HOME

TheInfoList



Genus /ˈdʒiː.nəs/ (plural genera /ˈdʒen.ər.ə/) is a
taxonomic rank Taxonomy (general) is the practice and science of classification of things or concepts, including the principles that underlie such classification. The term may also refer to a specific classification scheme. Originally used only about biological ...
used in the
biological classification In biology Biology is the natural science that studies life and living organisms, including their anatomy, physical structure, Biochemistry, chemical processes, Molecular biology, molecular interactions, Physiology, physiological mecha ...
of
living Living or The Living may refer to: Common meanings *Life, a condition that distinguishes organisms from inorganic objects and dead organisms ** extant taxon, Living species, one that is not extinct *Personal life, the course of an individual human ...
and
fossil A fossil (from Classical Latin: , literally "obtained by digging") is any preserved remains, impression, or trace of any once- living thing from a past geological age. Examples include bones, shells, exoskeletons, stone imprints of anima ...

fossil
organism In biology, an organism () is any organic, life, living system that functions as an individual entity. All organisms are composed of cells (cell theory). Organisms are classified by taxonomy (biology), taxonomy into groups such as Multice ...

organism
s as well as
virus A virus is a submicroscopic infectious agent that Viral replication, replicates only inside the living Cell (biology), cells of an organism. Viruses infect all types of life forms, from animals and plants to microorganisms, including bacte ...
es. In the hierarchy of biological classification, genus comes above
species In biology, a species is the basic unit of biological classification, classification and a taxonomic rank of an organism, as well as a unit of biodiversity. A species is often defined as the largest group of organisms in which any two individu ...

species
and below
family In human society, family (from la, familia) is a group of people related either by consanguinity (by recognized birth) or affinity (by marriage or other relationship). The purpose of families is to maintain the well-being of its members an ...
. In
binomial nomenclature In taxonomy, binomial nomenclature ("two-term naming system"), also called nomenclature ("two-name naming system") or binary nomenclature, is a formal system of naming species In biology, a species is the basic unit of biological classi ...
, the genus name forms the first part of the binomial species name for each species within the genus. :E.g. ''
Panthera leo The lion (''Panthera leo'') is a species In biology, a species is the basic unit of biological classification, classification and a taxonomic rank of an organism, as well as a unit of biodiversity. A species is often defined as the larges ...

Panthera leo
'' (lion) and ''
Panthera onca The jaguar (''Panthera onca'') is a large felid species In biology, a species is the basic unit of biological classification, classification and a taxonomic rank of an organism, as well as a unit of biodiversity. A species is often defi ...

Panthera onca
'' (jaguar) are two species within the genus ''
Panthera ''Panthera'' is a genus Genus (plural genera) is a taxonomic rank Taxonomy (general) is the practice and science of classification of things or concepts, including the principles that underlie such classification. The term may also refer t ...

Panthera
''. ''Panthera'' is a genus within the family
Felidae Felidae () is a family In human society, family (from la, familia) is a group of people related either by consanguinity (by recognized birth) or affinity (by marriage or other relationship). The purpose of families is to maintain the ...
. The composition of a genus is determined by
taxonomists In biology Biology is the natural science that studies life and living organisms, including their anatomy, physical structure, Biochemistry, chemical processes, Molecular biology, molecular interactions, Physiology, physiological mecha ...
. The standards for genus classification are not strictly codified, so different authorities often produce different classifications for genera. There are some general practices used, however, including the idea that a newly defined genus should fulfill these three criteria to be descriptively useful: #
monophyly Image:Monophyly, paraphyly, polyphyly.png, 300px, A cladogram of the primates, showing a ''monophyletic'' taxon: ''the simians'' (in yellow); a ''paraphyletic'' taxon: ''the prosimians'' (in cyan, including the red patch); and a ''polyphyletic'' ...
– all descendants of an
ancestral An ancestor, also known as a forefather, fore-elder or a forebear, is a parent A parent is a caregiver of the offspring In biology, offspring are the young born of living organism, organisms, produced either by a single organism or, in the ...
taxon In biology Biology is the natural science that studies life and living organisms, including their anatomy, physical structure, Biochemistry, chemical processes, Molecular biology, molecular interactions, Physiology, physiological mechanism ...
are grouped together (i.e. phylogenetic analysis should clearly demonstrate both monophyly and validity as a separate lineage). # reasonable compactness – a genus should not be expanded needlessly. # distinctness – with respect to evolutionarily relevant criteria, i.e.
ecology Ecology (from el, οἶκος, "house" and el, -λογία, label=none, "study of") is the study of the relationships between living organisms, including humans, and their physical environment. Topics of interest include the biodiversity, di ...
,
morphology Morphology, from the Greek and meaning "study of shape", may refer to: Disciplines * Morphology (archaeology), study of the shapes or forms of artifacts * Morphology (astronomy), study of the shape of astronomical objects such as nebulae, galaxies ...
, or
biogeography Biogeography is the study of the distribution of species In biology, a species is the basic unit of biological classification, classification and a taxonomic rank of an organism, as well as a unit of biodiversity. A species is often define ...
;
DNA sequences A nucleic acid sequence is a succession of bases signified by a series of a set of five different letters that indicate the order of nucleotides forming alleles within a DNA (using GACT) or RNA (GACU) molecule. By convention, sequences are usually ...
are a ''consequence'' rather than a ''condition'' of diverging evolutionary lineages except in cases where they directly
inhibit Inhibitor or inhibition may refer to: In biology * Enzyme inhibitor 400px, An enzyme binding site that would normally bind substrate can alternatively bind a competitive inhibitor, preventing substrate access. Dihydrofolate reductase is inhibi ...
gene flow In population genetics, gene flow (also known as gene migration or allele flow) is the transfer of genetic variation, genetic material from one population to another. If the rate of gene flow is high enough, then two populations will have equivale ...

gene flow
(e.g.
postzygotic barrier The mechanisms of reproductive isolation are a collection of evolution Evolution is change in the Heredity, heritable Phenotypic trait, characteristics of biological populations over successive generations. These characteristics are the Gene ...
s). Moreover, genera should be composed of
phylogenetic In biology Biology is the natural science that studies life and living organisms, including their anatomy, physical structure, Biochemistry, chemical processes, Molecular biology, molecular interactions, Physiology, physiological mechanisms, ...

phylogenetic
units of the same kind as other (analogous) genera.


Etymology

The term "genus" comes from the
Latin Latin (, or , ) is a classical language belonging to the Italic languages, Italic branch of the Indo-European languages. Latin was originally spoken in the area around Rome, known as Latium. Through the power of the Roman Republic, it became the ...

Latin
' ('origin, type, group, race, family'), a noun form
cognate In linguistics, cognates, also called lexical cognates, are words that have a common etymology, etymological origin. Cognates are often inherited from a proto-language, shared parent language, but they may also involve loanword, borrowings from ...
with ' ('to bear; to give birth to').
Linnaeus Carl Linnaeus (; 23 May 1707 – 10 January 1778), also known after his Nobility#Ennoblement, ennoblement as Carl von Linné#Blunt, Blunt (2004), p. 171. (), was a Swedish botanist, zoologist, taxonomist, and physician who formalised binomia ...

Linnaeus
popularized its use in his 1753 ''
Species Plantarum ' (Latin Latin (, or , ) is a classical language belonging to the Italic languages, Italic branch of the Indo-European languages. Latin was originally spoken in the area around Rome, known as Latium. Through the power of the Roman Republic, i ...
'', but the French botanist
Joseph Pitton de Tournefort Joseph Pitton de Tournefort (5 June 1656 – 28 December 1708) was a French botanist Botany, also called , plant biology or phytology, is the science Science (from the Latin word ''scientia'', meaning "knowledge") is a systematic ent ...
(1656–1708) is considered "the founder of the modern concept of genera".


Use

The scientific name (or the scientific epithet) of a genus is also called the generic name; in modern style guides and science it is always capitalised. It plays a fundamental role in
binomial nomenclature In taxonomy, binomial nomenclature ("two-term naming system"), also called nomenclature ("two-name naming system") or binary nomenclature, is a formal system of naming species In biology, a species is the basic unit of biological classi ...
, the system of naming
organisms In biology, an organism () is any organic, life, living system that functions as an individual entity. All organisms are composed of cells (cell theory). Organisms are classified by taxonomy (biology), taxonomy into groups such as Multice ...

organisms
, where it is combined with the scientific name of a
species In biology, a species is the basic unit of biological classification, classification and a taxonomic rank of an organism, as well as a unit of biodiversity. A species is often defined as the largest group of organisms in which any two individu ...

species
: see
Specific name (botany) A botanical name is a formal scientific name conforming to the '' International Code of Nomenclature for algae, fungi, and plants'' (ICN) and, if it concerns a plant cultigen, the additional cultivar or cultivar group, Group epithets must conform ...
and
Specific name (zoology) In zoological nomenclature, the specific name (also specific epithet or species epithet) is the second part (the second name) within the scientific name of a species In biology, a species is the basic unit of biological classification, class ...
.


Use in nomenclature

The rules for the
scientific name In taxonomy Taxonomy (general) is the practice and science of classification of things or concepts, including the principles that underlie such classification. The term may also refer to a specific classification scheme. Originally used only ...
s of
organisms In biology, an organism () is any organic, life, living system that functions as an individual entity. All organisms are composed of cells (cell theory). Organisms are classified by taxonomy (biology), taxonomy into groups such as Multice ...

organisms
are laid down in the Nomenclature Codes, which allow each species a single unique name that, for "
animals Animals (also called Metazoa) are multicellular Multicellular organisms are organism In biology, an organism (from Ancient Greek, Greek: ὀργανισμός, ''organismos'') is any individual contiguous system that embodies the L ...

animals
" (including
protists A protist () is any eukaryotic organism In biology, an organism (from Ancient Greek, Greek: ὀργανισμός, ''organismos'') is any individual contiguous system that embodies the Life#Biology, properties of life. It is a synonym f ...
), "
plants Plants are predominantly photosynthetic Photosynthesis is a process used by plants and other organisms to Energy transformation, convert light energy into chemical energy that, through cellular respiration, can later be released to fuel t ...

plants
" (also including
algae Algae (; singular alga ) is an informal term for a large and diverse group of photosynthetic Photosynthesis is a process used by plants and other organisms to Energy transformation, convert light energy into chemical energy that, through cel ...

algae
and
fungi A fungus (plural: fungi or funguses) is any member of the group of Eukaryote, eukaryotic organisms that includes microorganisms such as yeasts and Mold (fungus), molds, as well as the more familiar mushrooms. These organisms are classified as ...

fungi
) and
prokaryotes A prokaryote () is a single-celled organism A unicellular organism, also known as a single-celled organism, is an organism In biology, an organism (from Ancient Greek, Greek: ὀργανισμός, ''organismos'') is any individual contig ...

prokaryotes
(
Bacteria Bacteria (; common noun bacteria, singular bacterium) are a type of Cell (biology), biological cell. They constitute a large domain (biology), domain of prokaryotic microorganisms. Typically a few micrometres in length, bacteria have a Bacte ...

Bacteria
and
Archaea Archaea ( ; singular archaeon ) constitute a domain Domain may refer to: Mathematics *Domain of a function, the set of input values for which the (total) function is defined **Domain of definition of a partial function **Natural domain of a pa ...

Archaea
), is
Latin Latin (, or , ) is a classical language belonging to the Italic languages, Italic branch of the Indo-European languages. Latin was originally spoken in the area around Rome, known as Latium. Through the power of the Roman Republic, it became the ...

Latin
and binomial in form; this contrasts with
common Common may refer to: Places * Common, a townland in County Tyrone County Tyrone (; ) is one of the thirty-two counties of Ireland Ireland (; ga, Éire ; Ulster Scots dialect, Ulster-Scots: ) is an island in the North Atlantic Ocean, ...
or
vernacular A vernacular or vernacular language refers to the language or dialect that is spoken by people that are inhabiting a particular country or region. The vernacular is typically the native language A first language, native tongue, native langua ...
names, which are non-standardized, can be non-unique, and typically also vary by country and language of usage. Except for
viruses A virus is a submicroscopic infectious agent In biology Biology is the natural science that studies life and living organisms, including their anatomy, physical structure, Biochemistry, chemical processes, Molecular biology, molecul ...
, the standard format for a
species In biology, a species is the basic unit of biological classification, classification and a taxonomic rank of an organism, as well as a unit of biodiversity. A species is often defined as the largest group of organisms in which any two individu ...

species
name comprises the generic name, indicating the genus to which the species belongs, followed by the specific epithet, which (within that genus) is unique to the species. For example, the
gray wolf The wolf (''Canis lupus''), also known as the gray wolf or grey wolf, is a large Canis, canine native to Eurasia and North America. More than thirty subspecies of Canis lupus, subspecies of ''Canis lupus'' have been recognized, and gray wolv ...

gray wolf
's scientific name is with ''
Canis ''Canis'' is a genus Genus /ˈdʒiː.nəs/ (plural genera /ˈdʒen.ər.ə/) is a taxonomic rank used in the biological classification of extant taxon, living and fossil organisms as well as Virus classification#ICTV classification, viruses. In ...

Canis
'' (
Latin Latin (, or , ) is a classical language belonging to the Italic languages, Italic branch of the Indo-European languages. Latin was originally spoken in the area around Rome, known as Latium. Through the power of the Roman Republic, it became the ...

Latin
for 'dog') being the generic name shared by the wolf's close relatives and (Latin for 'wolf') being the specific name particular to the wolf. A botanical example would be ''
Hibiscus arnottianus
Hibiscus arnottianus
'', a particular species of the genus ''
Hibiscus ''Hibiscus'' is a genus of flowering plant Flowering plants include multiple members of the clade Angiospermae (), commonly called angiosperms. The term "angiosperm" is derived from the Greek Greek may refer to: Greece Anything of, from, o ...

Hibiscus
'' native to Hawaii. The specific name is written in lower-case and may be followed by
subspecies In biological classification In biology Biology is the natural science that studies life and living organisms, including their anatomy, physical structure, Biochemistry, chemical processes, Molecular biology, molecular interactio ...
names in
zoology Zoology ()The pronunciation of zoology as is typically regarded as nonstandard, though it is not uncommon. is the branch of biology that studies the animal kingdom, including the anatomy, structure, embryology, evolution, Biological classificat ...
or a variety of infraspecific names in
botany Botany, also called , plant biology or phytology, is the science of plant life and a branch of biology. A botanist, plant scientist or phytologist is a scientist who specialises in this field. The term "botany" comes from the Ancient Greek wo ...

botany
. When the generic name is already known from context, it may be shortened to its initial letter, for example ''C. lupus'' in place of ''Canis lupus''. Where species are further subdivided, the generic name (or its abbreviated form) still forms the leading portion of the scientific name, for example, for the
Eurasian wolf The Eurasian wolf (''Canis lupus lupus''), also known as the common wolfMech, L. David (1981), ''The Wolf: The Ecology and Behaviour of an Endangered Species'', University of Minnesota Press, p. 354, or Middle Russian forest wolf,Heptner, V. G. & ...
subspecies, or as a botanical example, . Also, as visible in the above examples, the Latinised portions of the scientific names of genera and their included species (and infraspecies, where applicable) are, by convention, written in
italics In typography File:metal movable type.jpg, 225px, Movable type being assembled on a composing stick using pieces that are stored in the type case shown below it Typography is the art and technique of typesetting, arranging type to make wri ...
. The scientific names of
virus A virus is a submicroscopic infectious agent that Viral replication, replicates only inside the living Cell (biology), cells of an organism. Viruses infect all types of life forms, from animals and plants to microorganisms, including bacte ...

virus
species are descriptive, not binomial in form, and may or may not incorporate an indication of their containing genus; for example, the virus species "Salmonid herpesvirus 1", "Salmonid herpesvirus 2" and "Salmonid herpesvirus 3" are all within the genus '' Salmonivirus'', however, the genus to which the species with the formal names "
Everglades virus ''Everglades virus'' (EVEV) is an alphavirus ''Alphavirus'' is a genus of RNA viruses, the sole genus in the ''Togaviridae'' family. Alphaviruses belong to group IV of the Baltimore classification of viruses, with a Positive-sense ssRNA virus# ...
" and "
Ross River virus ''Ross River virus'' (RRV) is a small encapsulated single-strand RNA virus, RNA ''Alphavirus'' Endemic (epidemiology), endemic to Australia, Papua New Guinea and other islands in the South Pacific. It is responsible for a type of mosquito-borne ...
" are assigned is ''
Alphavirus ''Alphavirus'' is a genus of RNA viruses, the sole genus in the ''Togaviridae'' family. Alphaviruses belong to group IV of the Baltimore classification of viruses, with a Positive-sense ssRNA virus#Replication, positive-sense, single-stranded RN ...

Alphavirus
''. As with scientific names at other ranks, in all groups other than viruses, names of genera may be cited with their authorities, typically in the form "author, year" in zoology, and "standard abbreviated author name" in botany. Thus in the examples above, the genus ''Canis'' would be cited in full as "''Canis'' Linnaeus, 1758" (zoological usage), while ''Hibiscus'', also first established by
Linnaeus Carl Linnaeus (; 23 May 1707 – 10 January 1778), also known after his Nobility#Ennoblement, ennoblement as Carl von Linné#Blunt, Blunt (2004), p. 171. (), was a Swedish botanist, zoologist, taxonomist, and physician who formalised binomia ...

Linnaeus
but in 1753, is simply "''Hibiscus'' L." (botanical usage).


The type concept

Each genus should have a designated
type Type may refer to: Science and technology Computing * Typing, producing text via a keyboard, typewriter, etc. * Data type, collection of values used for computations. * File type * TYPE (DOS command), a command to display contents of a file. * Type ...
, although in practice there is a backlog of older names without one. In zoology, this is the
type species In zoological nomenclature The International Code of Zoological Nomenclature (ICZN) is a widely accepted Convention (norm), convention in zoology that rules the formal scientific name, scientific naming of organisms treated as animals. It is als ...
, and the generic name is permanently associated with the
type specimen In biology, a type is a particular specimen (or in some cases a group of specimens) of an organism In biology, an organism (from Ancient Greek, Greek: ὀργανισμός, ''organismos'') is any individual contiguous system that embodi ...
of its type species. Should the specimen turn out to be assignable to another genus, the generic name linked to it becomes a
junior synonym The Botanical and Zoological Codes of nomenclature treat the concept of synonymy differently. In botanical nomenclature Botanical nomenclature is the formal, scientific naming of plants. It is related to, but distinct from Alpha taxonomy, taxono ...
and the remaining
taxa In biology Biology is the natural science that studies life and living organisms, including their anatomy, physical structure, Biochemistry, chemical processes, Molecular biology, molecular interactions, Physiology, physiological mechanism ...
in the former genus need to be reassessed.


Categories of generic name

In zoological usage, taxonomic names, including those of genera, are classified as "available" or "unavailable". Available names are those published in accordance with the
International Code of Zoological Nomenclature The International Code of Zoological Nomenclature (ICZN) is a widely accepted convention Convention may refer to: * Convention (norm), a custom or tradition, a standard of presentation or conduct ** Treaty, an agreement in international law * Co ...
and not otherwise suppressed by subsequent decisions of the
International Commission on Zoological Nomenclature The International Commission on Zoological Nomenclature (ICZN) is an organization dedicated to "achieving stability and sense in the scientific naming of animals". Founded in 1895, it currently comprises 24 commissioners from 18 countries. Organi ...
(ICZN); the earliest such name for any taxon (for example, a genus) should then be selected as the " valid" (i.e., current or accepted) name for the taxon in question. Consequently, there will be more available names than valid names at any point in time, which names are currently in use depending on the judgement of taxonomists in either combining taxa described under multiple names, or splitting taxa which may bring available names previously treated as synonyms back into use. "Unavailable" names in zoology comprise names that either were not published according to the provisions of the ICZN Code, or have subsequently been suppressed, e.g., incorrect original or subsequent spellings, names published only in a thesis, and generic names published after 1930 with no type species indicated. In botany, similar concepts exist but with different labels. The botanical equivalent of zoology's "available name" is a
validly published name In botanical nomenclature, a validly published name is a name that meets the requirements in the '' International Code of Nomenclature for algae, fungi, and plants'' for valid publication. Valid publication of a name represents the minimum require ...
. An invalidly published name is a ''nomen invalidum'' or ''nom. inval.''; a rejected name is a ''nomen rejiciendum'' or ''nom. rej.''; a later homonym of a validly published name is a ''nomen illegitimum'' or ''nom. illeg.''; for a full list refer to the
International Code of Nomenclature for algae, fungi, and plants The ''International Code of Nomenclature for algae, fungi, and plants'' (ICN) is the set of rules and recommendations dealing with the formal botanical names that are given to plants, fungi and a few other groups of organisms, all those "tradi ...
(ICNafp) and the work cited above by Hawksworth, 2010. In place of the "valid taxon" in zoology, the nearest equivalent in botany is "
correct name In botany, the correct name according to the International Code of Nomenclature for algae, fungi, and plants (ICN) is the one and only botanical name that is to be used for a particular taxon, when that taxon has a particular Circumscription (taxono ...
" or "current name" which can, again, differ or change with alternative taxonomic treatments or new information that results in previously accepted genera being combined or split.
Prokaryote A prokaryote () is a Unicellular organism, single-celled organism that lacks a cell nucleus, nucleus, and other membrane-bound organelles. The word ''prokaryote'' comes from the Greek language, Greek wikt:πρό#Ancient Greek, πρό (, 'before') a ...
and
virus A virus is a submicroscopic infectious agent that Viral replication, replicates only inside the living Cell (biology), cells of an organism. Viruses infect all types of life forms, from animals and plants to microorganisms, including bacte ...
Codes of Nomenclature also exist which serve as a reference for designating currently accepted genus names as opposed to others which may be either reduced to synonymy, or, in the case of prokaryotes, relegated to a status of "names without standing in prokaryotic nomenclature". An available (zoological) or validly published (botanical) name that has been historically applied to a genus but is not regarded as the accepted (current/valid) name for the taxon is termed a
synonym A synonym is a word, morpheme A morpheme is the smallest meaningful lexical item in a language. A morpheme is not a word. The difference between a morpheme and a word is that a morpheme bound and free morphemes, sometimes does not stand alone, ...
; some authors also include unavailable names in lists of synonyms as well as available names, such as misspellings, names previously published without fulfilling all of the requirements of the relevant nomenclatural Code, and rejected or suppressed names. A particular genus name may have zero to many synonyms, the latter case generally if the genus has been known for a long time and redescribed as new by a range of subsequent workers, or if a range of genera previously considered separate taxa have subsequently been consolidated into one. For example, the
World Register of Marine Species The World Register of Marine Species (WoRMS) is a taxonomic database that aims to provide an authoritative and comprehensive list of names of marine organisms. Content The content of the registry is edited and maintained by scientific specialis ...
presently lists 8 genus-level synonyms for the sperm whale genus '' Physeter'' Linnaeus, 1758, and 13 for the bivalve genus '' Pecten'' O.F. Müller, 1776.


Identical names (homonyms)

Within the same kingdom, one generic name can apply to one genus only. However, many names have been assigned (usually unintentionally) to two or more different genera. For example, the
platypus The platypus (''Ornithorhynchus anatinus''), sometimes referred to as the duck-billed platypus, is a semiaquatic, egg-laying mammal Mammals (from Latin language, Latin , 'breast') are a group of vertebrate animals constituting the cl ...

platypus
belongs to the genus ''Ornithorhynchus'' although
George ShawGeorge Shaw may refer to: * George Shaw (biologist) (1751–1813), English botanist and zoologist * George B. Shaw (1854–1894), U.S. Representative from Wisconsin * George Bernard Shaw (1856–1950), Irish playwright * George C. Shaw (1866–1960) ...
named it ''Platypus'' in 1799 (these two names are thus ''synonyms''). However, the name ''Platypus'' had already been given to a group of
ambrosia beetle Ambrosia beetles are beetles of the weevil subfamilies Scolytinae and Platypodinae (Coleoptera, Curculionidae), which live in nutritional symbiosis with ambrosia fungi. The beetles excavate tunnels in dead or stressed trees in which they cultivate f ...

ambrosia beetle
s by
Johann Friedrich Wilhelm Herbst Johann Friedrich Wilhelm Herbst (1 November 1743 – 5 November 1807) was a Germany, German natural history, naturalist and entomologist from Petershagen, Minden-Ravensberg. He served as a chaplain in the Prussian army. His marriage in Berlin, 1770, ...

Johann Friedrich Wilhelm Herbst
in 1793. A name that means two different things is a ''homonym''. Since beetles and platypuses are both members of the kingdom Animalia, the name could not be used for both.
Johann Friedrich Blumenbach Johann Friedrich Blumenbach (11 May 1752 – 22 January 1840) was a German physician A physician (American English), medical practitioner (English in the Commonwealth of Nations, Commonwealth English), medical doctor, or simply doctor, i ...

Johann Friedrich Blumenbach
published the replacement name ''Ornithorhynchus'' in 1800. However, a genus in one
kingdom Kingdom may refer to: Monarchy * A type of monarchy * A realm ruled by: **A king, during the reign of a male monarch **A queen regnant, during the reign of a female monarch Taxonomy * Kingdom (biology), a category in biological taxonomy Arts an ...
is allowed to bear a scientific name that is in use as a generic name (or the name of a taxon in another rank) in a kingdom that is governed by a different nomenclature code. Names with the same form but applying to different taxa are called "homonyms". Although this is discouraged by both the
International Code of Zoological Nomenclature The International Code of Zoological Nomenclature (ICZN) is a widely accepted convention Convention may refer to: * Convention (norm), a custom or tradition, a standard of presentation or conduct ** Treaty, an agreement in international law * Co ...
and the
International Code of Nomenclature for algae, fungi, and plants The ''International Code of Nomenclature for algae, fungi, and plants'' (ICN) is the set of rules and recommendations dealing with the formal botanical names that are given to plants, fungi and a few other groups of organisms, all those "tradi ...
, there are some five thousand such names in use in more than one kingdom. For instance, * '' Anura'' is the name of the
order Order or ORDER or Orders may refer to: * Orderliness Orderliness is associated with other qualities such as cleanliness Cleanliness is both the abstract state of being clean and free from germs, dirt, trash, or waste, and the habit of achieving a ...
of
frog A frog is any member of a diverse and largely Carnivore, carnivorous group of short-bodied, tailless amphibians composing the order (biology), order Anura (literally ''without tail'' in Ancient Greek). The oldest fossil "proto-frog" ''Triadobat ...

frog
s but also is the name of a non-current genus of plants; * ''Aotus'' is the generic name of both golden peas and
night monkey Night monkeys, also known as owl monkeys or douroucoulis (), are nocturnal New World monkey New World monkeys are the five families of primate A primate ( ) (from Latin , from 'prime, first rank') is a eutherian mammal Mammals (f ...
s; * ''Oenanthe'' is the generic name of both
wheatear The wheatears are passerine A passerine is any bird of the Order (biology), order Passeriformes (, Latin ''passer'' (“sparrow”) + ''formis'' (“-shaped”)), which includes more than half of all bird species. Sometimes known as perching ...

wheatear
s and
water dropwort Water dropwort is a common name for several genera of plants and may refer to: * ''Oenanthe'' (plant) * '' Oxypolis'' * ''Tiedemannia'' {{Short pages monitor