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In
botany Botany, also called , plant biology or phytology, is the science of plant life and a branch of biology. A botanist, plant scientist or phytologist is a scientist who specialises in this field. The term "botany" comes from the Ancient Greek wo ...

botany
, a fruit is the
seed A seed is an embryonic ''Embryonic'' is the twelfth studio album by experimental rock band the Flaming Lips released on October 13, 2009, on Warner Bros. Records, Warner Bros. The band's first double album, it was released to generally positiv ...

seed
-bearing structure in
flowering plant Flowering plants include multiple members of the clade Angiospermae (), commonly called angiosperms. The term "angiosperm" is derived from the Greek#REDIRECT Greek Greek may refer to: Greece Anything of, from, or related to Greece Greec ...

flowering plant
s that is formed from the
ovary The ovary is an organ found in the female reproductive system 400px, 1. Labia_majora.html"_;"title="Vulva: 2. Labia_majora">Vulva: 2. Labia_majora; 3. Labia_minora; 4. Vulval_vestibule.html" ;"title="Labia_minora.html" ...
after
flowering A flower, sometimes known as a bloom or blossom, is the reproductive Reproduction (or procreation or breeding) is the biological process by which new individual organisms – "offspring" – are produced from their "parent" or parents ...

flowering
. Fruits are the means by which flowering plants (also known as
angiosperm Flowering plants include multiple members of the clade Angiospermae (), commonly called angiosperms. The term "angiosperm" is derived from the Greek#REDIRECT Greek Greek may refer to: Greece Anything of, from, or related to Greece Greece ...

angiosperm
s) disseminate their
seed A seed is an embryonic ''Embryonic'' is the twelfth studio album by experimental rock band the Flaming Lips released on October 13, 2009, on Warner Bros. Records, Warner Bros. The band's first double album, it was released to generally positiv ...

seed
s. Edible fruits in particular have long propagated using the movements of humans and animals in a
symbiotic relationship Symbiosis (from Greek , , "living together", from , , "together", and , bíōsis, "living") is any type of a close and long-term biological interaction In ecology Ecology (from el, οἶκος, "house" and el, -λογία, label=none, ...

symbiotic relationship
that is the means for
seed dispersal Seed dispersal is the movement, spread or transport of seed A seed is an embryonic ''Embryonic'' is the twelfth studio album by experimental rock band the Flaming Lips released on October 13, 2009, on Warner Bros. Records, Warner Bros. The ban ...
for the one group and
nutrition Nutrition is the biochemical Biochemistry or biological chemistry, is the study of chemical processes within and relating to living organisms. A sub-discipline of both chemistry and biology, biochemistry may be divided into three fields: st ...
for the other; in fact, humans and many animals have become dependent on fruits as a source of
food Food is any substance consumed to provide nutritional Nutrition is the biochemical Biochemistry or biological chemistry, is the study of chemical processes within and relating to living organism In biology, an organism (from Anci ...

food
. Consequently, fruits account for a substantial fraction of the world's
agricultural Agriculture is the practice of cultivating plants and livestock. Agriculture was the key development in the rise of sedentary Image:Family watching television 1958.jpg, Exercise trends, Increases in sedentary behaviors such as watching tele ...

agricultural
output, and some (such as the
apple An apple is an edible fruit produced by an apple tree (''Malus domestica''). Apple fruit tree, trees are agriculture, cultivated worldwide and are the most widely grown species in the genus ''Malus''. The tree originated in Central Asia, wher ...

apple
and the
pomegranate The pomegranate (''Punica granatum'') is a fruit In botany Botany, also called , plant biology or phytology, is the science of plant life and a branch of biology. A botanist, plant scientist or phytologist is a scientist who speci ...

pomegranate
) have acquired extensive cultural and symbolic meanings. In common language usage, "fruit" normally means the seed-associated fleshy structures (or produce) of plants that typically are sweet or sour and edible in the raw state, such as
apple An apple is an edible fruit produced by an apple tree (''Malus domestica''). Apple fruit tree, trees are agriculture, cultivated worldwide and are the most widely grown species in the genus ''Malus''. The tree originated in Central Asia, wher ...

apple
s,
banana A banana is an elongated, edible fruit In botany, a fruit is the seed-bearing structure in flowering plants (also known as angiosperms) formed from the ovary after flowering. Fruits are the means by which angiosperms dissemin ...

banana
s,
grape A grape is a fruit In botany Botany, also called , plant biology or phytology, is the science of plant life and a branch of biology. A botanist, plant scientist or phytologist is a scientist who specialises in this field. The term ...

grape
s,
lemon The lemon, ''Citrus limon'', is a species of small evergreen In botany Botany, also called , plant biology or phytology, is the science Science (from the Latin word ''scientia'', meaning "knowledge") is a systematic enterprise ...

lemon
s,
oranges The orange is the fruit of various citrus species in the family (biology), family Rutaceae (see list of plants known as orange); it primarily refers to Citrus × sinensis, ''Citrus'' × ''sinensis'', which is also called sweet orange, to dis ...
, and
strawberries The garden strawberry (or simply strawberry; ''Fragaria × ananassa'') is a widely grown Hybrid (biology), hybrid species of the genus ''Fragaria'', collectively known as the strawberries, which are cultivated worldwide for their fruit. The f ...

strawberries
. In botanical usage, the term "fruit" also includes many structures that are not commonly called "fruits", such as
nuts Nut often refers to: * Nut (fruit) A nut is a fruit composed of an inedible hard shell and a seed, which is generally edible. In general usage and in a Culinary nut, culinary sense, a wide variety of dried seeds are called nuts, but in a botan ...
,
bean A bean is the seed of one of several genera Genus (plural genera) is a taxonomic rank Taxonomy (general) is the practice and science of classification of things or concepts, including the principles that underlie such classification. T ...

bean
pods,
corn Maize ( ; ''Zea mays'' subsp. ''mays'', from es, maíz after tnq, mahiz), also known as corn (North American North America is a continent entirely within the Northern Hemisphere and almost all within the Western Hemisphere. It can ...

corn
kernels
kernels
,
tomato The tomato is the edible berry A berry is a small, pulpy, and often edible fruit In botany, a fruit is the seed-bearing structure in flowering plants (also known as angiosperms) formed from the ovary after flowering. Fruits are ...

tomato
es, and
wheat Wheat is a grass widely cultivated for its seed, a cereal grain which is a worldwide staple food. The many species of wheat together make up the genus ''Triticum''; the most widely grown is common wheat (''T. aestivum''). The archaeological r ...

wheat
grains.


Botanical vs. culinary

Many common language terms used for fruit and seeds differ from botanical classifications. For example, in botany, a ''fruit'' is a ripened
ovary The ovary is an organ found in the female reproductive system 400px, 1. Labia_majora.html"_;"title="Vulva: 2. Labia_majora">Vulva: 2. Labia_majora; 3. Labia_minora; 4. Vulval_vestibule.html" ;"title="Labia_minora.html" ...
or
carpel Gynoecium (; ) is most commonly used as a collective term for the parts of a flower A flower, sometimes known as a bloom or blossom, is the reproduction, reproductive structure found in flowering plants (plants of the division Magnoliophyta, ...
that contains seeds; e.g., an apple, pomegranate, tomato or a pumpkin. A ''
nut Nut often refers to: * Nut (fruit), a fruit composed of a hard shell and a seed * Nut (food), collective noun for dry and edible fruits or seeds * Nut (hardware), a fastener used with a bolt Nut or Nuts may also refer to: Places * Nomenclature of ...
'' is a type of fruit (and not a seed), and a ''seed'' is a ripened
ovule In seed plant The spermatophytes, also known as phanerogams (taxon Phanerogamae) or phaenogams (taxon Phaenogamae), comprise those plants that produce seeds, hence the alternative name seed plants. They are a subset of the embryophytes or l ...

ovule
. In culinary language, a ''fruit'', so-called, is the sweet- or not sweet- (even sour-) tasting produce of a specific plant (e.g., a peach, pear or lemon); ''nuts'' are hard, oily, non-sweet plant produce in shells (
hazelnut The hazelnut is the nut (fruit), fruit of the hazel, hazel tree and therefore includes any of the nuts deriving from species of the genus ''Corylus'', especially the nuts of the species ''Corylus avellana''. They are also known as cobnuts or ...

hazelnut
,
acorn The acorn, or oaknut, is the nut Nut often refers to: * Nut (fruit), a fruit composed of a hard shell and a seed * Nut (food), collective noun for dry and edible fruits or seeds * Nut (hardware), a fastener used with a bolt Nut or Nuts may al ...

acorn
). ''
Vegetables Vegetables are parts of plants that are consumed by humans or other animals as food. The original meaning is still commonly used and is applied to plants collectively to refer to all edible plant matter, including the flowers, fruit In ...

Vegetables
'', so called, typically are
savory Savory or Savoury may refer to: Common usage * Herbs of the genus ''Satureja'', particularly: ** Summer savory (''Satureja hortensis''), an annual herb, used to flavor food ** Winter savory (''Satureja montana''), a perennial herb, also used to ...

savory
or non-sweet produce (
zucchini The zucchini (; plural: zucchini or zucchinis), courgette (; plural: courgettes) or baby marrow (''Cucurbita pepo'') is a summer squash, a Herbaceous plant, herbaceous vine whose fruit are harvested when their immature seeds and Fruit anatomy#Epic ...

zucchini
, lettuce, broccoli, and tomato); but some may be sweet-tasting (sweet potato). Examples of botanically classified fruit that typically are called vegetables include:
cucumber Cucumber (''Cucumis sativus'') is a widely-cultivated creeping vine plant in the '' Cucurbitaceae'' gourd family that bears cucumiform fruits In botany Botany, also called , plant biology or phytology, is the science Scien ...

cucumber
,
pumpkin A pumpkin is a cultivar A cultivar is a type of plant that people have bred for desired traits, which are reproduced in each new generation by a method such as grafting, tissue culture or carefully controlled seed production. Most culti ...

pumpkin
, and
squash Squash may refer to: Sports * Squash (sport), the high-speed racquet sport also known as squash racquets * Squash (professional wrestling), an extremely one-sided match in professional wrestling * Squash tennis, a game similar to squash racquets ...
();
bean A bean is the seed of one of several genera Genus (plural genera) is a taxonomic rank Taxonomy (general) is the practice and science of classification of things or concepts, including the principles that underlie such classification. T ...

bean
s,
peanut The peanut, also known as the groundnut, goober (US), pindar (US) or monkey nut (UK), and as ''Arachis hypogaea'', is a grown mainly for its edible . It is widely grown in the and subtropics, being important to both small and large comme ...

peanut
s, and
pea The pea is most commonly the small spherical seed A seed is an embryonic plant enclosed in a protective outer covering. The formation of the seed is part of the process of reproduction Reproduction (or procreation or breeding) is ...

pea
s ();
corn Maize ( ; ''Zea mays'' subsp. ''mays'', from es, maíz after tnq, mahiz), also known as corn (North American North America is a continent entirely within the Northern Hemisphere and almost all within the Western Hemisphere. It can ...

corn
,
eggplant Eggplant ( US, Australia Australia, officially the Commonwealth of Australia, is a Sovereign state, sovereign country comprising the mainland of the Australia (continent), Australian continent, the island of Tasmania, and numerous ...

eggplant
, , and tomato, (see image). The spices
chili pepper The chili pepper (also chile, chile pepper, chilli pepper, or chilli), from ' (), is the of plants from the ' which are members of the family, . Chili peppers are widely used in many cuisines as a to add to dishes. and related compound ...

chili pepper
and
allspice Allspice, also known as Jamaica pepper, myrtle pepper, pimenta, or pimento, is the dried unripe berry A berry is a small, pulpy, and often edible fruit In botany, a fruit is the seed-bearing structure in flowering plants (also known ...
are fruits, botanically speaking. In contrast,
rhubarb Rhubarb is the fleshy, edible stalks ( petioles) of species and hybrids (culinary rhubarb) of '' Rheum'' in the family Polygonaceae The Polygonaceae are a family In human society A society is a Social group, group of individuals ...

rhubarb
is often called a fruit when used in making
pies A pie is a baked Baking is a method of preparing food that uses dry heat, typically in an oven, but can also be done in hot ashes, or on hot stones. The most common baked item is bread but many other types of foods are baked. Heat is grad ...

pies
, but the edible produce of rhubarb is actually the leaf stalk or
petiole Petiole may refer to: *Petiole (botany), the stalk of a leaf, attaching the blade to the stem *Petiole (insect anatomy), the narrow waist of some hymenopteran insects {{disambiguation ...
of the plant. Edible
gymnosperm The gymnosperms ( lit. revealed seeds) are a group of seed-producing plants that includes conifers Conifers are a group of cone-bearing seed plants, a subset of gymnosperms. Scientifically, they make up the division Pinophyta (), also ...
seeds are often given fruit names, e.g.,
ginkgo ''Ginkgo'' is a genus Genus /ˈdʒiː.nəs/ (plural genera /ˈdʒen.ər.ə/) is a taxonomic rank In biological classification In biology Biology is the natural science that studies life and living organisms, including their ...

ginkgo
nuts and
pine nut Pine nuts, also called piñón (), pinoli (), or pignoli, are the edible seed A seed is an embryonic plant enclosed in a protective outer covering. The formation of the seed is part of the process of reproduction Reproduction (or procr ...
s. Botanically, a
cereal A cereal is any grass cultivated (grown) for the edible components of its grain A grain is a small, hard, dry seed, with or without an attached husk, hull or fruit layer, harvested for human or animal consumption. A grain crop is a grain-pro ...

cereal
grain, such as
corn Maize ( ; ''Zea mays'' subsp. ''mays'', from es, maíz after tnq, mahiz), also known as corn (North American North America is a continent entirely within the Northern Hemisphere and almost all within the Western Hemisphere. It can ...

corn
,
rice Rice is the seed of the Poaceae, grass species ''Oryza sativa'' (Asian rice) or less commonly ''Oryza glaberrima'' (African rice). The name wild rice is usually used for species of the genera ''Zizania (genus), Zizania'' and ''Porteresia'', bo ...

rice
, or
wheat Wheat is a grass widely cultivated for its seed, a cereal grain which is a worldwide staple food. The many species of wheat together make up the genus ''Triticum''; the most widely grown is common wheat (''T. aestivum''). The archaeological r ...

wheat
is a kind of fruit (termed a
caryopsis Wheat spikelet with the three anthers sticking out, right In botany Botany, also called , plant biology or phytology, is the science of plant life and a branch of biology. A botanist, plant scientist or phytologist is a scientist who spec ...
). However, the fruit wall is thin and fused to the seed coat, so almost all the edible grain-fruit is actually a seed.


Structure

The outer layer, often edible, of most fruits is called the ''pericarp''. Typically formed from the ovary, it surrounds the seeds; in some species, however, other structural tissues contribute to or form the edible portion. The pericarp may be described in three layers from outer to inner, i.e., the ''epicarp'', ''mesocarp'' and ''endocarp''. Fruit that bears a prominent pointed terminal projection is said to be ''beaked''.


Development

A fruit results from the fertilizing and maturing of one or more flowers. The
gynoecium Gynoecium (; ) is most commonly used as a collective term for the parts of a flower A flower, sometimes known as a bloom or blossom, is the reproduction, reproductive structure found in flowering plants (plants of the division Magnoliophyta, ...

gynoecium
, which contains the '''' system, is centered in the flower-head, and it forms all or part of the fruit —(see graphic: 'the parts of a flower'). Inside the ovary(ies) are one or more
ovule In seed plant The spermatophytes, also known as phanerogams (taxon Phanerogamae) or phaenogams (taxon Phaenogamae), comprise those plants that produce seeds, hence the alternative name seed plants. They are a subset of the embryophytes or l ...

ovule
s. Here begins a complex sequence called ''
double fertilization Double fertilization is a complex fertilization Fertilisation or fertilization (see spelling differences), also known as generative fertilisation, syngamy and impregnation, is the fusion of gametes to give rise to a new individual orga ...
'': a female
gametophyte A gametophyte () is one of the two alternating multicellular phases in the life cycles of plant Plants are predominantly photosynthetic eukaryotes of the Kingdom (biology), kingdom Plantae. Historically, the plant kingdom encompassed all ...
produces an egg cell for the purpose of fertilization. (A female gametophyte is called a
megagametophyte A gametophyte () is one of the two alternating multicellular phases in the life cycles of plant Plants are mainly multicellular organisms, predominantly photosynthetic Photosynthesis is a process used by plants and other organisms ...
, and also called the
embryo sac In seed plants, the ovule is the structure that gives rise to and contains the female reproductive cells. It consists of three parts: the '' integument'', forming its outer layer, the '' nucellus'' (or remnant of the megasporangium), and the fe ...
.) After
double fertilization Double fertilization is a complex fertilization Fertilisation or fertilization (see spelling differences), also known as generative fertilisation, syngamy and impregnation, is the fusion of gametes to give rise to a new individual orga ...
, the ovules will become seeds. Ovules are fertilized in a process that starts with
pollination Pollination is the transfer of pollen Pollen is a powdery substance consisting of pollen grains which are Sporophyte, microsporophytes of spermatophyta, seed plants, which produce male gametes (sperm cells). Pollen grains have a hard coat ...

pollination
, which is the movement of pollen from the stamens to the stigma-style-ovary system within the flower-head, (see graphic). After pollination, a
pollen tube A pollen tube is a tubular structure produced by the male gametophyte A gametophyte () is one of the two alternating multicellular phases in the life cycles of plant Plants are predominantly photosynthetic eukaryotes of the Kingdom (bio ...
grows from the (deposited) pollen through the stigma down the style into the ovary to the ovule. Two sperm are transferred from the pollen to a megagametophyte. Within the megagametophyte one sperm unites with the egg, forming a
zygote A zygote (, ) is a eukaryotic Eukaryotes () are organism In biology, an organism () is any organic, life, living system that functions as an individual entity. All organisms are composed of cells (cell theory). Organisms are ...

zygote
, while the second sperm enters the central cell forming the endosperm mother cell, which completes the double fertilization process. Later the zygote will give rise to the embryo of the seed, and the endosperm mother cell will give rise to
endosperm The endosperm is a tissue produced inside the seed A seed is an embryonic ''Embryonic'' is the twelfth studio album by experimental rock band the Flaming Lips released on October 13, 2009, on Warner Bros. Records, Warner Bros. The band's fir ...
, a nutritive tissue used by the embryo. image:Ovary position.svg, upright 1.5, Insertion point: There are 3 positions of insertion of the ovary at the base of a flower: I superior; II half-inferior; III inferior. The 'insertion point' is where the androecium parts ''(a)'', the petals ''(p)'', and the sepals ''(s)'' all converge and attach to the receptacle ''(r)''. (Ovary= gynoecium ''(g)''.) As the ovules develop into seeds, the ovary begins to ripen and the ovary wall, the ''pericarp'', may become fleshy (as in berries or
drupe ), showing both fruit In botany, a fruit is the seed-bearing structure in flowering plants (also known as angiosperms) formed from the ovary after flowering. Fruits are the means by which angiosperms disseminate seeds. Edible fruits, in ...
s), or it may form a hard outer covering (as in nuts). In some multiseeded fruits, the extent to which a fleshy structure develops is proportional to the number of fertilized ovules. The pericarp typically is differentiated into two or three distinct layers; these are called the ''exocarp'' (outer layer, also called epicarp), ''mesocarp'' (middle layer), and ''endocarp'' (inner layer) —(see image of apple-section). In some fruits the
sepal A sepal ( or ) is a part of the flower A flower, sometimes known as a bloom or blossom Cherry blossoms in Paris in full bloom. In botany, blossoms are the flowers of stone fruit fruit tree, trees (genus ''Prunus'') and of some other p ...
s,
petal Petals are modified leaves A leaf (plural leaves) is the principal lateral appendage of the vascular plant plant stem, stem, usually borne above ground and specialized for photosynthesis. The leaves, stem, flower and fruit together fo ...

petal
s,
stamen The stamen (plural The plural (sometimes abbreviated An abbreviation (from Latin ''brevis'', meaning ''short'') is a shortened form of a word or phrase, by any method. It may consist of a group of letters, or words taken from the full ve ...
s and/or of the flower fall away as the fleshy fruit ripens. However, for simple fruits derived from an ''
inferior ovary In the flowering plant Flowering plants include multiple members of the clade Angiospermae (), commonly called angiosperms. The term "angiosperm" is derived from the Greek#REDIRECT Greek Greek may refer to: Greece Anything of, from, or r ...
'' —i.e., one that lies ''below'' the attachment of other floral parts, (see graphic re 'insertion point')— there are parts (including petals, sepals, and stamens) that fuse with the ovary and ripen with it. For such a case, when floral parts other than the ovary form a significant part of the fruit that develops, it is called an
accessory fruit Accessory may refer to: * Accessory (legal term) An accessory is a person who assists in the commission of a crime In ordinary language, a crime is an unlawful act punishable by a state or other authority. The term ''crime'' does not, in ...
. Examples of accessory fruits include apple, rose hip, strawberry, pineapple;
see below See or SEE may refer to: Arts, entertainment, and media * Music: ** See (album), ''See'' (album), studio album by rock band The Rascals *** "See", song by The Rascals, on the album ''See'' ** See (Tycho song), "See" (Tycho song), song by Tycho * T ...
, and "Table of fleshy fruit examples". Because several parts of the flower besides the ovary may contribute to the structure of a fruit, it is important to study flower structure to understand how a particular fruit forms. There are three general modes of fruit development: * fruits develop from a ''single flower'' (while having one or more separate, unfused, carpels); they are the simple fruits. *
Syncarpous '' Stigma (botany), stigmas and style Gynoecium (, from Ancient Greek (, "woman") and (, "house")) is most commonly used as a collective term for the parts of a flower that produce ovules and ultimately develop into the fruit and seeds. The gy ...

Syncarpous
fruits develop from a ''single
gynoecium Gynoecium (; ) is most commonly used as a collective term for the parts of a flower A flower, sometimes known as a bloom or blossom, is the reproduction, reproductive structure found in flowering plants (plants of the division Magnoliophyta, ...

gynoecium
'' (having two or more carpels fused together). * Multiple fruits form from many flowers —i.e., an inflorescence of flowers.


Classification of fruits

Consistent with the three modes of fruit development plant scientists have classified fruits into three main groups: simple fruits, aggregate fruits, and multiple (or composite) fruits. The groupings reflect how the ovary and other flower organs are arranged and how the fruits develop, but they are not evolutionarily relevant as diverse plant
taxa In biology Biology is the natural science that studies life and living organisms, including their anatomy, physical structure, Biochemistry, chemical processes, Molecular biology, molecular interactions, Physiology, physiological mechanism ...
may be in the same group. While the section of a
fungus A fungus (plural The plural (sometimes abbreviated An abbreviation (from Latin ''brevis'', meaning ''short'') is a shortened form of a word or phrase, by any method. It may consist of a group of letters, or words taken from the full ...

fungus
that produces
spore )'', growing on a thinning, thinned hybrid black poplar ''(populus, Populus x canadensis)''. The last stage of the moss#Life cycle, moss lifecycle is shown, where the sporophytes are visible before dispersion of their spores: the calyptra (1) is ...
s is called a ''fruiting'' body, fungi are members of the and not of the
plant kingdom Plants are mainly multicellular Multicellular organisms are organism In biology, an organism (from Ancient Greek, Greek: ὀργανισμός, ''organismos'') is any individual contiguous system that embodies the Life#Biology, prope ...
.


Simple fruits

Simple fruits are the result of the ripening-to-fruit of a simple or compound ovary in a ''single flower'' with a ''single
pistil '' stigmas and style Gynoecium (, from Ancient Greek Ancient Greek includes the forms of the Greek language used in ancient Greece and the classical antiquity, ancient world from around 1500 BC to 300 BC. It is often roughly divided in ...
''. In contrast, a single flower with numerous pistils typically produces an
aggregate fruit A raspberry fruit (shown with a raspberry beetle larva) is an aggregate fruit, an aggregate of drupelets image:Aquilegia vulgaris 004.JPG, The fruit of an ''Aquilegia'' flower is one fruit that forms from several ovaries of one flower, and it is an ...
; and the merging of several flowers, or a 'multiple' of flowers, results in a 'multiple' fruit. A simple fruit is further classified as to whether it is dry or fleshy. To distribute their seeds, dry fruits may split open and discharge their seeds to the winds, which is called
dehiscenceDehiscence can refer to: * Dehiscence (botany), the spontaneous opening at maturity of a plant structure, such as a fruit, anther, or sporangium, to release its contents * Wound dehiscence, a previously closed wound reopening * Superior canal dehisc ...
. Or the distribution process may rely upon the decay and degradation of the fruit to expose the seeds; or it may rely upon the eating of fruit and excreting of seeds by
frugivores Image:Orang Utan, Semenggok Forest Reserve, Sarawak, Borneo, Malaysia.JPG, A Bornean orangutan (''Pongo pygmaeus''), alt=A Bornean orangutan is seen perched on a tree eating a fruit. A frugivore is an animal that thrives mostly on raw fruits, succ ...
—both are called indehiscence. Fleshy fruits do not split open, but they also are indehiscent and they may also rely on frugivores for distribution of their seeds. Typically, the entire outer layer of the ovary wall ripens into a potentially edible
pericarp Fruit anatomy is the plant anatomy Plant anatomy or phytotomy is the general term for the study of the internal structure A structure is an arrangement and organization of interrelated elements in a material object or system A system is ...
. Types of dry simple fruits, (with examples) include: *
achene An achene (; Greek ἀ, ''a'', privative + χαίνειν, ''chainein'', to gape; also sometimes called akene and occasionally achenium or achenocarp) is a type of simple dry fruit produced by many species of flowering plants. Achenes are monocarp ...

achene
– most commonly seen in aggregate fruits (e.g.,
strawberry The garden strawberry (or simply strawberry; ''Fragaria × ananassa'') is a widely grown hybrid species Hybrid speciation is a form of speciation Speciation is the evolution Evolution is change in the Heredity, heritable Phenotypi ...

strawberry
, see below). *
capsule Capsule may refer to: Anatomy * Articular capsule (joint capsule), an envelope surrounding a synovial joint * Bowman's capsule (glomerular capsule), a sac surrounding a glomerulus in a mammalian kidney * Glisson's capsule, a fibrous layer covering ...
– (
Brazil nut The Brazil nut (''Bertholletia excelsa'') is a South America South America is a continent A continent is any of several large landmasses. Generally identified by convention (norm), convention rather than any strict criteria, up ...
: botanically, it is not a nut). *
caryopsis Wheat spikelet with the three anthers sticking out, right In botany Botany, also called , plant biology or phytology, is the science of plant life and a branch of biology. A botanist, plant scientist or phytologist is a scientist who spec ...
– (cereal grains, including
wheat Wheat is a grass widely cultivated for its seed, a cereal grain which is a worldwide staple food. The many species of wheat together make up the genus ''Triticum''; the most widely grown is common wheat (''T. aestivum''). The archaeological r ...

wheat
,
rice Rice is the seed of the Poaceae, grass species ''Oryza sativa'' (Asian rice) or less commonly ''Oryza glaberrima'' (African rice). The name wild rice is usually used for species of the genera ''Zizania (genus), Zizania'' and ''Porteresia'', bo ...

rice
,
oats The oat (''Avena sativa''), sometimes called the common oat, is a species In biology, a species is the basic unit of biological classification, classification and a taxonomic rank of an organism, as well as a unit of biodiversity. A spec ...

oats
,
barley Barley (''Hordeum vulgare''), a member of the grass family Poaceae () or Gramineae () is a large and nearly ubiquitous family In human society, family (from la, familia) is a group of people related either by consanguinity (by recogn ...

barley
). * – an achene-like fruit derived from the individual florets in a capitulum: (
dandelion ''Taraxacum'' () is a large genus Genus /ˈdʒiː.nəs/ (plural genera /ˈdʒen.ər.ə/) is a taxonomic rank In biological classification In biology, taxonomy () is the scientific study of naming, defining (Circumscription (taxono ...

dandelion
). * fibrous drupe – (
coconut The coconut tree (''Cocos nucifera'') is a member of the palm tree family (biology), family (Arecaceae) and the only living species of the genus ''Cocos''. The term "coconut" (or the archaic "cocoanut") can refer to the whole coconut palm, t ...

coconut
,
walnut A walnut is the Nut (fruit), nut of any tree of the genus ''Juglans'' (family Juglandaceae), particularly the Persian or English walnut, ''Juglans regia''. A walnut is the edible seed of a drupe, and thus not a true botanical nut. It is com ...

walnut
: botanically, neither is a true nut.). * follicle – a follicles fruit is formed from a single carpel, and opens by one suture: (
milkweed ''Asclepias'' is a genus of herbaceous, perennial plant, perennial, flowering plants known as milkweeds, named for their latex, a milky substance containing cardiac glycosides termed cardenolides, exuded where cells are damaged. Most species are ...

milkweed
); also commonly seen in aggregate fruits: (
magnolia ''Magnolia'' is a large genus Genus /ˈdʒiː.nəs/ (plural genera /ˈdʒen.ər.ə/) is a taxonomic rank In biological classification In biology, taxonomy () is the scientific study of naming, defining (Circumscription (taxonomy), ...

magnolia
,
peony The peony or paeony is a in the ''Paeonia'', the only genus in the Paeoniaceae. Peonies are native to Asia, Europe and Western North America. Scientists differ on the number of that can be distinguished, ranging from 25 to 40, although the ...

peony
). *
legume A legume () is a plant Plants are predominantly photosynthetic Photosynthesis is a process used by plants and other organisms to Energy transformation, convert light energy into chemical energy that, through cellular respiration, can ...

legume
– (
bean A bean is the seed of one of several genera Genus (plural genera) is a taxonomic rank Taxonomy (general) is the practice and science of classification of things or concepts, including the principles that underlie such classification. T ...

bean
,
pea The pea is most commonly the small spherical seed A seed is an embryonic plant enclosed in a protective outer covering. The formation of the seed is part of the process of reproduction Reproduction (or procreation or breeding) is ...

pea
,
peanut The peanut, also known as the groundnut, goober (US), pindar (US) or monkey nut (UK), and as ''Arachis hypogaea'', is a grown mainly for its edible . It is widely grown in the and subtropics, being important to both small and large comme ...

peanut
: botanically, the peanut is the seed of a legume, not a nut). *
loment 250px, Loments of '' Hedysarum hedysaroides'' A loment (or lomentum) is a type of dehiscence (botany), dehiscent legume fruit that breaks apart at constrictions occurring between segments, so that each segment contains one seed. It is a type of schi ...
– a type of
indehiscent Dehiscence is the splitting of a mature plant structure along a built-in line of weakness in order to release its contents. This is common among fruit In botany Botany, also called , plant biology or phytology, is the science of plan ...
legume: ( sweet vetch or wild potato). *
nut Nut often refers to: * Nut (fruit), a fruit composed of a hard shell and a seed * Nut (food), collective noun for dry and edible fruits or seeds * Nut (hardware), a fastener used with a bolt Nut or Nuts may also refer to: Places * Nomenclature of ...
– (,
hazelnut The hazelnut is the nut (fruit), fruit of the hazel, hazel tree and therefore includes any of the nuts deriving from species of the genus ''Corylus'', especially the nuts of the species ''Corylus avellana''. They are also known as cobnuts or ...

hazelnut
,
acorn The acorn, or oaknut, is the nut Nut often refers to: * Nut (fruit), a fruit composed of a hard shell and a seed * Nut (food), collective noun for dry and edible fruits or seeds * Nut (hardware), a fastener used with a bolt Nut or Nuts may al ...

acorn
(of the
oak An oak is a tree In botany, a tree is a perennial plant with an elongated Plant stem, stem, or trunk (botany), trunk, supporting branches and leaves in most species. In some usages, the definition of a tree may be narrower, including on ...

oak
): botanically, these are true nuts). *
samara Samara ( rus, Сама́ра, p=sɐˈmarə), known from 1935 to 1991 as Kuybyshev (; ), is the largest city and administrative centre of Samara Oblast. The city is located at the confluence of the Volga and the Samara (Volga), Samara rivers, with ...
– (
ash Ash or ashes are the solid remnants of fire BBQ. Fire is the rapid oxidation of a material in the exothermic chemical process of combustion, releasing heat, light, and various reaction Product (chemistry), products. Fire is hot because th ...
,
elm Elms are and s comprising the genus ''Ulmus'' in the plant family . The genus first appeared in the about 20 million years ago, originating in what is now central Asia.Richens, R. H. (1983). ''Elm''. Cambridge University Press. These tree ...

elm
, ). *
schizocarp A schizocarp is a dry fruit that, when mature, splits up into mericarps. There are different definitions: * Any dry fruit composed of multiple carpels that separate. : Under this definition the mericarps can contain one or more seeds (the m ...
, see below – (). *
silique Siliquae of '' Cardamine impatiens'' A silique or siliqua (plural ''siliques'' or ''siliquae'') is a type of fruit In botany, a fruit is the seed-bearing structure in flowering plants (also known as angiosperms) formed from the ovary aft ...
– (
radish The radish (''Raphanus raphanistrum ''Raphanus raphanistrum'', the sea radish, wild radish, white charlock or jointed charlock, is a flowering plant in the family Brassicaceae. One of its subspecies, ''Raphanus raphanistrum'' subsp. ''sativ ...

radish
seed). *
silicle A silique or siliqua (plural ''siliques'' or ''siliquae'') is a type of fruit In botany Botany, also called , plant biology or phytology, is the science of plant life and a branch of biology. A botanist, plant scientist or phytologi ...
– (
shepherd's purse ''Capsella bursa-pastoris'', known as shepherd's purse because of its triangular flat fruits, which are purse-like, is a small annual and ruderal flowering plant The flowering plants, also known as Angiospermae (), or Magnoliophyta (), are th ...

shepherd's purse
). * utricle – (
strawberry The garden strawberry (or simply strawberry; ''Fragaria × ananassa'') is a widely grown hybrid species Hybrid speciation is a form of speciation Speciation is the evolution Evolution is change in the Heredity, heritable Phenotypi ...

strawberry
). Fruits in which part or all of the ''pericarp'' (fruit wall) is fleshy at maturity are termed ''fleshy simple fruits''. Types of fleshy simple fruits, (with examples) include: *
berry A berry is a small, pulpy, and often edible fruit In botany Botany, also called , plant biology or phytology, is the science of plant life and a branch of biology. A botanist, plant scientist or phytologist is a scientist who speci ...
– The berry is the most common type of fleshy fruit. The entire outer layer of the ovary wall ripens into a potentially edible "pericarp", (see below). *
stone fruit ), showing both fruit In botany, a fruit is the seed-bearing structure in flowering plants (also known as angiosperms) formed from the ovary after flowering. Fruits are the means by which angiosperms disseminate seeds. Edible fruits, in ...
or
drupe ), showing both fruit In botany, a fruit is the seed-bearing structure in flowering plants (also known as angiosperms) formed from the ovary after flowering. Fruits are the means by which angiosperms disseminate seeds. Edible fruits, in ...
– The definitive characteristic of a drupe is the hard, "lignified" stone (sometimes called the "pit"). It is derived from the ovary wall of the flower:
apricot An apricot (, ) is a fruit In botany Botany, also called , plant biology or phytology, is the science of plant life and a branch of biology. A botanist, plant scientist or phytologist is a scientist who specialises in this field. The ...

apricot
,
cherry A cherry is the fruit In botany Botany, also called , plant biology or phytology, is the science of plant life and a branch of biology. A botanist, plant scientist or phytologist is a scientist who specialises in this field. ...

cherry
,
olive The olive, botanical name ''Olea europaea'', meaning "European olive", is a species In biology, a species is the basic unit of biological classification, classification and a taxonomic rank of an organism, as well as a unit of biodivers ...

olive
,
peach The peach (''Prunus persica'') is a deciduous In the fields of horticulture Horticulture is the art of cultivating plants in gardens to produce food and medicinal ingredients, or for comfort and ornamental purposes. Horticulturists grow ...

peach
,
plum A plum is a fruit of some species in Prunus subg. Prunus, ''Prunus'' subg. ''Prunus'.'' Mature plum fruits may have a dusty-white waxy coating that gives them a glaucous appearance. This is an epicuticular wax coating and is known as "wax bl ...

plum
,
mango A mango is an edible stone fruit ), showing both fruit In botany, a fruit is the seed-bearing structure in flowering plants (also known as angiosperms) formed from the ovary after flowering. Fruits are the means by which angiosper ...

mango
. *
pome In botany, a pome is a type of fruit produced by flowering plants in the subtribe Malinae of the family Rosaceae. Well-known pomes include the apple, pear, and quince. Etymology The word ''pome'' entered English in the late 14th century, and ref ...

pome
– The
pome In botany, a pome is a type of fruit produced by flowering plants in the subtribe Malinae of the family Rosaceae. Well-known pomes include the apple, pear, and quince. Etymology The word ''pome'' entered English in the late 14th century, and ref ...

pome
fruits:
apple An apple is an edible fruit produced by an apple tree (''Malus domestica''). Apple fruit tree, trees are agriculture, cultivated worldwide and are the most widely grown species in the genus ''Malus''. The tree originated in Central Asia, wher ...

apple
s,
pear Pears are fruits produced and consumed around the world, growing on a tree and harvested in the Northern Hemisphere in late summer into October. The pear tree and shrub are a species In biology, a species is the basic unit of biological ...

pear
s,
rosehip '' (beach rose) Image:Rosa rubiginosa hips.jpg, Dog rose showing the bright red hips The rose hip or rosehip, also called rose haw and rose hep, is the accessory fruit of the rose plant. It is typically red to orange, but ranges from dark purp ...

rosehip
s, saskatoon berry, et al., are a syncarpous#Types, syncarpous (fused) fleshy fruit, a simple fruit, developing from a half-inferior ovary, see graphic re 'Insertion point'. Pomes are of the family Rosaceae,


Berries

Berries are a type of simple fleshy fruit that issue from a single ovary. (The ovary itself may be compound, with several carpels.) The botanical term "true berry" includes grapes, currants, cucumbers, eggplants (aubergines), tomatoes, chili peppers, and bananas, but excludes certain fruits that are called "-berry" by culinary custom or by common usage of the term —such as strawberries and raspberries. Berries may be formed from one or more carpels (i.e., from the simple or compound ovary) from the same, single flower. Seeds typically are embedded in the fleshy interior of the ovary. Examples here and in the table below: *
tomato The tomato is the edible berry A berry is a small, pulpy, and often edible fruit In botany, a fruit is the seed-bearing structure in flowering plants (also known as angiosperms) formed from the ovary after flowering. Fruits are ...

tomato
– In culinary terms, the tomato is regarded as a vegetable, but it is botanically classified as a fruit and a berry. *
banana A banana is an elongated, edible fruit In botany, a fruit is the seed-bearing structure in flowering plants (also known as angiosperms) formed from the ovary after flowering. Fruits are the means by which angiosperms dissemin ...

banana
– The fruit has been described as a "leathery berry". In cultivated varieties, the seeds are diminished nearly to non-existence. * Pepo (botany), pepo – Berries with skin that is hardened: Cucurbitaceae, cucurbits, including gourds, squash, melons. * hesperidium – Berries with a rind and a juicy interior: most citrus fruit. * cranberry, gooseberry, redcurrant,
grape A grape is a fruit In botany Botany, also called , plant biology or phytology, is the science of plant life and a branch of biology. A botanist, plant scientist or phytologist is a scientist who specialises in this field. The term ...

grape
. The ''strawberry'', regardless of its appearance, is classified as a dry, not a fleshy fruit. Botanically, it is ''not'' a berry (botany)#Accessory fruits, berry; it is an accessory fruit, aggregate-accessory fruit, the latter term meaning the fleshy part is derived not from the plant's ovaries but from the Receptacle (botany), receptacle that holds the Ovary (botany), ovaries.Esau, K. (1977). ''Anatomy of seed plants''. John Wiley and Sons, New York. Numerous dry
achene An achene (; Greek ἀ, ''a'', privative + χαίνειν, ''chainein'', to gape; also sometimes called akene and occasionally achenium or achenocarp) is a type of simple dry fruit produced by many species of flowering plants. Achenes are monocarp ...

achene
s are attached to the outside of the fruit-flesh, (see image); they appear to be seeds but each is actually an ovary of a flower, with a seed inside. Schizocarps are dry fruits, though some appear to be fleshy. They originate from syncarpous ovaries but do not actually dehiscence (botany), dehisce; rather, they split into segments with one or more seeds. They include a number of different forms from a wide range of families, including carrot, parsnip, parsley, cumin.


Aggregate fruits

An aggregate fruit is also called an aggregation, or ''etaerio''; it develops from a single flower that presents numerous simple pistils (see graphic of raspberry pistils). Each pistil contains one
carpel Gynoecium (; ) is most commonly used as a collective term for the parts of a flower A flower, sometimes known as a bloom or blossom, is the reproduction, reproductive structure found in flowering plants (plants of the division Magnoliophyta, ...
; together they form a fruitlet. The ultimate (fruiting) development of the aggregation of pistils is called an aggregate fruit, etaerio fruit, or simply an etaerio. Different types of aggregate fruits can produce different etaerios, such as achenes, drupelets, follicles, and berries. For example, the Ranunculaceae species, including ''Clematis'' and ''Ranunculus'', produces an etaerio of
achene An achene (; Greek ἀ, ''a'', privative + χαίνειν, ''chainein'', to gape; also sometimes called akene and occasionally achenium or achenocarp) is a type of simple dry fruit produced by many species of flowering plants. Achenes are monocarp ...

achene
s; ''Rubus'' species, including raspberry: an etaerio of drupelets; ''Calotropis'' species: an etaerio of follicles fruit; ''Annona'' species: an etaerio of berries. Some other broadly recognized species and their etaerios (or aggregations) are: * Teasel; fruit is an aggregation of cypsela (botany), cypselas. * tuliptree#Description, Tuliptree; fruit is an aggregation of samara (fruit), samaras. * Magnolia and peony#Morphology, peony; fruit is an aggregation of follicles. * liquidambar#Species, American sweet gum; fruit is an aggregation of capsules. * Platanus occidentalis#Description, Sycamore; fruit is an aggregation of achenes. The ''raspberry''; its pistils are called ''drupelets'' because each pistil is like a small
drupe ), showing both fruit In botany, a fruit is the seed-bearing structure in flowering plants (also known as angiosperms) formed from the ovary after flowering. Fruits are the means by which angiosperms disseminate seeds. Edible fruits, in ...
attached to the receptacle. In some bramble fruits such as blackberry the receptacle, an accessory part, elongates and then develops as part of the fruit, making the blackberry an ''#Accessory fruit, aggregate-accessory'' fruit. The
strawberry The garden strawberry (or simply strawberry; ''Fragaria × ananassa'') is a widely grown hybrid species Hybrid speciation is a form of speciation Speciation is the evolution Evolution is change in the Heredity, heritable Phenotypi ...

strawberry
is also an aggregate-accessory fruit, of which the seeds are contained in the
achene An achene (; Greek ἀ, ''a'', privative + χαίνειν, ''chainein'', to gape; also sometimes called akene and occasionally achenium or achenocarp) is a type of simple dry fruit produced by many species of flowering plants. Achenes are monocarp ...

achene
s. Notably in all these examples, the fruit develops from a single flower, with numerous pistils.


Multiple fruits

A multiple fruit is formed from a cluster of flowers, (a 'multiple' of flowers) —also called an ''inflorescence''. Each ('smallish') flower produces a single fruitlet, which, as all develop, all merge into one mass of fruit. Examples include pineapple, ficus, fig, mulberry, Osage orange, breadfruit. An inflorescence (a cluster) of white flowers, called a head, is produced first. After Fertilization#Fertilisation in plants, fertilization, each flower in the cluster develops into a drupe; as the drupes expand, they develop as a ''connation, connate'' organ, merging into a multiple fleshy fruit called a ''syncarp''. Progressive stages of multiple flowering and fruit development can be observed on a single branch of the Indian mulberry, or ''noni'', (see image). During the sequence of development, a progression of second, third, and more inflorescences are initiated in turn at the head of the branch or stem.


Accessory fruit forms

For some fruits, some (or all) of the edible parts do ''not'' issue from the ovary; such fruit development can comprise all the pistils and other parts produced from one flower as well as all those produced from many flowers. This form of development is called ''accessory'' fruiting, and it occurs among all three classes of fruit development —simple, aggregate, and multiple. Accessory fruits are frequently designated by the hyphenated term showing both characters; e.g., pineapple is a multiple-accessory fruit.


Table of fleshy fruit examples


Seedless fruits

Seedlessness is an important feature of some fruits of commerce. Commercial cultivars of
banana A banana is an elongated, edible fruit In botany, a fruit is the seed-bearing structure in flowering plants (also known as angiosperms) formed from the ovary after flowering. Fruits are the means by which angiosperms dissemin ...

banana
s and pineapples are examples of seedless fruits. Some cultivars of citrus fruits (especially grapefruit, mandarin oranges, navel
oranges The orange is the fruit of various citrus species in the family (biology), family Rutaceae (see list of plants known as orange); it primarily refers to Citrus × sinensis, ''Citrus'' × ''sinensis'', which is also called sweet orange, to dis ...
), Mikan, satsumas, table grapes, and of watermelons are valued for their seedlessness. In some species, seedlessness is the result of ''parthenocarpy'', where fruits set without fertilization. Parthenocarpic fruit-set may (or may not) require pollination, but most seedless citrus fruits require a stimulus from pollination to produce fruit. Seedless bananas and grapes are triploids, and seedlessness results from the abortion of the embryonic plant that is produced by fertilization, a phenomenon known as ''stenospermocarpy'', which requires normal pollination and fertilization.


Seed dissemination

Variations in fruit structures largely depend on the Biological dispersal, modes of dispersal applied to their seeds. Dispersal is achieved by wind or water, by explosive dehiscence, and by interactions with animals. Some fruits present their outer skins or shells coated with spikes or hooked burrs; these evolved either to deter would-be foragers from feeding on them, or to serve to attach themselves to the hair, feathers, legs, or clothing of animals, thereby using them as dispersal agents. These plants are termed zoochorous; common examples include cocklebur, unicorn plant, and beggarticks, beggarticks (or Spanish needle). By developments of mutual evolution the fleshy produce of fruits typically appeals to hungry animals, such that the seeds contained within are taken in, carried away and later deposited (i.e., Defecation, defecated) at a distance from the parent plant. Likewise, the nutritious, oily kernels of
nuts Nut often refers to: * Nut (fruit) A nut is a fruit composed of an inedible hard shell and a seed, which is generally edible. In general usage and in a Culinary nut, culinary sense, a wide variety of dried seeds are called nuts, but in a botan ...
typically motivate birds and squirrels to hoarding, hoard them, burying them in soil to retrieve later during the winter of scarcity; thereby, uneaten seeds are sown effectively under natural conditions to Germination, germinate and grow a new plant some distance away from the parent. Other fruits have evolved wing#In nature, flattened and elongated wings or helicopter, helicopter-like blades, e.g.,
elm Elms are and s comprising the genus ''Ulmus'' in the plant family . The genus first appeared in the about 20 million years ago, originating in what is now central Asia.Richens, R. H. (1983). ''Elm''. Cambridge University Press. These tree ...

elm
, maple, and tuliptree. This mechanism increases dispersal distance away from the parent via wind. Other wind-dispersed fruit have tiny "Pappus (flower structure), parachutes", e.g.,
dandelion ''Taraxacum'' () is a large genus Genus /ˈdʒiː.nəs/ (plural genera /ˈdʒen.ər.ə/) is a taxonomic rank In biological classification In biology, taxonomy () is the scientific study of naming, defining (Circumscription (taxono ...

dandelion
, Asclepias, milkweed, Tragopogon, salsify. Coconut fruits can float thousands of miles in the ocean, thereby spreading their seeds. Other fruits that can disperse via water are nipa palm and screw pine. Some fruits have evolved propulsive mechanisms that fling seeds substantial distances —(perhaps up to 100 m in the case of the sandbox tree)— via explosive dehiscence or other such mechanisms, (see impatiens and squirting cucumber.


Food uses

A cornucopia of fruits —fleshy (simple) fruits from apples to berries to watermelon; dry (simple) fruits including beans and rice, coconuts and carrots; aggregate fruits including strawberries, raspberries, blackberries, pawpaw; multiple fruits such as pineapple, fig, mulberries; (see above re all)— are commercially valuable as human food. They are eaten both fresh and as jams, marmalade and other fruit preserves. They are used extensively in manufactured and processed foods (cakes, cookies, baked goods, flavorings, ice cream, yogurt, canned vegetables, frozen vegetables and meals) and beverages such as fruit juices and alcoholic beverages (brandy, fruit beer, wine). Spices like vanilla, black pepper, paprika, and
allspice Allspice, also known as Jamaica pepper, myrtle pepper, pimenta, or pimento, is the dried unripe berry A berry is a small, pulpy, and often edible fruit In botany, a fruit is the seed-bearing structure in flowering plants (also known ...
are derived from berries. Olive, Olive fruit is pressed for olive oil and similar processing is applied to other oil bearing fruits/vegetables. Fruits are also used for socializing and gift-giving in the form of fruit baskets and fruit bouquets. Typically, many botanical fruits —"vegetables" in culinary ''parlance''— (including tomato, green beans, leaf greens, bell pepper, cucumber, eggplant, okra, pumpkin, squash, zucchini) are bought and sold daily in fresh produce markets and greengroceries and carried back to kitchens, at home or restaurant, for preparation of meals.


Storage

All fruits benefit from proper post harvest care, and in many fruits, the plant hormone Ethylene-ripened fruits, ethylene causes ripening. Therefore, maintaining most fruits in an efficient cold chain is optimal for post harvest storage, with the aim of extending and ensuring shelf life.Why Cold Chain for Fruits:


Nutritional value

Various culinary fruits provide significant amounts of fiber and water, and many are generally high in vitamin C. An overview of numerous studies showed that fruits (e.g., whole apples or whole oranges) are satisfying (filling) by simply eating and chewing them. The dietary fiber consumed in eating fruit promotes satiety, and may help to control body weight and aid reduction of blood cholesterol, a risk factor for cardiovascular diseases. Fruit consumption is under preliminary research for the potential to improve nutrition and affect chronic diseases. Regular consumption of fruit is generally associated with reduced risks of several diseases and functional declines associated with aging.


Food safety

For food safety, the Centers for Disease Control and Prevention, CDC recommends proper fruit handling and preparation to reduce the risk of food contamination and foodborne illness. Fresh fruits and vegetables should be carefully selected; at the store, they should not be damaged or bruised; and precut pieces should be refrigerated or surrounded by ice. All fruits and vegetables should be rinsed before eating. This recommendation also applies to produce with rinds or skins that are not eaten. It should be done just before preparing or eating to avoid premature spoilage. Fruits and vegetables should be kept separate from raw foods like meat, poultry, and seafood, as well as from utensils that have come in contact with raw foods. Fruits and vegetables that are not going to be cooked should be thrown away if they have touched raw meat, poultry, seafood, or eggs. All cut, peeled, or cooked fruits and vegetables should be refrigerated within two hours. After a certain time, harmful bacteria may grow on them and increase the risk of foodborne illness.


Allergies

Fruit allergies make up about 10 percent of all food related allergies.


Nonfood uses

Because fruits have been such a major part of the human diet, various cultures have developed many different uses for fruits they do not depend on for food. For example: * Bayberry fruits provide a wax often used to make candles; * Many dry fruits are used as decorations or in dried flower arrangements (e.g., annual honesty, cotoneaster, Nelumbo, lotus,
milkweed ''Asclepias'' is a genus of herbaceous, perennial plant, perennial, flowering plants known as milkweeds, named for their latex, a milky substance containing cardiac glycosides termed cardenolides, exuded where cells are damaged. Most species are ...

milkweed
, unicorn plant, and
wheat Wheat is a grass widely cultivated for its seed, a cereal grain which is a worldwide staple food. The many species of wheat together make up the genus ''Triticum''; the most widely grown is common wheat (''T. aestivum''). The archaeological r ...

wheat
). Ornamental trees and shrubs are often cultivated for their colorful fruits, including beautyberry, cotoneaster, holly, pyracantha, skimmia, and viburnum. * Fruits of opium poppy are the source of opium, which contains the drugs codeine and morphine, as well as the biologically inactive chemical theabaine from which the drug oxycodone is synthesized. * Osage orange fruits are used to repel cockroaches. * Many fruits provide natural dyes (e.g.,
cherry A cherry is the fruit In botany Botany, also called , plant biology or phytology, is the science of plant life and a branch of biology. A botanist, plant scientist or phytologist is a scientist who specialises in this field. ...

cherry
, mulberry, sumac, and
walnut A walnut is the Nut (fruit), nut of any tree of the genus ''Juglans'' (family Juglandaceae), particularly the Persian or English walnut, ''Juglans regia''. A walnut is the edible seed of a drupe, and thus not a true botanical nut. It is com ...

walnut
). * Dried gourds are used as bird houses, cups, decorations, dishes, musical instruments, and water jugs. * Pumpkins are carved into Jack-o'-lanterns for Halloween. * The spiny fruit of burdock or cocklebur inspired the invention of Velcro. * Coir fiber from
coconut The coconut tree (''Cocos nucifera'') is a member of the palm tree family (biology), family (Arecaceae) and the only living species of the genus ''Cocos''. The term "coconut" (or the archaic "cocoanut") can refer to the whole coconut palm, t ...

coconut
shells is used for brushes, doormats, floor tiles, insulation, mattresses, sacking, and as a growing medium for container plants. The shell of the coconut fruit is used to make bird houses, bowls, cups, musical instruments, and souvenir heads. * Fruit is often a subject of still life paintings.


See also

* Fruit tree * Fruitarianism * List of culinary fruits * List of foods * List of fruit dishes


References


Further reading

* Gollner, Adam J. (2010). ''The Fruit Hunters: A Story of Nature, Adventure, Commerce, and Obsession''. Scribner. * Watson, R. R., and Preedy, V.R. (2010, eds.). ''Bioactive Foods in Promoting Health: Fruits and Vegetables''. Academic Press.


External links


Images of fruit development from flowers
at bioimages.Vanderbilt.edu

at bioimages.Vanderbilt.edu

from California Rare Fruit Growers, Inc.
Photo ID of Fruits
by Capt. Pawanexh Kohli * {{Authority control Fruit, Pollination