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A garden is a planned space, usually outdoors, set aside for the cultivation, display, and enjoyment of plants and other forms of nature. The single feature identifying even the wildest
wild garden A wildlife garden (or wild garden) is an Biophysical environment, environment created by a gardener that serves as a sustainable haven for surrounding wildlife. Wildlife gardens contain a variety of habitats that cater to Native species, native an ...
is ''control''. The garden can incorporate both natural and artificial materials. Gardens often have design features including statuary,
follies ''Follies'' is a Musical theater, musical with music and lyrics by Stephen Sondheim and a book by James Goldman. The story concerns a reunion in a crumbling Broadway theatre, scheduled for demolition, of the past performers of the "Weismann's Fol ...
,
pergola A pergola is an outdoor garden feature Garden features are physical elements, both natural and manmade, used in garden design. * Avenue * Aviary * Borrowed scenery * Bosquet *Broderie (garden feature), Broderie *Belvedere (structure), Belv ...

pergola
s, trellises,
stumperies
stumperies
, dry creek beds, and
water feature in the park of Château de Bagatelle, Bagatelle, France. Image:GaylordNationalComputerizedMusicalWaterFeature.jpg, upComputerized musical water feature in National Harbor, MD In landscape architecture and garden design, a water feature is one or ...
s such as
fountain A fountain, from the "fons" ( "fontis"), meaning source or , is a decorative reservoir for discharging into a basin to supply . It is also a structure that jets water into the air for a decorative or dramatic effect. Fountains were original ...

fountain
s,
ponds A pond is an area filled with water, either natural or artificial Artificiality (the state of being artificial or man-made) is the state of being the product of intentional human manufacture, rather than occurring naturally through processes ...
(with or without
fish Fish are aquatic Aquatic means relating to water Water (chemical formula H2O) is an inorganic, transparent, tasteless, odorless, and nearly colorless chemical substance, which is the main constituent of Earth's hydrosphere and the ...
),
waterfall A waterfall is a point in a or where water flows over a vertical drop or a series of steep drops. Waterfalls also occur where drops over the edge of a tabular or . Waterfalls can be formed in several ways, but the most common method of fo ...

waterfall
s or creeks. Some gardens are for ornamental purposes only, while others also produce food crops, sometimes in separate areas, or sometimes intermixed with the
ornamental plant Ornamental plants or garden plants are plants Plants are predominantly photosynthetic Photosynthesis is a process used by plants and other organisms to Energy transformation, convert light energy into chemical energy that, through cel ...

ornamental plant
s. Food-producing gardens are distinguished from
farm A farm (also called an agricultural Agriculture is the practice of cultivating plants and livestock. Agriculture was the key development in the rise of sedentary Image:Family watching television 1958.jpg, Exercise trends, Increases i ...

farm
s by their smaller scale, more labor-intensive methods, and their purpose (enjoyment of a hobby or self-sustenance rather than producing for sale, as in a
market garden
market garden
).
Flower garden A flower garden or floral garden is any garden where flowers are grown and displayed. Because flowers bloom at varying times of the year, and some plants are Annual plant, annual, dying each winter, the design of flower gardens can take into c ...

Flower garden
s combine plants of different heights, colors, textures, and fragrances to create interest and delight the senses. The most common form today is a residential or public garden, but the term ''garden'' has traditionally been a more general one.
Zoo A zoo (short for zoological garden; also called an animal park or menagerie) is a facility in which animal Animals (also called Metazoa) are multicellular A multicellular organism is an organism In biology, an organism () i ...

Zoo
s, which display
wild animals File:Manis temminckii (29645803646).jpg, A ground pangolin Wildlife traditionally refers to undomesticated animal species (biology), species, but has come to include all organisms that grow or live wild in an area without being introduced s ...

wild animals
in simulated natural habitats, were formerly called
zoological gardens A zoo (short for zoological garden; also called an animal park or menagerie) is a facility in which animals are housed within enclosures, cared for, displayed to the public, and in some cases bred. The term "zoological garden" refers to zoology, ...
. Western gardens are almost universally based on plants, with ''garden'', which etymologically implies ''enclosure'', often signifying a shortened form of
botanical garden A botanical garden or botanic gardenThe terms ''botanic'' and ''botanical'' and ''garden'' or ''gardens'' are used more-or-less interchangeably, although the word ''botanic'' is generally reserved for the earlier, more traditional gardens. is ...

botanical garden
. Some traditional types of eastern gardens, such as Zen gardens, however, use plants sparsely or not at all. Landscape gardens, on the other hand, such as the
English landscape garden The English landscape garden, also called English landscape park or simply the English garden (french: Jardin à l'anglaise, it, Giardino all'inglese, german: Englischer Landschaftsgarten, pt, Jardim inglês, es, Jardín inglés), is a style ...
s first developed in the 18th century, may omit flowers altogether.
Landscape architecture Landscape architecture is the design of outdoor areas, landmarks, and structures to achieve environmental, social-behavioural, or aesthetic outcomes. It involves the systematic design and general engineering of various structures for constructio ...
is a related professional activity with
landscape architect A landscape architect is a person who is educated in the field of landscape architecture. The practice of landscape architecture includes: site analysis, site inventory, site planning A site plan or a plot plan is a type of drawing used by arch ...
s tending to engage in design at many scales and working on both public and private projects.


Etymology

The etymology of the word ''gardening'' refers to
enclosure Enclosure or Inclosure is a term, used in English landownership, that refers to the appropriation of "waste" or "common land Common land is land owned by a person or collectively by a number of persons, over which other persons have certai ...

enclosure
: it is from Middle English ''gardin'', from Anglo-French ''gardin'', ''jardin'', of Germanic origin; akin to Old High German ''gard'', ''gart'', an enclosure or compound, as in
Stuttgart Stuttgart (; Swabian: ; ) is the capital Capital most commonly refers to: * Capital letter Letter case (or just case) is the distinction between the letters that are in larger uppercase or capitals (or more formally ''majuscule'') ...

Stuttgart
. See
Grad (Slavic settlement) A gord is an Slavs, Early Slavic fortified settlement, sometimes known as a burgwall after the German language, German term for such sites. Gords were built during the late Bronze Age, Bronze and early Iron Ages by the Lusatian culture (c. 1 ...
for more complete etymology. The words ''yard'', ''court'', and Latin ''hortus'' (meaning "garden", hence horticulture and orchard), are cognates—all referring to an enclosed space. The term "garden" in
British English British English (BrE) is the standard dialect A standard language (also standard variety, standard dialect, and standard) is a language variety that has undergone substantial codification of grammar and usage and is employed by a populatio ...
refers to a small enclosed area of land, usually adjoining a building. This would be referred to as a
yard The yard (symbol: yd) is an English unit English units are the units of measurement A unit of measurement is a definite magnitude (mathematics), magnitude of a quantity, defined and adopted by convention or by law, that is used ...
in
American English American English (AmE, AE, AmEng, USEng, en-US), sometimes called United States English or U.S. English, is the set of variety (linguistics), varieties of the English language native to the United States. Currently, American English is the m ...
.


History

The culture of
gardening Gardening is the practice of growing and cultivating plants as part of horticulture Horticulture is the art of cultivating plants in gardens to produce food and medicinal ingredients, or for comfort and ornamental purposes. Horticulturists ar ...

gardening
reaches deep into antiquity, when
Alexander the Great Alexander III of Macedon ( grc-gre, Αλέξανδρος}, ; 20/21 July 356 BC – 10/11 June 323 BC), commonly known as Alexander the Great, was a king (''basileus ''Basileus'' ( el, βασιλεύς) is a Greek term and title A title ...

Alexander the Great
was reportedly awestruck by the magnificence of Babylon's gardens. Homer tells of the Garden of
Alcinous In Greek mythology Greek mythology is the body of s originally told by the , and a of . These stories concern the and , the lives and activities of , , and , and the origins and significance of the ancient Greeks' own and practices. Mo ...
, its fertility and symmetry of form. The Romans were known for planting their gardens with the riches of Asia. Gardening was not recognized as an art form in Europe until the mid 16th century when it entered the political discourse, as a symbol of the concept of the "ideal republic". Evoking utopian imagery of the
Garden of Eden In Abrahamic religions, the Garden of Eden (Hebrew language, Hebrew: – ''gan-ʿĒḏen'') or Garden of God ( – ''gan-Yahweh, YHWH''), also called the Terrestrial Paradise, is the Bible, biblical paradise described in Book of Genesis, Genesi ...

Garden of Eden
, a time of abundance and plenty where humans didn't know hunger or the conflicts that arose from property disputes.
John Evelyn John Evelyn (31 October 162027 February 1706) was an English writer, gardener and diary, diarist. John Evelyn's Diary, John Evelyn's diary, or memoir, spanned the period of his adult life from 1640, when he was a student, to 1706, the year he ...

John Evelyn
wrote in the early 17th century, "there is not a more laborious life then is that of a good Gard'ners; but a labour full of tranquility and satisfaction; Natural and Instructive, and such as (if any) contributes to Piety and Contemplation." During the era of
Enclosures Enclosure or Inclosure is a term, used in English landownership, that refers to the appropriation of "waste" or "common land Common land is land owned by a person or collectively by a number of persons, over which other persons have certain ...
, the agrarian collectivism of the feudal age was idealized in literary "fantasies of liberating regression to garden and wilderness". Before the Grand Manner era, what few significant gardens could be found in Britain had developed under influence from the continent. Britain's homegrown domestic gardening traditions were mostly practical in purpose, rather than aesthetic, unlike the grand gardens found mostly on castle grounds, and less commonly at universities. Tudor gardens emphasized contrast rather than transitions, distinguished by color and illusion. They were not intended as a complement to home or architecture, but conceived as independent spaces, arranged to grow and display flowers and ornamental plants. Gardeners demonstrated their artistry in
knot garden museum of country life, south Wales Wales ( cy, Cymru ) is a country that is Countries of the United Kingdom, part of the United Kingdom. It is bordered by England to the Wales–England border, east, the Irish Sea to the north and west, an ...
s, with complex arrangements most commonly included interwoven
box hedge
box hedge
s, and less commonly fragrant herbs like
rosemary ''Salvia rosmarinus'', commonly known as rosemary, is a shrub with fragrant, evergreen, needle-like leaves and white, pink, purple, or blue flowers, native plant, native to the Mediterranean Region, Mediterranean region. Until 2017, it was known ...

rosemary
. Sanded paths run between the hedgings of open knots whereas closed knots were filled with single colored flowers. The knot and
parterre for ''Britannia Illustrata'', 1707/8 , 2016 A ''parterre'' is a formal garden constructed on a level substrate, consisting of plant beds, typically in symmetrical patterns, which are separated and connected by paths. The borders of the plant be ...

parterre
gardens were always placed on level ground, and elevated areas reserved for terraces from which the intricacy of the gardens could be viewed. Jacobean gardens were described as "a delightful confusion" by
Henry Wotton Sir Henry Wotton (; 30 March 1568 – December 1639) was an English author, diplomat and politician who sat in the House of Commons The House of Commons is the name for the elected lower house of the bicameral parliaments of the United Kingdom ...
in 1624. Under the influence of the
Italian Renaissance The Italian Renaissance ( it, Rinascimento ) was a period in Italian history The history of Italy covers the Ancient Period, the Middle Ages and the modern era. Since classical times, ancient Phoenicians, Magna Graecia, Greeks, Etruscan civi ...
, Caroline gardens began to shed some of the chaos of earlier designs, marking the beginning of a trends towards symmetrical unified designs that took the building architecture into account, and featuring an elevated terrace from which home and garden could be viewed. The only surviving Caroline garden is located at
Bolsover Castle Bolsover Castle is in the town of Bolsover Bolsover is a market town and the administrative centre of the Bolsover (borough), Bolsover District, Derbyshire, England. It is 145 miles (233 km) from London, 18 miles (29  ...

Bolsover Castle
in
Derbyshire Derbyshire (; or ) is a county in the East Midlands of England. It includes much of the Peak District, Peak District National Park, the southern end of the Pennines, Pennine range of hills, and part of the The National Forest (England), Nation ...

Derbyshire
, but is too simple to attract much interest. By the mid-17th century
axial symmetry Axial symmetry is symmetry around an axis; an object is axially symmetric if its appearance is unchanged if rotated around an axis.
had ascended to prominence in the French gardening traditions of Andre Mollet and
Jacques Boyceau Jacques Boyceau, sieur de la Barauderie (ca. 1560 – 1633) was a French garden designer, the superintendent of royal gardens under Louis XIII of France, Louis XIII, whose posthumously produced ''Traité du iardinage selon les raisons de la na ...
, the latter who wrote: "All things, however beautiful they may be chosen, will be defective if they are not ordered and placed in proper symmetry." During the reign of Charles II, many new
Baroque The Baroque (, ; ) is a style Style is a manner of doing or presenting things and may refer to: * Architectural style, the features that make a building or structure historically identifiable * Design, the process of creating something * Fashi ...
style country houses were built, while in England
Thomas Cromwell Thomas Cromwell, (; 1485 – 28 July 1540) was an English lawyer and statesman who served as List of English chief ministers, chief minister to King Henry VIII from 1534 to 1540, when he was beheaded on orders of the king. Cromwell was one o ...

Thomas Cromwell
sought to destroy many Tudor, Jacobean and Caroline style gardens.


Design

Garden design is the process of creating plans for the layout and planting of gardens and landscapes. Gardens may be designed by garden owners themselves, or by professionals. Professional garden designers tend to be trained in principles of design and horticulture, and have a knowledge and experience of using plants. Some professional garden designers are also
landscape architect A landscape architect is a person who is educated in the field of landscape architecture. The practice of landscape architecture includes: site analysis, site inventory, site planning A site plan or a plot plan is a type of drawing used by arch ...
s, a more formal level of training that usually requires an advanced degree and often a state license. Elements of garden design include the layout of hard landscape, such as paths, rockeries, walls, water features, sitting areas and decking, as well as the plants themselves, with consideration for their
horticultural Horticulture is the art of cultivating plants in gardens to produce food and medicinal ingredients, or for comfort and ornamental purposes. Horticulturists grow flowers, fruits and nuts, vegetables and herbs, as well as ornamental trees and lawns. ...
requirements, their season-to-season appearance, lifespan,
growth habit Image:Acer palmatum BotGartenMuenster Faecherahorn 6691.jpg, 225px, This cultivar of Japanese maple has a dome-like habit. Habit is equivalent to habitus in some applications in biology; the term refers variously to aspects of behaviour or structur ...
, size, speed of growth, and combinations with other plants and landscape features. Most gardens consist of a mix of natural and constructed elements, although even very 'natural' gardens are always an inherently artificial creation. Natural elements present in a garden principally comprise flora (such as trees and
weed A weed is a plant Plants are predominantly photosynthetic Photosynthesis is a process used by plants and other organisms to Energy transformation, convert light energy into chemical energy that, through cellular respiration, can late ...

weed
s), fauna (such as
arthropod An arthropod (, (gen. ποδός)) is an invertebrate animal having an exoskeleton, a Segmentation (biology), segmented body, and paired jointed appendages. Arthropods form the phylum Euarthropoda,Reference showing that Euarthropoda is a phylum: ...
s and birds), soil, water, air and light. Constructed elements include paths,
patio A patio (, from es, patio ; "courtyard", "forecourt", "yard", "little garden") is an outdoor space generally used for dining or recreation that adjoins a residence and is typically paved. In Australia Australia, officially the Commonw ...

patio
s, decking, sculptures,
drainage Drainage is the natural or artificial removal of a surface's water and sub-surface water from an area with excess of water. The internal drainage of most agricultural Agriculture is the practice of cultivating plants and livestock. Agr ...

drainage
systems, lights and buildings (such as
shed A shed is typically a simple, single-story roofed structure in a back garden A back garden is a residential garden located at the rear of a property, on the other side of the house from the front garden. Such gardens have a special place in ...

shed
s,
gazebo A gazebo is a pavilion In architecture upright=1.45, alt=Plan d'exécution du second étage de l'hôtel de Brionne (dessin) De Cotte 2503c – Gallica 2011 (adjusted), Plan of the second floor (attic storey) of the Hôtel de Brionne i ...

gazebo
s,
pergola A pergola is an outdoor garden feature Garden features are physical elements, both natural and manmade, used in garden design. * Avenue * Aviary * Borrowed scenery * Bosquet *Broderie (garden feature), Broderie *Belvedere (structure), Belv ...

pergola
s and
follies ''Follies'' is a Musical theater, musical with music and lyrics by Stephen Sondheim and a book by James Goldman. The story concerns a reunion in a crumbling Broadway theatre, scheduled for demolition, of the past performers of the "Weismann's Fol ...
), but also living constructions such as flower beds,
ponds A pond is an area filled with water, either natural or artificial Artificiality (the state of being artificial or man-made) is the state of being the product of intentional human manufacture, rather than occurring naturally through processes ...
and
lawn A lawn is an area of soil-covered land planted with grass Poaceae () or Gramineae () is a large and nearly ubiquitous family In , family (from la, familia) is a of people related either by (by recognized birth) or (by mar ...

lawn
s. Consideration is also given to the maintenance needs of the garden. Including the time or funds available for regular maintenance, (this can affect the choices of plants regarding speed of growth) spreading or self-seeding of the plants(annual or perennial), bloom-time, and many other characteristics. Garden design can be roughly divided into two groups, formal and naturalistic gardens. The most important consideration in any garden design is how the garden will be used, followed closely by the desired stylistic genres, and the way the garden space will connect to the home or other structures in the surrounding areas. All of these considerations are subject to the limitations of the budget. Budget limitations can be addressed by a simpler garden style with fewer plants and less costly hard landscape materials, seeds rather than sod for lawns, and plants that grow quickly; alternatively, garden owners may choose to create their garden over time, area by area.


Uses

A garden can have
aesthetic Aesthetics, or esthetics (), is a branch of philosophy Philosophy (from , ) is the study of general and fundamental questions, such as those about Metaphysics, existence, reason, Epistemology, knowledge, Ethics, values, Philosophy of m ...

aesthetic
, functional, and recreational uses: * Cooperation with nature **
Plant cultivation Plants are mainly multicellular Multicellular organisms are organism In biology, an organism (from Ancient Greek, Greek: ὀργανισμός, ''organismos'') is any individual contiguous system that embodies the Life#Biology, prope ...
** Garden-based learning * Observation of nature **
Bird Birds are a group of warm-blooded vertebrate Vertebrates () comprise all species of animal Animals (also called Metazoa) are multicellular eukaryotic organisms that form the Kingdom (biology), biological kingdom Animalia. With ...

Bird
- and
insect Insects (from Latin Latin (, or , ) is a classical language A classical language is a language A language is a structured system of communication Communication (from Latin ''communicare'', meaning "to share" or "to be in ...

insect
-watching ** Reflection on the changing
season A season is a division of the year based on changes in weather Weather is the state of the atmosphere An atmosphere (from the greek words ἀτμός ''(atmos)'', meaning 'vapour', and σφαῖρα ''(sphaira)'', meaning 'ball' or ...

season
s * Relaxation ** Family dinners on the terrace ** Children playing in the garden ** Reading and in the
hammock A hammock (from Spanish , borrowed from Taíno and Arawak ) is a sling made of fabric, rope, or netting, suspended between two or more points, used for swing (seat), swinging, sleeping, or Human relaxation, resting. It normally consists of one o ...

hammock
** Maintaining the flowerbeds ** Pottering in the
shed A shed is typically a simple, single-story roofed structure in a back garden A back garden is a residential garden located at the rear of a property, on the other side of the house from the front garden. Such gardens have a special place in ...

shed
** Cottaging in the bushes ** Basking in warm
sunshine Sunlight is a portion of the electromagnetic radiation given off by the Sun, in particular infrared, visible spectrum, visible, and ultraviolet light. On Earth, sunlight is light scattering by particles, scattered and attenuation, filtered thr ...

sunshine
** Escaping oppressive sunlight and heat * Growing useful produce ** Flowers to cut and bring inside for indoor beauty ** Fresh herbs and vegetables for cooking


Types

Gardens may feature a particular plant or plant type(s): Gardens may feature a particular style or aesthetic: Other types:


Other similar spaces

Other outdoor spaces that are similar to gardens include: * A
landscape A landscape is the visible features of an area of land Land is the solid surface of Earth that is not permanently submerged in water. Most but not all land is situated at elevations above sea level (variable over geologic time frames) an ...

landscape
is an outdoor space of a larger scale, natural or designed, usually unenclosed and considered from a distance. * A
park A park is an area of natural, semi-natural or planted space set aside for human enjoyment and recreation Recreation is an activity of leisure Leisure has often been defined as a quality of experience or as free time. Free time is ...

park
is a planned outdoor space, usually enclosed ('imparked') and of a larger size.
Public park An urban park or metropolitan park, also known as a municipal park (North America) or a public park, public open space, or municipal gardens (UK), is a park A park is an area of natural, semi-natural or planted space set aside for human e ...
s are for public use. * An
arboretum An arboretum (plural: arboreta) in a general sense is a botanical collection composed exclusively of trees. More commonly a modern arboretum is a botanical garden containing living collections of woody plants and is intended at least in part for ...

arboretum
is a planned outdoor space, usually large, for the display and study of
tree In botany, a tree is a perennial plant with an elongated Plant stem, stem, or trunk (botany), trunk, supporting branches and leaves in most species. In some usages, the definition of a tree may be narrower, including only wood plants with se ...

tree
s. * A
farm A farm (also called an agricultural Agriculture is the practice of cultivating plants and livestock. Agriculture was the key development in the rise of sedentary Image:Family watching television 1958.jpg, Exercise trends, Increases i ...

farm
or
orchard An orchard is an intentional plantation of tree In botany, a tree is a perennial plant with an elongated Plant stem, stem, or trunk (botany), trunk, supporting branches and leaves in most species. In some usages, the definition of a tree ...

orchard
is for the production of
food Food is any substance consumed to provide Nutrient, nutritional support for an organism. Food is usually of plant, animal or Fungus, fungal origin, and contains essential nutrients, such as carbohydrates, fats, protein (nutrient), proteins, vi ...

food
stuff. * A
botanical garden A botanical garden or botanic gardenThe terms ''botanic'' and ''botanical'' and ''garden'' or ''gardens'' are used more-or-less interchangeably, although the word ''botanic'' is generally reserved for the earlier, more traditional gardens. is ...

botanical garden
is a type of garden where plants are grown both for scientific purposes and for the enjoyment and education of visitors. * A zoological garden, or
zoo A zoo (short for zoological garden; also called an animal park or menagerie) is a facility in which animal Animals (also called Metazoa) are multicellular A multicellular organism is an organism In biology, an organism () i ...

zoo
for short, is a place where wild animals are cared for and exhibited to the public. * A
Kindergarten Kindergarten (, ) is a preschool A preschool, also known as nursery school, pre-primary school, or play school, is an school, educational establishment or learning space offering early childhood education to children before they begin com ...

Kindergarten
is a preschool educational institution for children and in the very sense of the word should have access or be part of a garden. * A Männergarten is a temporary day-care and activities space for men in German-speaking countries while their wives or girlfriends go
shopping Shopping is an activity in which a customer browses the available goods or services presented by one or more retailers with the potential intent to purchase a suitable selection of them. A typology of shopper types Typology is the study of ty ...

shopping
. Historically, the expression has also been used for gender-specific sections in lunatic asylums, monasteries and clinics.


Gardens and the environment

Gardeners may cause environmental damage by the way they garden, or they may enhance their local environment. Damage by gardeners can include direct destruction of natural habitats when houses and gardens are created; indirect
habitat destruction Habitat destruction (also termed habitat loss and habitat reduction) is the process by which a natural habitat Ibex in an alpine habitat In ecology, the term habitat summarises the array of resources, physical and biotic factors that are pr ...
and damage to provide garden materials such as
peat Peat (), also known as turf (), is an accumulation of partially decayed vegetation Vegetation is an assemblage of species and the they provide. It is a general term, without specific reference to particular , life forms, structure, ...
, rock for rock gardens, and by the use of tapwater to
irrigate Irrigation is the artificial process of applying controlled amounts of water to land to assist in production of crops. Irrigation helps to grow agriculture, agricultural crops, maintain landscapes, and revegetation, revegetate disturbed soils ...

irrigate
gardens; the death of living beings in the garden itself, such as the killing not only of
slug Slug, or land slug, is a common name Common may refer to: Places * Common, a townland in County Tyrone, Northern Ireland * Boston Common Boston Common (also known as the Common) is a central public park in downtown Boston, Massachusetts. ...

slug
s and
snail A snail is, in loose terms, a shelled gastropod The gastropods (), commonly known as snails and slugs, belong to a large taxonomic Taxonomy (general) is the practice and science of classification of things or concepts, including the pr ...

snail
s but also their predators such as
hedgehog A hedgehog is a spiny mammal of the subfamily Erinaceinae, in the eulipotyphlan family (biology), family Erinaceidae. There are seventeen species of hedgehog in five genus, genera found throughout parts of Europe, Asia, and Africa, and in Ne ...

hedgehog
s and
song thrush The song thrush (''Turdus philomelos'') is a thrush ''The Man from U.N.C.L.E.'' is an American spy fiction Spy fiction, a genre of literature involving espionage Espionage or spying is the act of obtaining Secrecy, secret or Confide ...

song thrush
es by
metaldehyde Metaldehyde is an organic compound with the chemical formula, formula (CH3CHO)4. It is commonly used as a pesticide against slugs, snails, and other gastropods. It is the cyclic tetramer of acetaldehyde. Production and properties Metaldehyde is o ...

metaldehyde
slug killer; the death of living beings outside the garden, such as local species extinction by indiscriminate
plant collectors Plants are mainly multicellular organisms, predominantly photosynthetic eukaryotes of the Kingdom (biology), kingdom Plantae. Historically, plants were treated as one of two kingdoms including all living things that were not animals, and all ...
; and
climate change Contemporary climate change includes both the global warming caused by humans, and its impacts on Earth's weather patterns. There have been previous periods of climate change, but the current changes are more rapid than any known even ...
caused by
greenhouse gas A greenhouse gas (GHG or GhG) is a gas that Absorption (electromagnetic radiation), absorbs and Emission (electromagnetic radiation), emits radiant energy within the thermal infrared range, causing the greenhouse effect. The primary greenhou ...
es produced by gardening.


Climate change

Climate change will have many impacts on gardens; some studies suggest most of them will be negative. Gardens also contribute to climate change. Greenhouse gases can be produced by gardeners in many ways. The three main
greenhouse gas A greenhouse gas (GHG or GhG) is a gas that Absorption (electromagnetic radiation), absorbs and Emission (electromagnetic radiation), emits radiant energy within the thermal infrared range, causing the greenhouse effect. The primary greenhou ...
es are
carbon dioxide Carbon dioxide (chemical formula A chemical formula is a way of presenting information about the chemical proportions of s that constitute a particular or molecule, using symbols, numbers, and sometimes also other symbols, such as pare ...

carbon dioxide
,
methane Methane (, ) is a chemical compound with the chemical formula A chemical formula is a way of presenting information about the chemical proportions of s that constitute a particular or molecule, using symbols, numbers, and sometimes a ...
, and
nitrous oxide Nitrous oxide, commonly known as laughing gas, nitrous, or nos, is a chemical compound A chemical compound is a chemical substance A chemical substance is a form of matter In classical physics and general chemistry, matter is an ...
. Gardeners produce carbon dioxide directly by soil and destroying soil carbon, by burning garden waste on
bonfires A bonfire is a large and controlled outdoor fire BBQ. Fire is the rapid oxidation of a material in the exothermic chemical process of combustion, releasing heat, light, and various reaction Product (chemistry), products. Fire is hot bec ...
, by using power tools which burn
fossil fuel A fossil fuel is a hydrocarbon In , a hydrocarbon is an consisting entirely of and . Hydrocarbons are examples of s. Hydrocarbons are generally colourless and hydrophobic with only weak odours. Because of their diverse molecular structure ...
or use electricity generated by fossil fuels, and by using
peat Peat (), also known as turf (), is an accumulation of partially decayed vegetation Vegetation is an assemblage of species and the they provide. It is a general term, without specific reference to particular , life forms, structure, ...
. Gardeners produce methane by compacting the soil and making it anaerobic, and by allowing their
compost heap Compost is a mixture of ingredients used to fertilize and improve the soil. It is commonly prepared by decomposing plant and food waste and recycling Recycling is the process of converting waste materials into new materials and objects ...

compost heap
s to become compacted and anaerobic. Gardeners produce nitrous oxide by applying excess nitrogen fertiliser when plants are not actively growing so that the nitrogen in the fertiliser is converted by to nitrous oxide. Gardeners can help to prevent climate change in many ways, including the use of trees, shrubs, and other perennial plants in their gardens, turning garden waste into
soil organic matter Soil organic matter (SOM) is the organic matter Organic matter, organic material, or natural organic matter refers to the large source of Carbon compounds, carbon-based compounds found within natural and engineered, terrestrial, and aquatic envi ...
instead of burning it, keeping soil and compost heaps aerated, avoiding peat, switching from power tools to hand tools or changing their garden design so that power tools are not needed, and using nitrogen-fixing plants instead of nitrogen fertiliser.


Irrigation

Some gardeners manage their gardens without using any water from outside the garden. Examples in Britain include
Ventnor Botanic Garden Ventnor Botanic Garden is a botanic garden located in Ventnor, Isle of Wight The Isle of Wight () is a Counties of England, ceremonial county and the List of islands of England, largest and second-most populous island in England. It is in th ...
on the Isle of Wight, and parts of
Beth Chatto Beth Chatto (27 June 1923 – 13 May 2018) was a United Kingdom, British Plantsman, plantswoman, garden designer and author best known for creating and describing the Beth Chatto Gardens near Elmstead Market in the English county of Essex. She ...

Beth Chatto
's garden in Essex, Sticky Wicket garden in Dorset, and the Royal Horticultural Society's gardens at
Harlow Carr Harlow is a town and local government district in the west of Essex Essex () is a Ceremonial counties of England, county in the south-east of England, north-east of London. One of the home counties, it borders Suffolk and Cambridgeshire to ...
and Hyde Hall.
Rain garden Rain gardens, also called bioretention A bioretention cell, also called a rain garden, in the United States. It is designed to treat polluted stormwater">United_States.html" ;"title="rain garden, in the United States">rain garden, in the United ...

Rain garden
s absorb rainfall falling onto nearby hard surfaces, rather than sending it into stormwater drains. For irrigation, see
rain Rain is liquid water in the form of droplet Rain water flux from a canopy. Among the forces that govern drop formation: cohesion, Van der Waals force">Cohesion_(chemistry).html" ;"title="surface tension, Cohesion (chemistry)">cohesion, ...

rain
water, sprinkler system,
drip irrigation Drip irrigation is a type of micro-irrigation system that has the potential to save water and nutrients by allowing water Water is an Inorganic compound, inorganic, Transparency and translucency, transparent, tasteless, odorless, and ...

drip irrigation
,
tap water Tap water (also known as faucet water, running water, or municipal water) is water Water (chemical formula H2O) is an Inorganic compound, inorganic, transparent, tasteless, odorless, and Color of water, nearly colorless chemical substanc ...

tap water
,
greywater Greywater (or grey water, sullage, also spelled gray water in the United States) refers to domestic wastewater generated in households or office buildings from streams without fecal contamination, i.e., all streams except for the wastewater from ...
,
hand pump . File:Force pump - Merchant and Chant 1911 Ontario High School Physics Fig158.png, Hand-powered force pump, with an air chamber to smooth out variations in flow rate Hand pumps are manually operated pump near the Hengsteysee, GermanyA pump ...

hand pump
and
watering can A watering can (or watering pot) is a portable container, usually with a handle and a funnel, used to water plants by hand. It has been in use since at least 79 A.D. and has since seen many improvements in design. Apart from watering plants, it has ...
.


See also

* Index of gardening articles * Outline of organic gardening and farming * List of professional gardeners * List of horticulture and gardening books/publications


References


General references

*


External links

* {{Authority control Gardens, Landscape