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Forestry is the science and craft of creating, managing, planting, using, conserving and repairing
forest A forest is an area of land dominated by tree In botany, a tree is a perennial plant with an elongated Plant stem, stem, or trunk (botany), trunk, supporting branches and leaves in most species. In some usages, the definition of a ...

forest
s,
woodland A woodland () is, in the broad sense, land covered with trees, or in a narrow sense, synonymous with wood (or in the U.S., the ''plurale tantum'' woods), a low-density forest forming open habitats with plenty of sunlight and limited shade (see d ...

woodland
s, and associated resources for human and environmental benefits. Forestry is practiced in
plantation A plantation is a large-scale estate, generally centered on a plantation house, meant for farming that specializes in cash crops. The crops that are grown include cotton, coffee, tea, cocoa, sugar cane, opium, sisal, oil seeds, oil pa ...

plantation
s and natural stands. The science of forestry has elements that belong to the biological, physical, social, political and managerial sciences. Forest management play essential role of creation and modification of habitats and affect ecosystem services provisioning. Modern forestry generally embraces a broad range of concerns, in what is known as multiple-use management, including: * The provision of
timber Lumber, also known as timber, is wood Wood is a porous and fibrous structural tissue found in the stems and roots of tree In botany, a tree is a perennial plant with an elongated Plant stem, stem, or trunk (botany), trunk, sup ...

timber
* Fuel wood *
Wildlife habitat In ecology, the term habitat summarises the array of resources, physical and biotic factors that are present in an area, such as to support the survival and reproduction of a particular species. A species habitat can be seen as the physical ...
* Natural
water quality management Water is an Inorganic compound, inorganic, Transparency and translucency, transparent, tasteless, odorless, and Color of water, nearly colorless chemical substance, which is the main constituent of Earth's hydrosphere and the fluids of all ...
*
Recreation Recreation is an activity of leisure Leisure has often been defined as a quality of experience or as free time. Free time is spent away from , , , , and , as well as necessary activities such as and ing. Leisure as an experience usuall ...

Recreation
* Landscape and community protection * Employment * Aesthetically appealing
landscape A landscape is the visible features of an area of , its s, and how they integrate with or man-made features.''New Oxford American Dictionary''. A landscape includes the physical elements of ly defined s such as (ice-capped) , , such as s, s, ...

landscape
s *
Biodiversity Biodiversity is the biological variety and of . Biodiversity is a measure of variation at the , , and level. Terrestrial biodiversity is usually greater near the , which is the result of the warm and high . Biodiversity is not distributed ev ...

Biodiversity
management *
Watershed managementWatershed management is the study of the relevant characteristics of a watershed aimed at the sustainable distribution of its resources and the process of creating and implementing plans, programs and projects to sustain and enhance watershed funct ...
*
Erosion control Erosion control is the practice of preventing or controlling wind or water erosion In earth science, erosion is the action of surface processes (such as Surface runoff, water flow or wind) that removes soil, Rock (geology), rock, or dissolved ...
* Preserving forests as "
sinks A sink – also known by other names including sinker, washbowl, hand basin, wash basin, and simply basin – is a bowl-shaped plumbing fixture used for washing hands, dishwashing, and other purposes. Sinks have Tap (valve), taps (faucets) that ...
" for
atmospheric An atmosphere (from the greek words ἀτμός ''(atmos)'', meaning 'vapour', and σφαῖρα ''(sphaira)'', meaning 'ball' or 'sphere') is a layer or a set of layers of gases surrounding a planet A planet is an astronomical body orbi ...

atmospheric
carbon dioxide Carbon dioxide (chemical formula A chemical formula is a way of presenting information about the chemical proportions of s that constitute a particular or molecule, using symbols, numbers, and sometimes also other symbols, such as pare ...

carbon dioxide
A practitioner of forestry is known as a
forester A forester is a person who practices forestry Forestry is the science and craft of creating, managing, planting, using, conserving and repairing forests, woodlands, and associated resources for human and environmental benefits. Forestry is ...

forester
. Another common term is silviculturist.
Silviculture Silviculture is the practice of controlling the growth, composition/structure, and quality of forest A forest is an area of land dominated by tree In botany, a tree is a perennial plant with an elongated Plant stem, stem, or trunk ...
is narrower than forestry, being concerned only with forest plants, but is often used synonymously with forestry. Forest ecosystems have come to be seen as the most important component of the
biosphere The biosphere (from βίος ''bíos'' "life" and σφαῖρα ''sphaira'' "sphere"), also known as the ecosphere (from Greek οἶκος ''oîkos'' "environment" and σφαῖρα), is the worldwide sum of all s. It can also be termed the zo ...
, and forestry has emerged as a vital
applied science Applied science is the use of the scientific method The scientific method is an Empirical evidence, empirical method of acquiring knowledge that has characterized the development of science since at least the 17th century. It involves caref ...
,
craft A craft or trade is a pastime or an occupation that requires particular skills and knowledge of skilled work. In a historical sense, particularly the Middle Ages In the history of Europe, the Middle Ages or medieval period lasted ap ...
, and
technology Technology ("science of craft", from Greek#REDIRECT Greek Greek may refer to: Greece Anything of, from, or related to Greece Greece ( el, Ελλάδα, , ), officially the Hellenic Republic, is a country located in Southeast Europe. I ...

technology
. All people depend upon forests and their biodiversity, some more than others. Forestry is an important economic segment in various industrial countries, as forests provide more than 86 million green jobs and support the livelihoods of many more people. For example, in Germany, forests cover nearly a third of the land area,''Bundeswaldinventur 2002''
, Bundesministerium für Ernährung, Landwirtschaft und Verbraucherschutz (BMELV), retrieved, 17 January 2010
wood is the most important
renewable resource File:Global Vegetation.jpg, Global vegetation A renewable resource, also known as a flow resource, is a natural resource which will replenish to replace the portion resource depletion, depleted by usage and consumption, either through natural rep ...
, and forestry supports more than a million jobs and about €181 billion of value to the German economy each year. Worldwide, an estimated 880 million people spend part of their time collecting fuelwood or producing charcoal, many of them women. Human populations tend to be low in areas of low-income countries with high
forest cover Forest cover is the amount of land area This is a list of the world's countries and their dependent territories by area, ranked by total area. Entries in this list include, but are not limited to, those in the ISO 3166-1 standard, which includ ...

forest cover
and high forest biodiversity, but poverty rates in these areas tend to be high. Some 252 million people living in forests and savannahs have incomes of less than US$1.25 per day.


History


Background

The preindustrial age has been dubbed by
Werner Sombart Werner Sombart (; ; 19 January 1863 – 18 May 1941) was a German economist An economist is a practitioner in the social sciences, social science discipline of economics. The individual may also study, develop, and apply theories and concepts ...
and others as the 'wooden age', as timber and firewood were the basic resources for energy, construction and housing. The development of modern forestry is closely connected with the rise of
capitalism Capitalism is an economic system An economic system, or economic order, is a system A system is a group of interacting Interaction is a kind of action that occurs as two or more objects have an effect upon one another. The idea o ...

capitalism
, economy as a science and varying notions of land use and property. Roman Latifundiae, large agricultural estates, were quite successful in maintaining the large supply of wood that was necessary for the Roman Empire.The Nature of Mediterranean Europe: An Ecological History, by
Alfred Thomas Grove Alfred Thomas Grove (born 1924) is a British geographer and climatologist. He is Emeritus Fellow of Downing College, Cambridge and was former Director of the Centre of African Studies at the University of Cambridge. Grove researched Environmental ...
,
Oliver Rackham Oliver Rackham, (17 October 1939 – 12 February 2015) was an academic at the University of Cambridge who studied the ecology, management and development of the British countryside, especially trees, woodland A woodland () is, in the broad ...
, Yale University Press, 2003
review at Yale university pressNature_of_Mediterranean_Europe:_An_Ecological_History_(review)_Brian_M._Fagan
,_Journal_of_Interdisciplinary_History,_Volume_32,_Number_3,_Winter_2002,_pp._454-455_.html" ;"title="Brian M. Fagan">Nature of Mediterranean Europe: An Ecological History (review)
_Large_deforestation.html" ;"title="Brian M. Fagan
, Journal of Interdisciplinary History, Volume 32, Number 3, Winter 2002, pp. 454-455 ">
Large deforestation">Brian M. Fagan
, Journal of Interdisciplinary History, Volume 32, Number 3, Winter 2002, pp. 454-455 ">
Large deforestations came with the decline of the Romans. However already in the 5th century, monks in the then Byzantine Romagna on the Adriatic coast, were able to establish stone pine plantations to provide firewood, fuelwood and pine nut, food. This was the beginning of the massive forest mentioned by
Dante Alighieri Dante Alighieri (), probably baptized Durante di Alighiero degli Alighieri and often referred to simply as Dante (, also ; – 14 September 1321), was an Italian poet A poet is a person who creates poetry Poetry (derived from t ...

Dante Alighieri
in his 1308 poem
Divine Comedy The ''Divine Comedy'' ( it, Divina Commedia ) is a long Italian narrative poem by Dante Alighieri Dante Alighieri (), probably baptized Durante di Alighiero degli Alighieri and often referred to simply as Dante (, also ; – 1321), w ...

Divine Comedy
. Similar sustainable formal forestry practices were developed by the
Visigoths The Visigoths (; la, Visigothi, Wisigothi, Vesi, Visi, Wesi, Wisi) were an early Germanic people The Germanic peoples were a historical group of people living in Central Europe Central Europe is an area of Europe between Western Europe a ...
in the 7th century when, faced with the ever-increasing shortage of wood, they instituted a code concerned with the preservation of
oak An oak is a tree In botany, a tree is a perennial plant with an elongated Plant stem, stem, or trunk (botany), trunk, supporting branches and leaves in most species. In some usages, the definition of a tree may be narrower, including on ...

oak
and
pine A pine is any conifer Conifers are a group of conifer cone, cone-bearing Spermatophyte, seed plants, a subset of gymnosperms. Scientifically, they make up the phylum, division Pinophyta (), also known as Coniferophyta () or Coniferae. The div ...

pine
forests. The use and management of many forest resources has a long history in China as well, dating back to the
Han dynasty#REDIRECT Han dynasty The Han dynasty () was the second Dynasties in Chinese history, imperial dynasty of China (202 BC – 220 AD), established by the rebel leader Liu Bang and ruled by the House of Liu. Preceded by the short-lived Qin dynas ...

Han dynasty
and taking place under the landowning
gentry Gentry (from Old French Old French (, , ; Modern French French ( or ) is a Romance language of the Indo-European family. It descended from the Vulgar Latin of the Roman Empire, as did all Romance languages. French evolved from Ga ...
. A similar approach was used in Japan. It was also later written about by the
Ming dynasty The Ming dynasty (), officially the Great Ming, was the Dynasties in Chinese history, ruling dynasty of China from 1368 to 1644 following the collapse of the Mongol Empire, Mongol-led Yuan dynasty. The Ming dynasty was the last imperial dynas ...

Ming dynasty
Chinese scholar
Xu Guangqi Xu Guangqi or Hsü Kuang-ch'i (April 24, 1562– November 8, 1633), also known by his baptismal name Paul, was a Chinese agronomist, astronomer, mathematician, politician A politician is a person active in party politics Politics (fro ...

Xu Guangqi
(1562–1633). In Europe, land usage rights in medieval and early modern times allowed different users to access forests and pastures.
Plant litter Litterfall, plant litter, leaf litter, tree litter, soil litter, or duff, is dead plant material (such as leaf, leaves, Bark (botany), bark, Needle (botany), needles, twigs, and cladodes) that have fallen to the ground. This detritus or dead orga ...
and resin extraction were important, as
pitch (resin) Pitch is a viscoelastic In and , viscoelasticity is the property of that exhibit both and characteristics when undergoing . Viscous materials, like water, resist and linearly with time when a is applied. Elastic materials strain when s ...
was essential for the
caulking Caulk or, less frequently, caulking is a material used to seal Seal may refer to any of the following: Common uses * Pinniped Pinnipeds (pronounced ), commonly known as seals, are a widely range (biology), distributed and diverse clade ...

caulking
of ships, falking and hunting rights, firewood and building, timber gathering in wood pastures, and for grazing animals in forests. The notion of "
commons The commons is the culture, cultural and nature, natural resources accessible to all members of a society, including natural materials such as air, water, and a habitable earth. These resources are held in common, not owned privately. Commons c ...

commons
" (German "Allmende") refers to the underlying traditional legal term of
common land Common land is land owned by a person or collectively by a number of persons, over which other persons have certain common rights, such as to allow their livestock to graze upon it, to collect wood, or to cut turf for fuel. A person who has a ...
. The idea of enclosed private property came about during modern times. However, most hunting rights were retained by members of the nobility which preserved the right of the nobility to access and use common land for recreation, like
fox hunting Fox hunting is an activity involving the tracking, chase and, if caught, the killing of a fox, traditionally a red fox The red fox (''Vulpes vulpes'') is the largest of the true foxes and one of the most widely distributed members of the ...

fox hunting
.


Early modern forestry development

Systematic management of forests for a
sustainable yield The sustainable yield of natural capital on "natural capital" and "balancing the budget of our resources" File:Fires along the Rio Xingu, Brazil - NASA Earth Observatory.jpg, Fires along the Rio Xingu, Brazil - NASA Earth Observatory. Loss of n ...
of timber began in
Portugal Portugal, officially the Portuguese Republic ( pt, República Portuguesa, links=yes ), is a country A country is a distinct territorial body or political entity A polity is an identifiable political entity—any group of people who ...

Portugal
in the 13th century when King Afonso III planted the Pinhal do Rei (King's Pine Forest) near
Leiria Leiria (; cel-x-proto, ɸlāryo) is a city and municipality in the Central Region of Portugal Portugal, officially the Portuguese Republic ( pt, República Portuguesa, links=yes ), is a sovereign state, country whose mainland is located on ...

Leiria
to prevent coastal erosion and
soil degradation Soil retrogression and degradation are two regressive evolution processes associated with the loss of equilibrium of a stable A stable is a building in which livestock Livestock is commonly defined as domesticated Domestication is a sust ...
, and as a sustainable source for timber used in naval construction. His successor King Denis of Portugal continued the practice and the forest exists still today. Forest management also flourished in the
German German(s) may refer to: Common uses * of or related to Germany * Germans, Germanic ethnic group, citizens of Germany or people of German ancestry * For citizens of Germany, see also German nationality law * German language The German la ...
states in the 14th century, e.g. in
Nuremberg Nuremberg ( ; german: link=no, Nürnberg ; in the local East Franconian dialect: ''Nämberch'' ) is the second-largest city of the Germany, German States of Germany, state of Bavaria after its capital Munich, and its 518,370 (2019) inhabitants ...

Nuremberg
, and in 16th-century
Japan Japan ( ja, 日本, or , and formally ) is an island country An island country or an island nation is a country A country is a distinct territory, territorial body or political entity. It is often referred to as the land of an in ...

Japan
. Typically, a forest was divided into specific sections and mapped; the harvest of timber was planned with an eye to regeneration. As
timber rafting Timber rafting is a method of transporting felled tree trunks by tying them together to make raft '' A raft is any flat structure for support or transportation over water. It is usually of basic design, characterized by the absence of a Hu ...
allowed for connecting large continental forests, as in south western Germany, via Main, Neckar, Danube and Rhine with the coastal cities and states, early modern forestry and remote trading were closely connected. Large firs in the black forest were called „Holländer“, as they were traded to the Dutch ship yards. Large timber rafts on the Rhine were 200 to 400m in length, 40m in width and consisted of several thousand logs. The crew consisted of 400 to 500 men, including shelter, bakeries, ovens and livestock stables. Timber rafting infrastructure allowed for large interconnected networks all over continental Europe and is still of importance in Finland. Starting with the 16th century, enhanced world
maritime trade Maritime history is the study of human interaction with and activity at sea. It covers a broad thematic element of history History (from Greek , ''historia'', meaning "inquiry; knowledge acquired by investigation") is the study of the past. E ...
, a boom in housing construction in Europe, and the success and further
BerggeschreyBerggeschrey or Berggeschrei ("mining clamour") was a German term for the rapid spread of news on the discovery of rich ore deposits that led to the rapid establishment of a mining region, as in the silver rush in the early days of silver ore ...
(rushes) of the mining industry increased timber consumption sharply. The notion of 'Nachhaltigkeit',
sustainability Sustainability is the capacity to endure in a relatively ongoing way across various domains of life. In the 21st century, it refers generally to the capacity for Earth's biosphere and human civilization to co-exist. For many, sustainability is ...

sustainability
in forestry, is closely connected to the work of
Hans Carl von Carlowitz Hans Carl von Carlowitz, originally ''Hannß Carl von Carlowitz'' (24 December 1645 - 3 March 1714), was a German tax accountant and mining administrator. His book ''Sylvicultura oeconomica, oder haußwirthliche Nachricht und Naturmäßige Anweisu ...

Hans Carl von Carlowitz
(1645–1714), a mining administrator in
Saxony Saxony (german: Sachsen ; Upper Saxon Upper Saxon (german: Obersächsisch, ; ) is an East Central German East Central German (german: Ostmitteldeutsch) is the eastern, non-Franconian languages, Franconian Central German language, part o ...

Saxony
. His book ''Sylvicultura oeconomica, oder haußwirthliche Nachricht und Naturmäßige Anweisung zur wilden Baum-Zucht'' (1713) was the first comprehensive treatise about sustainable yield forestry. In the UK, and, to an extent, in continental Europe, the
enclosure Enclosure or Inclosure is a term, used in English landownership, that refers to the appropriation of "waste" or "common land Common land is land owned by a person or collectively by a number of persons, over which other persons have certai ...

enclosure
movement and the Clearances favored strictly enclosed private property.Radkau, Joachim. Nature and Power. A Global History of the Environment. Cambridge University Press. 2008. The Agrarian reformers, early economic writers and scientists tried to get rid of the traditional commons.Nature and Power, A Global History of the Environment, by Joachim Radkau, 2008, p. 72 At the time, an alleged
tragedy of the commons In economic science, the tragedy of the commons is a situation in which individual users, who have open access to a resource unhampered by shared social structures or formal rules that govern access and use, act independently according to their s ...
together with fears of a
Holznot Holznot (German for wood shortage) is a historic term for an existing or imminent supply crisis of wood. Historical use In particular, the concept was applied to Central Europe around the end of the 16th century till the start of the early 19th ...
, an imminent wood shortage played a watershed role in the controversies about cooperative land use patterns.The end of the commons as a watershed' ''The Age of Ecology'', Joachim Radkau, John Wiley & Sons, 03.04.2014, p. 15 ff The practice of establishing tree plantations in the
British Isles The British Isles are a group of islands in the North Atlantic off the north-western coast of continental Europe Continental Europe or mainland Europe is the contiguous continent A continent is any of several large landmasse ...

British Isles
was promoted by
John Evelyn John Evelyn (31 October 162027 February 1706) was an English writer, gardener and diary, diarist. John Evelyn's Diary, John Evelyn's diary, or memoir, spanned the period of his adult life from 1640, when he was a student, to 1706, the year he ...

John Evelyn
, though it had already acquired some popularity.
Louis XIV Louis XIV (Louis Dieudonné; 5 September 16381 September 1715), also known as Louis the Great () or the Sun King (), was King of France from 14 May 1643 until his death in 1715. His reign of 72 years and 110 days is the List of longest-reigning mo ...

Louis XIV
's minister
Jean-Baptiste Colbert Jean-Baptiste Colbert (; 29 August 1619 – 6 September 1683) was a French statesman who served as First Minister of State from 1661 until his death in 1683 under the rule of King Louis XIV. His lasting impact on the organisation of the country's ...

Jean-Baptiste Colbert
's oak Forest of Tronçais, planted for the future use of the
French Navy The French Navy (french: Marine nationale, lit=National Navy), informally , is the maritime arm of the French Armed Forces The French Armed Forces (french: Forces armées françaises) encompass the Army An army (from Latin ''arma'' "ar ...
, matured as expected in the mid-19th century: "Colbert had thought of everything except the steamship,"
Fernand Braudel Fernand Braudel (; 24 August 1902 – 27 November 1985) was a French historian and a leader of the Annales School. His scholarship focused on three main projects: ''The Mediterranean'' (1923–49, then 1949–66), ''Civilization and Capitalism' ...
observed. In parallel, schools of forestry were established beginning in the late 18th century in
Hesse Hesse (, , ) or Hessia (, ; german: Hessen ), officially the State of Hessen (german: links=no, Land Hessen), is a state State may refer to: Arts, entertainment, and media Literature * ''State Magazine'', a monthly magazine published by the U. ...
,
Russia Russia ( rus, link=no, Россия, Rossiya, ), or the Russian Federation, is a country spanning Eastern Europe Eastern Europe is the eastern region of . There is no consistent definition of the precise area it covers, partly because th ...

Russia
,
Austria-Hungary Austria-Hungary, often referred to as the Austro-Hungarian Empire or the Dual Monarchy, was a constitutional monarchy A constitutional monarchy, parliamentary monarchy, or democratic monarchy is a form of monarchy in which the monarch exe ...

Austria-Hungary
,
Sweden Sweden ( sv, Sverige ), officially the Kingdom of Sweden ( sv, links=no, Konungariket Sverige ), is a Nordic country The Nordic countries, or the Nordics, are a geographical and cultural region In geography, regions are areas that ...

Sweden
,
France France (), officially the French Republic (french: link=no, République française), is a transcontinental country This is a list of countries located on more than one continent A continent is one of several large landmasses ...

France
and elsewhere in Europe.


Forest conservation and early globalization

Starting from the 1750s modern scientific forestry was developed in France and the German speaking countries in the context of
natural history Natural history is a domain of inquiry involving organism In biology Biology is the natural science that studies life and living organisms, including their anatomy, physical structure, Biochemistry, chemical processes, Molecul ...

natural history
scholarship and state administration inspired by
physiocracy , a physician who is considered the founding father of physiocracy, published the "Tableau économique" (Economic Table) in 1758 Image:Pierre Samuel du Pont de Nemours (1739-1817).png, Pierre Samuel du Pont de Nemours, a prominent physiocrat. In ...
and
cameralism Cameralism ( German: ''Kameralismus'') was a German science of administration in the 18th and early 19th centuries that aimed at strong management of a centralized economy An economy (from Greek language, Greek οίκος – "household" and ...
. Its main traits were centralized management by professional foresters, the adherence to sustainble yield concepts with a bias towards fuelwood and timber production, artificial afforestation, and a critical view of pastoral and agricultural uses of forests. During the late 19th and early 20th centuries, forest preservation programs were established in British India, the United States, and Europe. Many foresters were either from continental Europe (like Sir Dietrich Brandis), or educated there (like
Gifford Pinchot Gifford Pinchot (August 11, 1865October 4, 1946) was an American forester and politician. He served as the 4th Chief of the U.S. Division of Forestry, as the 1st head of the United States Forest Service The United States Forest Service (U ...
). Sir
Dietrich Brandis Sir Dietrich Brandis (31 March 1824 – 28 May 1907, Bonn, Germany) was a German- British botanist and forestry academic and administrator, who worked with the British Imperial Forestry Service in colonial India India (Hindi: ), ...
is considered the father of tropical forestry, European concepts and practices had to be adapted in tropical and semi-arid climate zones. The development of
plantation A plantation is a large-scale estate, generally centered on a plantation house, meant for farming that specializes in cash crops. The crops that are grown include cotton, coffee, tea, cocoa, sugar cane, opium, sisal, oil seeds, oil pa ...

plantation
forestry was one of the (controversial) answers to the specific challenges in the tropical colonies. The enactment and evolution of forest laws and binding regulations occurred in most Western nations in the 20th century in response to growing conservation concerns and the increasing technological capacity of
logging Logging is the process of cutting, processing, and moving trees to a location for transport. It may include skidder, skidding, on-site processing, and loading of trees or trunk (botany), logs onto logging truck, trucks or flatcar#Skeleton car, s ...

logging
companies. Tropical forestry is a separate branch of forestry which deals mainly with equatorial forests that yield woods such as
teak Teak (''Tectona grandis'') is a tropical hardwood is a popular hardwood Hardwood is wood Wood is a porous and fibrous structural tissue found in the Plant stem, stems and roots of trees and other woody plants. It is an organic mat ...

teak
and
mahogany Mahogany is a straight-grained, reddish-brown timber Lumber, also known as timber, is wood Wood is a porous and fibrous structural tissue found in the stems and roots of tree In botany, a tree is a perennial plant wit ...
.


Mechanization

Forestry mechanization was always in close connection to metal working and the development of mechanical tools to cut and transport timber to its destination. Rafting belongs to the earliest means of transport. Steel saws came up in the 15th century. The 19th century widely increased the availability of steel for
whipsaw A whipsaw or pitsaw was originally a type of saw used in a saw pit, and consisted of a narrow blade held rigid by a frame and called a frame saw or sash saw (see illustrations). This evolved into a straight, stiff blade without a frame, up to 1 ...
s and introduced
forest railway, Romania Romania ( ; ro, România ) is a country located at the crossroads of Central Europe, Central, Eastern Europe, Eastern, and Southeast Europe, Southeastern Europe. It shares land borders with Bulgaria to the south, Ukraine to the nor ...
s and railways in general for transport and as forestry customer. Further human induced changes, however, came since World War II, respectively in line with the "1950s syndrome". The first portable chainsaw was invented in
1918 in Canada Events from the year 1918 in Canada. Incumbents Crown * List of Canadian monarchs, Monarch – George V of the United Kingdom, George V Federal government * Governor General of Canada, Governor General – Victor Cavendish, 9th Duke of Devo ...

1918 in Canada
, but large impact of mechanization in forestry started after World War II. Forestry
harvesters Harvester may refer to: Agriculture and forestry * Combine harvester The modern combined harvester, or simply combine, is a versatile machine designed to efficiently harvest a variety of grain crops. The name derives from its combining four ...
are among the most recent developments. Although drones,
planes Plane or planes may refer to: * Airplane An airplane or aeroplane (informally plane) is a fixed-wing aircraft that is propelled forward by thrust from a jet engine, Propeller (aircraft), propeller, or rocket engine. Airplanes come in a va ...
,
laser scanning Laser scanning is the controlled deflection Deflection or deflexion may refer to: * Deflection (ballistics), a technique of shooting ahead of a moving target so that the target and projectile will collide * Deflection (chess), a tactic that ...
,
satellites In the context of spaceflight, a satellite is an object that has been intentionally placed into orbit. These objects are called artificial satellites to distinguish them from natural satellites such as Earth's Moon. On 4 October 1957, the So ...
and robots also play a part in forestry.


Early journals which are still present

* '' Sylwan'' first published in 1820 * ''Schweizerische Zeitschrift für Forstwesen'' first published in 1850. * ''Erdészeti Lapok'' first published in 1862. (Hungary, 1862–present) * ''The Indian Forester'' first published in 1875. * ''Šumarski list'' (Forestry Review, Croatia) was published in 1877 by Croatian Forestry Society. * ''Montes (journal), Montes'' (Forestry, Spain) first published in 1877. * ''Revista pădurilor'' (Journal of Forests, Romania, 1881–1882; 1886–present), the oldest extant magazine in Romania (webpage has a translation button) (webpage has a translation button) * ''Forestry Quarterly'', first published in 1902 by the History of the New York State College of Forestry, New York State College of Forestry. * ''Šumarstvo'' (Forestry, Serbia) first published in 1948 by the Ministry of Forestry of Democratic Federal Yugoslavia, and since 1951 by Organ of Society of Forestry Engineers and Technicians of the Republic of Serbia (succeeding the former ''Šumarski glasnik'' published from 1907 to 1921)


Forestry in the 21st century

Today a strong body of research exists regarding the management of Forest ecology, forest ecosystems and the genetic improvement of Tree breeding, tree species and varieties. Forestry studies also include the development of better methods for the planting, protecting, thinning, controlled burning, felling, extracting, and processing of
timber Lumber, also known as timber, is wood Wood is a porous and fibrous structural tissue found in the stems and roots of tree In botany, a tree is a perennial plant with an elongated Plant stem, stem, or trunk (botany), trunk, sup ...

timber
. One of the applications of modern forestry is reforestation, in which trees are planted and tended in a given area. Trees provide numerous environmental, social and economic benefits for people. In many regions, the forest industry is of major ecological, economic, and social importance, with the United States producing more
timber Lumber, also known as timber, is wood Wood is a porous and fibrous structural tissue found in the stems and roots of tree In botany, a tree is a perennial plant with an elongated Plant stem, stem, or trunk (botany), trunk, sup ...

timber
than any other country in the world. Third-party certification systems that provide independent verification of sound forest stewardship and Sustainable forest management, sustainable forestry have become commonplace in many areas since the 1990s. These certification systems developed as a response to criticism of some forestry practices, particularly deforestation in less-developed regions along with concerns over resource management in the developed world. In topographically severe forested terrain, proper forestry is important for the prevention or minimization of serious soil erosion or even landslides. In areas with a high potential for landslides, forests can Erosion control, stabilize soils and prevent property damage or loss, human injury, or loss of life.


Foresters

Foresters work for the timber industry, government agencies, conservation groups, local authorities, urban area, urban parks boards, citizens' associations, and private landowners. The forestry profession includes a wide diversity of jobs, with educational requirements ranging from college bachelor's degrees to PhDs for highly specialized work. Industrial foresters plan forest regeneration starting with careful harvesting. Urban foresters manage trees in urban green spaces. Foresters work in plant nursery, tree nurseries growing seedlings for woodland creation or regeneration projects. Foresters improve tree genetics. Forest engineers develop new building systems. Professional foresters timber cruise, measure and Growth and yield modelling, model the growth of forests with tools like GIS, geographic information systems. Foresters may combat insect infestation, disease, forest and grassland wildfire, but increasingly allow these natural aspects of forest ecosystems to run their course when the likelihood of epidemics or risk of life or property are low. Increasingly, foresters participate in wildlife Conservation movement, conservation planning and Drainage basin, watershed protection. Foresters have been mainly concerned with timber management, especially reforestation, maintaining forests at prime conditions, and fire control.


Forestry plans

Foresters develop and implement forest management plans relying on mapped resource Forest inventory, inventories showing an area's Topography, topographical features as well as its distribution of trees (by species) and other plant cover. Plans also include landowner objectives, roads, culverts, proximity to human habitation, water features and hydrological conditions, and soils information. Forest management plans typically include recommended Silviculture, silvicultural treatments and a timetable for their implementation. Application of digital maps in Geographic Informations systems (GIS) that extracts and integrates different information about forest terrains, soil type and tree covers, etc. using, e.g. laser scanning, enhances forest management plans in modern systems. Forest management plans include recommendations to achieve the landowner's objectives and desired future condition for the property subject to ecological, financial, logistical (e.g. access to resources), and other constraints. On some properties, plans focus on producing quality wood products for processing or sale. Hence, tree species, quantity, and form, all central to the value of harvested products quality and quantity, tend to be important components of silvicultural plans. Good management plans include consideration of future conditions of the stand after any recommended harvests treatments, including future treatments (particularly in intermediate stand treatments), and plans for natural or artificial regeneration after final harvests. The objectives of landowners and Leasehold estate, leaseholders influence plans for harvest and subsequent site treatment. In Britain, plans featuring "good forestry practice" must always consider the needs of other stakeholders such as nearby communities or rural residents living within or adjacent to woodland areas. Foresters consider tree felling and environmental legislation when developing plans. Plans instruct the sustainable harvesting and replacement of trees. They indicate whether road building or other forest engineering operations are required. Agriculture and forest leaders are also trying to understand how the climate change legislation will affect what they do. The information gathered will provide the data that will determine the role of agriculture and forestry in a new climate change regulatory system.


Forestry as a science

Over the past centuries, silviculture, forestry was regarded as a separate science. With the rise of ecology and environmental science, there has been a reordering in the applied sciences. In line with this view, forestry is a primary land-use science comparable with agriculture. Under these headings, the fundamentals behind the management of natural forests comes by way of natural ecology. Forests or tree plantations, those whose primary purpose is the extraction of forest products, are planned and managed utilizing a mix of ecological and agroecological principles. In many regions of the world there is considerable conflict between forest practices and other societal priorities such as water quality, watershed preservation, sustainable fishing, conservation, and species preservation.


Genetic diversity in forestry

The provenance of forest reproductive material used to plant forests has great influence on how the trees develop, hence why it is important to use forest reproductive material of good quality and of high genetic diversity. More generally, all forest management practices, including in Silviculture#Regeneration, natural regeneration systems, may impact the genetic diversity of trees. The term describes the differences in DNA sequence between individuals as distinct from variation caused by environmental influences. The unique genetic composition of an individual (its genotype) will determine its performance (its phenotype) at a particular site. Genetic diversity is needed to maintain the vitality of forests and to provide Ecological resilience, resilience to Pest (organism), pests and diseases. Genetic diversity also ensures that forest trees can survive, adapt and evolve under changing environmental conditions. Furthermore, genetic diversity is the foundation of biological diversity at species and ecosystem levels. Forest genetic resources are therefore important to consider in forest management. Genetic diversity in forests is threatened by forest fires, pests and diseases, habitat fragmentation, poor silvicultural practices and inappropriate use of forest reproductive material. About 98 million hectares of forest were affected by fire in 2015; this was mainly in the tropical domain, where fire burned about 4 percent of the total forest area in that year. More than two-thirds of the total forest area affected was in Africa and South America. Insects, diseases and severe weather events damaged about 40 million hectares of forests in 2015, mainly in the temperate and boreal domains. Furthermore, the marginal populations of many tree species are facing new threats due to climate change. Most countries in Europe have recommendations or guidelines for selecting species and provenances that can be used in a given site or zone.


Education


History of forestry education

The first dedicated forestry school was established by Georg Ludwig Hartig at Hungen in the Wetterau,
Hesse Hesse (, , ) or Hessia (, ; german: Hessen ), officially the State of Hessen (german: links=no, Land Hessen), is a state State may refer to: Arts, entertainment, and media Literature * ''State Magazine'', a monthly magazine published by the U. ...
, in 1787, though forestry had been taught earlier in central Europe, including at the University of Giessen, in Landgraviate of Hesse-Darmstadt, Hesse-Darmstadt. In Spain, the first forestry school was the Forest Engineering School of Madrid (Escuela Técnica Superior de Ingenieros de Montes), founded in 1844. The first in North America, the Biltmore Forest School was established near Asheville, North Carolina, by Carl A. Schenck on September 1, 1898, on the grounds of George Washington Vanderbilt II, George W. Vanderbilt's Biltmore Estate. Another early school was the History of the New York State College of Forestry, New York State College of Forestry, established at Cornell University just a few weeks later, in September 1898. Early 19th century North American foresters went to Germany to study forestry. Some early German foresters also emigrated to North America. In South America the first forestry school was established in Brazil, in Viçosa, Minas Gerais, Viçosa, Minas Gerais, in 1962, and moved the next year to become a faculty at the Federal University of Paraná, in Curitiba.


Forestry education today

Today, forestry education typically includes training in general biology, ecology, botany, genetics, soil science, climatology, hydrology, economics and forest management. Education in the basics of sociology and political science is often considered an advantage. Professional skills in conflict resolution and communication are also important in training programs. In India, forestry education is imparted in the List of agricultural universities and colleges#India, agricultural universities and in Forest Research Institutes (deemed universities). Four year degree programmes are conducted in these universities at the undergraduate level. Masters and Doctorate degrees are also available in these universities. In the United States, Higher education, postsecondary forestry education leading to a Bachelor's degree or Master's degree is accredited by the Society of American Foresters. In Canada the Canadian Institute of Forestry awards silver rings to graduates from accredited university BSc programs, as well as college and technical programs. In many European countries, training in forestry is made in accordance with requirements of the Bologna Process and the European Higher Education Area. The International Union of Forest Research Organizations is the only international organization that coordinates forest science efforts worldwide.


Continuing education

In order to keep up with changing demands and environmental factors, forestry education does not stop at graduation. Increasingly, forestry professionals engage in regular training to maintain and improve on their management practices. An increasingly popular tool are marteloscopes; one hectare large, rectangular forest sites where all trees are numbered, mapped and recorded. These sites can be used to do virtual thinnings and test one's wood quality and volume estimations as well as tre
microhabitats
This system is mainly suitable to regions with small-scale multi-functional forest management systems.


Miscellaneous about Forestry research and education

* List of forest research institutes * List of forestry technical schools * List of forestry universities and colleges * #Early journals which are still present, List of historic journals of forestry * Imperial Forestry Institute (disambiguation)


See also

* Afforestation * Agroforestry * Arboriculture * Close to nature forestry * Community forestry * Deforestation * Deforestation and climate change * Dendrology * Forest dynamics * Forest farming * Forest informatics * Forestry literature * History of the forest in Central Europe * International Year of Forests * List of forest research institutes * List of forestry journals * Lumberjack * Miyawaki method * Private nonindustrial forest land, Nonindustrial private forests * Sustainable forest management *
Silviculture Silviculture is the practice of controlling the growth, composition/structure, and quality of forest A forest is an area of land dominated by tree In botany, a tree is a perennial plant with an elongated Plant stem, stem, or trunk ...
* Silvology


Sources


References


Further reading

* Eyle, Alexandra. 1992. ''Charles Lathrop Pack: Timberman, Forest Conservationist, and Pioneer in Forest Education''. Syracuse, NY: ESF College Foundation and College of Environmental Science and Forestry. Distributed by Syracuse University Press. Available
Internet Archive
* Hammond, Herbert. 1991. ''Seeing the Forest Among the Trees''. Winlaw/Vancouver: Polestar Press, 1991. * Hart, C. 1994. ''Practical Forestry for the Agent and Surveyor''. Stroud. Sutton Publishing. * Hibberd, B.G. (Ed). 1991. ''Forestry Practice''. Forestry Commission Handbook 6. London. HMSO.
Kimmins, Hammish
1992. ''Balancing Act: Environmental Issues in Forestry''. Vancouver: University of British Columbia Press. * Maser, Chris. 1994. ''Sustainable Forestry: Philosophy, Science, and Economics''. DelRay Beach: St. Lucie Press. * Miller, G. Tyler. 1990. ''Resource Conservation and Management''. Belmont: Wadsworth Publishing. * Nyland, Ralph D. 2007. ''Silviculture: Concepts and Applications''. 2nd ed. Prospect Heights: Waveland Press. * Oosthoek, K. Jan/ Richard Hölzl (eds.) 2019. Managing Northern Europe's Forests. Histories from the Age of Improvement to the Age of Ecology. New York/Oxford: Berghahn Publ. * Joachim Radkau, Radkau, Joachim Wood: A History, , November 2011, Polity * Stoddard, Charles H. 1978. ''Essentials of Forestry''. New York: Ronald Press.

Vira, B. et al. 2015. ''Forests and Food: Addressing Hunger and Nutrition Across Sustainable Landscapes''. Cambridge: Open Book Publishers. *Scott, James C. 1998. ''Seeing Like a State: Nature and Space.'' Yale University Press


External links

* * * {{Authority control Forestry,