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In
grammar In linguistics Linguistics is the scientific study of language, meaning that it is a comprehensive, systematic, objective, and precise study of language. Linguistics encompasses the analysis of every aspect of language, as well as the ...
, the genitive case (
abbreviated An abbreviation (from Latin ''brevis'', meaning ''short'') is a shortened form of a word or phrase, by any method. It may consist of a group of letters, or words taken from the full version of the word or phrase; for example, the word ''abbrevia ...
) is the
grammatical case Grammatical case is a term regarding a manner of categorizing s, s, s, s, and s according to their traditionally corresponding s within a given , , or . In some languages, nouns, pronouns, adjectives, s, participles, prepositions, numerals, art ...
that marks a word, usually a
noun A noun () is a word In linguistics, a word of a spoken language can be defined as the smallest sequence of phonemes that can be uttered in isolation with semantic, objective or pragmatics, practical meaning (linguistics), meaning. In many l ...

noun
, as modifying another word, also usually a noun—thus indicating an
attributive In grammar, an attributive expression is a word or phrase within a noun phrase A noun phrase, or nominal (phrase), is a phrase In everyday speech, a phrase is any group of words, often carrying a special idiomatic meaning; in this sense it is syn ...
relationship of one noun to the other noun. A genitive can also serve purposes indicating other relationships. For example, some
verb A verb () is a word (part of speech) that in syntax conveys an action (''bring'', ''read'', ''walk'', ''run'', ''learn''), an occurrence (''happen'', ''become''), or a state of being (''be'', ''exist'', ''stand''). In the usual description of E ...
s may feature
arguments In logic Logic (from Ancient Greek, Greek: grc, wikt:λογική, λογική, label=none, lit=possessed of reason, intellectual, dialectical, argumentative, translit=logikḗ)Also related to (''logos''), "word, thought, idea, argument, ...
in the genitive case; and the genitive case may also have
adverb An adverb is a word or an expression that modifies a verb A verb () is a word (part of speech) that in syntax conveys an action (''bring'', ''read'', ''walk'', ''run'', ''learn''), an occurrence (''happen'', ''become''), or a state of being ...

adverb
ial uses (see
adverbial genitive In grammar In linguistics, the grammar (from Ancient Greek ''grammatikḗ'') of a natural language is its set of structure, structural constraints on speakers' or writers' composition of clause (linguistics), clauses, phrases, and words. The t ...
).
Genitive construction In grammar In linguistics Linguistics is the scientific study of language, meaning that it is a comprehensive, systematic, objective, and precise study of language. Linguistics encompasses the analysis of every aspect of language, ...
includes the genitive case, but is a broader category. Placing a modifying noun in the genitive case is one way of indicating that it is related to a
head noun In linguistics Linguistics is the science, scientific study of language. It encompasses the analysis of every aspect of language, as well as the methods for studying and modeling them. The traditional areas of linguistic analysis include p ...
, in a genitive construction. However, there are other ways to indicate a genitive construction. For example, many
Afroasiatic languages Afroasiatic (Afro-Asiatic), also known as Afrasian or Hamito-Semitic or Semito-Hamitic, is a large language family A language is a structured system of communication used by humans, including speech ( spoken language), gestures (Signed lang ...

Afroasiatic languages
place the head noun (rather than the modifying noun) in the
construct state In Afro-Asiatic languages, the first noun in a genitive phrase of a possessed noun followed by a possessor noun often takes on a special morphology (linguistics), morphological form, which is termed the construct state (Latin ''status constructus'' ...
.
Possessive A possessive or ktetic form ( abbreviated ; from la, possessivus; grc, κτητικός ''ktētikós'') is a word or grammatical construction used to indicate a relationship of possession in a broad sense. This can include strict ownership, or ...
grammatical constructions, including the possessive case, may be regarded as a subset of genitive construction. For example, the genitive construction " pack of dogs" is similar, but not identical in meaning to the possessive case "dogs' pack" (and neither of these is entirely interchangeable with "dog pack", which is neither genitive nor possessive).
Modern English Modern English (sometimes New English or NE (ME) as opposed to Middle English Middle English (abbreviated to ME) was a form of the English language spoken after the Norman conquest of England, Norman conquest (1066) until the late 15th cen ...

Modern English
is an example of a language that has a possessive case rather than a ''conventional'' genitive case. That is, Modern English indicates a genitive construction with either the possessive
clitic In morphology and syntax In linguistics, syntax () is the set of rules, principles, and processes that govern the structure of Sentence (linguistics), sentences (sentence structure) in a given Natural language, language, usually including word ...
suffix " -", or a
preposition Prepositions and postpositions, together called adpositions (or broadly, in English, simply prepositions), are a used to express spatial or temporal relations (''in'', ''under'', ''towards'', ''before'') or mark various (''of'', ''for''). A pre ...
al genitive construction such as "x of y". However, some irregular English pronouns do have possessive forms which may more commonly be described as genitive (see
English possessive In English, possessive A possessive or ktetic form ( abbreviated ; from la, possessivus; grc, κτητικός ''ktētikós'') is a word or grammatical construction used to indicate a relationship of possession in a broad sense. This can inclu ...
). The names of the astronomical constellations have genitive forms which are used in star names, for example the star
Mintaka Mintaka , designation Delta Orionis (δ Orionis, abbreviated Delta Ori, δ Ori) and 34 Orionis (34 Ori), is a multiple star system some 1,200 light-years from the Sun in the constellation A constellation is an area on the ce ...

Mintaka
in the constellation Orion (genitive Orionis) is also known as Delta Orionis or 34 Orionis. Many languages have a genitive case, including
Albanian Albanian may refer to: *Pertaining to Albania in Southeast Europe; in particular: **Albanians, an ethnic group native to the Balkans **Albanian language **Albanian culture **Demographics of Albania, includes other ethnic groups within the country ...

Albanian
,
Arabic Arabic (, ' or , ' or ) is a Semitic language The Semitic languages are a branch of the Afroasiatic language family originating in the Middle East The Middle East is a list of transcontinental countries, transcontinental region ...

Arabic
,
Armenian Armenian may refer to: * Something of, from, or related to Armenia, a country in the South Caucasus region of Eurasia * Armenians, the national people of Armenia, or people of Armenian descent ** Armenian language, the Indo-European language spoken ...
,
Basque Basque may refer to: * Basques The Basques ( or ; eu, euskaldunak ; es, vascos ; french: basques ) are a Southern European ethnic group, characterised by the Basque language, a Basque culture, common culture and shared genetic ancestry to th ...
,
Czech Czech may refer to: * Anything from or related to the Czech Republic The Czech Republic, also known by its short-form name Czechia and formerly known as Bohemia, is a landlocked country A landlocked country is a country A countr ...
,
Estonian Estonian may refer to: *Something of, from, or related to Estonia, a country in the Baltic region in northern Europe *Estonians, people from Estonia, or of Estonian descent *Estonian language *Estonian cuisine *Estonian culture See also

* * La ...
,
Finnish Finnish may refer to: * Something or someone from, or related to Finland * Finnish culture * Finnish people or Finns, the primary ethnic group in Finland * Finnish language, the national language of the Finnish people * Finnish cuisine See also

...
,
Georgian Georgian may refer to: Common meanings * Anything related to, or originating from Georgia (country) **Georgians, an indigenous Caucasian ethnic group **Georgian language, a Kartvelian language spoken by Georgians **Georgian scripts, three scripts ...
,
German German(s) may refer to: Common uses * of or related to Germany * Germans, Germanic ethnic group, citizens of Germany or people of German ancestry * For citizens of Germany, see also German nationality law * German language The German la ...

German
,
Greek#REDIRECT Greek Greek may refer to: Greece Anything of, from, or related to Greece Greece ( el, Ελλάδα, , ), officially the Hellenic Republic, is a country located in Southeast Europe. Its population is approximately 10.7 million as of ...
,
Gothic Gothic or Gothics may refer to: People and languages *Goths or Gothic people, the ethnonym of a group of East Germanic tribes **Gothic language, an extinct East Germanic language spoken by the Goths **Crimean Gothic, the Gothic language spoken by ...
,
HungarianHungarian may refer to: * Hungary, a country in Central Europe * Kingdom of Hungary, state of Hungary, existing between 1000 and 1946 * Hungarians, ethnic groups in Hungary * Hungarian algorithm, a polynomial time algorithm for solving the assignmen ...
,
Icelandic Icelandic refers to anything of, from, or related to Iceland and may refer to: *Icelandic people *Icelandic language *Icelandic alphabet *Icelandic cuisine See also

* Icelander (disambiguation) * Icelandic Airlines, a predecessor of Icelandai ...
,
Irish Irish most commonly refers to: * Someone or something of, from, or related to: ** Ireland, an island situated off the north-western coast of continental Europe ** Northern Ireland, a constituent unit of the United Kingdom of Great Britain and North ...
,
Latin Latin (, or , ) is a classical language belonging to the Italic languages, Italic branch of the Indo-European languages. Latin was originally spoken in the area around Rome, known as Latium. Through the power of the Roman Republic, it became ...

Latin
, Latvian,
Lithuanian Lithuanian may refer to: * Lithuanians Lithuanians ( lt, lietuviai, singular ''lietuvis/lietuvė'') are a Balts, Baltic ethnic group. They are native to Lithuania, where they number around 2,561,300 people. Another million or more make up the Lith ...
,
Nepali
Nepali
,
Romanian Romanian may refer to: *anything of, from, or related to the country and nation of Romania Romania ( ; ro, România ) is a country at the crossroads of Central Europe, Central, Eastern Europe, Eastern and Southeast Europe, Southeastern Euro ...
,
Sanskrit Sanskrit (; attributively , ; nominalization, nominally , , ) is a classical language of South Asia that belongs to the Indo-Aryan languages, Indo-Aryan branch of the Indo-European languages. It arose in South Asia after its predecessor langua ...

Sanskrit
,
Scottish Gaelic Scottish Gaelic ( gd, Gàidhlig ), also known as Scots Gaelic and Gaelic, is a Goidelic language The Goidelic or Gaelic languages ( ga, teangacha Gaelacha; gd, cànanan Goidhealach; gv, çhengaghyn Gaelgagh) form one of the two groups o ...
,
Swedish Swedish or ' may refer to: * Anything from or related to Sweden, a country in Northern Europe * Swedish language, a North Germanic language spoken primarily in Sweden and Finland * Swedish alphabet, the official alphabet used by the Swedish langua ...
,
Kannada Kannada (; ಕನ್ನಡ, ; less commonly known as Kanarese) is a Dravidian language Dravidian languages (or sometimes Dravidic languages) are a family of languages In human society, family (from la, familia) is a group of peop ...
,
Tamil Tamil may refer to: * Tamils, an ethnic group native to India, Sri Lanka and some other parts of Asia **Sri Lankan Tamils, Tamil people native to Sri Lanka **Tamil Malaysians, Tamil people native to Malaysia * Tamil language, a Dravidian languages, ...

Tamil
,
Telugu Telugu may refer to: * Telugu language, a major Dravidian language of India *Telugu people, an ethno-linguistic group of India * Telugu script, used to write the Telugu language ** Telugu (Unicode block), a block of Telugu characters in Unicode ...
,
Turkish Turkish may refer to: * of or about Turkey Turkey ( tr, Türkiye ), officially the Republic of Turkey, is a country straddling Southeastern Europe and Western Asia. It shares borders with Greece Greece ( el, Ελλάδα, , ), offi ...

Turkish
and all
Slavic languages The Slavic languages, also known as the Slavonic languages, are Indo-European languages spoken primarily by the Slavs, Slavic peoples or their descendants. They are thought to descend from a proto-language called Proto-Slavic language, Proto- ...

Slavic languages
except
Bulgarian Bulgarian may refer to: * Something of, from, or related to the country of Bulgaria * Bulgarians, a South Slavic ethnic group * Bulgarian language, a Slavic language * Bulgarian alphabet * A citizen of Bulgaria, see Demographics of Bulgaria * Bulg ...

Bulgarian
and
Macedonian Macedonian most often refers to someone or something from or related to Macedonia (disambiguation), Macedonia. Macedonian may specifically refer to: People Modern * Macedonians (ethnic group), the South Slavic ethnic group primarily associated w ...
.


Functions

Depending on the language, specific varieties of genitive-noun–main-noun relationships may include: * possession (''see''
possessive A possessive or ktetic form ( abbreviated ; from la, possessivus; grc, κτητικός ''ktētikós'') is a word or grammatical construction used to indicate a relationship of possession in a broad sense. This can include strict ownership, or ...
case, possessed case): **
inalienable possession In linguistics Linguistics is the science, scientific study of language. It encompasses the analysis of every aspect of language, as well as the methods for studying and modeling them. The traditional areas of linguistic analysis include p ...
("''Janet's'' height", "''Janet's'' existence", "''Janet's'' long fingers") **
alienable possession In linguistics, inalienable possession (list of glossing abbreviations, abbreviated ) is a type of Possession (linguistics), possession in which a noun is Obligatory possession, obligatorily possessed by its possessor. Nouns or Nominal (linguistic ...
("''Janet's'' jacket", "''Janet's'' drink") ** relationship indicated by the noun being modified ("''Janet's'' husband") * composition (''see''
Partitive In , the partitive is a word, phrase, or that indicates partialness. partitives are syntactic constructions, such as "some of the children", and may be classified semantically as either set partitives or entity partitives based on the quantifier a ...
): ** substance ("a wheel ''of cheese''") ** elements ("a group ''of men''") ** source ("a portion ''of the food''") * participation in an action: ** as an
agent Agent may refer to: Espionage, investigation, and law *, spies or intelligence officers * Law of agency, laws involving a person authorized to act on behalf of another ** Agent of record, a person with a contractual agreement with an insuran ...
("She benefited from ''her father's'' love") – this is called the ''subjective genitive'' (Compare "Her father loved her", where ''Her father'' is the ''subject''.) ** as a
patient A patient is any recipient of health care services that are performed by Health professional, healthcare professionals. The patient is most often Disease, ill or Major trauma, injured and in need of therapy, treatment by a physician, nurse, psych ...
("the love ''of music''")  – this is called the ''objective genitive'' (Compare "She loves music", where ''music'' is the ''object''.) * origin ("men ''of Rome''") * reference ("the capital ''of the Republic''" or "''the Republic's'' capital") * description ("man ''of honour''", "day ''of reckoning''") * compounds ("''dooms''day" ("doom's day"),
Scottish Gaelic Scottish Gaelic ( gd, Gàidhlig ), also known as Scots Gaelic and Gaelic, is a Goidelic language The Goidelic or Gaelic languages ( ga, teangacha Gaelacha; gd, cànanan Goidhealach; gv, çhengaghyn Gaelgagh) form one of the two groups o ...
"''ball coise''" = "football", where "''coise''" = gen. of "''cas''", "foot") *
apposition Apposition is a grammatical construction in which two elements, normally noun phrasesA noun phrase, or nominal (phrase), is a phrase In everyday speech, a phrase is any group of words, often carrying a special idiomatic meaning; in this sense it ...
(
Japanese Japanese may refer to: * Something from or related to Japan Japan ( ja, 日本, or , and formally ) is an island country An island country or an island nation is a country A country is a distinct territory, territorial body or ...

Japanese
牛の角 (''ushi no tsuno''), "cow horn" Depending on the language, some of the relationships mentioned above have their own distinct cases different from the genitive.
Possessive pronoun A possessive or ktetic form (abbreviated An abbreviation (from Latin ''brevis'', meaning ''short'') is a shortened form of a word or phrase, by any method. It may consist of a group of letters, or words taken from the full version of the wor ...
s are distinct pronouns, found in Indo-European languages such as English, that function like pronouns inflected in the genitive. They are considered separate pronouns if contrasting to languages where pronouns are regularly inflected in the genitive. For example, English ''my'' is either a separate
possessive adjective Possessive determiners (from la, possessivus, translit=; grc, κτητικός / ktētikós - en. ktetic Lallu) are determiners A determiner, also called determinative ( abbreviated ), is a word In linguistics, a word of a spoken language c ...
or an irregular genitive of ''I'', while in Finnish, for example, ''minun'' is regularly agglutinated from ''minu-'' "I" and ''-n'' (genitive). In some languages, nouns in the genitive case also agree in case with the nouns they modify (that is, it is marked for two cases). This phenomenon is called
suffixaufnahme Suffixaufnahme (, "suffix resumption"), also known as case stacking, is a linguistic Linguistics is the science, scientific study of language. It encompasses the analysis of every aspect of language, as well as the methods for studying and mo ...
. In some languages, nouns in the genitive case may be found in
inclusio In biblical studies, inclusio is a literary device based on a concentric principle, also known as bracketing or an envelope structure, which consists of creating a frame by placing similar material at the beginning and end of a section, although whe ...
 – that is, between the main noun's
article Article often refers to: * Article (grammar) An article is any member of a class of dedicated words that are used with noun phrases to mark the identifiability of the referents of the noun phrases. The category of articles constitutes a part of ...
and the noun itself.


Chinese


Cantonese

The particle 嘅 (''ge'') or the possessed noun's classifier is used to denote possession for singular nouns, while the particle 啲 (''dī'') is used for plural nouns. Examples (In Yale transcription):


Hokkien

The
Hokkien Hokkien () is a Southern Min Southern Min (), Minnan (Mandarin Mandarin may refer to: * Mandarin (bureaucrat), a bureaucrat of Imperial China (the original meaning of the word) ** by extension, any senior government bureaucrat A bureaucr ...
possessive is constructed by using the suffix ''ê'' (的 or 个 or 兮) to make the genitive case. For example: :Nominative: ''thâu-ke'' 頭家 ("boss"); ''chhia'' 車 ("car") :Genitive: ''thâu-ke ê chhia'' ("boss's car") It also uses the suffix ''chi'' (之) for
classical Classical may refer to: European antiquity *Classical antiquity, a period of history from roughly the 7th or 8th century B.C.E. to the 5th century C.E. centered on the Mediterranean Sea *Classical architecture, architecture derived from Greek and ...
or official cases. For example: Some of the Hokkien singular pronouns play the roles of
possessive determinerPossessive determiners (from la, possessivus, translit=; grc, κτητικός / ktētikós - en. ktetic Lallu) are determiners A determiner, also called determinative ( abbreviated ), is a word In linguistics, a word of a spoken language ca ...
s with their nasalized forms. For example: (see Hokkien pronouns) Still, suffix ''ê'' is available for pronouns to express the genitive. For example:


Mandarin

In
Mandarin Chinese Mandarin (; ) is a group of Sinitic (Chinese) languages natively spoken across most of northern and southwestern China China (), officially the People's Republic of China (PRC; ), is a country in . It is the world's , with a of more ...
, the genitive case is made by use of the particle 的 (de). However, about persons in relation to oneself, 的 is often dropped when the context allows for it to be easily understood.


English

Old English Old English (, ), or Anglo-Saxon, is the earliest recorded form of the English language English is a West Germanic language of the Indo-European language family The Indo-European languages are a language family A language ...
had a genitive case, which has left its mark in modern English in the form of the possessive ending s'' (now sometimes referred to as the "Saxon genitive"), as well as possessive adjective forms such as ''his'', ''their'', etc., and in certain words derived from
adverbial genitive In grammar In linguistics, the grammar (from Ancient Greek ''grammatikḗ'') of a natural language is its set of structure, structural constraints on speakers' or writers' composition of clause (linguistics), clauses, phrases, and words. The t ...
s such as ''once'' and ''afterwards''. (Other Old English case markers have generally disappeared completely.) The modern English possessive forms are not normally considered to represent a grammatical case, although they are sometimes referred to as genitives or as belonging to a
possessive case A possessive or ktetic form (abbreviated An abbreviation (from Latin ''brevis'', meaning ''short'') is a shortened form of a word or phrase, by any method. It may consist of a group of letters, or words taken from the full version of the wor ...
. One of the reasons that the status of ''’s'' as a case ending is often rejected is that it does not behave as such, but rather as a clitic marking that indicates that a dependency relationship exists between phrases. One can say ''the Queen’s dress'', but also ''the Queen of England’s dress'', where the genitive marker is completely separated from the actual possessor. If it were a genitive case as many other languages have (including Old English), one would expect something like ''*the Queen’s of England dress'' or, to emulate languages with a single consistent genitive case, ''*the England’s queen’s dress''.


Finnic genitives and accusatives

Finnic languages The Finnic (''Fennic'') or more precisely Balto-Finnic (''Balto-Fennic''; Baltic Finnic, ''Baltic Fennic'') languages, are a branch of the Uralic language family The Uralic languages (; sometimes called Uralian languages ) form a language fam ...

Finnic languages
(
Finnish Finnish may refer to: * Something or someone from, or related to Finland * Finnish culture * Finnish people or Finns, the primary ethnic group in Finland * Finnish language, the national language of the Finnish people * Finnish cuisine See also

...
,
Estonian Estonian may refer to: *Something of, from, or related to Estonia, a country in the Baltic region in northern Europe *Estonians, people from Estonia, or of Estonian descent *Estonian language *Estonian cuisine *Estonian culture See also

* * La ...
, etc.) have genitive cases. In Finnish, prototypically the genitive is marked with ''-n'', e.g. ''maa – maan'' "country – of the country". The stem may change, however, with
consonant gradation Consonant gradation is a type of consonant mutation (mostly lenition but also assimilation) found in some Uralic languages The Uralic languages (; sometimes called Uralian languages ) form a language family of 38 language A language ...
and other reasons. For example, in certain words ending in consonants, ''-e-'' is added, e.g. ''mies – miehen'' "man – of the man", and in some, but not all words ending in ''-i'', the ''-i'' is changed to an ''-e-'', to give ''-en'', e.g. ''lumi – lumen'' "snow – of the snow". The genitive is used extensively, with animate and inanimate possessors. In addition to the genitive, there is also a
partitive case The partitive case ( abbreviated , , or more ambiguously ) is a grammatical case Grammatical case is a linguistics Linguistics is the science, scientific study of language. It encompasses the analysis of every aspect of language, as well a ...
(marked ''-ta/-tä'' or ''-a/-ä'') used for expressing that something is a part of a larger mass, e.g. ''joukko miehiä'' "a group of men". In Estonian, the genitive marker ''-n'' has elided with respect to Finnish. Thus, the genitive always ends with a vowel, and the singular genitive is sometimes (in a subset of words ending with a vocal in nominative) identical in form to nominative. In Finnish, in addition to the uses mentioned above, there is a construct where the genitive is used to mark a surname. For example, ''Juhani Virtanen'' can be also expressed ''Virtasen Juhani'' ("Juhani of the Virtanens"). A complication in Finnic languages is that the
accusative case The accusative case (abbreviated An abbreviation (from Latin ''brevis'', meaning ''short'') is a shortened form of a word or phrase, by any method. It may consist of a group of letters, or words taken from the full version of the word or phras ...
''-(e)n'' is homophonic to the genitive case. This case does not indicate possession, but is a syntactic marker for the object, additionally indicating that the action is telic (completed). In
Estonian Estonian may refer to: *Something of, from, or related to Estonia, a country in the Baltic region in northern Europe *Estonians, people from Estonia, or of Estonian descent *Estonian language *Estonian cuisine *Estonian culture See also

* * La ...
, it is often said that only a "genitive" exists. However, the cases have completely different functions, and the form of the accusative has developed from *''-(e)m''. (The same sound change has developed into a synchronic mutation of a final ''m'' into ''n'' in Finnish, e.g. genitive ''sydämen'' vs. nominative ''sydän''.) This homophony has exceptions in
Finnish Finnish may refer to: * Something or someone from, or related to Finland * Finnish culture * Finnish people or Finns, the primary ethnic group in Finland * Finnish language, the national language of the Finnish people * Finnish cuisine See also

...
, where a separate accusative ''-(e)t'' is found in pronouns, e.g. ''kenet'' "who (telic object)", vs. ''kenen'' "whose". A difference is also observed in some of the related
Sámi languages Sámi languages ( ), in English also rendered as Sami and Saami, are a group of Uralic languages The Uralic languages (; sometimes called Uralian languages ) form a language family A language family is a group of language A langu ...

Sámi languages
, where the pronouns and the plural of nouns in the genitive and accusative are easily distinguishable from each other, e.g., ''kuä'cǩǩmi'' "eagles' (genitive plural)" and ''kuä'cǩǩmid'' "eagles (accusative plural)" in
Skolt Sami Skolt Sami ( , "the Sámi language", or , "the Eastern Sámi language", if a distinction needs to be made between it and the other Sami languages) is a Uralic languages, Uralic, Sami languages, Sami language that is spoken by the Skolts, with a ...
.


German


Formation


Articles

The genitive singular definite article for masculine and neuter nouns is ''des'', while the feminine and plural definite article is ''der''. The indefinite articles are ''eines'' for masculine and neuter nouns, and ''einer'' for feminine and plural nouns (although the bare form cannot be used in the plural, it manifests in ''keiner'', ''meiner'', etc.)


Nouns

Singular masculine and neuter nouns of the strong declension in the genitive case are marked with ''-(e)s''. Generally, one-syllable nouns favour the ''-es'' ending, and it is obligatory with nouns ending with a sibilant such as ''s'' or ''z''. Otherwise, a simple ''-s'' ending is usual. Feminine and plural nouns remain uninflected: * (of the contribution) – masculine * (of the flower) – feminine * (of the country) – neuter * (of the trees) – plural Singular masculine nouns (and one neuter noun) of the weak declension are marked with an ''-(e)n'' (or rarely ''-(e)ns'') ending in the genitive case: * (of the raven) – masculine * (of the heart) – neuter


Adjectives

The declension of adjectives in the genitive case is as follows:


Personal pronouns

The genitive personal pronouns are quite rare and either very formal, literary or outdated. They are as follows (with comparison to the nominative pronouns): Some examples: * (Would you go instead ''of me''?) * (We are not worthy ''of her/them'') * (I will commemorate ''you'')


Relative pronouns

Unlike the personal ones, the genitive relative pronouns are in regular use and are as follows (with comparison to the nominative relative pronouns): Some examples: * '' Kennst du den Schüler, dessen Mutter eine Hexe ist?'' (Do you know the student ''whose'' mother is a witch?) – masculine * ''Sie ist die Frau, deren Mann Rennfahrer ist'' (She is the woman ''whose'' husband is a racer) – feminine


Usage


Nouns

The genitive case is often used to show possession or the relation between nouns: *die Farbe ''des'' ''Himmels'' (the colour ''of the'' ''sky'') *Deutschland liegt im Herzen ''Europas'' (Germany lies in the heart ''of Europe'') *der Tod ''seiner Frau'' (the death ''of his wife'') *die Entwicklung ''dieser Länder'' (the development ''of these countries'') A simple ''s'' is added to the end of a name: *''Claudias'' Buch (''Claudia's'' book)


Prepositions

The genitive case is also commonly found after certain prepositions: * innerhalb ''eines Tages'' (within ''a day'') * statt ''des'' ''Hemdes'' (instead ''of the shirt'') * während ''unserer'' ''Abwesenheit'' (during ''our absence'') * jenseits ''der Berge'' (beyond ''the mountains'')


Adjectives

The genitive case can sometimes be found in connection with certain adjectives: * Wir sind uns ''dessen'' bewusst (We are aware ''of that'') * Er ist ''des Diebstahls'' schuldig (He is guilty ''of theft'') * Das Kind ist ''der Ruhe'' bedürftig (The child is in need ''of calmness'') * Ich werde ''dieses Lebens'' überdrüssig (I am growing weary ''of this life'')


Verbs

The genitive case is occasionally found in connection with certain verbs (some of which require an accusative before the genitive); they are mostly either formal or legal: * Die Stadt erfreut sich ''eines günstigen Klimas'' (The city enjoys ''a favourable climate'') * Gedenken Sie ''der Toten'' des Krieges (Remember ''those who died'' in (the) war) * Wer klagte ihn ''des Mordes'' an? (Who accused him ''of murder''?) * Man verdächtigt euch ''des Betrugs'' (Someone suspects you ''of (committing) fraud'')


Greek

The
ablative case In grammar In linguistics, the grammar (from Ancient Greek ''grammatikḗ'') of a natural language is its set of structure, structural constraints on speakers' or writers' composition of clause (linguistics), clauses, phrases, and words. T ...

ablative case
of Indo-European was absorbed into the genitive in Classical Greek. This added to the usages of the "genitive proper", the usages of the "ablatival genitive". The genitive occurs with verbs, adjectives, adverbs and prepositions.


Hungarian

The
HungarianHungarian may refer to: * Hungary, a country in Central Europe * Kingdom of Hungary, state of Hungary, existing between 1000 and 1946 * Hungarians, ethnic groups in Hungary * Hungarian algorithm, a polynomial time algorithm for solving the assignmen ...
genitive is constructed using the suffix ''-é''. *''madár'' ('bird'); ''madáré'' ('bird's') The genitive ''-é'' suffix is only used with the predicate of a sentence: it serves the role of mine, yours, hers, etc. The possessed object is left in the nominative case. For example: *''A csőr a madáré'' ('The beak is the bird's'). If the possessor is not the predicate of the sentence, the genitive is not used. Instead, the possessive suffixes (''-(j)e'' or ''-(j)a'' in the third person singular, depending on
vowel harmony In phonology Phonology is a branch of that studies how languages or dialects systematically organize their sounds (or constituent parts of signs, in sign languages). The term also refers to the sound or sign system of any particular lang ...
) mark the possessed object. The possessor is left in the nominative if it directly precedes the possessed object (otherwise it takes a dative ''-nak/-nek'' suffix). For example: *''csőr'' ('beak'); ''csőre'' ('its beak') *''a madár csőre''/''csőre a madárnak'' ('the bird's beak') In addition, the suffix ''-i'' ('of') is also used. For example: *''madár'' ('bird'); ''madári'' ('avian', 'of bird(s)')


Japanese

The
Japanese Japanese may refer to: * Something from or related to Japan Japan ( ja, 日本, or , and formally ) is an island country An island country or an island nation is a country A country is a distinct territory, territorial body or ...

Japanese
possessive is constructed by using the
grammatical particle In grammar In linguistics Linguistics is the scientific study of language, meaning that it is a comprehensive, systematic, objective, and precise study of language. Linguistics encompasses the analysis of every aspect of language, as ...
''no'' の to make the genitive case. For example: :Nominative: 猫 ''neko'' ('cat'); 手 ''te'' ('hand, paw') :Genitive: 猫の手 ''neko-no te'' ('cat's paw') It also uses the suffix ''-na'' 〜な for adjectival noun; in some analyses adjectival nouns are simply nouns that take ''-na'' in the genitive, forming a
complementary distribution In linguistics Linguistics is the scientific study of language A language is a structured system of communication Communication (from Latin Latin (, or , ) is a classical language belonging to the Italic languages, Italic br ...
(''-no'' and ''-na'' being
allomorph In linguistics Linguistics is the scientific study of language A language is a structured system of communication Communication (from Latin Latin (, or , ) is a classical language belonging to the Italic languages, Italic ...
s). The archaic genitive case particle ''-ga'' ~が is still retained in certain expressions, place names, and dialects. Typically, languages have nominative case nouns converting into genitive case. It has been found, however, that Japanese will in rare cases allow accusative case to convert to genitive, if specific conditions are met in the clause in which the conversion appears. This is referred to as "Accusative-Genitive conversion."


Korean

The genitive in
Korean Korean may refer to: People and culture * Koreans, ethnic group originating in the Korean Peninsula * Korean cuisine * Korean culture * Korean language **Korean alphabet, known as Hangul or Chosŏn'gŭl **Korean dialects and the Jeju language **S ...
can be formed using the particle ''-ui'' '의', although this particle is normally elided in Modern Korean, which leaves the genitive unmarked. (If not, it is usually pronounced ''-e'' '에') Only some personal pronouns retain a distinctive genitive which comes from the amalgamation of the pronoun plus ''-ui'' '의' :This is a car. ''igeoseun jadongchayeyo.'' 이것은 자동차예요. :This is the man's car. ''igeoseun geu namja-ui jadongchayeyo.'' 이것은 그 남자의 자동차예요. But, Modern Korean: ''igeoseun geu namja jadongchayeyo.'' 이것은 그 남자 자동차예요. 의 is used to mark possession, relation, origination, containment, description/limitation, partition, being an object of a metaphor, or modification.


Latin

The genitive is one of the cases of nouns and pronouns in
Latin Latin (, or , ) is a classical language belonging to the Italic languages, Italic branch of the Indo-European languages. Latin was originally spoken in the area around Rome, known as Latium. Through the power of the Roman Republic, it became ...
. Latin genitives still have certain modern scientific uses: *
Scientific names In Taxonomy (biology), taxonomy, binomial nomenclature ("two-term naming system"), also called nomenclature ("two-name naming system") or binary nomenclature, is a formal system of naming species of living things by giving each a name composed ...
of living things sometimes contain genitives, as in the plant name ''
Buddleja davidii
Buddleja davidii
'', meaning "David's buddleia". Here ''davidii'' is the genitive of ''Davidius'', a
Latinized Latinisation or Latinization can refer to: * Latinisation of names, the practice of rendering a non-Latin name in a Latin style * Latinisation in the Soviet Union, the campaign in the USSR during the 1920s and 1930s to replace traditional writing sy ...
version of the English name. It is not capitalized because it is the second part of a binomial name. *Names of astronomical constellations are Latin, and the genitives of their names are used in naming objects in those constellations, as in the
Bayer designation A Bayer designation is a stellar designation in which a specific star is identified by a Greek alphabet, Greek or Latin letter followed by the genitive case, genitive form of its parent constellation's Latin language, Latin name. The original lis ...
of stars. For example, the brightest star in the constellation
Virgo Virgo may refer to: * Virgo (surname) * Virgo (astrology) * Virgo (constellation), a constellation * Virgo Cluster, a cluster of galaxies in the constellation Virgo * Virgo Stellar Stream, remains of a dwarf galaxy * Virgo Supercluster, a galactic ...
is called ''Alpha Virginis'', which is to say "Alpha of Virgo", as ''virginis'' is the genitive of ''virgō''. Note that plural forms and adjectives also decline accordingly: plural ''Alpha Piscium'' (
Pisces Pisces may refer to: * ''Pisces'', an obsolete taxonomic term for fish Fish are Aquatic animal, aquatic, craniate, gill-bearing animals that lack Limb (anatomy), limbs with Digit (anatomy), digits. They form a sister group to the tunicates, ...
) and ''Alpha Canum Venaticorum'' (
Canes Venatici Canes Venatici is one of the 88 official modern constellation A constellation is an area on the celestial sphere in which a group of visible stars forms a perceived outline or pattern, typically representing an animal, mythological person ...

Canes Venatici
) versus singular ''Alpha Piscis Austrini'' (
Piscis Austrinus Piscis Austrinus is a constellation in the southern celestial hemisphere. The name is Latin for "the southern fish", in contrast with the larger constellation Pisces (constellation), Pisces, which represents a pair of fishes. Before the 20th centu ...

Piscis Austrinus
) and ''Alpha Canis Majoris'' (
Canis Major Canis Major is a constellation A constellation is an area on the celestial sphere in which a group of visible stars forms a perceived outline or pattern, typically representing an animal, mythological person or creature, or an inanimate ...

Canis Major
). Astronomy manuals often list the genitive forms, as some are easy to get wrong even with a basic knowledge of Latin, e.g. Vela, which is a neuter plural not a feminine singular: ''Delta Velorum'' not *''Delta Velae''. * ''
Modus operandi A ''modus operandi'' (often shortened to M.O.) is someone's habits A habit (or wont as a humorous and formal term) is a routine of that is repeated regularly and tends to occur .
Modus operandi
'', which can be translated to English as "mode of operation", in which ''operandi'' is a singular genitive
gerund A gerund ( abbreviated An abbreviation (from Latin ''brevis'', meaning ''short'') is a shortened form of a word or phrase, by any method. It may consist of a group of letters, or words taken from the full version of the word or phrase; for exa ...

gerund
(i.e. "of operation"), not a plural of ''operandus'' as is sometimes mistakenly assumed.


Irish

The
Irish language Irish ( in Standard Irish Standard may refer to: Symbols * Colours, standards and guidons, kinds of military signs * Heraldic flag, Standard (emblem), a type of a large symbol or emblem used for identification Norms, conventions or requ ...
also uses a genitive case (''tuiseal ginideach''). For example, in the phrase ''bean an tí'' (woman of the house), ''tí'' is the genitive case of ''teach'', meaning "house". Another example is ''barr an chnoic'', "top of the hill", where ''cnoc'' means "hill", but is changed to ''chnoic'', which also incorporates
lenition In linguistics Linguistics is the scientific study of language A language is a structured system of communication used by humans, including speech (spoken language), gestures (Signed language, sign language) and writing. Most langua ...
.


Persian

Old Persian Old Persian is one of the two directly attested Old Iranian languages The Iranian or Iranic languages are a branch of the Indo-Iranian languagesIndo-Iranian may refer to: * Indo-Iranian languages * Indo-Iranians, the various peoples speaking ...
had a true genitive case inherited from
Proto-Indo-European Proto-Indo-European (PIE) is the theorized common ancestor of the Indo-European language family The Indo-European languages are a language family A language is a structured system of communication used by humans, including speech ( ...
. By the time of
Middle Persian Middle Persian or Pahlavi, also known by its endonym Pārsīk or Pārsīg (𐭯𐭠𐭫𐭮𐭩𐭪) in its later form, is a Western Middle Iranian language which became the literary language of the Sasanian Empire. For some time after the Sasan ...
, the genitive case had been lost and replaced by an analytical construction which is now called
Ezāfe Ezāfe ( fa, اضافه, lit=extra), also romanized Romanization or romanisation, in linguistics Linguistics is the science, scientific study of language. It encompasses the analysis of every aspect of language, as well as the methods fo ...
. This construction was inherited by
New Persian New Persian ( fa, فارسی نو), also known as Modern Persian () and Dari (), is the final stage of the Persian language Persian (), also known by its endonym An endonym (from Greek Greek may refer to: Greece Anything of, from, or re ...
, and was also later borrowed into numerous other
Iranic The Iranian peoples or Iranic peoples are a diverse Indo-European The Indo-European languages are a language family A language is a structured system of communication used by humans, including speech ( spoken language), gestures (S ...
,
Turkic Turkic may refer to: * anything related to the country of Turkey * Turkic languages, a language family of at least thirty-five documented languages ** Turkic alphabets (disambiguation) ** Turkish language, the most widely spoken Turkic language * T ...

Turkic
and
Indo-AryanIndo-Aryan refers to: * Indo-Aryan languages ** Indo-Aryan superstrate in Mitanni or Mitanni-Aryan * Indo-Aryan peoples, the various peoples speaking these languages See also

*Aryan invasion theory (disambiguation) *Indo-Aryan tribes (disambigua ...
languages of Western and South Asia.


Semitic languages

Genitive case marking existed in
Proto-Semitic Proto-Semitic is the hypothetical Linguistic reconstruction, reconstructed proto-language ancestral to the Semitic languages. There is no consensus regarding the location of the Proto-Semitic ''Urheimat''; scholars hypothesize that it may have o ...
,
AkkadianAkkadian or Accadian may refer to: * The Akkadian language Akkadian ( ''akkadû'', ''ak-ka-du-u2''; logogram: ''URIKI'')John Huehnergard & Christopher Woods, "Akkadian and Eblaite", ''The Cambridge Encyclopedia of the World's Ancient Languages' ...

Akkadian
, and
Ugaritic Ugaritic () is an extinct Northwest Semitic language Northwest Semitic, known as Syro-Palestinian in dialect geography, is a division of the Semitic languages comprising the indigenous languages of the Levant. It would have emerged from Proto ...
. It indicated possession, and it is preserved today only in
Arabic Arabic (, ' or , ' or ) is a Semitic language The Semitic languages are a branch of the Afroasiatic language family originating in the Middle East The Middle East is a list of transcontinental countries, transcontinental region ...

Arabic
.


Akkadian

:Nominative: ''šarrum'' (king) :Genitive: ''aššat šarrim'' (wife of king = king's wife)


Arabic

Called المجرور ''al-majrūr'' (meaning "dragged") in
Arabic Arabic (, ' or , ' or ) is a Semitic language The Semitic languages are a branch of the Afroasiatic language family originating in the Middle East The Middle East is a list of transcontinental countries, transcontinental region ...

Arabic
, the genitive case functions both as an indication of ownership (ex. the door of the house) and for nouns following a preposition. :Nominative: ٌبيت ''baytun'' (a house) :Genitive: ٍبابُ بيت ''bābu baytin'' (door of a house) ِبابُ البيت ''bābu l-bayti'' (door of the house) The Arabic genitive marking also appears after prepositions. :e.g. ٍبابٌ لبيت ''bābun li-baytin'' (a door for a house) The Semitic genitive should not be confused with the pronominal possessive suffixes that exist in all the Semitic languages :e.g. Arabic بيتي ''bayt-ī'' (my house) َكتابُك ''kitābu-ka'' (your asc.book).


Slavic languages

With the exception of Bulgarian and Macedonian, all
Slavic languages The Slavic languages, also known as the Slavonic languages, are Indo-European languages spoken primarily by the Slavs, Slavic peoples or their descendants. They are thought to descend from a proto-language called Proto-Slavic language, Proto- ...

Slavic languages
decline the nouns and adjectives in accordance with the genitive case using a variety of endings depending on the word's
lexical category In traditional grammar, a part of speech or part-of-speech ( abbreviated as POS or PoS) is a category of words (or, more generally, of lexical items) that have similar grammatical properties. Words that are assigned to the same part of speech g ...
, its gender, number (singular or plural) and in some cases meaning.


Possessives

To indicate possession the ending of the noun indicating the possessor changes depending on the word's ending in the
nominative case In grammar In linguistics Linguistics is the scientific study of language, meaning that it is a comprehensive, systematic, objective, and precise study of language. Linguistics encompasses the analysis of every aspect of language, as ...
. For example, to ''a, u, i or y'' in
Polish Polish may refer to: * Anything from or related to Poland Poland ( pl, Polska ), officially the Republic of Poland ( pl, Rzeczpospolita Polska, links=no ), is a country located in Central Europe. It is divided into 16 Voivodeships of Pol ...
, ''а, я, ы or и'' in
Russian Russian refers to anything related to Russia, including: *Russians (русские, ''russkiye''), an ethnic group of the East Slavic peoples, primarily living in Russia and neighboring countries *Rossiyane (россияне), Russian language term ...
, ''а, я, y, ю, і, и or ей'' in
Ukrainian Ukrainian may refer to: * Something of, from, or related to Ukraine * Something relating to Ukrainians an East Slavic people from Eastern Europe * Something relating to Demographics of Ukraine, in terms of demography: population of Ukraine * Somethi ...
, and similar cases in other Slavic languages. :Nominative: (pol.) "Oto Anton" / (rus.) "Вот Антон" / (ukr.) "Ось Антон" ("Here is Anton"). :Genitive: (pol.) "Oto obiad Antonа" / (rus.) "Вот обед Антона" / (ukr.) "Ось oбід Антона" ("Here is Anton's lunch"). Possessives can also be formed by the construction (pol.) "u ubjectjest bject / (rus.) "У ubjectесть bject/ (ukr.) "у(в) ubjectє bject :Nominative: (pol.) "Oto Anton" / (rus.) "Вот Антон" / (ukr.) "От Антон" ("Here is Anton"). :Genitive: (pol.) "u Antonа jest obiad / (rus.) "У Антона есть обед" / (ukr.) "У(В) Антона є обід" ("Anton has a lunch", literally: "(There) is a lunch at Anton's"). In sentences where the possessor includes an associated pronoun, the pronoun also changes: :Nominative: (pol.) Oto mój brat / (rus.) "Вот мой брат"/ (ukr.) "От мій брат" ("Here is my brother"). :Genitive: (pol.) "u mojego bratа jest obiad / (rus.) "У моего брата есть обед" / (ukr.) "У мого брата є обід" ("My brother has a lunch", literally: "(There) is a lunch at my_brother's"). And in sentences denoting negative possession, the ending of the object noun also changes: :Nominative: (pol.) "Oto Irena" / (rus.) "Вот Ирена" / (ukr.) "От Ірена" ("Here is Irene"). :Genitive: (pol.) "Irena nie ma obiadu ("Irene does not have a lunch") or (pol.) "u Ireny nie ma obiadu ("(There) is no lunch at Irene's") Note that the Polish phrase "nie ma bject can work both as a negation of having bjector a negation of an existence of bject but the meaning of the two sentences and its structure is different. (In the first case ubjectis Irene, and in the second case ubjectis virtual, it is "the space" at Irene's place, not Irene herself) :Genitive: (rus.) "У Ирены нет обеда" ("Irene does not have a lunch", literally: "(There) is no lunch at Irene's"). Note that the Russian word "нет" is a contraction of "не" + "есть". In Russian there is no distinction between ubjectnot having an bjectand bjectnot being present at ubjects. :Genitive: (ukr.) "Ірена не має обіду ("Irene does not have a lunch") or (ukr.) "y Ірени нема(є) обіду ("At Irene's does not have a lunch") Note the difference between the spelling "не має bject and "нема(є) bject in both cases.


To express negation

The genitive case is also used in sentences expressing negation, even when no possessive relationship is involved. The ending of the subject noun changes just as it does in possessive sentences. The genitive, in this sense, can only be used to negate nominative, accusative and genitive sentences, and not other cases. :Nominative: (pol.) "(Czy) Maria jest w domu?" / (rus.) "Мария дома?" / (Чи) Марія (є) вдома? ("Is Maria at home?"). :Genitive: (pol.) "Marii nie ma w domu" ("Maria is not at home", literally: " irtual subjecthas no Maria at home") :Genitive: (rus.) "Марии нет дома" ("Maria is not at home", literally: "Of Maria there is none at home."). :Genitive: (ukr.) "Марії нема(є) вдома" ("Maria is not at home", literally: " irtual subjecthas no Maria at home.") :Accusative: (pol.) "Mogę rozczytać twoje pismo" / (rus.) Могу (про)читать твой почерк / (ukr.) Можу (про)читати твій почерк ("I can read your handwriting") :Genitive: (pol.) "Nie mogę rozczytać twojego pisma" / (rus.) "Не могу (про)читать твоего почерка" / (ukr.) "Не можу (про)читати твого почерку" ("I can't read your handwriting") Use of genitive for negation is obligatory in
Slovene Slovene or Slovenian may refer to: * Something of, from, or related to Slovenia, a country in Central Europe * Slovene language, a South Slavic language mainly spoken in Slovenia * Slovenes, an ethno-linguistic group mainly living in Slovenia * Sla ...
,
Polish Polish may refer to: * Anything from or related to Poland Poland ( pl, Polska ), officially the Republic of Poland ( pl, Rzeczpospolita Polska, links=no ), is a country located in Central Europe. It is divided into 16 Voivodeships of Pol ...
and
Old Church Slavonic Old Church Slavonic or Old Slavonic () was the first Slavic literary language A literary language is the form of a language A language is a structured system of communication used by humans, including speech (spoken language), gestures (S ...
. Some East Slavic languages ( e.g.
Russian Russian refers to anything related to Russia, including: *Russians (русские, ''russkiye''), an ethnic group of the East Slavic peoples, primarily living in Russia and neighboring countries *Rossiyane (россияне), Russian language term ...
and Belorussian) employ either the accusative or genitive for negation, although the genitive is more commonly used. In
Czech Czech may refer to: * Anything from or related to the Czech Republic The Czech Republic, also known by its short-form name Czechia and formerly known as Bohemia, is a landlocked country A landlocked country is a country A countr ...
,
Slovak Slovak may refer to: * Something from, related to, or belonging to Slovakia (''Slovenská republika'') * Slovaks, a Western Slavic ethnic group * Slovak language, an Indo-European language that belongs to the West Slavic languages * Slovak, Arkans ...
and
Serbo-Croatian Serbo-Croatian () – also called Serbo-Croat (), Serbo-Croat-Bosnian (SCB), Bosnian-Croatian-Serbian (BCS), and Bosnian-Croatian-Montenegrin-Serbian (BCMS) – is a South Slavic language The South Slavic languages are one of three branche ...
, negating with the genitive case is perceived as rather archaic and the accusative is preferred, but genitive negation in these languages is still not uncommon, especially in music and literature.


Partial direct object

The genitive case is used with some verbs and
mass noun In linguistics Linguistics is the scientific study of language A language is a structured system of communication Communication (from Latin Latin (, or , ) is a classical language belonging to the Italic languages, Italic ...
s to indicate that the action covers only a part of the direct object (having a function of non-existing partitive case), whereas similar constructions using the
Accusative case The accusative case (abbreviated An abbreviation (from Latin ''brevis'', meaning ''short'') is a shortened form of a word or phrase, by any method. It may consist of a group of letters, or words taken from the full version of the word or phras ...
denote full coverage. Compare the sentences: :Genitive: (pol.) "Napiłem się wody" / (rus.) "Я напился воды" / (ukr.) "Я напився води" ("I drank water," i.e. "I drank some water, part of the water available") :Accusative: (pol.) "Wypiłem wodę" / (rus.) "Я выпил воду / (ukr.) "Я випив воду ("I drank the water," i.e. "I drank all the water, all the water in question") In Russian, special
partitive case The partitive case ( abbreviated , , or more ambiguously ) is a grammatical case Grammatical case is a linguistics Linguistics is the science, scientific study of language. It encompasses the analysis of every aspect of language, as well a ...
or sub-case is observed for some uncountable nouns which in some contexts have preferred alternative form on -у/ю instead of standard genitive on -а/я: выпил чаю ('drank some tea'), but сорта чая ('sorts of tea').


Prepositional constructions

The genitive case is also used in many prepositional constructions. (Usually when some movement or change of state is involved, and when describing the source / destination of the movement. Sometimes also when describing the manner of acting.) *Czech prepositions using genitive case: od (from), z, ze (from), do (into), bez (without), kromě (excepting), místo (instead of), podle (after, according to), podél (along), okolo (around), u (near, by), vedle (beside), během (during), pomocí (using, by the help of), stran (as regards) etc. *Polish prepositions using genitive case: od (from), z, ze (from), do, w (into), na (onto), bez (without), zamiast (instead of), wedle (after, according to), wzdłuż (along), około (around), u (near, by), koło (beside), podczas (during), etc. *Russian prepositions using genitive case: от (from), с, со (from), до (before, up to), без (without), кроме (excepting), вместо (instead of), после (after), вдоль (along), около (around), у (near, by), во время (during), насчёт (regarding), etc.


Turkish

The
Turkish Turkish may refer to: * of or about Turkey Turkey ( tr, Türkiye ), officially the Republic of Turkey, is a country straddling Southeastern Europe and Western Asia. It shares borders with Greece Greece ( el, Ελλάδα, , ), offi ...

Turkish
possessive is constructed using two suffixes: a genitive case for the possessor and a possessive suffix for the possessed object. For example: :Nominative: ''Kadın'' ('woman'); ''ayakkabı'' ('shoe') :Genitive: ''Kadının ayakkabısı'' ('the woman's shoe')


Albanian

The genitive in
Albanian Albanian may refer to: *Pertaining to Albania in Southeast Europe; in particular: **Albanians, an ethnic group native to the Balkans **Albanian language **Albanian culture **Demographics of Albania, includes other ethnic groups within the country ...

Albanian
is formed with the help of clitics. For example: :Nominative: ''libër'' ('book'); ''vajzë'' ('girl'); :Genitive: ''libri i vajzës'' (the girl's book) If the possessed object is masculine, the clitic is ''i''. If the possessed object is feminine, the clitic is ''e''. If the possessed object is plural, the clitic is ''e'' regardless of the gender. The genitive is used with some prepositions: ''me anë'' ('by means of'), ''nga ana'' ('on behalf of', 'from the side of'), ''për arsye'' ('due to'), ''për shkak'' ('because of'), ''me përjashtim'' ('with the exception of'), ''në vend'' ('instead of').


Dravidian languages


Kannada

In Kannada, the genitive case-endings are: for masculine or feminine nouns ending in "ಅ" (a): ನ (na) * Examples: ''sūrya-na'' ('of the sun') for neuter nouns ending in "ಅ" (a): ದ (da) * Examples: ''mara-da'' ('of the tree') for all nouns ending in "ಇ" (i), "ಈ" (ī), "ಎ" (e), or "ಏ" (ē): ಅ (a) * Examples: ''mane-y-a'' ('of the house'; note that a linking "y" is added between the stem and the suffix) for all nouns ending in "ಉ" (u), "ಊ" (ū), "ಋ" (r̥), or "ೠ" (r̥̄): ಇನ (ina) * Examples; ''guru-v-ina'' ('of the teacher'; note that a linking "v" is added between the stem and the suffix) Most postpositions in Kannada take the genitive case.


Tamil

In Tamil, the genitive case ending is the word உடைய or இன், which signifies possession. Depending on the last letter of the noun, the genitive case endings may vary. If the last letter is a consonant (மெய் எழுத்து), like க், ங், ச், ஞ், ட், ண், த், ந், ப், ம், ய், ர், ல், வ், ழ், then the suffix உடைய/இன் gets added. *Examples: His: அவன் + உடைய = அவனுடைய, Doctor's: மருத்துவர் + உடைய = மருத்துவருடைய, மருத்துவர் + இன் = மருத்துவரின் Kumar's: குமார் + உடைய = குமாருடைய, குமார்+ இன் = குமாரின்


See also

*
Genitive construction In grammar In linguistics Linguistics is the scientific study of language, meaning that it is a comprehensive, systematic, objective, and precise study of language. Linguistics encompasses the analysis of every aspect of language, ...
*
Possessive case A possessive or ktetic form (abbreviated An abbreviation (from Latin ''brevis'', meaning ''short'') is a shortened form of a word or phrase, by any method. It may consist of a group of letters, or words taken from the full version of the wor ...


References


Further reading

* *


External links


German genitive case
A lesson covering the genitive case in the German language *Russian genitive


Genitive Case In Arabic
{{DEFAULTSORT:Genitive Case Grammatical cases *