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The food industry is a complex, global network of diverse
business Business is the activity of making one's living or making money by producing or buying and selling products (such as goods and services). Simply put, it is "any activity or enterprise entered into for profit." Having a business name A trad ...

business
es that supplies most of the
food Food is any substance consumed to provide Nutrient, nutritional support for an organism. Food is usually of plant, animal or Fungus, fungal origin, and contains essential nutrients, such as carbohydrates, fats, protein (nutrient), proteins, vi ...

food
consumed by the
world's population
world's population
. The term food industries covers a series of industrial activities directed at the production,
distributionDistribution may refer to: Mathematics *Distribution (mathematics) Distributions, also known as Schwartz distributions or generalized functions, are objects that generalize the classical notion of functions in mathematical analysis. Distr ...

distribution
, processing, conversion, preparation, preservation,
transport Transport (in British English British English (BrE) is the standard dialect A standard language (also standard variety, standard dialect, and standard) is a language variety that has undergone substantial codification of grammar and ...

transport
, certification and
packaging Packaging is the science Science () is a systematic enterprise that Scientific method, builds and organizes knowledge in the form of Testability, testable explanations and predictions about the universe."... modern science is a disco ...
of foodstuffs. The food industry today has become highly diversified, with manufacturing ranging from small, traditional, family-run activities that are highly labor-intensive, to large, capital-intensive and highly mechanized industrial processes. Many food industries depend almost entirely on local
agriculture Agriculture is the science, art and practice of cultivating plants and livestock. Agriculture was the key development in the rise of sedentary Image:Family watching television 1958.jpg, Exercise trends, Increases in sedentary behaviors su ...

agriculture
,
produce Produce is a generalized term for many farm-produced crops, including fruits and vegetables (grains, oats, etc. are also sometimes considered ''produce''). More specifically, the term ''produce'' often implies that the products are wikt:fresh, fr ...

produce
, or
fishing Fishing is the activity of trying to catch fish Fish are , , -bearing animals that lack with . Included in this definition are the living , s, and and as well as various extinct related groups. Around 99% of living fish species are ...

fishing
. It is challenging to find an inclusive way to cover all aspects of food production and sale. The UK
Food Standards Agency , type = Non-ministerial government department Non-ministerial government departments (NMGDs) are a type of Departments of the Government of the United Kingdom, department of the Government of the United Kingdom that deal with matters for which d ...
describes it as "the whole food industry – from farming and food production, packaging and distribution, to retail and catering." The
Economic Research Service The Economic Research Service (ERS) is a component of the United States Department of Agriculture (USDA) and a principal agency of the Federal Statistical System of the United States. It provides information and research on agriculture and econo ...
of the
USDA The United States Department of Agriculture (USDA), also known as the Agriculture Department, is the federal executive department responsible for developing and executing federal laws related to farming, forestry, rural economic development, ...
uses the term ''food system'' to describe the same thing, stating: "The U.S. food system is a complex network of farmers and the industries that link to them. Those links include makers of farm equipment and chemicals as well as firms that provide services to agribusinesses, such as providers of transportation and financial services. The system also includes the food marketing industries that link farms to consumers, and which include food and fiber processors, wholesalers, retailers, and foodservice establishments." The food industry includes: *
Agriculture Agriculture is the science, art and practice of cultivating plants and livestock. Agriculture was the key development in the rise of sedentary Image:Family watching television 1958.jpg, Exercise trends, Increases in sedentary behaviors su ...

Agriculture
: raising
crop A crop is a plant that can be grown and harvested extensively for profit or subsistence. Crops may refer either to the harvested parts or to the harvest in a more refined state. Most crops are cultivated in agriculture or aquaculture. A crop ma ...

crop
s,
livestock Livestock are the domesticated Domestication is a sustained multi-generational relationship in which one group of organisms assumes a significant degree of influence over the reproduction and care of another group to secure a more predictabl ...
, and
seafood Seafood is any form of sea life regarded as food by humans, prominently including fish Fish are , , -bearing animals that lack with . Included in this definition are the living , s, and and as well as various extinct related groups. ...

seafood
.
Agricultural economics Agricultural economics is an applied field of economics Economics () is the social science that studies how people interact with value; in particular, the Production (economics), production, distribution (economics), distribution, and Consu ...
. *
Manufacturing Manufacturing is the creation or Production (economics), production of goods with the help of equipment, Work (human activity), labor, machines, tools, and chemical or biological processing or formulation. It is the essence of secondary sector ...
:
agrichemicals An agrochemical or agrichemical, a contraction of ''agricultural chemical'', is a chemical A chemical substance is a form of matter having constant chemical composition and characteristic properties. Some references add that chemical substance ...
, agricultural
construction Construction is a general term meaning the and to form , , or ,"Construction" def. 1.a. 1.b. and 1.c. ''Oxford English Dictionary'' Second Edition on CD-ROM (v. 4.0) Oxford University Press 2009 and comes from ''constructio'' (from ''com-' ...

construction
,
farm machinery Agricultural machinery relates to the mechanical Mechanical may refer to: Machine * Mechanical system, a system that manages the power of forces and movements to accomplish a task * Machine (mechanical), a system of mechanisms that shape the ...
and supplies,
seed A seed is an embryonic ''Embryonic'' is the twelfth studio album by experimental rock band the Flaming Lips released on October 13, 2009, on Warner Bros. Records, Warner Bros. The band's first double album, it was released to generally positi ...

seed
, etc. *
Food processing Food processing is the transformation of agricultural products into food Food is any substance consumed to provide nutritional Nutrition is the biochemical Biochemistry or biological chemistry, is the study of chemical processes with ...
: preparation of fresh products for market, and manufacture of prepared food products *
Marketing Marketing is the process of intentionally stimulating demand for and purchases of goods and services; potentially including selection of a target audience; selection of certain attributes or themes to emphasize in advertising; operation of adv ...

Marketing
: promotion of generic products (e.g., milk board), new products,
advertising Advertising is a marketing Marketing is the process of intentionally stimulating demand for and purchases of goods and services; potentially including selection of a target audience; selection of certain attributes or themes to emphasi ...

advertising
, marketing campaigns,
packaging Packaging is the science Science () is a systematic enterprise that Scientific method, builds and organizes knowledge in the form of Testability, testable explanations and predictions about the universe."... modern science is a disco ...

packaging
,
public relations Public relations (PR) is the practice of managing and disseminating information from an individual or an organization An organization, or organisation (English in the Commonwealth of Nations, Commonwealth English; American and British ...
, etc. *
Wholesale Wholesaling or distributing is the sale of goods or merchandise Merchandising is any practice which contributes to the sale of products to a retail consumer A consumer is a person or a group who intends to order, orders, or uses purch ...
and
food distribution Food distribution is the process where a general population is supplied with food. The Food and Agriculture Organization The Food and Agriculture Organization of the United Nations (FAO)french: Organisation des Nations unies pour l'alimentatio ...

food distribution
: logistics, transportation,
warehousing A warehouse is a building for storing goods In economics Economics () is the social science that studies how people interact with value; in particular, the Production (economics), production, distribution (economics), distribution, and ...

warehousing
*
Foodservice The foodservice (US English) or catering (British English) industry includes the businesses, institutions, and companies which prepare meals outside the home. It includes restaurant A restaurant is a business that prepares and serves food an ...
(which includes catering) *
Grocery A grocery store (North America), grocery or grocery shop (UK) is a store that primarily retails a general range of food products, which may be fresh Fresh or FRESH may refer to: People *DJ Fresh Daniel Edward Stein (born 11 April 197 ...

Grocery
, farmers' markets,
public market A market, or marketplace, is a location where people regularly go to gather for the purchase and sale of provisions, livestock, and other goods. In different parts of the world, a market place may be described as a ''souk'' (from the Arab ...

public market
s and other
retail Retail is the sale of goods In economics Economics () is the social science that studies how people interact with value; in particular, the Production (economics), production, distribution (economics), distribution, and Consumption ( ...

retail
ing *
Regulation Regulation is the management of complex systems A complex system is a system A system is a group of interacting Interaction is a kind of action that occurs as two or more objects have an effect upon one another. The idea of a two-way e ...

Regulation
: local, regional, national, and international rules and regulations for food production and sale, including
food quality Food quality or Meal quality is the quality characteristics of food that is acceptable to Consumer, consumers. This includes external factors as appearance (size, shape, color, gloss, and consistency), texture, and flavor; factors such as federal ...
,
food security Food security is the measure of the availability of food and individuals' Economic inequality, ability to access it. According to the United Nations' Committee on World Food Security, food security is defined as meaning that all people, at all t ...
,
food safety Food safety (or food hygiene) is used as a scientific method/discipline describing handling, food processing, preparation, and food storage, storage of food in ways that prevent foodborne illness, food-borne illness. The occurrence of two or ...
, marketing/advertising, and industry lobbying activities * Education: academic, consultancy, vocational * Research and development:
food science Food science is the basic science Basic research, also called pure research or fundamental research, is a type of scientific research The scientific method is an Empirical evidence, empirical method of acquiring knowledge that has charact ...
,
food microbiology Food microbiology is the study of the microorganisms that inhibit, create, or contaminate food Food is any substance consumed to provide nutritional support for an organism In biology, an organism (from Ancient Greek, Greek: ὀργ ...
, food technology,
food chemistry Food chemistry is the study of chemical A chemical substance is a form of matter In classical physics and general chemistry, matter is any substance that has mass and takes up space by having volume. All everyday objects that can be touched ...

food chemistry
, and
food engineering Food engineering is a scientific, academic, and professional field that interprets and applies principles of engineering, science, and mathematics to food manufacturing and operations, including the processing, production, handling, storage, conserv ...

food engineering
* Financial services:
credit px, Domestic credit to private sector in 2005 Credit (from Latin Latin (, or , ) is a classical language belonging to the Italic languages, Italic branch of the Indo-European languages. Latin was originally spoken in the area around Rome, k ...
,
insurance Insurance is a means of protection from financial loss. It is a form of risk management Risk management is the identification, evaluation, and prioritization of risk In simple terms, risk is the possibility of something bad happening. ...

insurance
Areas of research such as
food grading 275px, Optical sorting achieves non-destructive, 100 percent inspection in-line at full production volumes Food grading involves the inspection An inspection is, most generally, an organized Observational study, examination or formal evaluat ...
,
food preservation Food preservation includes food processing practices which prevent the growth of microorganisms, such as yeasts (although some methods work by introducing benign bacteria or fungi to the food), and slow the redox, oxidation of fats that cause Ran ...

food preservation
,
food rheology Food rheology is the study of the rheological properties of food, that is, the consistency In classical logic, classical deductive logic, a consistent theory (mathematical logic), theory is one that does not entail a contradiction. The lack o ...
,
food storage Food storage is a way of decreasing the variability of the food supply in the face of natural, inevitable variability. p.507 It allows food Food is any substance consumed to provide Nutrient, nutritional support for an organism. Food i ...

food storage
directly deal with the quality and maintenance of quality overlapping many of the above processes. Only
subsistence farmers Subsistence agriculture occurs when farmers grow food crops to meet the needs of themselves and their families on smallholdings. Subsistence agriculturalists target farm output for survival and for mostly local requirements, with little or no ...
, those who survive on what they grow, and
hunter-gatherers A hunter-gatherer is a human Humans (''Homo sapiens'') are the most populous and widespread species of primates, characterized by bipedality, opposable thumbs, hairlessness, and intelligence allowing the use of culture, language and tools. T ...
can be considered outside the scope of the modern food industry. The dominant companies in the food industry have sometimes been referred to as Big Food, a term coined by the writer Neil Hamilton.


Food production

Most food produced for the food industry comes from commodity crops using conventional agricultural practices. Agriculture is the process of producing food, feeding products, fiber and other desired products by the cultivation of certain plants and the raising of domesticated animals (
livestock Livestock are the domesticated Domestication is a sustained multi-generational relationship in which one group of organisms assumes a significant degree of influence over the reproduction and care of another group to secure a more predictabl ...
). On average, 83% of the food consumed by humans is produced using terrestrial agriculture. Other food sources include
aquaculture Aquaculture (less commonly spelled aquiculture), also known as aquafarming, is the farming of fish Fish are , , -bearing animals that lack with . Included in this definition are the living , s, and and as well as various extinct rel ...
and
fishing Fishing is the activity of trying to catch fish Fish are , , -bearing animals that lack with . Included in this definition are the living , s, and and as well as various extinct related groups. Around 99% of living fish species are ...

fishing
. Scientists, inventors, and others devoted to improving farming methods and implements are also said to be engaged in agriculture. One in three people worldwide are employed in agriculture, yet it only contributes 3% to global
GDP Gross domestic product (GDP) is a monetary In a 1786 James Gillray caricature, the plentiful money bags handed to King George III are contrasted with the beggar whose legs and arms were amputated, in the left corner">174x174px Money is any ...
. In 2017, on average, agriculture contributes 4% of national GDPs. Global agricultural production is responsible for between 14 and 28% of global greenhouse gas emissions, making it one of the largest contributors to
global warming Contemporary climate change includes both the global warming caused by humans, and its impacts on Earth's weather patterns. There have been previous periods of climate change, but the current changes are more rapid than any known even ...

global warming
, in large part due to conventional agricultural practices, including and poor
land management Land management is the process of managing Management (or managing) is the administration of an organization An organization, or organisation (English in the Commonwealth of Nations, Commonwealth English; American and British English s ...
. Agronomy is the science and technology of producing and using plants for food, fuel, fibre, and
land reclamation Land reclamation, usually known as reclamation, and also known as land fill (not to be confused with a waste landfill), is the process of creating new Terrestrial ecoregion, land from oceans, list of seas, seas, Stream bed, riverbeds or lake be ...
. Agronomy encompasses work in the areas of
plant genetics Plant genetics is the study of genes, genetic variation, and heredity specifically in plants.Hartl D, Jones E (2005) It is generally considered a field of biology and botany, but intersects frequently with many other List of life sciences, life s ...
,
plant physiology Plant physiology is a subdiscipline of botany Botany, also called , plant biology or phytology, is the science of plant life and a branch of biology. A botanist, plant scientist or phytologist is a scientist who specialises in this field. ...

plant physiology
,
meteorology Meteorology is a branch of the (which include and ), with a major focus on . The study of meteorology dates back , though significant progress in meteorology did not begin until the 18th century. The 19th century saw modest progress in the f ...
, and
soil science Soil science is the study of soil Surface-water- gley developed in glacial till, Northern Ireland.">Northern_Ireland.html" ;"title="glacial till, Northern Ireland">glacial till, Northern Ireland. Soil is a mixture of organic matter, mine ...
. Agronomy is the application of a combination of sciences. Agronomists today are involved with many issues including producing food, creating healthier food, managing the
environmental impact of agriculture The environmental impact of agriculture Agriculture is the science, art and practice of cultivating plants and livestock. Agriculture was the key development in the rise of sedentism, sedentary human civilization, whereby farming of domestica ...
, and extracting energy from plants.


Food processing

Food processing includes the methods and techniques used to transform raw ingredients into food for human consumption. Food processing takes clean, harvested or slaughtered and butchered components and uses them to produce marketable food products. There are several different ways in which food can be produced. One-off production: This method is used when customers make an order for something to be made to their own specifications, for example, a
wedding cake A wedding cake is the traditional cake served at wedding receptions following dinner. In some parts of England England is a Countries of the United Kingdom, country that is part of the United Kingdom. It shares land borders with Wales to i ...

wedding cake
. The making of one-off products could take days depending on how intricate the design is.
Batch production Batch production is a method of manufacturing where the products are made as specified groups or amounts, within a time frame. A batch can go through a series of steps in a large manufacturing process to make the final desired product. Batch produc ...
: This method is used when the size of the market for a product is not clear, and where there is a range within a
product line In marketing jargon, product lining is offering several related product (business), products for sale individually. Unlike product bundling, where several products are combined into one group, which is then offered for sale as a units, product ...
. A certain number of the same goods will be produced to make up a batch or run, for example a bakery may bake a limited number of
cupcake A cupcake (also British English: fairy cake; Hiberno-English: bun) is a small cake designed to serve one person, which may be baked in a small thin paper or aluminum cup. As with larger cakes, icing (food), frosting and other cake decorating, c ...

cupcake
s. This method involves estimating
consumer demand In economics Economics () is the social science that studies how people interact with value; in particular, the Production (economics), production, distribution (economics), distribution, and Consumption (economics), consumption of goods ...
.
Mass production Mass production, also known as flow production or continuous production, is the production of substantial amounts of standardized Standardization or standardisation is the process of implementing and developing technical standard A techni ...
: This method is used when there is a mass market for a large number of identical products, for example
chocolate bar A chocolate bar (Commonwealth English The use of the English language English is a of the , originally spoken by the inhabitants of . It is named after the , one of the ancient that migrated from , a peninsula on the (not to be c ...

chocolate bar
s, ready meals and
canned food Canning is a method of preserving food in which the food contents are processed and sealed in an airtight container (jar A jar is a rigid, cylindrical or slightly conical container, typically made of , , or , with a wide mouth or op ...

canned food
. The product passes from one stage of production to another along a
production line A production line is a set of sequential operations established in a factory A factory, manufacturing plant or a production plant is an industrial site, often a complex consisting of several buildings filled with machinery A machine is a ...

production line
. Just-in-time (JIT) (production): This method of production is mainly used in
restaurant A restaurant is a business Business is the activity of making one's living or making money by producing or buying and selling products (such as goods and services). Simply put, it is "any activity or enterprise entered into for profit." ...

restaurant
s. All components of the product are available in-house and the customer chooses what they want in the product. It is then prepared in a
kitchen A kitchen is a room In a building, a room is any space Space is the boundless three-dimensional extent in which objects and events have relative position and direction. Physical space is often conceived in three linear dimensions, al ...

kitchen
, or in front of the buyer as in sandwich delicatessens, pizzerias, and .


Industry influence

The food industry has a large influence on consumerism. Organizations, such as The
American Academy of Family Physicians The American Academy of Family Physicians (AAFP) was founded in 1947 to promote and maintain high quality standards for family doctors who are providing continuing comprehensive health care to the public. It is one of the largest medical organi ...
(AAFP), have been criticized for accepting monetary donations from companies within the food industry, such as
Coca-Cola Coca-Cola, or Coke, is a carbonated Carbonation is the chemical reaction A chemical reaction is a process that leads to the chemical transformation of one set of chemical substances to another. Classically, chemical A chemical sub ...
. These donations have been criticized for creating a conflict of interest and favoring an interest such as financial gains.


Criticism

There are a number of book, film, TV and web-related exposés and critiques of the food industry, some notables ones include: * ''
Eat This, Not That ''Eat This, Not That!'' (''ETNT''), is a media franchise owned and operated by co-author David Zedeplio. The original book series was developed from a column from ''Men's Health'' magazine written by David Zinczenko and Matt Goulding. It now als ...
'' (nonfiction series published in ''Men's Health'' magazine) * ''
Fast Food Nation ''Fast Food Nation: The Dark Side of the All-American Meal'' is a 2001 book by Eric Schlosser. First serialized by ''Rolling Stone ''Rolling Stone'' is an American monthly magazine that focuses on music, politics, and popular culture. It wa ...
'' (2001 nonfiction book) ** '' Chew On This'' (2005 book adaptation of ''Fast Food Nation'' for younger readers) ** ''Fast Food Nation'' (2006 documentary film) * '' Food, Inc.'' (2008 documentary film) * '' Panic Nation'' (2006 nonfiction book) * ''
Super Size Me ''Super Size Me'' is a 2004 American documentary film A documentary film is a non-fictional film, motion-picture intended to "document reality, primarily for the purposes of instruction, education, or maintaining a Recorded history, histori ...
'' (2004 documentary film) * '' Forks over Knives'' (2011 documentary film) * ''
The Jungle ''The Jungle'' is a 1906 novel by the American journalist and novelist Upton Sinclair Upton Beall Sinclair Jr. (September 20, 1878 – November 25, 1968) was an American writer, muckraker The muckrakers were reform-minded journalis ...
'' (1906 novel by Upton Sinclair that exposed health violations and unsanitary practices in the American
meat packing industry The meat packing industry handles the slaughtering, processing, packaging Packaging is the science Science (from the Latin word ''scientia'', meaning "knowledge") is a systematic enterprise that Scientific method, builds and Taxonomy (ge ...
during the early 20th century, based on an investigation he did for a socialist newspaper)


Policy

In 2020 scientists reported that reducing emissions from the global
food system The term food system is describes the interconnected systems and processes that influence nutrition Nutrition is the biochemical Biochemistry or biological chemistry, is the study of chemical processes within and relating to living organism ...
is essential to achieving the
Paris Agreement The Paris Agreement (french: l'accord de Paris) is an agreement within the United Nations Framework Convention on Climate Change (UNFCCC), on climate change mitigation, Climate change adaptation, adaptation, and Climate finance, finance, signed i ...
's climate goals. In 2020, an evidence review for the
European Union The European Union (EU) is a political and economic union of member states that are located primarily in Europe Europe is a which is also recognised as part of , located entirely in the and mostly in the . It comprises the wester ...

European Union
's
Scientific Advice Mechanism The Scientific Advice Mechanism is a service created by the European Commission The European Commission (EC) is the Executive (government), executive branch of the European Union, responsible for proposing legislation, implementing decisions, ...
found that, without significant change, emissions would increase by 30–40% by 2050 due to population growth and changing consumption patterns, and concluded that "the combined environmental cost of food production is estimated to amount to some $12 trillion per year, increasing to $16 trillion by 2050". The
IPCC The Intergovernmental Panel on Climate Change (IPCC) is an intergovernmental body of the United Nations The United Nations (UN) is an intergovernmental organization that aims to maintain international peace and international security, s ...
's and the 's reports concluded that adapting the food system to reduce greenhouse gas emissions impacts and food security concerns, while shifting towards a
sustainable diet Sustainable diets are defined as "those diets with low environmental impacts that contribute to food and nutritional security and to healthy lives for present and future generations. Sustainable diets are protective and respectful of biodiversity ...
, is feasible.


Regulation

Since World War II, agriculture in the United States and the entire national food system in its entirety has been characterized by models that focus on monetary
profitability An economic profit is the difference between the revenue a has received from its outputs and the s of its inputs. Unlike an , an economic profit takes into account both a 's and costs, whereas an accounting profit only relates to the explici ...
at the expense of social and environmental integrity. Regulations exist to protect consumers and somewhat balance this economic orientation with public interests for food quality, food security, food safety, animal well-being, environmental protection and health.


Proactive guidance

In 2020 researchers published projections and models of potential impacts of
policy Policy is a deliberate system of guideline A guideline is a statement by which to determine a course of action. A guideline aims to streamline particular processes according to a set routine or sound practice. Guidelines may be issued by a ...

policy
-dependent mechanisms of modulation, or lack thereof, of how, where, and what food is produced. They analyzed policy-effects for specific regions or nations such as reduction of meat production and consumption, reductions in food waste and loss, Agricultural productivity#Sustainable agriculture, increases in crop yields and international land-use planning. Their conclusions include that raising agricultural yields is highly beneficial for biodiversity-conservation in sub-Saharan Africa while measures leading to shifts of diets are highly beneficial in North America and that global coordination and rapid action are necessary.


Wholesale and distribution

A vast global cargo network connects the numerous parts of the industry. These include suppliers, manufacturers, warehousers, retailers and the end consumers.) Wholesale marketing, Wholesale markets for fresh food products have tended to decline in importance in urbanization, urbanizing countries, including Latin America and some Asian countries as a result of the growth of supermarkets, which procure directly from farmers or through preferred suppliers, rather than going through markets. The constant and uninterrupted flow of product from distribution centers to store locations is a critical link in food industry operations. Distribution centers run more efficiently, throughput can be increased, costs can be lowered, and manpower better utilized if the proper steps are taken when setting up a material handling system in a warehouse.


Retail

With worldwide urbanization, food buying is increasingly removed from food production. During the 20th century, the supermarket became the defining retail element of the food industry. There, tens of thousands of products are gathered in one location, in continuous, year-round supply. Food preparation is another area where the change in recent decades has been dramatic. Today, two food industry sectors are in apparent competition for the retail food dollar. The grocery industry sells fresh and largely raw products for consumers to use as ingredients in home cooking. The food service industry, by contrast, offers prepared food, either as finished products or as partially prepared components for final "assembly". Restaurants, cafes, bakeries and mobile food trucks provide opportunities for consumers to purchase food. In the 21st century online grocer, online grocery stores emerged and digital technologies for community-supported agriculture have enabled farmers to directly sell produce. Some online grocery stores have voluntarily set social goals or values beyond meeting consumer demand and the accumulation of profit motive, profit.


Food industry technologies

Modern food production is defined by sophisticated technologies. These include many areas. Agricultural machinery, originally led by the tractor, has practically eliminated human labor in many areas of production. Biotechnology is driving much change, in areas as diverse as agrochemicals, plant breeding and food processing. Many other types of technology are also involved, to the point where it is hard to find an area that does not have a direct impact on the food industry. As in other fields, computer technology is also a central force.


Marketing

As consumers grow increasingly removed from food production, the role of product creation,
advertising Advertising is a marketing Marketing is the process of intentionally stimulating demand for and purchases of goods and services; potentially including selection of a target audience; selection of certain attributes or themes to emphasi ...

advertising
, and publicity become the primary vehicles for information about food. With processed food as the dominant category, marketers have almost infinite possibilities in product creation. Of the food advertised to Advertising to children, children on TV ad, television 73% is fast food, fast or convenience foods.


Labor and education

Until the last 100 years, agriculture was labor-intensive. Farming was a common occupation and millions of people were involved in food production. Farmers, largely trained from generation to generation, carried on the family business. That situation has changed dramatically today. In America in 1870, 70–80% of the US population was employed in agriculture. , less than 2% of the population is directly employed in agriculture, and about 80% of the population lives in cities.


By country

* Food industry in Azerbaijan * Food industry of Russia * Ministry of Agriculture and Food Industry (Moldova) * Department of Agriculture, Food and the Marine (Ireland)


See also

* Agroindustry * Agricultural expansion * Dietary supplement * Factory farming * Food fortification, also called Nutrification * Geography of food * Local food *Ultra-processed food


References


Further reading

* 534 pages. * 448 pages. * 836 pages. * 301 pages. * Food Fight: The Inside Story of the Food Industry


External links

* * * * {{DEFAULTSORT:Food Industry Food industry, Agriculture, * Mass production Industries (economics)