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A governor is, in most cases, a public official with the power to govern the
executive branch The executive (short for executive branch or executive power) is the part of government A government is the system or group of people governing an organized community, generally a state State may refer to: Arts, entertainment, a ...
of a non-sovereign or sub-national level of government, ranking under the
head of state A head of state (or chief of state) is the public persona A persona (plural personae or personas), depending on the context, can refer to either the public image of one's personality, or the social role that one adopts, or a fictional ch ...
. In
federation A federation (also known as a federal state) is a political entity A polity is an identifiable political entity—any group of people who have a collective identity, who are organized by some form of Institutionalisation, institutionalized ...

federation
s, ''governor'' may be the title of a
politician A politician is a person active in party politics, or a person holding or seeking an elected legal seat, seat in government. Politicians propose, support, and create laws that govern the land and, by extension, its people. Broadly speaking, a "p ...

politician
who governs a
constituent state A constituent state is a state entity that constitutes a part Part, parts or PART may refer to: People *Armi Pärt Armi Pärt (born 18 June 1991) is an Estonian handballer, playing in French D2 for Massy Essonne Handball. He is also a m ...
and may be either appointed or elected. The power of the individual governor can vary dramatically between political systems, with some governors having only nominal or mostly ceremonial power, with others having complete control over the entire government. Historically, the title can also apply to the executive officials acting as representatives of a
chartered company A chartered company is an association with investors or shareholder A shareholder (also known as stockholder) is an individual or institution (including a corporation) that legally owns one or more share (finance), shares of the share capital o ...
which has been granted exercise of sovereignty in a colonial area, such as the British
East India Company The East India Company (EIC), also known as the Honourable East India Company (HEIC), East India Trading Company (EITC), the English East India Company or (after Acts of Union 1707, 1707) the British East India Company, and informally known a ...
or the
Dutch East India Company The Dutch East India Company, officially the United East India Company ( nl, Vereenigde Oost Indische Compagnie; VOC), was a multinational corporation A multinational company (MNC) is a corporate A corporation is an organization—u ...

Dutch East India Company
. These companies operate as a major state within a state with its own armed forces. There can also be non-political governors: high-ranking officials in private or similar
governance Governance is all the processes of interactions be they through the laws Law is a system of rules created and law enforcement, enforced through social or governmental institutions to regulate behavior,Robertson, ''Crimes against humanity ...

governance
such as commercial and non-profit management, styled governor(s), who simply ''govern'' an institution, such as a corporation or a bank. For example, in the
United Kingdom The United Kingdom of Great Britain and Northern Ireland, commonly known as the United Kingdom (UK) or Britain,Usage is mixed. The Guardian' and Telegraph' use Britain as a synonym for the United Kingdom. Some prefer to use Britain as shorth ...

United Kingdom
and other
Commonwealth A commonwealth is a traditional English term for a political community founded for the common good In philosophy Philosophy (from , ) is the study of general and fundamental questions, such as those about reason, Metaphysics, existenc ...

Commonwealth
countries, there are prison governors ("wardens" in the
United States The United States of America (U.S.A. or USA), commonly known as the United States (U.S. or US) or America, is a country Continental United States, primarily located in North America. It consists of 50 U.S. state, states, a Washington, D.C., ...

United States
),
school governors In England, Wales and Northern Ireland, school governors are the overseers of a school. In state school State schools (in England, Wales, and New Zealand) or public schools (Scottish English and North American English) are generally primary o ...
and bank governors. The adjective pertaining to a governor is gubernatorial, from the Latin root ''gubernare''. The
obsolete Obsolescence is the state of being which occurs when an object, service, or practice is no longer maintained, required, or degraded even though it may still be in good working order. The international standard EN62402 Obsolescence Management - A ...

obsolete
term for a female governor is the female form ''governess'', however the modern term for female officials is the gender-neutral form ''governor'' (without the gender-specific suffix ''-ess'') to avoid confusion with
other meanings of ''governess''
other meanings of ''governess''
.


Ancient empires


Pre-Roman empires

Though the legal and administrative framework of provinces, each administrated by a governor, was created by the
Romans Roman or Romans usually refers to: *Rome , established_title = Founded , established_date = 753 BC , founder = King Romulus , image_map = Map of comune of Rome (metropolitan city of Capital Rome, region Lazio, ...
, the term ''governor'' has been a convenient term for historians to describe similar systems in
antiquity Antiquity or Antiquities may refer to Historical objects or periods Artifacts * Antiquities, objects or artifacts surviving from ancient cultures Eras Any period before the European Middle Ages In the history of Europe, the Middle Ages ...

antiquity
. Indeed, many regions of the pre-Roman antiquity were ultimately replaced by Roman 'standardized' provincial governments after their conquest by Rome. Plato used the metaphor of turning the
Ship of State The Ship of State is a famous and oft-cited metaphor A metaphor is a figure of speech that, for rhetorical effect, directly refers to one thing by mentioning another. It may provide (or obscure) clarity or identify hidden similarities between t ...
with a rudder; the Latin word for rudder is
gubernaculum The paired gubernacula (from Ancient Greek κυβερνάω = pilot, steer) also called the caudal genital ligament, are embryonic structures which begin as undifferentiated mesenchyme attaching to the Caudal (anatomical term), caudal end of the ...
.


Egypt

*In Pharaonic times, the governors of each of the various provinces in the kingdoms of Upper and Lower Egypt (called "nomes" by the Greeks, and whose names often alluded to local patterns of religious worship) are usually known by the Greek word.


Pre- and Hellenistic satraps

*
Media Media may refer to: Physical means Communication * Media (communication), tools used to deliver information or data ** Advertising media, various media, content, buying and placement for advertising ** Broadcast media, communications deliv ...
and Achaemenid
Persia Iran ( fa, ایران ), also called Persia, and officially the Islamic Republic of Iran, is a country in Western Asia. It is bordered to the northwest by Armenia and Azerbaijan, to the north by the Caspian Sea, to the northeast by Tu ...
introduced the satrapy, probably inspired by the Assyrian / Babylonian examples *
Alexander the Great Alexander III of Macedon ( grc-gre, Αλέξανδρος}, ; 20/21 July 356 BC – 10/11 June 323 BC), commonly known as Alexander the Great, was a king (''basileus ''Basileus'' ( el, βασιλεύς) is a Greek term and title A title ...

Alexander the Great
and equally Hellenistic
diadoch 250px, Bust of Seleucus ''Nicator'' ("Victor"; 358 – 281 BCE), the last of the original Diadochi. The Diadochi (; plural of Latin Latin (, or , ) is a classical language belonging to the Italic languages, Italic branch of the ...

diadoch
kingdoms, mainly
Seleucids The Seleucid Empire (; grc, Βασιλεία τῶν Σελευκιδῶν, ''Basileía tōn Seleukidōn'') was a Greek Greek may refer to: Greece Anything of, from, or related to Greece Greece ( el, Ελλάδα, , ), officially the Hell ...
(greater Syria) and
Lagids The Ptolemaic dynasty (; grc, Πτολεμαῖοι, ''Ptolemaioi''), the Thirty-third dynasty of Egypt, sometimes referred to as the Lagid dynasty (Λαγίδαι, ''Lagidae;'' after Ptolemy I Soter, Ptolemy I's father, Lagus), was a Ancient ...
('Ptolemies' in Hellenistic Egypt) * in later
Persia Iran ( fa, ایران ), also called Persia, and officially the Islamic Republic of Iran, is a country in Western Asia. It is bordered to the northwest by Armenia and Azerbaijan, to the north by the Caspian Sea, to the northeast by Tu ...

Persia
, again under Iranian dynasties: **
Parthia Parthia ( peo, 𐎱𐎼𐎰𐎺 ''Parθava''; xpr, 𐭐𐭓𐭕𐭅 ''Parθaw''; pal, 𐭯𐭫𐭮𐭥𐭡𐭥 ''Pahlaw'') is a historical region located in north-eastern Iran Iran ( fa, ایران ), also called Persia, and offici ...

Parthia
** the
Sassanid The Sasanian () or Sassanid Empire, officially known as the Empire of Iranians (, '), and also called the Neo-Persian Empire by historians, was the last before the in the mid-7th century AD. Named after the , it endured for over four centuri ...
dynasty dispensed with the office after Shapur I (who had still 7 of them), replacing them with petty vassal rulers, known as ''shahdar''s


Ancient Rome

From the creation of the earliest Roman subject provinces, a governor was appointed each year to administer each of them. The core function of a Roman governor was as a
magistrate The term magistrate is used in a variety of systems of governments and laws to refer to a civilian officer who administers the law. In , a ' was one of the highest ranking government officers, and possessed both and powers. In other parts of t ...
or judge, and the management of taxation and the public spending in their area. Under the Republic and the early Empire, however, a governor also commanded military forces in his province. Republican governors were all men who had served in senior magistracies (the
consul Consul (abbrev. ''cos.''; Latin Latin (, or , ) is a classical language belonging to the Italic branch of the Indo-European languages. Latin was originally spoken in the area around Rome, known as Latium. Through the power of the Roman ...

consul
ate or
praetor Praetor ( , ), also pretor, was the granted by the government of to a man acting in one of two official capacities: (i) the commander of an , and (ii) as an elected ' (magistrate), assigned to discharge various duties. The functions of the magi ...
ship) in Rome in the previous year, and carried related titles as governor (''proconsul'' or ''
propraetor In ancient Rome In historiography, ancient Rome is Roman people, Roman civilization from the founding of the Italian city of Rome in the 8th century BC to the collapse of the Western Roman Empire in the 5th century AD, encompassing the Roma ...
''). The first Emperor, Octavianus Augustus (who acquired or settled a number of new territories; officially his style was republican: Princeps civitatis), divided the provinces into two categories; the traditionally prestigious governorships remained as before (in what have become known as "senatorial" provinces), while in a range of others, he retained the formal governorship himself, delegating the actual task of administration to appointees (usually with the title ''legatus Augusti''). The ''legatus'' sometimes would appoint a
prefect Prefect (from the Latin ''praefectus'', substantive adjectival form of ''praeficere'': "put in front", meaning in charge) is a Magistrate, magisterial title of varying definition, but essentially refers to the leader of an administrative area. ...

prefect
(later
procurator Procurator (with procuracy or procuratorate referring to the office itself) may refer to: * Procurator, one engaged in procuration, the action of taking care of, hence management, stewardship, agency * ''Procurator'' (Ancient Rome), the title of ...
), usually a man of
equestrian The word equestrian is a reference to Equestrianism, horseback riding, derived from Latin ' and ', "horse". Horseback riding (or Riding in British English) Notable examples of this are: *List of equestrian sports, Equestrian sports *Equestrianism, ...
rank, to act as his deputy in a subregion of the larger province: the infamous character of
Pontius Pilate ), as well as Claudia Procula and sometimes other names such as Livia or Pilatessa. , known_for = Pilate's court Pontius Pilate ( ; grc-gre, Πόντιος Πιλάτος, ) was the fifth governor of the Judea (Roman province), Roman pro ...
in the Christian
Gospel Gospel originally meant the Christian message ("the gospel#REDIRECT The gospel In Christianity Christianity is an Abrahamic religions, Abrahamic Monotheism, monotheistic religion based on the Life of Jesus in the New Testament, life and Te ...

Gospel
s was a governor of this sort. A special case was Egypt, a rich 'private' domain and vital granary, where the Emperor almost inherited the theocratic status of a Pharaoh. The Emperor was represented there by a governor ''sui generis'' styled ''
praefectus augustalis During the Roman Empire, the governor of Roman Egypt ''(praefectus Aegypti)'' was a prefect who administered the Egypt (Roman province), Roman province of Egypt with the delegated authority ''(imperium)'' of the Roman emperor, emperor. Egypt was e ...
'', a title evoking the religious cult of the Emperor. Emperors Diocletian (see
Tetrarchy The Tetrarchy was the system instituted by Roman Emperor The Roman emperor was the ruler of the Roman Empire during the imperial period (starting in 27 BC). The emperors used a variety of different titles throughout history. Often when ...
) and Constantine in the third and fourth centuries AD carried out a root and branch reorganisation of the administration with two main features: *Provinces were divided up and became much more numerous (Italy itself, before the 'colonizing homeland', was brought into the system for the first time); they were then grouped into
dioceses In Ecclesiastical polity, church governance, a diocese or bishopric is the ecclesiastical district under the jurisdiction of a bishop. History In the later organization of the Roman Empire, the increasingly subdivided Roman province, prov ...
, and the dioceses in turn into four
praetorian prefecture The praetorian prefecture ( la, praefectura praetorio; in Greek Greek may refer to: Greece Anything of, from, or related to Greece Greece ( el, Ελλάδα, , ), officially the Hellenic Republic, is a country located in Southeast Europe. It ...
s (originally each under a residing co-emperor); *Military responsibilities were removed from governors and given to new officials called ''
comes ''Comes'' ( ), plural ''comites'' ( ), is the Latin word for "companion", either individually or as a member of a collective denominated a "''comitatus ''Comitatus'' was in ancient times the Latin term for an armed escort or retinue. The term is ...
rei militaris'' (the comital title was also granted to many court and civilian administrative positions) or ''
dux ''Dux'' (; plural: ''ducēs'') is Latin Latin (, or , ) is a classical language belonging to the Italic languages, Italic branch of the Indo-European languages. Latin was originally spoken in the area around Rome, known as Latium. Through the ...

dux
'', later also ''
magister militum 300px, The original command structure of the Late Roman army, with a separate ''magister equitum'' and a ''magister peditum'' in place of the later overall ''magister militum'' in the command structure of the army of the Western Roman Empire. (L ...
''. The prestigious governorships of Africa and Asia remained with the title proconsul, and the special right to refer matters directly to the Emperor; the ''
praefectus augustalis During the Roman Empire, the governor of Roman Egypt ''(praefectus Aegypti)'' was a prefect who administered the Egypt (Roman province), Roman province of Egypt with the delegated authority ''(imperium)'' of the Roman emperor, emperor. Egypt was e ...
'' in Alexandria and the ''
comes Orientis The Diocese of the East ( la, Dioecesis Orientis; el, ) was a diocese In Ecclesiastical polity, church governance, a diocese or bishopric is the ecclesiastical district under the jurisdiction of a bishop. History In the later organizat ...
'' in Antioch also retained special titles. Otherwise, the governors of provinces had various titles, some known as ''
consularis''Consularis'' is a Latin Latin (, or , ) is a classical language belonging to the Italic languages, Italic branch of the Indo-European languages. Latin was originally spoken in the area around Rome, known as Latium. Through the power of the Roma ...
'', some as ''
corrector A corrector (English plural ''correctors'', Latin plural ''correctores'') is a person or object practicing correction, usually by removing or rectifying errors. The word is originally a Roman title ''corrector'', derived from the Latin verb ''cor ...
'', while others as ''
praeses Map of the Roman Empire  400 CE. ''Praeses'' (Latin  ''praesides'') is a Latin word meaning "placed before" or "at the head". In antiquity, notably under the Dominate, Roman Dominate, it was used to refer to Roman Roman governor, governors ...
''. Apart from Egypt and the East (''Oriens'' – ''viz'' greater Syria), each diocese was directed by a governor known as a ''
vicarius ''Vicarius'' is a Latin word, meaning ''substitute'' or ''deputy''. It is the root of the English word " vicar". History Originally, in ancient Rome, this office was equivalent to the later English "vice-" (as in " deputy"), used as part of the ...
''. The prefectures were directed by '' praefecti praetorio'' (greatly transformed in their functions from their role in the early Empire).


Byzantium

This system survived with few significant changes until the collapse of the empire in the West, and in the East, the breakdown of order with the Persian and Arab invasions of the seventh century. At that stage, a new kind of governor emerged, the
Strategos Bust of unnamed ''Strategos'' with Hadrian.html"_;"title="Corinthian_helmet;_Hadrian">Corinthian_helmet;_Hadrianic_Roman_copy_of_a_Greek_sculpture_of_c._400_BC ''Strategos'',_plural_''strategoi'',_ Corinthian_helmet;_Hadrianic_Roman_copy_of_a_G ...
. It was a role leading the
themes Theme or themes may refer to: * Theme (arts), the unifying subject or idea of the type of visual work * Theme (Byzantine district), an administrative district in the Byzantine Empire governed by a Strategos * Theme (computing), a custom graphical a ...
which replaced provinces at this point, involving a return to the amalgamation of civil and military office which had been the practice under the Republic and the early Empire.


Legacy

While the Roman administration in the West was largely destroyed in the barbarian invasions, its model was remembered; this model became very influential through two particular vehicles: Roman law and the Christian Church.


Holy Roman/Habsburg Empires and successor states

*
Reichskommissar ''Reichskommissar'' (, rendered as "Commissioner of the Empire", "Reich Commissioner" or "Imperial Commissioner"), in History of Germany, German history, was an official governor, gubernatorial title used for various public offices during the perio ...


Turkish rule

In the Ottoman Empire, all
Pasha Pasha or Paşa ( ota, پاشا; tr, paşa; sq, Pashë; ar, باشا), in older works sometimes anglicized as bashaw, was a higher rank in the Ottoman Ottoman is the Turkish spelling of the Arabic masculine given name Uthman (name), Uthman (Ar ...

Pasha
s (generals) administered a province of the Great Sultan's vast empire, with specific titles (such as Mutessaryf; Vali or
Wāli ''Wāli'', ''Wā'lī'' or ''vali'' (from ar, والي ''Wālī'') is an administrative title that was used in the Muslim World (including the Caliphate and Ottoman Empire) to designate governors of administrative divisions. It is still in use ...
which was often maintained and revived in the oriental
successor state Successor is someone who, or something which succeeds or comes after (see success and succession) Film and TV * ''The Successor'' (film), a 1996 film including Laura Girling * ''The Successor'' (TV program), a 2007 Israeli television program Mu ...
s; Beilerbei (rendered as Governor-general, as he is appointed above several provinces under individual governors) and
Dey Dey (Arabic: داي), from the Turkish honorific title ''dayı'', literally meaning uncle, was the title given to the rulers of the Regency of Algiers The Regency of Algiers (in ar, الجزائر, translit=al Jaza'ir), was a state in Nor ...

Dey
)


British Empire and Commonwealth Realm

In the
British Empire The British Empire was composed of the dominions, Crown colony, colonies, protectorates, League of Nations mandate, mandates, and other Dependent territory, territories ruled or administered by the United Kingdom and its predecessor states. ...

British Empire
, a governor was originally an official appointed by the British monarch (or the cabinet) to oversee one of his
colonies In political science, a colony is a territory subject to a form of foreign rule. Though dominated by the foreign colonizers, colonies remain separate from the administration of the original country of the colonizers, the metropole, metropolitan ...
and was the (sometimes notional) head of the colonial administration. A governor's power could diminish as the colony gained a more
responsible government Responsible government is a conception of a system of government A government is the system or group of people governing an organized community, generally a State (polity), state. In the case of its broad associative definition, go ...
vested in such institutions as an Executive Council to help with the colony's administration, and in a further stage of self-government,
Legislative Council A legislative council is the legislature, or one of the legislative chambers, of a nation A nation is a community of people formed on the basis of a common language, history, ethnicity, or a common culture, and, in many cases, a shared terri ...
s or Assemblies, in which the Governor often had a role. Today, crown colonies of the United Kingdom continue to be administered by a governor, who holds varying degrees of power. Because of the different
constitution A constitution is an aggregate of fundamental principles A principle is a proposition or value that is a guide for behavior or evaluation. In law, it is a rule Rule or ruling may refer to: Human activity * The exercise of political ...

constitution
al histories of the former colonies of the
United Kingdom The United Kingdom of Great Britain and Northern Ireland, commonly known as the United Kingdom (UK) or Britain,Usage is mixed. The Guardian' and Telegraph' use Britain as a synonym for the United Kingdom. Some prefer to use Britain as shorth ...

United Kingdom
, the term "Governor" now refers to officials with differing amounts of power.
Administrator Administrator or admin may refer to: Job roles Computing and internet * Database administrator, a person who is responsible for the environmental aspects of a database * Forum administrator, one who oversees discussions on an Internet forum * ...
s,
Commissioner A commissioner is, in principle, a member of a commission Commission or commissioning may refer to: Business and contracting * Commission (remuneration), a form of payment to an agent for services rendered ** Commission (art), the purchase or the ...

Commissioner
s and High Commissioners exercise similar powers to Governors. (Note: such High Commissioners are not to be confused with the High Commissioners who are the equivalent of
Ambassador An ambassador is an official envoy, especially a high-ranking diplomat A diplomat (from grc, δίπλωμα; romanized Romanization or romanisation, in linguistics Linguistics is the science, scientific study of language. It enco ...

Ambassador
s between Commonwealth states). Frequently the name 'Government House' is given to Governors' residences. :The term can also be used in a more generic sense, especially for compound titles which include it: Governor-general and
Lieutenant-governor A lieutenant governor, lieutenant-governor, or vice governor is a high officer of state, whose precise role and rank vary by jurisdiction. Often a lieutenant governor is the deputy, or lieutenant, to or ranked under a governor — a "second-in-comm ...
.


Vice-regal governors


United Kingdom overseas territories

In the United Kingdom's remaining
overseas territories A territory is an administrative division, usually an area that is under the jurisdiction of a sovereign state. In most country, countries, a ''territory'' is an organized division of an area that is controlled by a country but is not formally ...
, the governor is normally a direct appointee of the British Government and plays an active role in governing and lawmaking (though usually with the advice of elected local representatives). The Governor's chief responsibility is for the Defence and External Affairs of the colony. In some minor overseas territories, instead of a Governor, there is an
Administrator Administrator or admin may refer to: Job roles Computing and internet * Database administrator, a person who is responsible for the environmental aspects of a database * Forum administrator, one who oversees discussions on an Internet forum * ...
or
Commissioner A commissioner is, in principle, a member of a commission Commission or commissioning may refer to: Business and contracting * Commission (remuneration), a form of payment to an agent for services rendered ** Commission (art), the purchase or the ...

Commissioner
, or the position is held ''
ex officio An ''ex officio'' member is a member of a body (notably a board, committee, council) who is part of it by virtue of holding another office. The term ''ex officio An ''ex officio'' member is a member of a body (notably a board, committee, council) ...
'' by a High Commissioner.


Australia

In
Australia Australia, officially the Commonwealth of Australia, is a Sovereign state, sovereign country comprising the mainland of the Australia (continent), Australian continent, the island of Tasmania, and numerous List of islands of Australia, sma ...

Australia
, each state has the governor as its formal representative of the Queen, as head of the state government. It is not a political office but a ceremonial one. Each state governor is appointed by the
Queen of Australia The monarchy of Australia refers to the institution in which a person serves as Australia Australia, officially the Commonwealth of Australia, is a Sovereign state, sovereign country comprising the mainland of the Australia (continent) ...
on the advice of the
Premier Premier is a title for the head of government The head of government is either the highest or second highest official in the executive branch of a sovereign state, a federated state, or a self-governing colony, autonomous region, or other g ...

Premier
, who is the political chief executive of the state government (until 1986, state governors were appointed by the
Queen of the United Kingdom The monarchy of the United Kingdom, commonly referred to as the British monarchy, is the constitutional monarchy A constitutional monarchy is a form of monarchy in which the monarch exercises authority in accordance with a written or ...
on the advice of the British Government). State Governors have emergency reserve powers but these are rarely used. The
Territories A territory is an administrative division, usually an area that is under the jurisdiction of a sovereign state. In most country, countries, a ''territory'' is an organized division of an area that is controlled by a country but is not formally d ...
of Australia other than the ACT have
Administrators Administrator or admin may refer to: Job roles Computing and internet * Database administrator, a person who is responsible for the environmental aspects of a database * Forum administrator, one who oversees discussions on an Internet forum * N ...
instead of governors, who are appointed formally by the Governor-general. The Governor-General is the representative of and appointed by the
Queen of Australia The monarchy of Australia refers to the institution in which a person serves as Australia Australia, officially the Commonwealth of Australia, is a Sovereign state, sovereign country comprising the mainland of the Australia (continent) ...
at a federal level on the advice of the
Prime Minister of Australia The prime minister of Australia is the head of government The head of government is either the highest or second highest official in the executive branch of a sovereign state, a federated state, or a self-governing colony, autonomous region ...
. As with the Governors-General of Australia and other Commonwealth Realms, State Governors usually exercise their power only on the advice of a government minister.


Canada

In
Canada Canada is a country in the northern part of North America. Its Provinces and territories of Canada, ten provinces and three territories extend from the Atlantic Ocean, Atlantic to the Pacific Ocean, Pacific and northward into the Arctic Oce ...

Canada
, there are governors at the federal and provincial levels of government who, within their jurisdictions, act as representatives of the
Queen of Canada The monarchy of Canada is the institution in which a person serves as Canada Canada is a country in the northern part of North America. Its Provinces and territories of Canada, ten provinces and three territories extend from the Atlantic O ...
, who is Canada's Head of State. The federal governor is the
Governor General of Canada The governor general of Canada (french: gouverneure générale du Canada) is the federal viceregal A viceroy () is an official who runs a polity A polity is an identifiable political entity—any group of people who have a collective i ...
, and the governor of each province is the
Lieutenant Governor A lieutenant governor, lieutenant-governor, or vice governor is a high officer of state, whose precise role and rank vary by jurisdiction. Often a lieutenant governor is the deputy, or lieutenant A lieutenant ( or abbreviated Lt., Lt, LT, Lie ...
. The Governor General is appointed by the Queen on the advice of the
Prime Minister of Canada The prime minister of Canada (french: premier ministre du Canada, link=no) is the first minister of the Crown '' File:서봉총 금관 금제드리개.jpg, The Seobongchong Golden Crown of Ancient Silla, which is 339th National Treasu ...
, whereas the lieutenant governors are appointed by the Governor General on the advice of the Prime Minister. The role of the Governor General and of the lieutenant governors in Canada is largely ceremonial, although they do retain the authority to exercise reserve powers in exceptional circumstances. Each of the three territories is headed by a
commissioner A commissioner is, in principle, a member of a commission Commission or commissioning may refer to: Business and contracting * Commission (remuneration), a form of payment to an agent for services rendered ** Commission (art), the purchase or the ...
appointed by the federal
Cabinet Cabinet or The Cabinet may refer to: Furniture * Cabinetry, a box-shaped piece of furniture with doors and/or drawers * Display cabinet, a piece of furniture with one or more transparent glass sheets or transparent polycarbonate sheets * Filing ...
. Unlike provincial lieutenant governors, they are not representatives of the Queen, but rather are representatives of the federal government.


British Hong Kong (1841–1997)

In the colonial period of
Hong Kong Hong Kong (; , ), officially the Hong Kong Special Administrative Region of the People's Republic of China (HKSAR), is a List of cities in China, city and Special administrative regions of China, special administrative region of China on the ...
, the
governor A governor is, in most cases, a public official with the power to govern the Executive (government), executive branch of a non-sovereign or sub-national level of government, ranking under the head of state. In federations, ''governor'' may be t ...
was the representative of the
Sovereign Sovereign is a title which can be applied to the highest leader in various categories. The word is borrowed from Old French Old French (, , ; Modern French French ( or ) is a Romance language of the Indo-European family. It descende ...

Sovereign
from 1843, which was the year that the authorities and duties of the post were officially defined by the
Hong Kong Letters Patent The expression 'Hong Kong Letters Patent' is most commonly used to refer to the Hong Kong Letters Patent 1917, one of the principal constitutional documents of British Hong Kong (others being the Hong Kong Letters Patent 1960, the Hong Kong Letter ...
and the
Royal Instructions Royal instructions are formal instructions issued to governors of the United Kingdom's colonial dependencies, and past instructions can be of continuing constitutional significance in a former colonial dependency or Dominion The word Dominion ...
, until the
handover In cellular telecommunications, handover, or handoff, is the process of transferring an ongoing call or data session from one channel connected to the core network to another channel. In satellite communications it is the process of transf ...
of Hong Kong to the
PRC government The government of the People's Republic of China () is collectively the state authority in the China, People's Republic of China (PRC) under the exclusive political leadership of the Chinese Communist Party (CCP). It consists of Legislative ...

PRC government
in 1997. Each governor was appointed by the monarch and possessed significant powers such as the power of appointing lawmakers in the
Legislative Council A legislative council is the legislature, or one of the legislative chambers, of a nation A nation is a community of people formed on the basis of a common language, history, ethnicity, or a common culture, and, in many cases, a shared terri ...
, the power to grant land, the power of veto over bills and
motions 300px, Motion involves a change in position In physics, motion is the phenomenon in which an object changes its position over time. Motion is mathematically described in terms of displacement, distance Distance is a numerical measurement of ...
, the power of
pardon A pardon is a government A government is the system or group of people governing an organized community, generally a State (polity), state. In the case of its broad associative definition, government normally consists of legislat ...

pardon
, etc. At the same time, the governor was also the head of the colonial
cabinet Cabinet or The Cabinet may refer to: Furniture * Cabinetry, a box-shaped piece of furniture with doors and/or drawers * Display cabinet, a piece of furniture with one or more transparent glass sheets or transparent polycarbonate sheets * Filing ...
, the chairman of the Executive Council, the President of the Legislative Council (until 1993), as well as the commander-in-chief of the British Forces in Hong Kong.


New Zealand

The
Governor-General of New Zealand The governor-general of New Zealand ( mi, te kāwana tianara o Aotearoa) is the viceregal A viceroy () is an official who runs a polity A polity is an identifiable political entity—any group of people who have a collective identity, wh ...
is always the Governor of the
Ross Dependency The Ross Dependency is a region of defined by a originating at the , passing along s to , and terminating at . It is claimed by . Since the came into force in 1961, Article IV of which states: "No acts or activities taking place while the pre ...
, an Antarctic sector which is claimed by the
Realm of New Zealand The Realm of New Zealand consists of the entire area (or realm A realm is a community or territory over which a sovereign Sovereign is a title which can be applied to the highest leader in various categories. The word is borrowed from O ...

Realm of New Zealand
.


Within the United Kingdom

Within the
United Kingdom The United Kingdom of Great Britain and Northern Ireland, commonly known as the United Kingdom (UK) or Britain,Usage is mixed. The Guardian' and Telegraph' use Britain as a synonym for the United Kingdom. Some prefer to use Britain as shorth ...

United Kingdom
itself, there was a position of
Governor of Northern Ireland The governor of Northern Ireland was the principal officer and representative in Northern Ireland Northern Ireland ( ga, Tuaisceart Éireann ; sco, label= Ulster-Scots, Norlin Airlann) is a part of the United Kingdom The United Ki ...
from 1922 until the suspension of the devolved
Parliament of Northern Ireland The Parliament of Northern Ireland was the home rule legislature of Northern Ireland Northern Ireland ( ga, Tuaisceart Éireann ; sco, label= Ulster-Scots, Norlin Airlann) is a part of the United Kingdom The United Kingdom of ...
in 1973.


Within England

From the 16th century until 1995, there was a
Governor of the Isle of Wight Below is a list of those who have held the office of Governor of the Isle of Wight in England. Lord Mottistone was the last lord lieutenant to hold the title governor, from 1992 to 1995; since then there has been no governor appointed. Governors o ...
, part of
England England is a that is part of the . It shares land borders with to its west and to its north. The lies northwest of England and the to the southwest. England is separated from by the to the east and the to the south. The country cover ...

England
. Since the reign of
Henry VIII Henry VIII (28 June 149128 January 1547) was King of England This list of kings and queens of the Kingdom of England The Kingdom of England was a sovereign state on the island of Great Britain from 12 July 927, when it emerged fro ...

Henry VIII
, the monarch has borne the title of
Supreme Governor of the Church of England The Supreme Governor of the Church of England is the titular head of the Church of England, a position which is vested in the British monarch. Queen and Church > Queen and Church of England">The Monarchy Today > Queen and State > Queen and Churc ...
.


Other colonial empires

European powers other than the United Kingdom, with colonies in Asia, Africa and elsewhere, gave their top representatives in their colonies the title of governor. Those representatives could be from chartered companies that ruled the colonies. In some of these colonies, there are still officials called governors. See: *
Danish colonial empire , conventional_long_name = Danish overseas colonies , status = Empire , status_text = , life_span = 1536–1953 (Denmark) 1536–1814 (Norway) , government_type = Constitutional monarchy A ...
*
Dutch Empire The Dutch colonial empire ( nl, Nederlandse koloniale rijk) comprised the overseas territories and trading posts controlled and administered by Dutch chartered companies—mainly the Dutch West India Company The Dutch West India Company ( n ...
*
Empire of Japan The was a historical nation-state and great power that existed from the Meiji Restoration in 1868 until the enactment of the post-World War II Constitution of Japan, 1947 constitution and subsequent formation of modern Japan. It encomp ...

Empire of Japan
*
French colonial empire The French colonial empire () comprised the overseas colonies, protectorates and League of Nations mandate, mandate territories that came under French rule from the 16th century onward. A distinction is generally made between the "First French Co ...
*
German colonial empire The German colonial empire (german: Deutsches Kolonialreich) constituted the overseas colonies, dependencies and territories of . Unified in the early 1870s, the chancellor of this time period was . Short-lived attempts at by had occurred in ...
*
Italian empire The Italian colonial empire ( it, Impero coloniale italiano), known as the Italian Empire (''Impero italiano'') between 1936 and 1943, began in Africa in the 19th century and comprised the colonies In political science, a colony is a terri ...

Italian empire
*
Portuguese Empire The Portuguese Empire ( pt, Império Português), also known as the Portuguese Overseas (''Ultramar Português'') or the Portuguese Colonial Empire (''Império Colonial Português''), was composed of the overseas colonies In political scie ...
*
Spanish Empire The Spanish Empire ( es, link=no, Imperio Español), also known as the Hispanic Monarchy ( es, link=no, Monarquía Hispánica) or the Catholic Monarchy ( es, link=no, Monarquía Católica) during the Early Modern period, was a colonial empire ...

Spanish Empire
* Swedish overseas colonies


Russia and former Soviet Union

In the
Russian Empire The Russian Empire, . commonly referred to as Imperial Russia, was a historical that extended across and from 1721, succeeding the following the that ended the . The Empire lasted until the was proclaimed by the that took power after the ...
, Governorate ( Guberniya) and Governorate-General were the main units of territorial and administrative subdivision since the reforms of
Peter the Great Peter the Great ( rus, Пётр Вели́кий, Pyotr Velíkiy, ˈpʲɵtr vʲɪˈlʲikʲɪj), Peter I ( rus, Пётр Первый, Pyotr Pyervyy, ˈpʲɵtr ˈpʲɛrvɨj) or Pyotr Alekséyevich ( rus, Пётр Алексе́евич, p=ˈp ...

Peter the Great
. These were governed by a Governor and Governor-general respectively. A special case was the
Chinese Eastern Railway The Chinese Eastern Railway or CER , also known as () or (); russian: Китайско-Восточная железная дорога or , ''Kitaysko-Vostochnaya Zheleznaya Doroga'' or ''KVZhD''), also known in English as the Chinese Far East Ra ...

Chinese Eastern Railway
Zone, which was governed as a
concession Concession may refer to: * Concession (contract) (sometimes called a concession agreement), a contractual right to carry on a certain kind of business or activity in an area, such as to explore or develop its natural resources or to operate a "conc ...
granted by
Imperial China The earliest known written records of the history of China date from as early as 1250 BC, from the Shang dynasty The Shang dynasty (), also historically known as the Yin dynasty (), was a Chinese dynasty that ruled in the middle and ...
to the Russian 'Chinese Eastern Railway Society' (in Russian ''Obshchestvo Kitayskoy Vostochnoy Zheleznoy Dorogi''; established on 17 December 1896 in
St. Petersburg Saint Petersburg ( rus, links=no, Санкт-Петербург, a=Ru-Sankt Peterburg Leningrad Petrograd Piter.ogg, r=Sankt-Peterburg, p=ˈsankt pʲɪtʲɪrˈburk), formerly known as Petrograd (1914–1924) and later Leningrad (1924–1991), ...

St. Petersburg
, later moved to
Vladivostok Vladivostok ( rus, Владивосто́к, , a=Владивосток.ogg) is the largest city and the administrative centreAn administrative centre is a seat of regional administration or local government Local government is a generic term f ...

Vladivostok
), which built 1,481 km of tracks (Tarskaya – Hilar – Harbin – Nikolsk-Ussuriski; 3 November 1901 traffic opened) and established on 16 May 1898 the new capital city,
Harbin Harbin (; ) is a sub-provincial city A sub-provincial division () in China China, officially the People's Republic of China (PRC), is a country in East Asia. It is the List of countries and dependencies by population, world's most ...

Harbin
; in August 1898, the defense for Chinese Eastern Railway (CER) across
northeast China Northeast China () is a geographical region In geography Geography (from Greek: , ''geographia'', literally "earth description") is a field of science devoted to the study of the lands, features, inhabitants, and phenomena of the Earth ...

northeast China
was assumed by Russia (first under Priamur governor). On July 1, 1903, the Chinese Eastern Railway was opened and given authority of its own CER Administration (Russian: ''Upravleniye KVZhD''), vested in the Directors of the Chinese Eastern Railway, with the additional quality of Governors of the Chinese Eastern Railway Zone (in Harbin; as such being August 12, 1903 – July 1, 1905 subordinated to the imperial Viceroyalty of the Far East, see Lüshunkou). The post continued to function despite various political changes until after
World War II World War II or the Second World War, often abbreviated as WWII or WW2, was a global war A world war is "a war War is an intense armed conflict between states State may refer to: Arts, entertainment, and media Literatur ...
. Some of the administrative
subdivisions of Russia Russia Russia ( rus, link=no, Россия, Rossiya, ), or the Russian Federation, is a country spanning Eastern Europe Eastern Europe is the eastern region of Europe. There is no consistent definition of the precise area it covers, pa ...

subdivisions of Russia
are headed by governors, while others are headed by Presidents or heads of administration. From 1991 to 2005, they were elected by popular vote and from 2005 to 2012, they were appointed by the federal president and confirmed by the province's legislature. After the debate, conducted by
State Duma The State Duma ( rus, Госуда́рственная ду́ма, r=Gosudárstvennaya dúma), commonly abbreviated in Russian as Gosduma ( rus, Госду́ма), is the lower house A lower house is one of two chambers Chambers may refer to ...
in April 2012, the
direct elections Direct election is a system of choosing political officeholders in which the voters directly cast ballots for the persons or political party that they desire to see elected. The method by which the winner or winners of a direct election are chosen ...
of governors were expected to be restored.


Other European countries and empires


Austria

A
Landeshauptmann Landeshauptmann (if male) or Landeshauptfrau (if female) (, "state captain", plural ''Landeshauptleute'') is the chairman of a state government and the supreme official of an Austrian states and the Italian autonomous provinces of South Tyrol ...
(
German German(s) may refer to: Common uses * of or related to Germany * Germans, Germanic ethnic group, citizens of Germany or people of German ancestry * For citizens of Germany, see also German nationality law * German language The German la ...

German
for "state captain" or "state governor", literally 'country headman'; plural ''Landeshauptleute'' or ''Landeshauptmänner'' as in
Styria Styria (german: Steiermark ; Croatian Croatian may refer to: *Croatia *Croatian cuisine *Croatian language *Croatian name *Croats, people from Croatia, or of Croatian descent *Citizens of Croatia, see demographics of Croatia See also * Croati ...
till 1861; ''Landeshauptfrau'' is the female form) is an official title in German for certain political offices equivalent to a Governor. It has historical uses, both administrative and colonial, and is now used in federal
Austria Austria (, ; german: Österreich ), officially the Republic of Austria (german: Republik Österreich, links=no, ), is a landlocked A landlocked country is a country that does not have territory connected to an ocean or whose coastli ...

Austria
and in
South Tyrol it, Provincia Autonoma di Bolzano – Alto Adige lld, Provinzia Autonoma de Balsan/Bulsan – Südtirol , settlement_type = Autonomous The federal subject The federal subjects of Russia, also referred to as ...
, a majority German-speaking province of Italy adjacent to
Tyrol Tyrol (; historically the Tyrole; german: Tirol ; it, Tirolo) is a historical region Historical regions (or historical areas) are geographical Geography (from Greek Greek may refer to: Greece Anything of, from, or related to Gre ...
.


Benelux monarchies

* In the
Netherlands ) , national_anthem = ( en, "William of Nassau") , image_map = EU-Netherlands.svg , map_caption = , image_map2 = BES islands location map.svg , map_caption2 = , image_map3 ...

Netherlands
, the government-appointed heads of the provinces were known as ''Gouverneur'' from 1814 until 1850, when their title was changed to ''King's'' (or ''Queen's'') ''Commissioner''. In the southern province of Limburg, however, the commissioner is still informally called Governor. * In the Dutch crown's Caribbean Overseas territories (
Aruba Aruba ( , , ) is an island and a constituent country of the Kingdom of the Netherlands , national_anthem = ) , image_map = Kingdom of the Netherlands (orthographic projection).svg , map_width = 250px , image_map2 = File:KonDerNed-10-1 ...

Aruba
,
Curaçao Curaçao ( ; ; pap, Kòrsou, ) is a Lesser Antilles The Lesser Antilles ( es, link=no, Antillas Menores; french: link=no, Petites Antilles; pap, Antias Menor; nl, Kleine Antillen) are a group of islands in the Caribbean Sea The Cari ...
and
Sint Maarten Sint Maarten (, ) is a constituent country of the Kingdom of the Netherlands , national_anthem = ) , image_map = Kingdom of the Netherlands (orthographic projection).svg , map_width = 250px , image_map2 = File:KonDerNed-10-10-10.png , ...

Sint Maarten
), the style Governor is still used, alongside the political head of government. * In
Belgium Belgium ( nl, België ; french: Belgique ; german: Belgien ), officially the Kingdom of Belgium, is a country in Western Europe Western Europe is the western region of Europe. The region's countries and territories vary depending on cont ...

Belgium
, each of the
ten provinces
ten provinces
has a Governor, appointed by the regional government. He represents not only the regional, but also the federal government in the province. He controls the local governments and is responsible for law and order, security and emergency action. The national capital of
Brussels Brussels (french: Bruxelles or ; nl, Brussel ), officially the Brussels-Capital Region (All text and all but one graphic show the English name as Brussels-Capital Region.) (french: link=no, Région de Bruxelles-Capitale; nl, link=no, Brusse ...

Brussels
, which is not part of a province, also has a governor with nearly the same competences.


France

During the
Ancien Régime in France ''Ancien'' may refer to * the French word for "ancient Ancient history is the aggregate of past events
, the representative of the king in his
provinces A province is almost always an administrative division Administrative division, administrative unitArticle 3(1). , country subdivision, administrative region, subnational entity, first-level subdivision, as well as many similar terms, are g ...

provinces
and cities was the "gouverneur". Royal officers chosen from the highest
nobility Nobility is a social class normally ranked immediately below Royal family, royalty and found in some societies that have a formal aristocracy (class), aristocracy. Nobility has often been an Estates of the realm, estate of the realm that p ...
, provincial and city governors (oversight of provinces and cities was frequently combined) were predominantly military positions in charge of defense and policing. Provincial governorsalso called "
Lieutenant General Lieutenant general (Lt Gen, LTG and similar) is a three-star rank, three-star military rank (NATO code OF-8) used in many countries. The rank traces its origins to the Middle Ages, where the title of lieutenant general was held by the second-in ...
s"also had the ability of convoking provincial
parlement A ''parlement'' (), under the French Ancien Régime The '' Storming of the Bastille'' on 14 July 1789, later taken to mark the end of the ''Ancien Régime''; watercolour by Jean-Pierre Houël The Ancien Régime (; ; literally "old rul ...

parlement
s, provincial estates and municipal bodies. The title "gouverneur" first appeared under
Charles VICharles VI may refer to: * Charles VI of France (1368–1422), "the Well-Beloved" and "The Mad King" * Charles VI, Holy Roman Emperor (1685–1740), and VI of Naples * Infante Carlos, Count of Montemolin (1818–1861), pretender to the throne of Spa ...

Charles VI
. The ordinance of Blois of 1579 reduced their number to 12, but an ordinance of 1779 increased their number to 39 (18 first-class governors, 21 second-class governors). Although in principle, they were the king's representatives and their charges could be revoked at the king's will, some governors had installed themselves and their heirs as a provincial dynasty. The governors were at the height of their power from the middle of the 16th to the middle of the 17th century, but their role in provincial unrest during the civil wars led
Cardinal Richelieu Armand Jean du Plessis, Duke of Richelieu Duke of Richelieu was a title of French nobility. It was created on 26 November 1629 for Cardinal Richelieu, Armand Jean du Plessis de Richelieu (known as Cardinal Richelieu) who, as a Roman Catholic cl ...
to create the more tractable positions of
intendant An intendant (french: intendant , Portuguese language, Portuguese and es, intendente) was and sometimes still is a usually public official, especially in France, Spain, Portugal, and Latin America. The intendancy system was a centralizing admi ...
s of finance, policing and justice, and in the 18th century the role of provincial governors was greatly curtailed.


Germany

Until 1933, the term ''Landeshauptmann'' (state governor) was used in
Prussia Prussia, , Old Prussian Distribution of the Baltic tribes, circa 1200 CE (boundaries are approximate). Old Prussian was a Western Baltic language belonging to the Balto-Slavic branch of the Indo-European languages The Indo-Europ ...

Prussia
for the head of government of a
province A province is almost always an administrative division Administrative division, administrative unitArticle 3(1). , country subdivision, administrative region, subnational entity, first-level subdivision, as well as many similar terms, are g ...

province
,
Duden The Duden () is a dictionary A dictionary is a listing of lexeme A lexeme () is a unit of lexical meaning that underlies a set of words that are related through inflection In linguistic morphology, inflection (or inflexion) is ...

Duden
; Definition of Landeshauptmann, in German

/ref> In the modern-day states of Germany, the counterpart to ''Landeshauptmann'' is the ''Ministerpräsident'' (minister-president). In the present States of Germany, German states of
Baden-Württemberg Baden-Württemberg (; ) is a state (''Land'') in southwest Germany Southern Germany () as a region has no exact boundary but is generally taken to include the areas in which Upper German dialects are spoken. This corresponds roughly to the h ...
,
Bavaria Bavaria (; German language, German and Bavarian language, Bavarian: ''Bayern'' ), officially the Free State of Bavaria (German and Bavarian: ''Freistaat Bayern''; ), is a Landlocked country, landlocked Federated state, state (''States of Germany ...
,
Hesse Hesse (, , ) or Hessia (, ; german: Hessen ), officially the State of Hessen (german: links=no, Land Hessen), is a state State may refer to: Arts, entertainment, and media Literature * ''State Magazine'', a monthly magazine published by the U. ...
, and
North Rhine-Westphalia North Rhine-Westphalia (german: Nordrhein-Westfalen, ; Low Franconian Low Franconian, Low Frankish, NetherlandicSarah Grey Thomason, Terrence Kaufman: ''Language Contact, Creolization, and Genetic Linguistics'', University of California Pre ...
there are – and earlier in more German states there were – sub-state administrative regions called in german:
Regierungsbezirk A ' () means "governmental district" and is a type of administrative division in Germany. Four of sixteen ' (states of Germany) are split into '. Beneath these are rural and urban districts. Saxony has ' (directorate districts) with more resp ...
, which is sometimes translated into English as governorate. Thus its respective head, in german: Regierungspräsident, is also translated as governor.


Greece

Ioannis Kapodistrias Count Ioannis Antonios Kapodistrias (10 or 11 February 1776 – 9 October 1831), sometimes anglicized as John Capodistrias ( el, Κόμης Ιωάννης Αντώνιος Καποδίστριας, Komis Ioannis Antonios Kapodistrias; russian: ...
was the first (and, with the exception of the short tenure of his younger brother
Augustinos Kapodistrias Count Augustinos Ioannis Maria Kapodistrias ( el, Αυγουστίνος Ιωάννης Μαρία Καποδίστριας, 1778–1857) was a Greek#REDIRECT Greek Greek may refer to: Greece Anything of, from, or related to Greece Greec ...
, the only) head of state of Greece to bear the title of governor.


Italy

*The essentially maritime empire of the Venetian republic, comprising Terra Firma, other Adriatic (mainly Istria and Dalmatia) and further Mediterranean (mainly Greek) possessions, used different styles, such as ''(castelleno e) provveditore (generale)'' or ''baile''. *In the fascist regime there was the governor of the colonies of the Italian colonial empire. *In today's Italy, the official name of a head of a Regione (the Italian subnational entity) is ''Presidente della Giunta regionale'' (President of the regional executive council), but since 2000, when a constitutional reform decided the direct election of the president by the people, it has been usual to call him/her ''governatore/governatrice'' (governor). *In the various Italian provinces (former principalities and city-states) that became amalgamated as the Papal States, the Holy See exerted temporal power via its papal legate, Legates and Delegate Apostolic, Delegates, including some Cardinals *Also in Avignon and the surrounding southern French Comtat Venaissin, the home of the Popes during their 'Babylonian exile', and retained centuries after, but never incorporated into the Papal States, Papal legate, Legates and Vice-legates were appointed. *The sovereign modern remnant of the formerly large Papal States, the tiny Vatican City State, is now a mere enclave in Rome, the capital of Italian Republic. As it is too small to have further administrative territorial divisions, it is the equivalent of a Prime Minister, Governor and Mayor all rolled into one post, styled the Governor of Vatican City.


Other modern Asian countries


China

In the People's Republic of China, the title "Governor" () refers to the highest ranking executive of a Province of China, provincial government. The Governor is usually placed second in the provincial power hierarchy, below the Party chief of the Communist Party of China, Secretary of the provincial Communist Party of China (CPC) committee (省委书记), who serves as the highest ranking Party official in the province. Governors are elected by the provincial congresses and approved by the provincial party chief. All governors are not locals in the provinces which they govern. The title can be also used while referring to a County (People's Republic of China), County Governor (县长).


India

In India, each state has a ceremonial Governor appointed by the President of India. These Governors are different from the Governors who controlled the British-controlled portions of the Indian Empire (as opposed to the princely states) prior to 1947. A Governor is the head of a state in India. Generally, a Governor is appointed for each state, but after the 7th Constitutional Amendment, 1956, one Governor can be appointed for more than one state.


Malaysia

In Malaysia, each of the four non-monarchical states (Penang, Malacca, Sabah and Sarawak) has a ceremonial Governor styled ''Yang di-Pertua Negeri'', appointed to a renewable four-year term by the Yang di-Pertuan Agong, the federal King of Malaysia on the advice of the Prime Minister of Malaysia, Prime Minister after consulting the state governments. Each of these states has a separate head of government called the ''Ketua Menteri'' or Chief Minister. The four Yang di-Pertua Negeri are members of the Conference of Rulers, however they cannot participate in the election of the Yang di-Pertuan Agong, discussions related to the privileges of the Malay rulers and matters concerning the observance of Islam.


Pakistan

In Pakistan, each of the four provinces has a Governor who is appointed by the President of Pakistan, President. The governor is the representative of the president in their province and is the ceremonial head of the province whereas the chief minister is the head of the provincial government. The governor exercises powers similar to the president's, in their respective province.


Papua New Guinea

In Papua New Guinea, the leaders of the provinces have been known as governors since August 1995. Previously they were called premiers.


Sri Lanka

The provincial councils of the 9 provinces of Sri Lanka are headed by governors, as representatives of the President of Sri Lanka, President. Prior to 1948, in Ceylon (former name for Sri Lanka), the Governor of Ceylon was the head of the British Ceylon, British Colony.


Indonesia

In Indonesia, the title ''gubernur'' refers to the highest ranking executive of a Provinces of Indonesia, provincial government. The Governor and the Vice Governor are elected by a direct vote from the people as a couple, so the Governor is responsible to the provincial residents. The governor has a term of five years to work in office and can be re-elected for another single period. In case of death, disability, or resignation, the vice governor would stand in as acting governor for some time before being inaugurated as the permanent governor. The elected Governor is inaugurated by President of Indonesia, the president, or by the Minister of Home Affairs (Indonesia), Indonesian minister of home affairs on behalf of the president. In addition, the governor is the representative of central government in the province, and is responsible to the president. The governor's authority is regulated within the Law ( id, Undang-undang) Number 32/2004 and the Governmental Ordinance ( id, Peraturan Pemerintah) Number 19/2010. Principally, the governor has the tasks and the authorities to lead governmental services in the province, based upon the policies that have been made together with the Provincial Parliament. The governor is not the superordinate of regents or mayors, but he/she is only to guide, supervise, and coordinate the works of city/municipal and regency governments. In other parts, municipal and regency governments have the rights to manage each governance affairs based on autonomy principle and assistantship duties.


Japan

In Japan, the title refers to the highest ranking executive of a Prefectural Government. The Governor is elected by a direct vote from the people and had a fixed term of four years. There is no restriction on the number of terms a person may serve as governor. The governor holds considerable power within the prefecture, including the ability to veto ordinances that have been passed by the prefecture assembly, as well as control of the prefecture's budget and the power to dissolve the prefecture assembly. The governor can be subjected to a recall referendum. A total of one to four vice governors are appointed by the governor with the approval of the assembly. In the case of the governor's death, disability, or resignation, a vice governor would stand in as governor or acting governor. See List of governors of Japan for a list of the current governors.


Philippines

In the Philippines, the title "Governor" (''Gobernador'' or ''Punong Lalawigan'' in Filipino), refers to the highest ranking executive of a Provinces of the Philippines, province. The governor is elected by a direct vote from the people and has a fixed term of three years. A governor can serve only up to a maximum of three consecutive terms. He may however be suspended by either the Ombudsman of the Philippines, Ombudsman or the President of the Philippines, President, through the Secretary of the Interior and Local Government. He may be removed by the President if found guilty of an administrative case or a criminal act during his tenure. He may be subjected to a recall vote, but unlike a referendum, the voters elect the governor of their choice. In case of death, disability, resignation, forced removal, or suspension, the vice governor, elected separately in the same election for governor, succeeds as governor, or acting governor, as the case may be. During both the History of the Philippines (1565–1898), Spanish and History of the Philippines (1898–1946), American colonial periods, as well as during the Japanese occupation of the Philippines, Japanese occupation of
World War II World War II or the Second World War, often abbreviated as WWII or WW2, was a global war A world war is "a war War is an intense armed conflict between states State may refer to: Arts, entertainment, and media Literatur ...
, the chief executive of the Philippines was called Governor-General of the Philippines. The highest ranking executive of the Autonomous Region in Muslim Mindanao was called "regional governor". The regional governor is elected every three years, separately from a regional vice governor who replaces the regional governor. Bangsamoro, its replacement, has the Wa'lī of Bangsamoro, wa'lī (Arabic for "governor") as its head of the region, and is elected by Bangsamoro Parliament, parliament for a six year term.


Thailand

In Thailand, the title "Governor" (ผู้ว่าราชการ ''Phuwa Ratcha Gaan'' in Thai) refers to the administrator of each Provinces of Thailand, Thai province, who is appointed by the Ministry of Internal Affairs. The only exception is the specially governed district of Bangkok, whose governor is elected by its population, thus making him or her equivalent to a mayor.


Other modern countries in North America


United States

In the
United States The United States of America (U.S.A. or USA), commonly known as the United States (U.S. or US) or America, is a country Continental United States, primarily located in North America. It consists of 50 U.S. state, states, a Washington, D.C., ...

United States
, the title "Governor" refers to the chief executive of each U.S. state, state or United States insular area, insular territory. Governors retain sovereign police power, are not subordinate to the federal authorities except by laws provided by the enumerated powers section of the federal constitution, and serve as the political and ceremonial head of the state. Nearly three-fourths of the states (36) hold gubernatorial elections in the same years as United States midterm election, midterm elections (2 years off set from presidential elections). Eleven states hold them in the same years as presidential elections (Vermont and New Hampshire hold elections every two years in every even numbered year), while the remaining five hold them in odd numbered years (two in the year after a presidential election, three in the year before). In colonial North America, governors were chosen in a variety of ways, depending on how the colony was organized. In the crown colony, crown colonies of Great Britain, France, and Spain, the governor was chosen by the ruling monarch of the colonizing power, or his designees; in British colonies, the Board of Trade was often the primary decision maker. Colonies based on a corporate charter, such as the Connecticut Colony and the Massachusetts Bay Colony, elected their own governors based on rules spelled out in the charter or other colonial legislation. In Proprietary colony, proprietary colonies, such as the Province of Carolina before it became a crown colony (and was divided into Province of North Carolina, North and Province of South Carolina, South), governors were chosen by the Lords Proprietor who controlled the colony. In the early years of the American Revolutionary War, eleven of the Thirteen Colonies evicted (with varying levels of violence) royal and proprietary governors. The other two colonies (Connecticut and Rhode Island) had corporate charters; Connecticut Governor Jonathan Trumbull was governor before and during the war period, while in Rhode Island, Governor Joseph Wanton was removed from office in 1775 for failing to support the rebel war effort. Before achieving statehood, many of the fifty states were Territories of the United States, territories. Administered by the federal government, they had governors who were appointed by the President of the United States, President and confirmed by the United States Senate, Senate rather than elected by the resident population.


Mexico

In Mexico, ''governor'' refers to the elected chief and head of each of Mexico, the nation's thirty one States of Mexico, Free and Sovereign States with the official Spanish language, Spanish title being ''Gobernador''. Mexican governors are directly elected by the citizens of each state for a six-year term and cannot be re-elected.


Other modern countries in South America

Many of the South American republics (such as Chile and Argentina) have provinces or states run by elected governors, with offices similar in nature to U.S. state governors.


Brazil

Until the History of Brazil (1930–1945), 1930 Revolution, the heads of the Brazilian Provinces of Brazil, Provinces, now called States of Brazil, States, were styled as (provincial/state) presidents (''presidentes''). From 1930 to 1945, they were styled either governors (''governadores'') or, when appointed by the federal government, intervenors (''interventores''). From 1945 on, they have only been called governors.


Modern equivalents

As a generic term, Governor is used for various 'equivalent' officers governing part of a state or empire, rendering other official titles such as: *colonial High Commissioner (not the Ambassadors exchanged within the Commonwealth) This also applies to non-western or antique culture


Other meanings of the word

The word ''governor'' can also refer to an administrator or supervisor (individually or collectively, see Board of Governors); the Governor of a national bank often holds ministerial rank. *Federal Reserve System, Federal Reserve Board of Governors *Governor of the Bank of Canada *Governor of the Bank of England *Governor of the National Bank of Romania *List of governors of national banks of Serbia and Yugoslavia *:Governors of the Hudson's Bay Company, Governors of the Hudson's Bay Company


See also

* Bey * Chief executive (gubernatorial), Chief executive *Chief minister * Deputy governor * Governorate * Governor-in-chief * Governor-general, Governor-General * Lieutenant governor *
Premier Premier is a title for the head of government The head of government is either the highest or second highest official in the executive branch of a sovereign state, a federated state, or a self-governing colony, autonomous region, or other g ...

Premier
* Viceroy * Voivode


References

{{Authority control Government occupations Gubernatorial titles Positions of authority Governance of the British Empire