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Several genealogical numbering systems have been widely adopted for presenting
family tree A family tree, also called a genealogy Genealogy (from el, γενεαλογία ' "study of family trees") is the study of , family history, and the tracing of their lineages. Genealogists use oral interviews, historical records, genetic a ...

family tree
s and
pedigree chart A pedigree chart is a diagram that shows the occurrence and appearance of phenotype In genetics Genetics is a branch of biology Biology is the natural science that studies life and living organisms, including their anatomy, phy ...
s in text format. Among the most popular numbering systems are:
Ahnentafel An ''ahnentafel'' (German German(s) may refer to: Common uses * of or related to Germany * Germans, Germanic ethnic group, citizens of Germany or people of German ancestry * For citizens of Germany, see also German nationality law * German ...

Ahnentafel
(Sosa-Stradonitz Method), and the Register, NGSQ, Henry, d'Aboville, Meurgey de Tupigny, and de Villiers/Pama Systems .


Ascending numbering systems


Ahnentafel

Ahnentafel An ''ahnentafel'' (German German(s) may refer to: Common uses * of or related to Germany * Germans, Germanic ethnic group, citizens of Germany or people of German ancestry * For citizens of Germany, see also German nationality law * German ...

Ahnentafel
, also known as the Eytzinger Method, Sosa Method, and Sosa-Stradonitz Method, allows for the numbering of ancestors beginning with a descendant. This system allows one to derive an ancestor's number without compiling the complete list, and allows one to derive an ancestor's relationship based on their number. The number of a person's father is twice their own number, and the number of a person's mother is twice their own, plus one. For instance, if John Smith is 10, his father is 20, and his mother is 21. In order to readily have the generation stated for a certain person, the Ahnentafel numbering may be preceded by the generation. This method's usefulness becomes apparent when applied further back in the generations: e.g. ''08-146'', is a male preceding the subject by 7 (8-1) generations. This ancestor was the father of a woman (146/2=73) (in the genealogical line of the subject), who was the mother of a man (73/2=36.5), further down the line the father of a man (36/2=18), father of a woman (18/2=9), mother of a man (9/2=4.5), father of the subject's father (4/2=2). Hence, ''08-146'' is the subject's father's father's mother's father's father's mother's father. The atree or Binary Ahnentafel method is based on the same numbering of nodes, but first converts the numbers to binary notation and then converts each 0 to M (for Male) and each 1 to F (for Female). The first character of each code (shown as X in the table below) is M if the subject is male and F if the subject is female. For example 5 becomes 101 and then FMF (or MMF if the subject is male). An advantage of this system is easier understanding of the genealogical path. The first 15 codes in each system, identifying individuals in four generations, are as follows:


Surname methods

Genealogical writers sometimes choose to present ancestral lines by carrying back individuals with their spouses or single families generation by generation. The siblings of the individual or individuals studied may or may not be named for each family. This method is most popular in simplified single surname studies, however, allied surnames of major family branches may be carried back as well. In general, numbers are assigned only to the primary individual studied in each generation.Curran, Joan Ferris. ''Numbering Your Genealogy: Sound and Simple Systems.'' Arlington, Virginia: National Genealogical Society, 1992.


Descending numbering systems


Register System

The Register System uses both
common numerals
common numerals
(1, 2, 3, 4) and
Roman numerals Roman numerals are a that originated in and remained the usual way of writing numbers throughout Europe well into the . Numbers in this system are represented by combinations of letters from the . Modern style uses seven symbols, each with a ...
(i, ii, iii, iv). The system is organized by generation, i.e., generations are grouped separately. The system was created in 1870 for use in the ''New England Historical and Genealogical Register'' published by the
New England Historic Genealogical Society The New England Historic Genealogical Society (NEHGS) is the oldest and largest genealogical society in the United States, founded in 1845. NEHGS provides family history services through its staff, original scholarship, website,Boston, Massachusetts
Boston, Massachusetts
. ''Register Style'', of which the numbering system is part, is one of two major styles used in the U.S. for compiling descending genealogies. (The other being the NGSQ System.)Curran, Joan Ferris, Madilyn Coen Crane, and John H. Wray.''Numbering Your Genealogy: Basic Systems, Complex Families, and International Kin.'' Arlington, Virginia: National Genealogical Society, 1999. (–''Generation One''–) 1 Progenitor 2 i Child ii Child (no progeny) iii Child (no progeny) 3 iv Child (–''Generation Two''–) 2 Child i Grandchild (no progeny) ii Grandchild (no progeny) 3 Child 4 i Grandchild (–''Generation Three''–) 4 Grandchild 5 i Great-grandchild ii Great-grandchild (no progeny) 6 iii Great-grandchild 7 iv Great-grandchild


NGSQ System

The NGSQ System gets its name from the ''National Genealogical Society Quarterly'' published by the National Genealogical Society headquartered in
Falls Church, Virginia Falls Church is an independent city An independent city or independent town is a city or town that does not form part of another general-purpose local government entity (such as a province). Historical precursors In the Holy Roman Empire ...
, which uses the method in its articles. It is sometimes called the "Record System" or the "Modified Register System" because it derives from the Register System. The most significant difference between the NGSQ and the Register Systems is in the method of numbering for children who are not carried forward into future generations: The NGSQ System assigns a number to every child, whether or not that child is known to have
progeny
progeny
, and the Register System does not. Other differences between the two systems are mostly stylistic. (–''Generation One''–) 1 Progenitor + 2 i Child 3 ii Child (no progeny) 4 iii Child (no progeny) + 5 iv Child (–''Generation Two''–) 2 Child 6 i Grandchild (no progeny) 7 ii Grandchild (no progeny) 5 Child + 8 i Grandchild (–''Generation Three''–) 8 Grandchild + 9 i Great-grandchild 10 ii Great-grandchild (no progeny) + 11 iii Great-grandchild + 12 iv Great-grandchild


Henry System

The Henry System is a descending system created by Reginald Buchanan Henry for a genealogy of the families of the presidents of the United States that he wrote in 1935. It can be organized either by generation or not. The system begins with 1. The oldest child becomes 11, the next child is 12, and so on. The oldest child of 11 is 111, the next 112, and so on. The system allows one to derive an ancestor's relationship based on their number. For example, 621 is the first child of 62, who is the second child of 6, who is the sixth child of his parents. In the Henry System, when there are more than nine children, X is used for the 10th child, A is used for the 11th child, B is used for the 12th child, and so on. In the Modified Henry System, when there are more than nine children, numbers greater than nine are placed in parentheses. Henry Modified Henry 1. Progenitor 1. Progenitor 11. Child 11. Child 111. Grandchild 111. Grandchild 1111. Great-grandchild 1111. Great-grandchild 1112. Great-grandchild 1112. Great-grandchild 112. Grandchild 112. Grandchild 12. Child 12. Child 121. Grandchild 121. Grandchild 1211. Great-grandchild 1211. Great-grandchild 1212. Great-grandchild 1212. Great-grandchild 122. Grandchild 122. Grandchild 1221. Great-grandchild 1221. Great-grandchild 123. Grandchild 123. Grandchild 124. Grandchild 124. Grandchild 125. Grandchild 125. Grandchild 126. Grandchild 126. Grandchild 127. Grandchild 127. Grandchild 128. Grandchild 128. Grandchild 129. Grandchild 129. Grandchild 12X. Grandchild 12(10). Grandchild


d'Aboville System

The d'Aboville System is a descending numbering method developed by Jacques d'Aboville in 1940 that is very similar to the Henry System, widely used in
France France (), officially the French Republic (french: link=no, République française), is a transcontinental country This is a list of countries located on more than one continent A continent is one of several large landmasses ...

France
. It can be organized either by generation or not. It differs from the Henry System in that periods are used to separate the generations and no changes in numbering are needed for families with more than nine children. For example: 1 Progenitor 1.1 Child 1.1.1 Grandchild 1.1.1.1 Great-grandchild 1.1.1.2 Great-grandchild 1.1.2 Grandchild 1.2 Child 1.2.1 Grandchild 1.2.1.1 Great-grandchild 1.2.1.2 Great-grandchild 1.2.2 Grandchild 1.2.2.1 Great-grandchild 1.2.3 Grandchild 1.2.4 Grandchild 1.2.5 Grandchild 1.2.6 Grandchild 1.2.7 Grandchild 1.2.8 Grandchild 1.2.9 Grandchild 1.2.10 Grandchild The Huntington Family Association used this numbering system in their family memoir published in 1915, 25 years before Jacques d'Aboville is credited with inventing it. It may very well be true the Huntington family invented this numbering system.


Meurgey de Tupigny System

The Meurgey de Tupigny System is a simple numbering method used for single surname studies and hereditary
nobility Nobility is a social class normally ranked immediately below Royal family, royalty and found in some societies that have a formal aristocracy (class), aristocracy. Nobility has often been an Estates of the realm, estate of the realm that p ...
line studies developed by of the National Archives of France, published in 1953. Each generation is identified by a Roman numeral (I, II, III, ...), and each child and cousin in the same generation carrying the same surname is identified by an Arabic numeral. The numbering system usually appears on or in conjunction with a pedigree chart. Example: I Progenitor II-1 Child III-1 Grandchild IV-1 Great-grandchild IV-2 Great-grandchild III-2 Grandchild III-3 Grandchild III-4 Grandchild II-2 Child III-5 Grandchild IV-3 Great-grandchild IV-4 Great-grandchild IV-5 Great-grandchild III-6 Grandchild


de Villiers/Pama System

The de Villiers/Pama System gives letters to generations, and then numbers children in birth order. For example: a Progenitor b1 Child c1 Grandchild d1 Great-grandchild d2 Great-grandchild c2 Grandchild c3 Grandchild b2 Child c1 Grandchild d1 Great-grandchild d2 Great-grandchild d3 Great-grandchild c2 Grandchild c3 Grandchild In this system, b2.c3 is the third child of the second child, and is one of the progenitor's grandchildren. The de Villiers/Pama system is the standard for genealogical works in
South Africa South Africa, officially the Republic of South Africa (RSA), is the southernmost country in Africa. With over 60 million people, it is the world's 23rd-most populous nation and covers an area of . South Africa has three capital citie ...

South Africa
. It was developed in the 19th century by and used in his three volume ''Geslachtregister der Oude Kaapsche Familien'' (''Genealogies of Old Cape Families''). The system was refined by Dr. Cornelis (Cor) Pama, one of the founding members of the
Genealogical Society of South Africa The Genealogical Society of South Africa is a family history societyA family history society or genealogical society is a society A society is a Social group, group of individuals involved in persistent Social relation, social interaction, o ...
.Genealogical Society of South Africa
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See also

* Ancestral File Number *
Ahnentafel An ''ahnentafel'' (German German(s) may refer to: Common uses * of or related to Germany * Germans, Germanic ethnic group, citizens of Germany or people of German ancestry * For citizens of Germany, see also German nationality law * German ...

Ahnentafel
*
Cousin chart Consanguinity ("blood relation", from Latin Latin (, or , ) is a classical language belonging to the Italic languages, Italic branch of the Indo-European languages. Latin was originally spoken in the area around Rome, known as Latium. Through ...
(Table of consanguinity) *
Family tree A family tree, also called a genealogy Genealogy (from el, γενεαλογία ' "study of family trees") is the study of , family history, and the tracing of their lineages. Genealogists use oral interviews, historical records, genetic a ...

Family tree
* Family tree mapping *
GEDCOM GEDCOM ( ) (an acronym An acronym is a word In linguistics, a word of a spoken language can be defined as the smallest sequence of phonemes that can be uttered in isolation with semantic, objective or pragmatics, practical meaning (linguis ...
* *
Kinship terminology Kinship terminology is the system used in language A language is a structured system of communication Communication (from Latin Latin (, or , ) is a classical language belonging to the Italic languages, Italic branch of the Indo ...
*
Pedigree chart A pedigree chart is a diagram that shows the occurrence and appearance of phenotype In genetics Genetics is a branch of biology Biology is the natural science that studies life and living organisms, including their anatomy, phy ...
*
Pedigree collapse In genealogy Genealogy (from el, γενεαλογία ' "study of family trees") is the study of families In human society, family (from la, familia) is a Social group, group of people related either by consanguinity (by recognized bi ...


References

;Notes *About.com
Numbering Your Family TreeNumbering Systems in Genealogy
by Richard A. Pence


External links


Encyclopedia of Genealogy-Numbering SystemsNumbering Systems in Genealogy
{{DEFAULTSORT:Genealogical Numbering Systems Genealogy
Genealogy Genealogy (from el, γενεαλογία ' "study of family trees") is the study of families In human society, family (from la, familia) is a Social group, group of people related either by consanguinity (by recognized birth) or Affinit ...