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A greenhouse gas (GHG or GhG) is a
gas Gas is one of the four fundamental states of matter In physics Physics is the natural science that studies matter, its Elementary particle, fundamental constituents, its Motion (physics), motion and behavior through Spacetime, space ...

gas
that absorbs and emits
radiant energy In physics Physics is the that studies , its , its and behavior through , and the related entities of and . "Physical science is that department of knowledge which relates to the order of nature, or, in other words, to the regular succ ...
within the
thermal infrared Infrared (IR), sometimes called infrared light, is electromagnetic radiation In physics Physics (from grc, φυσική (ἐπιστήμη), physikḗ (epistḗmē), knowledge of nature, from ''phýsis'' 'nature'), , is the natur ...
range, causing the
greenhouse effect The greenhouse effect is the process by which radiation from a planet's atmosphere warms the planet's surface to a temperature above what it would be without this atmosphere. Radiatively active gases (i.e., greenhouse gas A greenhou ...

greenhouse effect
. The primary greenhouse gases in
Earth's atmosphere The atmosphere of Earth is the layer of gas Gas is one of the four fundamental states of matter (the others being solid Solid is one of the four fundamental states of matter (the others being liquid, gas and plasma). The mo ...
are
water vapor (99.9839 °C) , - , Boiling point The boiling point of a substance is the temperature at which the vapor pressure 280px, The ''pistol test tube'' experiment. The tube contains alcohol and is closed with a piece of cork. By heating th ...
(),
carbon dioxide Carbon dioxide (chemical formula A chemical formula is a way of presenting information about the chemical proportions of s that constitute a particular or molecule, using symbols, numbers, and sometimes also other symbols, such as pare ...

carbon dioxide
(),
methane Methane (, ) is a chemical compound with the chemical formula A chemical formula is a way of presenting information about the chemical proportions of s that constitute a particular or molecule, using symbols, numbers, and sometimes a ...
(),
nitrous oxide Nitrous oxide, commonly known as laughing gas, nitrous, or nos, is a chemical compound A chemical compound is a chemical substance A chemical substance is a form of matter In classical physics and general chemistry, matter is an ...
(), and
ozone Ozone (), or trioxygen, is an inorganic molecule A molecule is an electrically Electricity is the set of physical phenomena associated with the presence and motion Image:Leaving Yongsan Station.jpg, 300px, Motion involves a cha ...

ozone
(). Without greenhouse gases, the average temperature of
Earth's surface Earth is the third planet A planet is an astronomical body orbiting a star or Stellar evolution#Stellar remnants, stellar remnant that is massive enough to be Hydrostatic equilibrium, rounded by its own gravity, is not massive enough to c ...

Earth's surface
would be about , rather than the present average of . The atmospheres of
Venus Venus is the second planet from the Sun. It is named after the Venus (mythology), Roman goddess of love and beauty. As List of brightest natural objects in the sky, the brightest natural object in Earth's night sky after the Moon, Venus can ...

Venus
,
Mars Mars is the fourth planet from the Sun and the second-smallest planet in the Solar System, being larger than only Mercury (planet), Mercury. In English, Mars carries the name of the Mars (mythology), Roman god of war and is often referred to ...
and
Titan Titan most often refers to: * Titan (moon), the largest moon of Saturn * Titans, a race of deities in Greek mythology Titan or Titans may also refer to: Arts and entertainment Fictional entities Fictional locations * Titan in fiction, fictional ...
also contain greenhouse gases. Human activities since the beginning of the
Industrial Revolution The Industrial Revolution was the transition to new manufacturing processes in Great Britain, continental Europe Continental Europe or mainland Europe is the contiguous continent A continent is any of several large landmasse ...
(around 1750) have increased the atmospheric concentration of carbon dioxide by almost 50%, from 280 ppm in 1750 to 419 ppm in 2021. The last time the atmospheric concentration of carbon dioxide was this high was over 3 million years ago. This increase has occurred despite the absorption of more than half of the emissions by various natural carbon sinks in the
carbon cycle The carbon cycle is the biogeochemical cycle by which carbon is exchanged among the biosphere, pedosphere, geosphere, hydrosphere, and Earth's atmosphere, atmosphere of the Earth. Carbon is the main component of biological compounds as well as ...

carbon cycle
. At current
greenhouse gas emission Greenhouse gas emissions are emissions of greenhouse gases created from a range of human activities that cause climate change Climate change includes both global warming driven by human emissions of greenhouse gases and the resulting ...
rates, temperatures could increase by 2 
°C
°C
(3.6
°F
°F
), which the
United Nations The United Nations (UN) is an intergovernmental organization aiming to maintain international peace and international security, security, develop friendly relations among nations, achieve international cooperation, and be a centre for harm ...

United Nations
'
Intergovernmental Panel on Climate Change The Intergovernmental Panel on Climate Change (IPCC) is an intergovernmental body of the United Nations responsible for advancing knowledge on Attribution of recent climate change, human-induced climate change. It was established in 1988 by the ...
(IPCC) says is the upper limit to avoid "dangerous" levels, by 2050. The vast majority of
anthropogenic Anthropogenic ("human" + "generating") is an adjective that may refer to: * Anthropogeny, the study of the origins of humanity Counterintuitively, anthropogenic may also refer to things that have been generated by humans, as follows: * Human imp ...
carbon dioxide emissions come from
combustion Combustion, or burning, is a high-temperature exothermic redox chemical reaction between a fuel (the reductant) and an oxidant, usually atmospheric oxygen, that produces oxidized, often gaseous products, in a mixture termed as smoke. Combustion ...
of
fossil fuel A fossil fuel is a hydrocarbon In , a hydrocarbon is an consisting entirely of and . Hydrocarbons are examples of s. Hydrocarbons are generally colourless and hydrophobic with only weak odours. Because of their diverse molecular structure ...
s, principally
coal Coal is a combustible , Germany ) , image_map = , map_caption = , map_width = 250px , capital = Berlin , coordinates = , largest_city = capital , languages_type = Official language , languages = German language, German , ...

coal
,
petroleum Petroleum, also known as crude oil and oil, is a naturally occurring, yellowish-black liquid A liquid is a nearly incompressible In fluid mechanics or more generally continuum mechanics, incompressible flow (isochoric process, isoc ...

petroleum
(including
oil An oil is any nonpolar In chemistry Chemistry is the science, scientific study of the properties and behavior of matter. It is a natural science that covers the Chemical element, elements that make up matter to the chemical compound ...

oil
) and
natural gas Natural gas (also called fossil gas; sometimes just gas) is a naturally occurring hydrocarbon gas mixture consisting of methane and commonly including varying amounts of other higher alkanes, and sometimes a small percentage of carbon dioxid ...

natural gas
, with additional contributions from
deforestation deforestation in 1750-2004 (net loss) showing anthropogenic modification of remaining forest. File:MODIS (2020-08-01).jpg, 300px, Dry seasons, exacerbated by climate change, and the use of slash-and-burn methods for clearing tropical forest ...

deforestation
and other changes in land use.


Gases in Earth's atmosphere


Non-greenhouse gases

The major constituents of Earth's atmosphere,
nitrogen Nitrogen is the chemical element upright=1.0, 500px, The chemical elements ordered by link=Periodic table In chemistry Chemistry is the science, scientific study of the properties and behavior of matter. It is a natural science ...

nitrogen
() (78%),
oxygen Oxygen is the chemical element Image:Simple Periodic Table Chart-blocks.svg, 400px, Periodic table, The periodic table of the chemical elements In chemistry, an element is a pure substance consisting only of atoms that all have the same ...

oxygen
() (21%), and
argon Argon is a with the  Ar and  18. It is in group 18 of the and is a . Argon is the third-most abundant in the , at 0.934% (9340 ). It is more than twice as abundant as (which averages about 4000 ppmv, but varies greatly), 23 time ...

argon
(Ar) (0.9%), are not greenhouse gases because molecules containing two atoms of the same element such as and have no net change in the distribution of their electrical charges when they vibrate, and
monatomic In physics Physics is the natural science that studies matter, its Elementary particle, fundamental constituents, its Motion (physics), motion and behavior through Spacetime, space and time, and the related entities of energy and force. "Phy ...
gases such as Ar do not have vibrational modes. Hence they are almost totally unaffected by
infrared radiation Infrared (IR), sometimes called infrared light, is electromagnetic radiation In physics Physics (from grc, φυσική (ἐπιστήμη), physikḗ (epistḗmē), knowledge of nature, from ''phýsis'' 'nature'), , is the natur ...

infrared radiation
. Some molecules containing just two atoms of different elements, such as
carbon monoxide Carbon monoxide (chemical formula CO) is a colorless, odorless, tasteless, flammable gas that is slightly less dense than air. Carbon monoxide consists of one carbon atom and one oxygen atom. It is the simplest molecule of the oxocarbon family. In ...

carbon monoxide
(CO) and
hydrogen chloride The compound Compound may refer to: Architecture and built environments * Compound (enclosure), a cluster of buildings having a shared purpose, usually inside a fence or wall ** Compound (fortification), a version of the above fortified with ...

hydrogen chloride
(HCl), do absorb infrared radiation, but these molecules are short-lived in the atmosphere owing to their reactivity or
solubility In chemistry Chemistry is the scientific Science () is a systematic enterprise that builds and organizes knowledge Knowledge is a familiarity or awareness, of someone or something, such as facts A fact is an occurrence i ...

solubility
. Therefore, they do not contribute significantly to the greenhouse effect and often are omitted when discussing greenhouse gases.


Greenhouse gases

Greenhouse gases are those that absorb and emit infrared radiation in the wavelength range emitted by Earth. Carbon dioxide (0.04%), nitrous oxide, methane, and ozone are trace gases that account for almost 0.1% of Earth's atmosphere and have an appreciable greenhouse effect. The most abundant greenhouse gases in Earth's atmosphere, listed in decreasing order of average global
mole fraction In chemistry Chemistry is the scientific discipline involved with Chemical element, elements and chemical compound, compounds composed of atoms, molecules and ions: their composition, structure, properties, behavior and the changes they underg ...
, are: *
Water vapor (99.9839 °C) , - , Boiling point The boiling point of a substance is the temperature at which the vapor pressure 280px, The ''pistol test tube'' experiment. The tube contains alcohol and is closed with a piece of cork. By heating th ...
() *
Carbon dioxide Carbon dioxide (chemical formula A chemical formula is a way of presenting information about the chemical proportions of s that constitute a particular or molecule, using symbols, numbers, and sometimes also other symbols, such as pare ...

Carbon dioxide
() *
Methane Methane (, ) is a chemical compound with the chemical formula A chemical formula is a way of presenting information about the chemical proportions of s that constitute a particular or molecule, using symbols, numbers, and sometimes a ...
() *
Nitrous oxide Nitrous oxide, commonly known as laughing gas, nitrous, or nos, is a chemical compound A chemical compound is a chemical substance A chemical substance is a form of matter In classical physics and general chemistry, matter is an ...
() *
Ozone Ozone (), or trioxygen, is an inorganic molecule A molecule is an electrically Electricity is the set of physical phenomena associated with the presence and motion Image:Leaving Yongsan Station.jpg, 300px, Motion involves a cha ...

Ozone
() *
Chlorofluorocarbon Chlorofluorocarbons (CFCs) and hydrochlorofluorocarbons (HCFCs) are fully or partly halogenated Alkane, paraffin hydrocarbons that contain only carbon (C), hydrogen (H), chlorine (Cl), and fluorine (F), produced as volatility (chemistry), volati ...
s (CFCs and
HCFCs Chlorofluorocarbons (CFCs) and hydrochlorofluorocarbons (HCFCs) are fully or partly halogenated paraffin hydrocarbons that contain only carbon Carbon (from la, carbo "coal") is a chemical element Image:Simple Periodic Table Chart-bloc ...
) *
Hydrofluorocarbons Hydrofluorocarbons (HFCs) are man-made organic compounds that contain fluorine and hydrogen atoms, and are the most common type of organofluorine compounds. Most are gases at room temperature and pressure. They are frequently used in air condition ...
(HFCs) *
Perfluorocarbons Fluorocarbons, sometimes referred to as perfluorocarbons or PFCs, are organofluorine compounds with the formula CxFy, i.e., they contain only carbon Carbon (from la, carbo "coal") is a chemical element Image:Simple Periodic Table Char ...
( ,

, etc.), , and

Atmospheric concentrations are determined by the balance between sources (emissions of the gas from human activities and natural systems) and sinks (the removal of the gas from the atmosphere by conversion to a different chemical compound or absorption by bodies of water). in The proportion of an emission remaining in the atmosphere after a specified time is the " airborne fraction" (AF). The ''annual airborne fraction'' is the ratio of the atmospheric increase in a given year to that year's total emissions. As of 2006 the annual airborne fraction for CO2 was about 0.45. The annual airborne fraction increased at a rate of 0.25 ± 0.21% per year over the period 1959–2006.


Indirect radiative effects

Oxidation of CO to directly produces an unambiguous increase in
radiative forcing Radiative forcing is the change in energy flux in the atmosphere caused by Climate variability and change, natural or Human impact on the environment#Impacts on climate, anthropogenic factors of climate change as measured by watts / metre2. It is ...
although the reason is subtle. The peak of the thermal IR emission from Earth's surface is very close to a strong vibrational absorption band of (
wavelength In physics Physics is the that studies , its , its and behavior through , and the related entities of and . "Physical science is that department of knowledge which relates to the order of nature, or, in other words, to the regular su ...

wavelength
15 microns, or
wavenumber In the physical science Physical science is a branch of natural science that studies non-living systems, in contrast to life science. It in turn has many branches, each referred to as a "physical science", together called the "physical scienc ...
667 cm−1). On the other hand, the single CO vibrational band only absorbs IR at much shorter wavelengths (4.7 microns, or 2145 cm−1), where the emission of radiant energy from Earth's surface is at least a factor of ten lower. Oxidation of methane to , which requires reactions with the OH radical, produces an instantaneous reduction in radiative absorption and emission since is a weaker greenhouse gas than methane. However, the oxidations of CO and are entwined since both consume OH radicals. In any case, the calculation of the total radiative effect includes both direct and indirect forcing. A second type of indirect effect happens when chemical reactions in the atmosphere involving these gases change the concentrations of greenhouse gases. For example, the destruction of
non-methane volatile organic compound Non-methane volatile organic compounds (NMVOCs) are a large variety of chemically different compounds, such as benzene Benzene is an organic chemical compound A chemical compound is a chemical substance composed of many identical molecule ...
s (NMVOCs) in the atmosphere can produce ozone. The size of the indirect effect can depend strongly on where and when the gas is emitted. Methane has indirect effects in addition to forming . The main chemical that reacts with methane in the atmosphere is the
hydroxyl radical The hydroxyl radical is the diatomic molecule . The hydroxyl radical is very stable as a dilute gas, but it decays very rapidly in the condensed phase. It is pervasive in some situations. Most notably the hydroxyl radicals is produced from the d ...

hydroxyl radical
(OH), thus more methane means that the concentration of OH goes down. Effectively, methane increases its own atmospheric lifetime and therefore its overall radiative effect. The oxidation of methane can produce both ozone and water; and is a major source of water vapor in the normally dry
stratosphere The stratosphere () is the second layer of the atmosphere of the Earth, located above the troposphere The troposphere is the first and lowest layer of the atmosphere of the Earth, and contains 75% of the total mass of the planetary atmosphe ...

stratosphere
. CO and NMVOCs produce when they are oxidized. They remove OH from the atmosphere, and this leads to higher concentrations of methane. The surprising effect of this is that the global warming potential of CO is three times that of . The same process that converts NMVOCs to carbon dioxide can also lead to the formation of tropospheric ozone.
HalocarbonHalocarbon compounds are chemicals in which one or more carbon atoms are linked by covalent bonds with one or more halogen atoms (fluorine, chlorine, bromine or iodine – ) resulting in the formation of organofluorine compounds, organochlorine ...
s have an indirect effect because they destroy stratospheric ozone. Finally,
hydrogen Hydrogen is the chemical element with the Symbol (chemistry), symbol H and atomic number 1. Hydrogen is the lightest element. At standard temperature and pressure, standard conditions hydrogen is a gas of diatomic molecules having the che ...

hydrogen
can lead to ozone production and increases as well as producing stratospheric water vapor.


Contribution of clouds to Earth's greenhouse effect

The major non-gas contributor to Earth's greenhouse effect,
clouds In meteorology Meteorology is a branch of the (which include and ), with a major focus on . The study of meteorology dates back , though significant progress in meteorology did not begin until the 18th century. The 19th century saw mod ...
, also absorb and emit infrared radiation and thus have an effect on greenhouse gas radiative properties. Clouds are water droplets or
ice crystal Ice is water Water is an Inorganic compound, inorganic, Transparency and translucency, transparent, tasteless, odorless, and Color of water, nearly colorless chemical substance, which is the main constituent of Earth's hydrosphere and ...
s suspended in the atmosphere.


Role of water vapor

Water vapor (99.9839 °C) , - , Boiling point The boiling point of a substance is the temperature at which the vapor pressure 280px, The ''pistol test tube'' experiment. The tube contains alcohol and is closed with a piece of cork. By heating th ...
accounts for the largest percentage of the greenhouse effect, between 36% and 66% for clear sky conditions and between 66% and 85% when including clouds. Water vapor concentrations fluctuate regionally, but human activity does not directly affect water vapor concentrations except at local scales, such as near irrigated fields. Indirectly, human activity that increases global temperatures will increase water vapor concentrations, a process known as water vapor feedback. The atmospheric concentration of vapor is highly variable and depends largely on temperature, from less than 0.01% in extremely cold regions up to 3% by mass in saturated air at about 32 °C. (See Relative humidity#Other important facts.) The average residence time of a water molecule in the atmosphere is only about nine days, compared to years or centuries for other greenhouse gases such as and . Water vapor responds to and amplifies effects of the other greenhouse gases. The
Clausius–Clapeyron relation The Clausius–Clapeyron relation, named after Rudolf Clausius Rudolf Julius Emanuel Clausius (; 2 January 1822 – 24 August 1888) was a German physicist A physicist is a scientist A scientist is a person who conducts Scientific method ...
establishes that more water vapor will be present per unit volume at elevated temperatures. This and other basic principles indicate that warming associated with increased concentrations of the other greenhouse gases also will increase the concentration of water vapor (assuming that the
relative humidity Humidity is the concentration of water vapour (99.9839 °C) , - , Boiling point , , - , specific gas constant , 461.5 J/( kg·K) , - , Heat of vaporization , 2.27 MJ/kg , - , Heat capacity , 1.864 kJ/(kg·K) Water vap ...

relative humidity
remains approximately constant; modeling and observational studies find that this is indeed so). Because water vapor is a greenhouse gas, this results in further warming and so is a "
positive feedback Positive feedback (exacerbating feedback, self-reinforcing feedback) is a process that occurs in a feedback loop Feedback occurs when outputs of a system are routed back as inputs as part of a chain Image:Kettenvergleich.jpg, Roller c ...
" that amplifies the original warming. Eventually other earth processes offset these positive feedbacks, stabilising the global temperature at a new equilibrium and preventing the loss of Earth's water through a Venus-like
runaway greenhouse effect A runaway greenhouse effect occurs when a planet's atmosphere contains greenhouse gas A greenhouse gas (sometimes abbreviated GHG) is a gas that Absorption (electromagnetic radiation), absorbs and Emission (electromagnetic radiation), emits r ...
.


Impacts on the overall greenhouse effect

The contribution of each gas to the greenhouse effect is determined by the characteristics of that gas, its abundance, and any indirect effects it may cause. For example, the direct radiative effect of a mass of methane is about 84 times stronger than the same mass of carbon dioxide over a 20-year time frame but it is present in much smaller concentrations so that its total direct radiative effect has so far been smaller, in part due to its shorter atmospheric lifetime in the absence of additional
carbon sequestration Carbon sequestration or carbon dioxide removal (CDR) is the long-term removal, capture or sequestration of atmospheric carbon dioxide, carbon dioxide from the atmosphere to slow or reverse atmospheric CO2 pollution and to Climate change mitigat ...

carbon sequestration
. On the other hand, in addition to its direct radiative impact, methane has a large, indirect radiative effect because it contributes to ozone formation. Shindell et al. (2005) argues that the contribution to climate change from methane is at least double previous estimates as a result of this effect. When ranked by their direct contribution to the greenhouse effect, the most important are: In addition to the main greenhouse gases listed above, other greenhouse gases include
sulfur hexafluoride Sulfur hexafluoride (SF6) or sulphur hexafluoride (British English, British spelling) is an extremely potent and persistent greenhouse gas that is primarily utilized as an electrical insulator and arc suppressant. It is inorganic, colorless, od ...
,
hydrofluorocarbon Hydrofluorocarbons (HFCs) are man-made organic compounds that contain fluorine and hydrogen atoms, and are the most common type of organofluorine B: isoflurane Isoflurane, sold under the brand name Forane among others, is a general anesthetic. ...
s and
perfluorocarbon Fluorocarbons, sometimes referred to as perfluorocarbons or PFCs, are organofluorine compounds with the formula CxFy, i.e., they contain only carbon and fluorine. The terminology is not strictly followed and many fluorine-containing organic compou ...
s (see IPCC list of greenhouse gases). Some greenhouse gases are not often listed. For example,
nitrogen trifluoride Nitrogen trifluoride () is an inorganic, colorless, non-flammable , Germany Image:Tu braunschweig 750 grad ofen.jpg, 250px, Germany, German test apparatus for determining combustibility at Technische Universität Braunschweig A combustible ...

nitrogen trifluoride
has a high
global warming potential Global warming potential (GWP) is the heat In thermodynamics Thermodynamics is a branch of physics that deals with heat, Work (thermodynamics), work, and temperature, and their relation to energy, entropy, and the physical properties of ...

global warming potential
(GWP) but is only present in very small quantities.


Proportion of direct effects at a given moment

It is not possible to state that a certain gas causes an exact percentage of the greenhouse effect. This is because some of the gases absorb and emit radiation at the same frequencies as others, so that the total greenhouse effect is not simply the sum of the influence of each gas. The higher ends of the ranges quoted are for each gas alone; the lower ends account for overlaps with the other gases. In addition, some gases, such as methane, are known to have large indirect effects that are still being quantified.


Atmospheric lifetime

Aside from
water vapor (99.9839 °C) , - , Boiling point The boiling point of a substance is the temperature at which the vapor pressure 280px, The ''pistol test tube'' experiment. The tube contains alcohol and is closed with a piece of cork. By heating th ...
, which has a
residence time The residence time of a fluid parcelIn fluid dynamics In physics and engineering, fluid dynamics is a subdiscipline of fluid mechanics that describes the flow of fluids—liquids and gases. It has several subdisciplines, including aerodynamics ...
of about nine days, major greenhouse gases are well mixed and take many years to leave the atmosphere. Although it is not easy to know with precision how long it takes greenhouse gases to leave the atmosphere, there are estimates for the principal greenhouse gases. Jacob (1999) defines the lifetime \tau of an atmospheric
species In biology, a species is the basic unit of biological classification, classification and a taxonomic rank of an organism, as well as a unit of biodiversity. A species is often defined as the largest group of organisms in which any two individu ...
X in a one- box model as the average time that a molecule of X remains in the box. Mathematically \tau can be defined as the ratio of the mass m (in kg) of X in the box to its removal rate, which is the sum of the flow of X out of the box (F_), chemical loss of X (L), and
deposition Deposition may refer to: * Deposition (law), taking testimony outside of court * List of deposed politicians, Deposition (politics), the removal of a person of authority from political power * Deposition (university), a widespread initiation ritual ...
of X (D) (all in kg/s): \tau = \frac. If input of this gas into the box ceased, then after time \tau, its concentration would decrease by about 63%. The atmospheric lifetime of a species therefore measures the time required to restore equilibrium following a sudden increase or decrease in its concentration in the atmosphere. Individual atoms or molecules may be lost or deposited to sinks such as the soil, the oceans and other waters, or vegetation and other biological systems, reducing the excess to background concentrations. The average time taken to achieve this is the
mean lifetime Image:Plot-exponential-decay.svg, upright=1.5, A quantity undergoing exponential decay. Larger decay constants make the quantity vanish much more rapidly. This plot shows decay for decay constant (λ) of 25, 5, 1, 1/5, and 1/25 for x from 0 to 5. A ...
.
Carbon dioxide Carbon dioxide (chemical formula A chemical formula is a way of presenting information about the chemical proportions of s that constitute a particular or molecule, using symbols, numbers, and sometimes also other symbols, such as pare ...

Carbon dioxide
has a variable atmospheric lifetime, and cannot be specified precisely. Although more than half of the CO2 emitted is removed from the atmosphere within a century, some fraction (about 20%) of emitted CO2 remains in the atmosphere for many thousands of years.See also: See also: Similar issues apply to other greenhouse gases, many of which have longer mean lifetimes than CO2, e.g. N2O has a mean atmospheric lifetime of 121 years.


Radiative forcing and annual greenhouse gas index

Earth absorbs some of the radiant energy received from the sun, reflects some of it as light and reflects or radiates the rest back to space as
heat In thermodynamics Thermodynamics is a branch of physics that deals with heat, Work (thermodynamics), work, and temperature, and their relation to energy, entropy, and the physical properties of matter and radiation. The behavior of these ...
. Earth's surface temperature depends on this balance between incoming and outgoing energy. If this energy balance is shifted, Earth's surface becomes warmer or cooler, leading to a variety of changes in global climate.. A number of natural and man-made mechanisms can affect the global energy balance and force changes in Earth's climate. Greenhouse gases are one such mechanism. Greenhouse gases absorb and emit some of the outgoing energy radiated from Earth's surface, causing that heat to be retained in the lower atmosphere. As explained above, some greenhouse gases remain in the atmosphere for decades or even centuries, and therefore can affect Earth's energy balance over a long period.
Radiative forcing Radiative forcing is the change in energy flux in the atmosphere caused by Climate variability and change, natural or Human impact on the environment#Impacts on climate, anthropogenic factors of climate change as measured by watts / metre2. It is ...
quantifies (in Watts per square meter) the effect of factors that influence Earth's energy balance; including changes in the concentrations of greenhouse gases. Positive radiative forcing leads to warming by increasing the net incoming energy, whereas negative radiative forcing leads to cooling.
The Annual Greenhouse Gas Index (AGGI) is defined by atmospheric scientists at
NOAA The National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration (NOAA ) is an American scientific and regulatory agency within the United States Department of Commerce The United States Department of Commerce is an executive department The United ...

NOAA
as the ratio of total direct radiative forcing due to long-lived and well-mixed greenhouse gases for any year for which adequate global measurements exist, to that present in year 1990. These radiative forcing levels are relative to those present in year 1750 (i.e. prior to the start of the
industrial era The Industrial Revolution was the transition to new manufacturing processes in Great Britain, continental Europe Continental Europe or mainland Europe is the contiguous continent A continent is any of several large landmass ...
). 1990 is chosen because it is the baseline year for the
Kyoto Protocol The Kyoto Protocol was an international treaty A treaty is a formal, legally binding written agreement between actors in international law International law, also known as public international law and law of nations, is the set of ru ...

Kyoto Protocol
, and is the publication year of the first IPCC Scientific Assessment of Climate Change. As such, NOAA states that the AGGI "measures the commitment that (global) society has already made to living in a changing climate. It is based on the highest quality atmospheric observations from sites around the world. Its uncertainty is very low."


Global warming potential

The
global warming potential Global warming potential (GWP) is the heat In thermodynamics Thermodynamics is a branch of physics that deals with heat, Work (thermodynamics), work, and temperature, and their relation to energy, entropy, and the physical properties of ...

global warming potential
(GWP) depends on both the efficiency of the molecule as a greenhouse gas and its atmospheric lifetime. GWP is measured relative to the same mass of and evaluated for a specific timescale. Thus, if a gas has a high (positive)
radiative forcing Radiative forcing is the change in energy flux in the atmosphere caused by Climate variability and change, natural or Human impact on the environment#Impacts on climate, anthropogenic factors of climate change as measured by watts / metre2. It is ...
but also a short lifetime, it will have a large GWP on a 20-year scale but a small one on a 100-year scale. Conversely, if a molecule has a longer atmospheric lifetime than its GWP will increase when the timescale is considered. Carbon dioxide is defined to have a GWP of 1 over all time periods.
Methane Methane (, ) is a chemical compound with the chemical formula A chemical formula is a way of presenting information about the chemical proportions of s that constitute a particular or molecule, using symbols, numbers, and sometimes a ...
has an atmospheric lifetime of 12 ± 3 years. The 2007 IPCC report lists the GWP as 72 over a time scale of 20 years, 25 over 100 years and 7.6 over 500 years. A 2014 analysis, however, states that although methane's initial impact is about 100 times greater than that of , because of the shorter atmospheric lifetime, after six or seven decades, the impact of the two gases is about equal, and from then on methane's relative role continues to decline. The decrease in GWP at longer times is because
methane Methane (, ) is a chemical compound with the chemical formula A chemical formula is a way of presenting information about the chemical proportions of s that constitute a particular or molecule, using symbols, numbers, and sometimes a ...
is degraded to water and through chemical reactions in the atmosphere. Examples of the atmospheric lifetime and relative to for several greenhouse gases are given in the following table: The use of CFC-12 (except some essential uses) has been phased out due to its properties. The phasing-out of less active HCFC-compounds will be completed in 2030.


Natural and anthropogenic sources

Aside from purely human-produced synthetic halocarbons, most greenhouse gases have both natural and human-caused sources. During the pre-industrial
Holocene The Holocene ( ) is the current geological epoch In geochronology, an epoch is a subdivision of the geologic timescale that is longer than an age (geology), age but shorter than a period (geology), period. The current epoch is the Holocene E ...
, concentrations of existing gases were roughly constant, because the large natural sources and sinks roughly balanced. In the industrial era, human activities have added greenhouse gases to the atmosphere, mainly through the burning of fossil fuels and clearing of forests. The 2021
IPCC Sixth Assessment Report The Sixth Assessment Report (AR6) of the United Nations (UN) Intergovernmental Panel on Climate Change (IPCC) is the sixth in a series of reports which assess scientific, technical, and socio-economic information concerning climate change. Three Wo ...
noted that "From a physical science perspective, limiting human-induced global warming to a specific level requires limiting cumulative CO2 emissions, reaching at least net zero CO2 emissions, along with strong reductions in other greenhouse gas emissions. Strong, rapid and sustained reductions in CH4 emissions would also limit the warming effect resulting from declining aerosol pollution and would improve air quality." ''Abbreviations used in the two tables below: ppm = parts-per-million; ppb = parts-per-billion; ppt = parts-per-trillion; W/m2 =
watt The watt (symbol: W) is a unit of power Power typically refers to: * Power (physics) In physics, power is the amount of energy transferred or converted per unit time. In the International System of Units, the unit of power is the watt, equa ...

watt
s per
square metre The square metre ( international spelling as used by the International Bureau of Weights and Measures The International Bureau of Weights and Measures (french: Bureau international des poids et mesures, BIPM) is an intergovernmental organi ...
''
Ice core An ice core is a core sample . A pied butcherbird The pied butcherbird (''Cracticus nigrogularis'') is a songbird native to Australia. Described by John Gould in 1837, it is a black and white bird long with a long hooked bill. Its head an ...
s provide evidence for greenhouse gas concentration variations over the past 800,000 years (see the following section). Both CO2 and vary between glacial and interglacial phases, and concentrations of these gases correlate strongly with temperature. Direct data does not exist for periods earlier than those represented in the ice core record, a record that indicates CO2
mole fraction In chemistry Chemistry is the scientific discipline involved with Chemical element, elements and chemical compound, compounds composed of atoms, molecules and ions: their composition, structure, properties, behavior and the changes they underg ...
s stayed within a range of 180 ppm to 280 ppm throughout the last 800,000 years, until the increase of the last 250 years. However, various proxies and modeling suggests larger variations in past epochs; 500 million years ago CO2 levels were likely 10 times higher than now. Indeed, higher CO2 concentrations are thought to have prevailed throughout most of the
Phanerozoic The Phanerozoic Eon is the current in the , and the one during which abundant and has existed. It covers million years to the present, and it began with the Period when animals first developed hard shells preserved in the fossil record. The ...
Eon, with concentrations four to six times current concentrations during the Mesozoic era, and ten to fifteen times current concentrations during the early Palaeozoic era until the middle of the
Devonian The Devonian ( ) is a geologic period and system of the Paleozoic The Paleozoic (or Palaeozoic) Era ( ; from the Greek Greek may refer to: Greece Anything of, from, or related to Greece Greece ( el, Ελλάδα, , ), officially the H ...
period, about 400 Ma. The spread of land plants is thought to have reduced CO2 concentrations during the late Devonian, and plant activities as both sources and sinks of CO2 have since been important in providing stabilising feedbacks. Earlier still, a 200-million year period of intermittent, widespread glaciation extending close to the equator (
Snowball Earth The Snowball Earth hypothesis proposes that, during one or more of Earth's Greenhouse and icehouse Earth, icehouse climates, the Earth's surface, planet's surface became entirely or nearly entirely frozen. It is believed that this occurred someti ...
) appears to have been ended suddenly, about 550 Ma, by a colossal volcanic outgassing that raised the concentration of the atmosphere abruptly to 12%, about 350 times modern levels, causing extreme greenhouse conditions and carbonate deposition as
limestone Limestone is a common type of carbonate In chemistry, a carbonate is a salt Salt is a mineral composed primarily of sodium chloride (NaCl), a chemical compound belonging to the larger class of Salt (chemistry), salts; salt in its na ...

limestone
at the rate of about 1 mm per day. This episode marked the close of the
Precambrian The Precambrian (or Pre-Cambrian, sometimes abbreviated pꞒ, or Cryptozoic) is the earliest part of Earth's history, set before the current Phanerozoic The Phanerozoic Eon is the current geologic eon in the geologic time scale The geologi ...

Precambrian
Eon, and was succeeded by the generally warmer conditions of the Phanerozoic, during which multicellular animal and plant life evolved. No volcanic carbon dioxide emission of comparable scale has occurred since. In the modern era, emissions to the atmosphere from volcanoes are approximately 0.645 billion tonnes of per year, whereas humans contribute 29 billion tonnes of each year.


Ice cores

Measurements from Antarctic ice cores show that before industrial emissions started atmospheric CO2 mole fractions were about 280
parts per million In science Science (from the Latin word ''scientia'', meaning "knowledge") is a systematic enterprise that Scientific method, builds and Taxonomy (general), organizes knowledge in the form of Testability, testable explanations and predictio ...
(ppm), and stayed between 260 and 280 during the preceding ten thousand years. Carbon dioxide mole fractions in the atmosphere have gone up by approximately 35 percent since the 1900s, rising from 280 parts per million by volume to 387 parts per million in 2009. One study using evidence from
stomata File:LeafUndersideWithStomata.jpg, The underside of a leaf. In this species (''Tradescantia zebrina'') the guard cells of the stomata are green because they contain chlorophyll while the epidermal cells are chlorophyll-free and contain red pigme ...

stomata
of fossilized leaves suggests greater variability, with carbon dioxide mole fractions above 300 ppm during the period seven to ten thousand years ago, though others have argued that these findings more likely reflect calibration or contamination problems rather than actual CO2 variability. Because of the way air is trapped in ice (pores in the ice close off slowly to form bubbles deep within the firn) and the time period represented in each ice sample analyzed, these figures represent averages of atmospheric concentrations of up to a few centuries rather than annual or decadal levels.


Changes since the Industrial Revolution

Since the beginning of the
Industrial Revolution The Industrial Revolution was the transition to new manufacturing processes in Great Britain, continental Europe Continental Europe or mainland Europe is the contiguous continent A continent is any of several large landmasse ...
, the concentrations of many of the greenhouse gases have increased. For example, the mole fraction of carbon dioxide has increased from 280 ppm to 415 ppm, or 120 ppm over modern pre-industrial levels. The first 30 ppm increase took place in about 200 years, from the start of the Industrial Revolution to 1958; however the next 90 ppm increase took place within 56 years, from 1958 to 2014. Recent data also shows that the concentration is increasing at a higher rate. In the 1960s, the average annual increase was only 37% of what it was in 2000 through 2007. Total cumulative emissions from 1870 to 2017 were 425±20 GtC (1539 Gt) from
fossil fuels A fossil fuel is a hydrocarbon In organic chemistry Organic chemistry is a branch of chemistry Chemistry is the study of the properties and behavior of . It is a that covers the that make up matter to the composed of s, s and ...
and industry, and 180±60 GtC (660 Gt) from land use change. Land-use change, such as deforestation, caused about 31% of cumulative emissions over 1870–2017,
coal Coal is a combustible , Germany ) , image_map = , map_caption = , map_width = 250px , capital = Berlin , coordinates = , largest_city = capital , languages_type = Official language , languages = German language, German , ...

coal
32%, oil 25%, and gas 10%. Today, the stock of carbon in the atmosphere increases by more than 3 million tonnes per annum (0.04%) compared with the existing stock. This increase is the result of human activities by burning fossil fuels, deforestation and forest degradation in tropical and boreal regions. (webpage has a translation button) The other greenhouse gases produced from human activity show similar increases in both amount and rate of increase. Many observations are available online in a variety of
Atmospheric Chemistry Observational Databases Over the last two centuries many environmental chemical observations have been made from a variety of ground-based, airborne Airborne or Airborn may refer to: Arts, entertainment, and media Films * Airborne (1962 film), ''Airborne'' (1962 film) ...
.


Anthropogenic greenhouse gas emissions


Removal from the atmosphere


Natural processes

Greenhouse gases can be removed from the atmosphere by various processes, as a consequence of: * a physical change (condensation and precipitation remove water vapor from the atmosphere). * a chemical reaction within the atmosphere. For example, methane is
oxidized (mild reducing agent) are added to powdered potassium permanganate (strong oxidizing agent), a violent redox reaction accompanied by self-ignition starts. Redox (reduction–oxidation, pronunciation: or ) is a type of chemical reaction A ...

oxidized
by reaction with naturally occurring
hydroxyl radical The hydroxyl radical is the diatomic molecule . The hydroxyl radical is very stable as a dilute gas, but it decays very rapidly in the condensed phase. It is pervasive in some situations. Most notably the hydroxyl radicals is produced from the d ...

hydroxyl radical
, OH· and degraded to and water vapor ( from the oxidation of methane is not included in the methane
Global warming potential Global warming potential (GWP) is the heat In thermodynamics Thermodynamics is a branch of physics that deals with heat, Work (thermodynamics), work, and temperature, and their relation to energy, entropy, and the physical properties of ...

Global warming potential
). Other chemical reactions include solution and solid phase chemistry occurring in atmospheric aerosols. * a physical exchange between the atmosphere and the other components of the planet. An example is the mixing of atmospheric gases into the oceans. * a chemical change at the interface between the atmosphere and the other components of the planet. This is the case for , which is reduced by
photosynthesis Photosynthesis is a process used by plants and other organisms to convert Conversion or convert may refer to: Arts, entertainment, and media * Conversion (Doctor Who audio), "Conversion" (''Doctor Who'' audio), an episode of the audio drama ' ...

photosynthesis
of plants, and which, after dissolving in the oceans, reacts to form
carbonic acid In chemistry, carbonic acid is a dibasic acid with the chemical formula A chemical formula is a way of presenting information about the chemical proportions of s that constitute a particular or molecule, using symbols, numbers, and s ...

carbonic acid
and
bicarbonate In inorganic chemistry, bicarbonate (International Union of Pure and Applied Chemistry, IUPAC-recommended nomenclature: hydrogen carbonate) is an intermediate form in the deprotonation of carbonic acid. It is a Polyatomic ion, polyatomic anion w ...

bicarbonate
and
carbonate In chemistry, a carbonate is a salt Salt is a mineral composed primarily of sodium chloride (NaCl), a chemical compound belonging to the larger class of Salt (chemistry), salts; salt in its natural form as a crystallinity, crystalline mi ...

carbonate
ions (see
ocean acidification Ocean acidification is the ongoing decrease in the pH value of the Earth Earth is the third planet from the Sun and the only astronomical object known to harbour and support life. 29.2% of Earth's surface is land consisting of cont ...
). * a photochemical change.
HalocarbonsHalocarbon compounds are chemicals in which one or more carbon atoms are linked by covalent bonds with one or more halogen atoms ( fluorine, chlorine, bromine or iodine – ) resulting in the formation of organofluorine compounds, organoch ...
are dissociated by light releasing Cl· and F· as
free radical A daughter category of ''Ageing'', this category deals only with the biological aspects of ageing. Ageing Ailments of unknown cause Biogerontology Biological processes Causes of death Cellular processes Gerontology Life extension Metabo ...
s in the
stratosphere The stratosphere () is the second layer of the atmosphere of the Earth, located above the troposphere The troposphere is the first and lowest layer of the atmosphere of the Earth, and contains 75% of the total mass of the planetary atmosphe ...

stratosphere
with harmful effects on
ozone Ozone (), or trioxygen, is an inorganic molecule A molecule is an electrically Electricity is the set of physical phenomena associated with the presence and motion Image:Leaving Yongsan Station.jpg, 300px, Motion involves a cha ...

ozone
(halocarbons are generally too stable to disappear by chemical reaction in the atmosphere).


Negative emissions

A number of technologies remove greenhouse gases emissions from the atmosphere. Most widely analysed are those that remove carbon dioxide from the atmosphere, either to geologic formations such as
bio-energy with carbon capture and storage Bioenergy with carbon capture and storage (BECCS) is the process of extracting bioenergy from biomass and Carbon capture and storage, capturing and storing the carbon, thereby Carbon dioxide removal, removing it from the atmosphere. The carbon in ...
and carbon dioxide air capture, or to the soil as in the case with biochar. The IPCC has pointed out that many long-term climate scenario models require large-scale man-made negative emissions to avoid serious climate change. in


History of scientific research

In the late 19th century, scientists experimentally discovered that and do not absorb infrared radiation (called, at that time, "dark radiation"), while water (both as true vapor and condensed in the form of microscopic droplets suspended in clouds) and and other poly-atomic gaseous molecules do absorb infrared radiation. In the early 20th century researchers realized that greenhouse gases in the atmosphere made Earth's overall temperature higher than it would be without them. During the late 20th century, a Scientific opinion on climate change, scientific consensus evolved that increasing concentrations of greenhouse gases in the atmosphere cause a substantial rise in global temperatures and changes to other parts of the climate system, with Effects of global warming, consequences for the Physical impacts of climate change, environment and for Effects of global warming on human health, human health.


See also


References


Further reading

* * (pb: ) *


External links

* *
The official greenhouse gas emissions data of developed countries
from the UNFCCC *
Annual Greenhouse Gas Index (AGGI)
from
NOAA The National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration (NOAA ) is an American scientific and regulatory agency within the United States Department of Commerce The United States Department of Commerce is an executive department The United ...

NOAA

Atmospheric spectra of GHGs and other trace gases
{{DEFAULTSORT:Greenhouse Gas Greenhouse gases, Articles containing video clips Climate forcing