnastics. Before 2006 they were known as the World Sports Acrobatics Championships Editions All-time medal table https://pl.wikipedia.org/wiki/Mistrzostwa_%C ...
. The event has also been contested since
1976 Events January * January January is the first month of the year in the Julian and Gregorian calendar The Gregorian calendar is the used in most of the world. It was introduced in October 1582 by as a modification of the , r ...
at the Trampoline and Tumbling World Championships. Tumbling is competed along a 25 metre sprung tack with a 10 metre run up. A tumbling pass or run is a combination of 8 skills, with an entry skill, normally a round-off, to whips and into an end skill. Usually the end skill is the hardest skill of the pass. At the highest level, gymnasts with perform transitions skills, these are skills which are not whips, instead they are double or triple somersaults normally competed at the end of the run, now competed in the middle of the run connected before and after by either a whip or a flick. Competition is made up of a qualifying round and a finals round. There are two different types of competition in tumbling, individual and team. In the team event three gymnasts out of a team of four compete one run each, if one run fails the final member of the team is allowed to compete with the three highest scores being counted. In the individual event qualification, the competitor will compete two runs, one a straight pass (including double and triple somersaults) and a twisting pass (including full twisting whips and combination skills such as a full twisting double straight ’full in back’). In the final of the individual event, the competitor must compete two different runs which can be either twisting or straight but each run normally uses both types (using transition skills).


Acrobatic gymnastics

Acrobatic gymnastics (formerly Sport Acrobatics), often referred to as acro if involved with the sport, acrobatic sports or simply sports acro, is a group gymnastic discipline for both men and women. Acrobats in groups of two, three and four perform routines with the heads, hands and feet of their partners. They may, subject to regulations (e.g. no lyrics), pick their own music. There are four international age categories: 11–16, 12–18, 13–19, and Senior (15+), which are used in the
World Championships A world championship is generally an international competition open to elite competitors from around the world, representing their nations, and winning such an event will be considered the highest or near highest achievement in the sport, game, or ...
and many other events around the world, including the
European ChampionshipsA European Championship is the top level International sport, international sports competition between Europe, European athletes or sports teams representing their respective countries or professional sports club, sports clubs. In the plural, the E ...
and the
World Games The World Games, first held in 1981, are an international multi-sport event, meant for sport Sport pertains to any form of Competition, competitive physical activity or game that aims to use, maintain or improve physical ability and skill ...
. All levels require a balance and dynamic routine; 12–18, 13–19, and Seniors are also required to perform a final (combined) routine. Currently, acrobatic gymnastics score is marked out of 30.00 for juniors, and can be higher at Senior FIG level based on difficulty: * Difficulty – An open score, which is the sum of the difficulty values of elements (valued from the tables of difficulties) successfully performed in an exercise, divided by 100. This score is unlimited in senior competitions. * Execution – Judges give a score out of 10.00 for technical performance (how well the skills are executed), which is then doubled to emphasize its importance. * Artistic – Judges give a score out of 10.00 for artistry (the overall performance of the routine, namely choreography) There are five competitive event categories: * Women's Pairs * Mixed Pairs * Men's Pairs * Women's Groups (3 Woman) * Men's Groups (4 Men) The World Championships have been held since 1974.


Aerobic gymnastics

Aerobic gymnastics (formally Sport Aerobics) involves the performance of routines by individuals, pairs, trios, groups with 5 people, and aerobic dance and aerobic step(8 people). Strength, flexibility, and aerobic fitness rather than acrobatic or balance skills are emphasized. Routines are performed for all individuals on a 7x7m floor and also for 12–14 and 15–17 trios and mixed pairs. From 2009, all senior trios and mixed pairs were required to be on the larger floor (10x10m), all groups also perform on this floor. Routines generally last 60–90 seconds depending on age of participant and routine category. The World Championships have been held since 1995. The events consist of: *Individual Women *Individual Men *Mixed Pairs *Trios *Groups *Dance *Step


Parkour

On January 28, 2018 Parkour was given the go ahead to begin development as a FIG sport. The FIG is planning to run World Cup competitions from 2018 onwards and will hold the first Parkour World Championships in 2020. The events consist of: *Speedrun *Freestyle


Other disciplines

The following disciplines are not currently recognized by the
Fédération Internationale de Gymnastique The International Gymnastics Federation (French: Fédération Internationale de Gymnastique, FIG) is the governing body of competitive gymnastics Gymnastics is a sport that includes physical exercises requiring Balance (ability), balance, S ...

Fédération Internationale de Gymnastique
.


Aesthetic group gymnastics

Aesthetic Group Gymnastics (AGG) was developed from the Finnish "naisvoimistelu". It differs from Rhythmic Gymnastics in that body movement is large and continuous and teams are larger. Athletes do not use apparatus in international AGG competitions compared to Rhythmic Gymnastics where ball, ribbon, hoop and clubs are used on the floor area. The sport requires physical qualities such as flexibility, balance, speed, strength, coordination and sense of rhythm where movements of the body are emphasized through the flow, expression and aesthetic appeal. A good performance is characterized by uniformity and simultaneity. The competition program consists of versatile and varied body movements, such as body waves, swings, balances, pivots, jumps and leaps, dance steps, and lifts. The International Federation of Aesthetic Group Gymnastics (IFAGG) was established in 2003.Lajiesittely
, Suomen Voimisteluliitto.
The first Aesthetic Group Gymnastics World Championships was held in 2000.


Men's rhythmic gymnastics

Men's rhythmic gymnastics is related to both men's
artistic gymnastics Artistic gymnastics is a discipline of gymnastics Gymnastics is a sport Sport pertains to any form of Competition, competitive physical activity or game that aims to use, maintain or improve physical ability and skills while providing ...
and
wushu Wushu may refer to: Sports * Chinese martial arts Chinese martial arts, often named under the umbrella term In linguistics Linguistics is the science, scientific study of language. It encompasses the analysis of every aspect of lang ...
martial arts Martial arts are codified systems and traditions of combat practiced for a number of reasons such as self-defense; military and law enforcement applications; combat sport, competition; physical, mental, and spiritual development; entertainment; an ...
. It emerged in Japan from stick gymnastics. Stick gymnastics has been taught and performed for many years with the aim of improving physical strength and health. Male athletes are judged on some of the same physical abilities and skills as their female counterparts, such as hand/body-eye co-ordination, but tumbling, strength, power, and martial arts skills are the main focus, as opposed to flexibility and dance in women's rhythmic gymnastics. There are a growing number of participants, competing alone and on a team; it is most popular in Asia, especially in Japan where high school and university teams compete fiercely. , there were 1000 men's rhythmic gymnasts in Japan. The technical rules for the Japanese version of men's rhythmic gymnastics came around the 1970s. For individuals, only four types of apparatus are used: the double rings, the stick, the rope, and the clubs. Groups do not use any apparatus. The Japanese version includes tumbling performed on a spring floor. Points are awarded based a 10-point scale that measures the level of difficulty of the tumbling and apparatus handling. On November 27–29, 2003, Japan hosted first edition of the Men's Rhythmic Gymnastics World Championship. The events consist of: *Stick *Clubs *Rope *Double Rings *Group Along with the Japanese version of Men's Rhythmic there is a Spanish version which uses the same format and rules as the FIG recognized form of Women's Rhythmic Gymnastics.


TeamGym

TeamGym is a form of competition created by the
European Union of Gymnastics European Gymnastics is one of five continental unions that represents the interests of Europe Europe is a continent A continent is one of several large landmasses. Generally identified by convention (norm), convention rather than any ...
, named originally EuroTeam. The first official competition was held in Finland in 1996. TeamGym events consist of three sections: women, men and mixed teams. Athletes compete in three different disciplines: floor, tumbling and trampette. In common for the performance is effective teamwork, good technique in the elements and spectacular acrobatic skills. There is no World Championships however there has been a European Championships held since 2010.


Wheel gymnastics

Wheel gymnasts do
exercise Exercise is any bodily activity that enhances or maintains physical fitness Physical fitness is a state of health Health is a state of physical, mental and social well-being Well-being, also known as ''wellness'', ''prudential value ...

exercise
s in a large wheel known as the Rhönrad, gymnastics wheel, gym wheel, or German wheel, in the beginning also known as ayro wheel, aero wheel, and Rhon rod. There are four core categories of exercise: straight line, spiral, vault and cyr wheel. The first World Championships was held in 1995.


Mallakhamba

Mallakhamba (
Marathi Marathi may refer to: *Marathi people, an Indo-Aryan ethno-linguistic group of Maharashtra, India *Marathi language, the Indo-Aryan language spoken by the Marathi people *Palaiosouda, also known as Marathi, a small island in Greece See also

...
: मल्लखम्ब) is a traditional Indian sport in which a
gymnast Gymnastics is a sport Sport pertains to any form of Competition, competitive physical activity or game that aims to use, maintain or improve physical ability and skills while providing enjoyment to participants and, in some cases, entertai ...
performs feats and poses in concert with a vertical wooden pole or rope. The word also refers to the pole used in the sport. Mallakhamba derives from the terms ''malla'' which denotes a wrestler and ''khamba'' which means a pole. Mallakhamba can therefore be translated to English as "pole gymnastics". On April 9, 2013, the Indian state of
Madhya Pradesh Madhya Pradesh (, ; meaning ''Central Province'') is a state in central India. Its capital city, capital is Bhopal, and the largest city is Indore, with Jabalpur, Ujjain, Gwalior, Satna being the other major cities. Madhya Pradesh is the List o ...

Madhya Pradesh
declared mallakhamba as the state sport. In February 2019 the first Mallahkhamb World Championship was held in Mumbai


Non-competitive gymnastics

General gymnastics also known as Gymnastics for All enables people of all ages and abilities to participate in performance groups of 6 to more than 150 athletes. They can perform synchronized, choreographed routines. Troupes may consist of both genders and are separated into age divisions. The largest general gymnastics exhibition is the quadrennial World Gymnaestrada which was first held in 1939. In 1984 Gymnastics for All was officially recognized first as a Sport Program by the FIG (International Gymnastic Federation), and subsequently by national gymnastic federations worldwide with participants that now number 30 million. Non-competitive gymnastics is considered useful for its health benefits.


Levels

In the US, gymnastics levels for women called the Junior Olympic (JO) Program begins at 1 and goes to 10. Elite can follow 10 and is generally considered Olympic level. Men's gymnastics or The Junior Olympic Program consists of ten levels of training or competition with multiple age groups at each level creating opportunities for athletes and coaches to participate and or compete. Since 2015, Canada has adopted the women’s JO Program, with some modifications, for use in the Provinces and Territories.


Scoring (code of points)

An artistic gymnast's score comes from deductions taken from the start value of a routine's elements. The start value of a routine is based on the difficulty of the elements the gymnast attempts and whether or not the gymnast meets composition requirements. The composition requirements are different for each apparatus. This score is called the D score. Deductions in execution and artistry are taken from a maximum of 10.0. This score is called the E score. The final score is calculated by adding the D and E score. The current method of scoring, by adding D and E score to give the final score has been in place since 2006. The current method is called "open-end" scoring because there is no theoretical cap (although there is practical cap) to the D-score and hence the total possible score for a routine. Before 2006, a gymnast's final score is deducted from a possible maximum of 10 for a routine. A Code of Points or guidelines of scoring a routine's difficulty and execution, is slightly revised for each quadrennium, or period of four years culminating in the Olympics year.


Landing

In a tumbling pass, dismount or vault, landing is the final phase, following take off and flightMarinsek, M. (2010). basic lending. 59–67. This is a critical skill in terms of execution in competition scores, general performance, and injury occurrence. Without the necessary magnitude of energy dissipation during impact, the risk of sustaining injuries during somersaulting increases. These injuries commonly occur at the lower extremities such as cartilage lesions, ligament tears, and bone bruises/fractures. To avoid such injuries, and to receive a high-performance score, proper technique must be used by the gymnast. "The subsequent ground contact or impact landing phase must be achieved using a safe, aesthetic and well-executed double foot landing." A successful landing in gymnastics is classified as soft, meaning the knee and hip joints are at greater than 63 degrees of flexion. A higher flight phase results in a higher vertical ground reaction force. Vertical ground reaction force represents an external force which the gymnasts have to overcome with their muscle force and affects the gymnasts' linear and angular momentum. Another important variable that affects linear and angular momentum is the time the landing takes. Gymnasts can decrease the impact force by increasing the time taken to perform the landing. Gymnasts can achieve this by increasing hip, knee and ankle amplitude.


Former apparatus and events


Rope climbing

Generally, competitors climbed either a 6m (6.1m = 20 ft in US) or an 8m (7.6m = 25 ft in US), 38 mm diameter (1.5-inch) natural fiber rope for speed, starting from a seated position on the floor and using only the hands and arms. Kicking the legs in a kind of "tride was normally permitted. Many gymnasts can do this in the straddle or pike position, which eliminates the help generated from the legs though it can be done with legs as well.


Flying rings

Flying rings was an event similar to
still rings The rings, also known as steady rings or still rings (in contrast to flying rings), is an artistic gymnastics apparatus and the event that uses it. It is traditionally used only by male gymnasts, due to its extreme upper body strength requirements ...
, but with the performer executing a series of stunts while swinging. It was a gymnastic event sanctioned by both the
NCAA The National Collegiate Athletic Association (NCAA) is a nonprofit organization A nonprofit organization (NPO), also known as a non-business entity, not-for-profit organization, or nonprofit institution, is a legal entity organized and o ...
and the AAU until the early 1960s.


Club swinging

Club swinging, a.k.a. Indian clubs, was an event in Men's Artistic Gymnastics sometime up until the 1950s. It was similar to the clubs in both Women's and Men's Rhythmic Gymnastics but much simpler with few throws allowed. It was practice. It was included in the 1904 and 1932 Summer Olympic Games.


Other (men's artistic)

*Team horizontal bar and parallel bar in the 1896 Summer Olympics *Team free and Swedish system in the 1912 and 1920 Summer Olympics *Combined and triathlon in the 1904 Summer Olympics *Side horse vault in 1924 Summer Olympics *Tumbling in the 1932 Summer Olympics


Other (women's artistic)

*Team exercise at the 1928, 1936, and 1948 Summer Olympics *Parallel bars at the 1938 World Championships *Team portable apparatus at the 1952 and 1956 Summer Olympics


Health and safety

Gymnastics is one of the most dangerous sports, with a very high injury rate seen in girls age 11 to 18. Compared to athletes who play other sports, gymnasts are at higher than average risk of
overuse injuries A repetitive strain injury (RSI) is an injury to part of the musculoskeletal or nervous system caused by repetitive use, vibrations, compression or long periods in a fixed position. Other common names include repetitive stress disorders, cumulat ...
and injuries caused by early sports specialization among children and young adults. Gymnasts are at particular risk of foot and wrist injuries.
Strength training Strength training or resistance training involves the performance of physical exercises which are designed to improve strength and endurance. It is often associated with the lifting of weights Weight is a measurement of the gravitational force ...
can help prevent injuries. In addition to physical injuries, engaging in competitive gymnastics has been linked to eating disorders, and in some cases emotional and sexual abuse. Gymnasts tend to have
short stature Short stature refers to a height of a human Human height or stature is the distance from the bottom of the feet to the top of the head in a human body, standing erect. It is measured using a stadiometer, usually in centimetres when using the m ...
, but it is unlikely that the sport affects their growth. Parents of gymnasts tend also to be shorter than average. Some gymnastic skills are banned for safety reasons.


Popular culture


Books

* ''
Little Girls in Pretty Boxes ''Little Girls in Pretty Boxes: The Making and Breaking of Elite Gymnasts and Figure Skaters'' is a 1995 nonfiction book by San Francisco Chronicle sports writer Joan Ryan (sports writer), Joan Ryan detailing the difficult training regimens endur ...
'' * ''The Spirit of Gymnastics: The Biography of Hartley D'Oyley Price'', by Tom Conkling (1982)


Films

*''A 2nd Chance'' *''
American Anthem ''American Anthem'' is a 1986 American sports Sport pertains to any form of competitive physical activity or game with separate sliding drawer, from 1390–1353 BC, made of glazed faience, dimensions: 5.5 × 7.7 × 21&n ...
'' *'' Chalk It Up'' *'' Flying'' *''
Full Out ''Full Out'', also known as ''Full Out: The Ariana Berlin Movie'', is a 2015 drama young-adult TV movie based on the life story of American gymnast Ariana Berlin. Ana Golja received a 2016 Canadian Screen Awards nomination for Best Performance in ...
'' *'' The Gabby Douglas Story'' *''
Gymkata ''Gymkata'' is a 1985 martial arts film starring Olympic gymnast Kurt Thomas (gymnast), Kurt Thomas as Jonathan Cabot, an Olympics, Olympic gymnastics, gymnast who combines his gymnastic ability with martial arts to enter a deadly competition in ...
'' *''The Gymnast'' (
Dreya Weber Dreya Weber (born May 8, 1961) is an American actress, producer, director, and aerialist. Career Weber has worked as an aerialist for entertainers including Madonna; and Pink (singer), Pink, for whom she choreographed several aerial acts inclu ...

Dreya Weber
film) *''
Little Girls in Pretty Boxes ''Little Girls in Pretty Boxes: The Making and Breaking of Elite Gymnasts and Figure Skaters'' is a 1995 nonfiction book by San Francisco Chronicle sports writer Joan Ryan (sports writer), Joan Ryan detailing the difficult training regimens endur ...
'' *'' McKenna Shoots for the Stars'' *''
Nadia Nadia is a female name, that is used predominantly throughout the Mediterranean The Mediterranean Sea is a sea connected to the Atlantic Ocean, surrounded by the Mediterranean Basin and almost completely enclosed by land: on the north by Wes ...
'' *''
Peaceful Warrior ''Peaceful Warrior'' is a 2006 Drama (film and television), drama film directed by Victor Salva and written by Kevin Bernhardt based on the 1980 novel ''Way of the Peaceful Warrior'' by Dan Millman. Set at University of California, Berkeley, U.C. Be ...
'' *'' Perfect Body'' *''Raising the Bar'' *'' The Simone Biles Story: Courage To Soar'' *''
A State of Mind ''A State of Mind'' is a 2004 documentary film Film director, directed by Daniel Gordon (film director), Daniel Gordon and produced by Nicholas Bonner.Justin Corfield, ''Historical Dictionary of Pyongyang 2013'', page 16 "Nick Bonner has also be ...
'' *''
Stick It ''Stick It'' is a 2006 American teen Adolescence ()''Macmillan Dictionary for Students'' Macmillan, Pan Ltd. (1981), page 14, 456. Retrieved July 15, 2010. is a transitional stage of Developmental biology, physical and psychological Human ...

Stick It
''


Television

*''
Make It or Break It ''Make It or Break It'' ( ''MIOBI)'' is an American teen/family comedy-drama television series that focused on the lives of teen gymnasts who strived to make it to the Olympic Games in 2012. The series was inspired by Touchstone Pictures, Touchs ...
'' *'' My Perfect Landing''


Video games

*''
Athens 2004 The 2004 Summer Olympics ( ell, Θερινοί Ολυμπιακοί Αγώνες 2004, link=no, ), officially known as the Games of the XXVIII Olympiad and commonly known as Athens 2004 ( ell, ΑΘΗΝΑ 2004, link=no, ), was an international ...
'' *''Barbie Team Gymnastics'' *''
Beijing 2008 The 2008 Summer Olympics (), officially known as the Games of the XXIX Olympiad () and commonly known as Beijing 2008 (), was an international multisport event A multi-sport event is an organized sport, sporting event, often held over multi ...
'' *'' Capcom's Gold Medal Challenge '92'' *'' Dance Aerobics'' *''Ener-G Gym Rockets'' *'' Imagine: Gymnast'' *''
London 2012 The 2012 Summer Olympics (officially known as the Games of the XXX Olympiad and commonly known as London 2012) was an international multi-sport event A multi-sport event is an organized sporting Sporting may refer to: *Sport, recreational ...
'' *'' Mario & Sonic at the London 2012 Olympic Games'' *'' Mario & Sonic at the Olympic Games'' *''
Mario & Sonic at the Olympic Games Tokyo 2020 is a 2019 sports game, sports video game based on the 2020 Summer Olympics. It is the sixth game in the ''Mario & Sonic'' series, a Crossover (fiction), crossover between Nintendo's ''Super Mario'' and Sega's ''Sonic the Hedgehog'' franchises, and ...
'' *'' Mario & Sonic at the Rio 2016 Olympic Games'' *''Shawn Johnson Gymnastics'' *'' Summer Games''


See also

*
Acro dance Acro dance is a style of dance Dance is a performing art art form, form consisting of sequences of movement, either improvised or purposefully selected. This movement has aesthetic and often symbolism (arts), symbolic value. Dance can be ...
*
Acrobatics Acrobatics (from Ancient Greek Ancient Greek includes the forms of the Greek language Greek ( el, label=Modern Greek Modern Greek (, , or , ''Kiní Neoellinikí Glóssa''), generally referred to by speakers simply as Greek (, ...

Acrobatics
*
Cheerleading Cheerleading is an activity in which the participants (called cheerleaders) cheer for their team as a form of encouragement. It can range from chanting slogans to intense Physical exercise, physical activity. It can be performed to motivate sp ...

Cheerleading
*
Glossary of gymnastics terms This is a general glossary of the terms used in the sport of gymnastics. A ;AA: Abbreviation for all-around. ;AB: A scoring abbreviation for uneven bars, from the name Uneven bars, asymmetric bars. ;A-score: Under the current ''Code of Points ...
*
Gymnasium (ancient Greece) The gymnasium ( el, γυμνάσιον) in Ancient Greece Ancient Greece ( el, Ἑλλάς, Hellás) was a civilization belonging to a period of History of Greece, Greek history from the Greek Dark Ages of the 12th–9th centuries BC to the ...
*
International Gymnastics Hall of FameThe International Gymnastics Hall of Fame, located in Oklahoma City Oklahoma City (), officially the City of Oklahoma City, and often shortened to OKC, is the capital and largest city in the U.S. state of Oklahoma. The county seat of Oklahoma ...
* List of gymnastics competitions *
List of gymnastics terms This is a general glossary of the terms used in the sport of gymnastics Gymnastics is a sport that includes physical exercises requiring Balance (ability), balance, Strength training, strength, Flexibility (anatomy), flexibility, agility, coor ...
*
List of gymnasts Gymnasts are people who participate in the sport of gymnastics Gymnastics is a sport that includes physical exercises requiring Balance (ability), balance, Strength training, strength, Flexibility (anatomy), flexibility, agility, coordination, ...
* Major achievements in gymnastics by nation * * NCAA Men's Gymnastics championship (US) * NCAA Women's Gymnastics championship (US) *
Turners Turners (german: Turner) are members of German-American gymnastic clubs called Turnvereine. They promoted German culture, physical culture, liberal politics, and supported the Union war effort during the American Civil War. Turners, especially ...
* Uniform (gymnastics) *
Wheel gymnastics Wheel gymnastics (German: :de:Rhönradturnen, Rhönradturnen) is a form of gymnastics that originated in Germany. Wheel gymnasts do exercises in a large wheel or hooping, hoop known as the Rhönrad, gymnastics wheel, gym wheel, or German wheel, i ...
*
World Gymnastics Championships Gymnastics World Championships refers to a number of different world championships for each of the disciplines in competitive gymnastics. The Fédération Internationale de Gymnastique, International Gymnastics Federation (FIG) organizes World Cha ...


References


Citations


Sources

*


External links


International Federation of Gymnastics (FIG) official website

International Federation of Aesthetic Group Gymnastics official website

USA Gymnastics
the governing body for gymnastics in the US
British Gymnastics
the governing body for gymnastics in the UK
Brazilian Gymnastics
the governing body for gymnastics in the Brazil * {{Authority control Summer Olympic sports Individual sports Sports rules and regulations Acrobatic sports