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The Government of the Republic of China, also known retroactively as the Government of Nationalist China, is the unitary government that exercises control over
Taiwan Taiwan, officially the Republic of China (ROC), is a country in East Asia East Asia is the eastern region of Asia Asia () is Earth's largest and most populous continent, located primarily in the Eastern Hemisphere, Eastern and N ...
,
Penghu The Penghu (Hokkien Pe̍h-ōe-jī, POJ: ''Phîⁿ-ô͘''  or ''Phêⁿ-ô͘'' ) or Pescadores Islands are an archipelago of 90 islands and islets in the Taiwan Strait. The largest city is Magong, located on the largest island, which i ...

Penghu
,
Kinmen Kinmen, English exonyms#Taiwan, alternatively known as Quemoy, is a group of islands governed as a County (Taiwan), county by the Republic of China (ROC) based in Taiwan, off the southeastern coast of mainland China. It lies roughly east of the ...
, Matsu and other island groups in the
free area The free area of the Republic of China also known as Taiwan Area of the Republic of China", "Tai-Min Area (Taiwan Province, Taiwan and Fujian Province, Republic of China, Fujian)" or simply the "Taiwan Area" is a term used by the governm ...

free area
. The
president President most commonly refers to: *President (corporate title) A president is a leader of an organization, company, community, club, trade union, university or other group. The relationship between a president and a Chief Executive Officer, chi ...
is the head of state. The government consists of Presidency and five branches (Yuan): the
Executive Yuan The Executive Yuan is the executive branch The executive is the branch of government exercising authority in and holding Moral responsibility, responsibility for the governance of a State (polity), state. The executive executes and enforce ...
,
Legislative Yuan The Legislative Yuan is the unicameral In government, unicameralism (Latin , "one" and , "chamber") is the practice of having a single legislative or legislative chamber, parliamentary chamber. Thus, a ''unicameral parliament'' or ''unicam ...
,
Judicial Yuan The Judicial Yuan () is the judicial branch of the government of the Republic of China The Government of the Republic of China, also known retroactively as the Government of Nationalist China, is the unitary government that exercises con ...
,
Examination Yuan The Examination Yuan is an independent civil service commission in charge of validating the qualification of civil servants in the Republic of China ( Taiwan). It has a List of Presidents of the Examination Yuan, President, a List of Vice Pre ...
, and
Control Yuan The Control Yuan is an independent investigatory and auditory Government agency, agency of the government of the Republic of China on Taiwan. Designed as a hybrid of auditor and ombudsman by Law of Taiwan, Taiwanese law, the Control Yuan holds ...

Control Yuan
. Originally established in 1912 in
Nanking Nanjing (; , Mandarin pronunciation: ), alternately romanized as Nanking, is the capital of Jiangsu Jiangsu (; ; formerly romanized Kiangsu) is an eastern-central coastal province A province is almost always an administrative divisi ...

Nanking
, the Government of the Republic of China relocated several times before finally moving to
Taipei Taipei (), officially Taipei City, is the Capital city, capital and a Special municipality (Taiwan), special municipality of the Taiwan, Republic of China (Taiwan). Located in Regions of Taiwan, Northern Taiwan, Taipei City is an enclave of t ...

Taipei
in the island of Taiwan in 1949 because of its military losses in the
Chinese Civil War The Chinese Civil War was a civil war in China fought between the Kuomintang (KMT)-led Nationalist government, government of the Republic of China (1912–1949), Republic of China (ROC) and forces of the Communist Party of China (CPC) lastin ...
. The government has historically been dominated by the
Kuomintang The Kuomintang (KMT), also referred to as the Guomindang (GMD) or the Chinese Nationalist Party, is a political party in the Taiwan, Republic of China, initially Republic of China (1912–1949), on the Mainland China, Chinese mainland and ...
, but the situation has changed as Taiwan evolved into a multi-party democracy.


Organizational structure

The government formally consists of the presidency and five branches of government, modeled on Sun Yat-sen's political philosophy of
Three Principles of the People The Three Principles of the People (; also translated as Three People's Principles, San-min Doctrine, or Tridemism) is a political philosophy developed by Sun Yat-sen as part of a philosophy to improve China. The three principles are often tran ...
. In practice, the system resembles a
semi-presidential system A semi-presidential system, or dual executive system, is a system of government A government is the system or group of people governing an organized community, generally a state. In the case of its broad associative definition, g ...
with a uniquely strong presidency, as the President may appoint the
Premier Premier is a title for the head of government The head of government is either the highest or second-highest official in the Executive (government), executive branch of a sovereign state, a federated state, or a self-governing colony, aut ...
, the
head of government The head of government is either the highest or second-highest official in the executive Executive may refer to: Role, title, or function * Executive (government), branch of government that has authority and responsibility for the administrat ...
, without the consent of the legislature. The President, however, shares limitations found in other semi-presidential systems, including the lack of a strong
veto A veto (Latin Latin (, or , ) is a classical language belonging to the Italic languages, Italic branch of the Indo-European languages. Latin was originally spoken in the area around Rome, known as Latium. Through the power of the Roman Re ...
and no direct control of most administrative policy.


Presidency

The leadership of the country consists of the two top officials that is directly and jointly elected by the
citizens Citizenship is a relationship between an individual and a state to which the individual owes allegiance and in turn is entitled to its protection. Each state determines the conditions under which it will recognize persons as its citizens, and t ...

citizens
residing in the
free area The free area of the Republic of China also known as Taiwan Area of the Republic of China", "Tai-Min Area (Taiwan Province, Taiwan and Fujian Province, Republic of China, Fujian)" or simply the "Taiwan Area" is a term used by the governm ...

free area
. *
President of the Republic of China The president of the Republic of China, usually referred to as the president of Taiwan, is the head of state A head of state (or chief of state) is the public persona A persona (plural personae or personas), depending on the conte ...
*
Vice President of the Republic of China The Vice President of the Republic of China, commonly known as the Vice President of Taiwan, is the second-highest officer of the Republic of China Taiwan (), officially the Republic of China (ROC), is a country in East Asia East Asia ...
Under the President, two advisory and administrative agencies are established to support the work of the President. * Office of the President (Presidential Office) ** Secretary-General of the Office of the President *
National Security Council#REDIRECT National security council A National Security Council (NSC) is usually an executive branch The executive is the branch of government exercising authority in and holding Moral responsibility, responsibility for the governance of a State ...
** Secretary-General of the National Security Council


Executive Yuan

The Executive Yuan is led by the Premier. However, the ROC's political system does not fit traditional models. The Premier is selected by the President without the need for approval from the Legislature, but the Legislature can pass laws without regard for the President, as neither the President nor the Premier wields veto power. Thus, there is little incentive for the President and the Legislature to negotiate on legislation if they are of opposing parties. During the tenure of the pan-Green's Chen Shui-bian the continued control of the Legislative Yuan by the pan-Blue majority caused legislation to repeatedly stall, as the two sides were deadlocked. There is another curiosity of the ROC system; because the ROC was previously dominated by strongman one-party politics, real power in the system shifted from one position to another, depending on what position was currently occupied by the leader of the state (Chiang Kai-shek and later his son,
Chiang Ching-kuo Chiang Ching-kuo (27 April 1910 – 13 January 1988) was a politician of the Republic of China Taiwan, officially the Republic of China (ROC), is a country in East Asia. It shares Maritime boundary, maritime borders with the China, ...
). This legacy has resulted in executive powers currently being concentrated in the office of the President rather than the Premier.


Legislative Yuan

The main
legislative body A legislature is an assembly Assembly may refer to: Organisations and meetings * Deliberative assembly A deliberative assembly is a gathering of members (of any kind of collective) who use parliamentary procedure Parliamentary procedure i ...
is the
unicameral In government A government is the system or group of people governing an organized community, generally a state State may refer to: Arts, entertainment, and media Literature * ''State Magazine'', a monthly magazine published by ...
Legislative Yuan with one hundred and thirteen seats. Seventy-three are elected in single member districts; thirty-four are elected based on the proportion of nationwide votes received by participating political parties, and six seats are reserved to represent aboriginal groups. Members serve four-year terms. Although sometimes referred to as a "
parliament In modern politics and history, a parliament is a legislative A legislature is an assembly Assembly may refer to: Organisations and meetings * Deliberative assembly A deliberative assembly is a gathering of members (of any kind of ...

parliament
", the Legislative Yuan, under Sun's political theory, is a branch of government, while only the
National Assembly of the Republic of China The National Assembly was the authoritative legislative body of the Republic of China Taiwan (), officially the Republic of China (ROC), is a country in East Asia East Asia is the eastern region of Asia Asia () is Earth's la ...
, which is now abolished, with the power to amend the constitution and formerly to elect the President and Vice President, could be considered a parliament. However, after constitutional amendments effectively transferring almost all of the National Assembly's powers to the Legislative Yuan in the late 1990s, it has become more common for newspapers in Taiwan to refer to the Legislative Yuan as the nation's "parliament" (國會, ''guóhuì'').


Judicial Yuan

The Judicial Yuan is the ROC's highest
judiciary The judiciary (also known as the judicial system, judicature, judicial branch, judiciative branch, and court or judiciary system) is the system of court A court is any person or institution, often as a government A government i ...
. The President and Vice-President of the Judicial Yuan and fifteen Justices form the Council of Grand Justices. They are nominated and appointed by the President of the Republic, with the consent of the Legislative Yuan. The highest court, the
Supreme Court A supreme court is the highest court A court is any person or institution, often as a government institution, with the authority to Adjudication, adjudicate legal disputes between Party (law), parties and carry out the administration of just ...
, consists of a number of civil and criminal divisions, each of which is formed by a presiding Judge and four Associate Judges, all appointed for life. In 1993, a separate
constitutional court A constitutional court is a high court High court usually refers to the superior court In common law systems, a superior court is a court A court is any person or institution, often as a government institution, with the authority to Ad ...

constitutional court
was established to resolve constitutional disputes, regulate the activities of political parties and accelerate the democratization process. There is no
trial by jury A jury trial, or trial by jury, is a lawful proceeding in which a jury A jury is a sworn body of people (the jurors) convened to render an impartial Impartiality (also called evenhandedness or fair-mindedness) is a principle of justice h ...
but the right to a
fair A fair (archaic: faire or fayre) is a gathering of people for a variety of entertainment or commercial activities. It is normally of the essence of a fair that it is temporary with scheduled times lasting from an afternoon to several weeks. ...
and
public trial Public trial or open trial is a trial (law), trial that is open to the public, as opposed to a secret trial. It should not be confused with a show trial. United States The Sixth Amendment to the United States Constitution establishes the right of ...
is protected by law and respected in practice; many cases are presided over by multiple judges.
Capital punishment Capital punishment, also known as the death penalty, is the state State may refer to: Arts, entertainment, and media Literature * ''State Magazine'', a monthly magazine published by the U.S. Department of State * The State (newspaper), ' ...

Capital punishment
is legal. Efforts have been made by the government to reduce the number of executions, although they have not been able to completely abolish the punishment. As of 2006, about 80% of Taiwanese want to keep the death penalty.


Examination Yuan

The Examination Yuan is in charge of validating the qualification of civil servants in the Republic of China. As a special branch of government under the
Three Principles of the People The Three Principles of the People (; also translated as Three People's Principles, San-min Doctrine, or Tridemism) is a political philosophy developed by Sun Yat-sen as part of a philosophy to improve China. The three principles are often tran ...
. The concept of the Examination Yuan is based on the old
Imperial examination The Chinese imperial examinations, or ''keju'' (lit. "subject recommendation"), was a civil service examination system in History of China#Imperial era, Imperial China for selecting candidates for the state Civil service#China, bureaucracy. T ...
system used in Imperial China.


Control Yuan

Based on the traditional Chinese
censorate The Censorate was a high-level supervisory agency in ancient China China, officially the People's Republic of China (PRC), is a country in East Asia. It is the List of countries and dependencies by population, world's most populous cou ...
, the Control Yuan is an investigatory agency that monitors the other branches of government. It may be compared to the
Court of Auditors The European Court of Auditors (ECA) (French: ''Cour des comptes européenne'') is one of the seven institutions of the European Union The European Union (EU) is a political and economic union of Member state of the European Union, membe ...
of the European Union, the
Government Accountability Office The U.S. Government Accountability Office (GAO) is a legislative branch A legislature is a deliberative assembly A deliberative assembly is a gathering of members (of any kind of collective) who use parliamentary procedure Parliamentary ...
of the United States, a political
ombudsman An ombudsman (, also , ), ombudsperson, ombud, ombuds, or public advocate is an official who is usually appointed by the government or by parliament but with a significant degree of independence. In some countries, an inspector general, citize ...
, or a standing
commission Commission or commissioning may refer to: Business and contracting * Commission (remuneration), a form of payment to an agent for services rendered ** Commission (art), the purchase or the creation of a piece of art most often on behalf of another ...
for administrative inquiry. Before the 1990s, it was the upper chamber of the tricameral parliament.


History

The Government of the Republic of China was formally established in 1912 in
Nanking Nanjing (; , Mandarin pronunciation: ), alternately romanized as Nanking, is the capital of Jiangsu Jiangsu (; ; formerly romanized Kiangsu) is an eastern-central coastal province A province is almost always an administrative divisi ...

Nanking
, with
Sun Yat-sen Sun Yat-sen (; born Sun Deming; 12 November 1866 – 12 March 1925) Singtao daily. Saturday edition. 23 October 2010. section A18. Sun Yat-sen Xinhai revolution 100th anniversary edition . was a Chinese statesman A statesman or stateswoman ...

Sun Yat-sen
as President of the Provisional Government of the Republic of China under the
Provisional Constitution of the Republic of ChinaImage:Temporary Constitution of the Republic of China.jpg, The first page of the Provisional Constitution of the Republic of China After victory in the Xinhai Revolution, the Provisional Government of the Republic of China (1912), Nanjing Provisiona ...
. This government moved to
Beijing Beijing ( ), as Peking ( ), is the of the . It is the world's , with over 21 million residents within an of 16,410.5 km2 (6336 sq. mi.). It is located in , and is governed as a under the direct administration of the with .Figures ...

Beijing
in the same year with
Yuan Shikai Yuan Shikai (; 16 September 1859 – 6 June 1916) was a Chinese military and government official who rose to power during the late Qing dynasty The Qing dynasty, officially the Great Qing (), was the last Dynasties in Chinese histo ...

Yuan Shikai
as president, and continued under his successors as the internationally recognized government of
China China (), officially the People's Republic of China (PRC; ), is a country in East Asia East Asia is the eastern region of Asia Asia () is Earth's largest and most populous continent, located primarily in the Eastern Hemisphere ...

China
until 1928. In the Republican period, there were a series of governments, sometimes in rivalry with each other. The Nationalist government, led by the Kuomintang (KMT), was originally formed as a rival military government under Sun Yat-sen in
Guangzhou Guangzhou (, ; ; or ; ), also known as Canton and alternatively romanized as Kwongchow or Kwangchow, is the capital Capital most commonly refers to: * Capital letter Letter case (or just case) is the distinction between the ...

Guangzhou
in 1917. After Sun's death in 1925,
Chiang Kai-shek Chiang Kai-shek (31 October 1887 – 5 April 1975), also known as Chiang Chung-cheng and romanized Romanization or romanisation, in linguistics Linguistics is the scientific study of language A language is a structured syst ...

Chiang Kai-shek
led the
Northern Expedition The Northern Expedition was a military campaign launched by the National Revolutionary Army (NRA) of the Kuomintang (KMT), also known as the "Chinese Nationalist Party", against the Beiyang government and other regional warlords in 1926. The p ...
(1926–1928) to unify the country and established the capital in Nanjing. This government gained diplomatic recognition but did not control all the territory of the
Qing dynasty The Qing dynasty, officially the Great Qing (), was the last dynasty A dynasty (, ) is a sequence of rulers from the same family,''Oxford English Dictionary'', "dynasty, ''n''." Oxford University Press Oxford University Pr ...
. The essentially one-party rule functioned under Sun's
Three Principles of the People The Three Principles of the People (; also translated as Three People's Principles, San-min Doctrine, or Tridemism) is a political philosophy developed by Sun Yat-sen as part of a philosophy to improve China. The three principles are often tran ...
, which provided for a transitional period of "tutelage", but drew more political parties, including the
Communist Party of China The Chinese Communist Party (CCP), officially the Communist Party of China (CPC), is the founding and One-party state, sole ruling party of the China, People's Republic of China (PRC). The CCP leads List of political parties in China, eight other ...

Communist Party of China
into a
United Front A united front is an alliance An alliance is a relationship among people A people is a plurality of person A person (plural people or persons) is a being that has certain capacities or attributes such as reason, morality, consciousne ...
during the
Second Sino-Japanese War The Second Sino-Japanese War (1937–1945) was a military conflict that was primarily waged between the Republic of China (1912–1949), Republic of China and the Empire of Japan. The war made up the Chinese theater of the wider Pacific War, Pac ...
(1937-1945). The Tutelage Constitution of 1931 was replaced by the
Constitution of the Republic of China The Constitution of the Republic of China () is the fifth and current constitution of the Taiwan, Republic of China, ratified by the Kuomintang during the session on December 25, 1946, in Nanjing, and adopted on December 25, 1947. The constitut ...
in 1947.Ch'ien Tuan-Sheng (Qian Duansheng)''The Government and Politics of China, 1912-1949.'' (Cambridge, MA: Harvard University Press, 1950).


1912–1928

The first Chinese national government was established on 1 January 1912, in Nanjing, with Sun Yat-sen as the provisional president. Provincial delegates were sent to confirm the authority of the national government, and they later also formed the first parliament. The power of this national government was limited and short-lived, with generals controlling both central and northern
provinces of China The provincial level administrative divisions () are the highest-level administrative divisions of China Due to China's large Demographics of China, population and geographical area, the administrative divisions of China have consiste ...
. The limited acts passed by this government included the formal abdication of the Qing dynasty and some economic initiatives. The parliament's authority became nominal; violations of the Constitution by
Yuan Shikai Yuan Shikai (; 16 September 1859 – 6 June 1916) was a Chinese military and government official who rose to power during the late Qing dynasty The Qing dynasty, officially the Great Qing (), was the last Dynasties in Chinese histo ...

Yuan Shikai
, who became president in March 1912, were met with half-hearted motions of censure, and Kuomintang members of the parliament who gave up their membership in the KMT were offered 1,000 British pounds. Yuan maintained power locally by sending military generals to be provincial governors or by obtaining the allegiance of those already in power. When Yuan died, the parliament of 1913 was reconvened to give legitimacy to a new government. However, the real power of the time passed to military leaders, forming the warlord period. The impotent government still had its use; when
World War I World War I, often abbreviated as WWI or WW1, also known as the First World War or the Great War, was a global war A world war is "a war engaged in by all or most of the principal nations of the world". The term is usually reserved for ...

World War I
began, several Western powers and Japan wanted China to declare war on
Germany ) , image_map = , map_caption = , map_width = 250px , capital = Berlin Berlin (; ) is the Capital city, capital and List of cities in Germany by population, largest city of Germany by both area and population. Its 3,769,495 inh ...
, in order to liquidate German holdings. There were also several warlord governments and puppet states sharing the same name. See also:
Wang Jingwei Government The Wang Jingwei regime is the common name of the Reorganized National Government of the Republic of China ( zh, t=中華民國國民政府, p=Zhōnghuá mínguó guómín zhèngfǔ), the government of the puppet state A puppet state, puppet ré ...
,
Warlord era The Warlord Era was a period in the history of the Republic of China The history of the Republic of China begins after the Qing dynasty The Qing dynasty, officially the Great Qing (), was the last Dynasties in Chinese history, dy ...
.


1928–1949

After the successful
Northern Expedition The Northern Expedition was a military campaign launched by the National Revolutionary Army (NRA) of the Kuomintang (KMT), also known as the "Chinese Nationalist Party", against the Beiyang government and other regional warlords in 1926. The p ...
led by the Kuomintang (KMT) and its leader
Chiang Kai-shek Chiang Kai-shek (31 October 1887 – 5 April 1975), also known as Chiang Chung-cheng and romanized Romanization or romanisation, in linguistics Linguistics is the scientific study of language A language is a structured syst ...

Chiang Kai-shek
, the KMT managed to nominally unify China and established the National Government of the Republic of China (also known as the Nationalist Government; ) with its capital in Nanjing, whose authority was maintained till the full-scale outbreak of the
Second Sino-Japanese War The Second Sino-Japanese War (1937–1945) was a military conflict that was primarily waged between the Republic of China (1912–1949), Republic of China and the Empire of Japan. The war made up the Chinese theater of the wider Pacific War, Pac ...
in 1937. Known as the
Nanjing Decade The Nanjing decade (also Nanking decade, ''Nánjīng shí nián'', or The Golden decade, ''Huángjīn shí nián'') is an informal name for the decade from 1927 (or 1928) to 1937 in the Republic of China Taiwan (), officially the Republic ...
, the government ruled as a
one-party state A one-party state, single-party state, one-party system, or single-party system is a type of sovereign state A sovereign state is a political entity that is represented by one centralized government that has sovereignty over a geographic area. ...
, as laid out by Sun Yat-sen's "Three Stages of Revolution" and his policy of
Dang Guo ( zh, t=黨國, p=Dǎngguó, l=party-state) was the one-party system A one-party state, single-party state, one-party system, or single-party system is a type of unitary state A unitary state is a State (polity), state governed as a sin ...
(''literally: party-state''). The first stage was military unification, which was carried out with the Northern Expedition. The second was "political tutelage" which was a provisional government led by the KMT to educate people about their political and civil rights, and the third stage was constitutional government. The KMT considered themselves to be at the second stage in 1928. Although the Nanjing decade was far more stable and progressive as compared to the Warlord period which preceded it, it was still marred with widespread violence, official corruption and the ongoing civil war with the
communists Communism (from Latin Latin (, or , ) is a classical language belonging to the Italic languages, Italic branch of the Indo-European languages. Latin was originally spoken in the area around Rome, known as Latium. Through the power of the ...

communists
. With the outbreak of the Second Sino-Japanese War, the invading
Imperial Japanese Army The was the official ground-based armed force of the Empire of Japan The was a historical and that existed from the in 1868 until the enactment of the post-World War II and subsequent formation of modern . It encompassed the ...
managed to capture Nanjing on 13 December 1937. The Japanese then proceeded to sack the city, and
massacred A massacre refers to the killing of multiple individuals and is usually considered to be moral judgement, morally unacceptable, especially when perpetrated by a group of political faction, political actors against defenseless victims. The word ...
hundreds of thousands of Chinese civilians. With the fall of Nanjing, the government was forced to move first to
Wuhan Wuhan (, ; ; ) is the capital of Hubei Province Hubei (; ; Postal romanization, alternately Hupeh) is a landlocked provinces of China, province of the China, People's Republic of China, and is part of the Central China region. The name ...

Wuhan
, until the city fell on 27 October 1938. It retreated further inland to
Chongqing Chongqing ( ; ; Sichuanese pronunciation: , Standard Mandarin Standard Chinese (), in linguistics known as Standard Northern Mandarin, Standard Beijing Mandarin or simply Mandarin, is a dialect of Mandarin that emerged as the lingu ...

Chongqing
, which was the wartime capital until 1945. Although Chongqing was located in the inland western province of
Sichuan Sichuan (; , ; alternatively romanized as Szechuan or Szechwan) is a landlocked province A province is almost always an administrative division Administrative division, administrative unitArticle 3(1). , country subdivision, admini ...

Sichuan
, it was nevertheless heavily bombed by Japanese warplanes many times during the course of the war. With the end of the war, the National Government moved back to Nanjing. The Kuomintang then proceeded with the drafting of a new constitution for China, which were boycotted by the communists. The
Constitution of the Republic of China The Constitution of the Republic of China () is the fifth and current constitution of the Taiwan, Republic of China, ratified by the Kuomintang during the session on December 25, 1946, in Nanjing, and adopted on December 25, 1947. The constitut ...
was adopted by the
National Assembly In politics, a national assembly is either a unicameral In government, unicameralism (Latin , "one" and , "chamber") is the practice of having a single legislative or legislative chamber, parliamentary chamber. Thus, a ''unicameral parliam ...
on 25 December 1946 and went into force a year later. The constitution was seen as the third and final step in Sun Yat-sen's "Three Stages of Revolution" - constitutional government. From then on, the government was known simply as the Government of the Republic of China (). Chiang Kai-shek was also elected as the 1st President of the Republic of China under the constitution by the National Assembly in 1948, with
Li Zongren Li Zongren or Li Tsung-jen (; 13 August 1890 – 30 January 1969), courtesy name A courtesy name (), also known as a style name, is a name bestowed upon one at adulthood in addition to one's given name. This practice is a tradition in t ...

Li Zongren
being elected as vice-president. Chiang and Li inaugurated at the Presidential Palace in Nanking on 20 May 1948, formally marking the transition from political tutelage to constitutional government. However, in 1946, the
civil war A civil war, also known as an intrastate war in polemology, is a war War is an intense armed conflict between states State may refer to: Arts, entertainment, and media Literature * ''State Magazine'', a monthly magazine publis ...
with the communists led by
Mao Zedong Mao Zedong pronounced ; also Romanization of Chinese, romanised traditionally as Mao Tse-tung. (December 26, 1893 – September 9, 1976), also known as Chairman Mao, was a Chinese communist revolutionary who was the Proclamation of the ...

Mao Zedong
resumed despite mediation by the
United States The United States of America (U.S.A. or USA), commonly known as the United States (U.S. or US) or America, is a country Continental United States, primarily located in North America. It consists of 50 U.S. state, states, a Washington, D.C., ...

United States
. Stretched and exhausted due to the long war with the Japanese, the Kuomintang-led government faced a disciplined and ever growing communist Red Army, which numbers grew in strength and was renamed as the
People's Liberation Army The People's Liberation Army (PLA) is the armed forces A military, also known collectively as armed forces, is a heavily armed, highly organized force primarily intended for warfare War is an intense armed conflict between St ...
(PLA) in 1946. Although government forces were numerically superior and were equipped with modern weapons, they eventually lost due to low morale, defections, poor discipline as well as popular discontent with the ROC government due to skyrocketing inflation, corruption and administrative incompetence. The constitution was also superseded by the
Temporary Provisions Effective During the Period of Communist Rebellion The Temporary Provisions Effective During the Period of National Mobilization for Suppression of the Communist Rebellion were provisions of the Constitution of the Republic of China effective from 1948 to 1991 and amended four times. It effective ...
, which were a series of temporary constitutional provisions mainly to increase the powers of the President and suspended the two-term limit. The temporary provisions were passed by the National Assembly on 10 May 1948. Under intense pressure to take responsibility for the government's bleak outlook during the course of the civil war, Chiang resigned as president on 21 January 1949. The presidency was passed on to Vice-President Li Zongren, who was however unable to govern effectively due to Chiang pulling the strings behind government as Director-General of the Kuomintang. With the fall of Nanjing to the PLA in April 1949, the ROC government moved south to
Guangzhou Guangzhou (, ; ; or ; ), also known as Canton and alternatively romanized as Kwongchow or Kwangchow, is the capital Capital most commonly refers to: * Capital letter Letter case (or just case) is the distinction between the ...

Guangzhou
, and then to its wartime capital of Chongqing, and finally to
Chengdu Chengdu (, ; simplified Chinese Simplified Chinese characters are standardized Chinese characters Chinese characters, also called ''hanzi'' (), are logogram In a written language A written language is the representa ...

Chengdu
. Sensing that he would eventually lose the mainland to the communists, Chiang secretly started preparations to move the government to the island of Taiwan, which was placed under the ROC's control on 25 October 1945. Taiwan was seen as a safe haven for Chiang due to it being separated from the mainland by the -wide
Taiwan Strait The Taiwan Strait is a -wide strait separating the Taiwan (island), island of Taiwan and mainland, continental Asia. The strait is part of the South China Sea and connects to the East China Sea to the north. The narrowest part is wide. Names ...

Taiwan Strait
. During that period, more than two million civilians, military personnel and government officials left the mainland for Taiwan. Chiang then declared Taipei as the provisional capital of the Republic of China on 7 December 1949, and left Chengdu for Taipei by air three days later when the city fell to the communists.


Since 1949

Based on the
Constitution of the Republic of China The Constitution of the Republic of China () is the fifth and current constitution of the Taiwan, Republic of China, ratified by the Kuomintang during the session on December 25, 1946, in Nanjing, and adopted on December 25, 1947. The constitut ...
, the
head of state A head of state (or chief of state) is the public persona A persona (plural personae or personas), depending on the context, can refer to either the public image of one's personality, or the social role that one adopts, or a fictional ch ...
is the
President President most commonly refers to: *President (corporate title) A president is a leader of an organization, company, community, club, trade union, university or other group. The relationship between a president and a Chief Executive Officer, chi ...
, who is elected by popular vote for a four-year term on the same ticket as the Vice-President. The President has authority over the five administrative branches (''Yuan''): the
Control
Control
,
Examination Examination may refer to: * Physical examination, a medical procedure * Questioning and more specific forms thereof, for example in law: ** Cross-examination ** Direct examination * Test (assessment), informally "exam", "exams", "evaluation" ** Civ ...
,
Executive Executive may refer to: Role, title, or function * Executive (government), branch of government that has authority and responsibility for the administration of state bureaucracy * Executive, a senior management role in an organization ** Chief exec ...
,
Judicial The judiciary (also known as the judicial system, judicature, judicial branch, judiciative branch, and court or judiciary system) is the system of court A court is any person or institution, often as a government A government i ...
, and
Legislative Yuan The Legislative Yuan is the unicameral In government, unicameralism (Latin , "one" and , "chamber") is the practice of having a single legislative or legislative chamber, parliamentary chamber. Thus, a ''unicameral parliament'' or ''unicam ...
s. The President appoints the members of the Executive Yuan as the
cabinet Cabinet or The Cabinet may refer to: Furniture * Cabinetry, a box-shaped piece of furniture with doors and/or drawers * Display cabinet, a piece of furniture with one or more transparent glass sheets or transparent polycarbonate sheets * Filing ...
, including a
Premier Premier is a title for the head of government The head of government is either the highest or second-highest official in the Executive (government), executive branch of a sovereign state, a federated state, or a self-governing colony, aut ...
, who is officially the President of the Executive Yuan; members are responsible for policy and administration. Originally, the
National Assembly of the Republic of China The National Assembly was the authoritative legislative body of the Republic of China Taiwan (), officially the Republic of China (ROC), is a country in East Asia East Asia is the eastern region of Asia Asia () is Earth's la ...
was elected in mainland China in 1947 to officially carry out the duties of choosing the president, to amend the constitution, and to exercise the sovereignty of the citizens, but in fact, the Assembly's role in Taipei seemed to reconfirm the executive powers of President Chiang Kai-shek. The National Assembly was re-established on Taiwan when the government moved. Because it was impossible to hold subsequent elections to represent constituencies in mainland China, representatives elected in 1947-48 held these seats "indefinitely." In June 1990, however, the Council of Grand Justices mandated the retirement, effective December 1991, of all remaining "indefinitely" elected members of the National Assembly, Legislative Yuan, and other bodies. In 2005, the National Assembly permanently abolished itself by ratifying a constitution amendment passed by the Legislative Yuan. Amending the ROC constitution now requires the approval of three-fourths of the quorum of members of the Legislative Yuan. This quorum requires at least three-fourths of all members of the Legislature. After passing by the legislature, the amendment needs ratification in a
referendum A referendum (plural: referendums or less commonly referenda) is a direct Direct may refer to: Mathematics * Directed set In mathematics Mathematics (from Ancient Greek, Greek: ) includes the study of such topics as quantity (number th ...

referendum
from at least fifty percent of all eligible voters of the ROC regardless of voter turnout.


Notes


References


External links

* {{Taiwan topics