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In
metal A metal (from Greek μέταλλον ''métallon'', "mine, quarry, metal") is a material that, when freshly prepared, polished, or fractured, shows a lustrous appearance, and conducts electricity and heat relatively well. Metals are typically ...
typesetting on a composing stick on a type case. , letter founder, from the 1728 edition of ''Cyclopaedia, or an Universal Dictionary of Arts and Sciences, Cyclopaedia''. . Typesetting is the composition of Written language, text by means of arranging physical ...
, a font was a particular size, weight and style of a
typeface A typeface is the design of lettering that can include variations, such as extra bold, bold, regular, light, italic, condensed, extended, etc. Each of these variations of the typeface is a font. There are thousands of different typefaces in exi ...
. Each font was a matched set of type, one piece (called a "
sort The Treaty Between the United States of America and the Russian Federation on Strategic Offensive Reductions (SORT), also known as the Treaty of Moscow, was a strategic arms reduction treaty between the United States and Russia that was in force ...
") for each
glyph In typography, a glyph is an elemental symbol within an agreed set of symbols, intended to represent a readable character for the purposes of writing. Glyphs are considered to be unique marks that collectively add up to the spelling of a word ...
, and a typeface consisting of a range of fonts that shared an overall design. In modern usage, with the advent of digital typography, "font" is frequently synonymous with "typeface". Each style is in a separate "font file"—for instance, the typeface " Bulmer" may include the fonts "Bulmer
roman Roman or Romans usually refers to: *Rome, the capital city of Italy *Ancient Rome, Roman civilization from 8th century BC to 5th century AD *Roman people, the people of ancient Rome *''Epistle to the Romans'', shortened to ''Romans'', a letter in ...
", "Bulmer", "Bulmer bold" and "Bulmer extended"—but the term "font" might be applied either to one of these alone or to the whole typeface. In both traditional typesetting and modern usage, the word "font" refers to the delivery mechanism of the typeface design. In traditional typesetting, the font would be made from metal or wood. Today, the font is a digital file.


Etymology

The word ''font'' (traditionally spelled ''fount'' in
British English British English (BrE) is the standard dialect of the English language as spoken and written in the United Kingdom. Variations exist in formal, written English in the United Kingdom. For example, the adjective ''wee'' is almost exclusively use ...
, but in any case pronounced ) derives from
Middle French Middle French (french: moyen français) is a historical division of the French language that covers the period from the 14th to the 16th century. It is a period of transition during which: * the French language became clearly distinguished from the ...
''fonte'' that has been] melted; a casting (metalworking), casting". The term refers to the process of casting metal type at a
type foundry A type foundry is a company that designs or distributes typefaces. Before digital typography, type foundries manufactured and sold metal and wood typefaces for hand typesetting, and matrices for line-casting machines like the Linotype and Monotype ...
.


Metal type

In a manual printing (
letterpress Letterpress printing is a technique of relief printing. Using a printing press, the process allows many copies to be produced by repeated direct impression of an inked, raised surface against sheets or a continuous roll of paper. A worker compo ...
) house the word "font" would refer to a complete set of
metal type 200px, Metal type sorts arranged on a composing stick In typesetting, a sort or type is a piece of moveable type representing a particular character. They are cast from a matrix mold and assembled by hand with other sorts bearing additional chara ...
that would be used to
typeset on a composing stick on a type case. , letter founder, from the 1728 edition of ''Cyclopaedia, or an Universal Dictionary of Arts and Sciences, Cyclopaedia''. . Typesetting is the composition of Written language, text by means of arranging physical ...
an entire page. Upper- and lowercase letters get their names because of which case the metal type was located in for manual typesetting: the more distant upper case or the closer lower case. The same distinction is also referred to with the terms ''majuscule'' and ''minuscule''. Unlike a digital typeface, a metal font would not include a single definition of each character, but commonly used characters (such as vowels and periods) would have more physical type-pieces included. A font when bought new would often be sold as (for example in a Roman alphabet) 12pt 14A 34a, meaning that it would be a size 12-
point Point or points may refer to: Places * Point, Lewis, a peninsula in the Outer Hebrides, Scotland * Point, Texas, a city in Rains County, Texas, United States * Point, the NE tip and a ferry terminal of Lismore, Inner Hebrides, Scotland * Points, ...
font containing 14 uppercase "A"s, and 34 lowercase "A"s. The rest of the characters would be provided in quantities appropriate for the
distributionDistribution may refer to: Mathematics *Distribution (mathematics), generalized functions used to formulate solutions of partial differential equations *Probability distribution, the probability of a particular value or value range of a variabl ...
of letters in that language. Some metal type characters required in typesetting, such as
dashes The dash is a punctuation mark that is similar in appearance to the hyphen and minus sign but differs from these symbols in length and, in some fonts, height above the baseline. The most common versions of the dash are the endash , longer than ...
, spaces and line-height spacers, were not part of a specific font, but were generic pieces which could be used with any font. Line spacing is still often called "
leading In typography, leading ( ) is the space between adjacent lines of type; the exact definition varies. In hand typesetting, leading is the thin strips of lead that were inserted between lines of type in the composing stick to increase the vertica ...
", because the strips used for line spacing were made of
lead Lead is a chemical element with the symbol Pb (from the Latin ) and atomic number 82. It is a heavy metal that is denser than most common materials. Lead is soft and malleable, and also has a relatively low melting point. When freshly cut, lead ...
(rather than the harder alloy used for other pieces). The reason for this spacing strip being made from "lead" was because lead was a softer metal than the traditional forged metal type pieces (which was part lead, antimony and tin) and would compress more easily when "locked-up" in the printing "chase" (i.e. a carrier for holding all the type together). In the 1880s–1890s, "hot lead" typesetting was invented, in which type was cast as it was set, either piece by piece (as in the
Monotype Monotyping is a type of printmaking made by drawing or painting on a smooth, non-absorbent surface. The surface, or matrix, was historically a copper etching plate, but in contemporary work it can vary from zinc or glass to acrylic glass. The im ...
technology) or in entire lines of type at one time (as in the Linotype technology).


Characteristics

In addition to the character height, when using the mechanical sense of the term, there are several characteristics which may distinguish fonts, though they would also depend on the
script Script may refer to: Writing systems * Script, a distinctive writing system, based on a repertoire of specific elements or symbols, or that repertoire * Script (styles of handwriting) * Script (Unicode), historical and modern scripts as organise ...
(s) that the typeface supports. In European alphabetic scripts, i.e.
Latin Latin (, or , ) is a classical language belonging to the Italic branch of the Indo-European languages. Latin was originally spoken in the area around Rome, known as Latium. Through the power of the Roman Republic, it became the dominant language ...
,
Cyrillic , bg, кирилица , mk, кирилица , russian: кириллица , sr, ћирилица, uk, кирилиця , fam1 = Egyptian hieroglyphs , fam2 = Proto-Sinaitic , fam3=Phoenician , fam4=Greek script augmented by Glagolitic , sisters = , c ...
and
Greek Greek may refer to: Greece Anything of, from, or related to Greece, a country in Southern Europe: *Greeks, an ethnic group *Greek language, a branch of the Indo-European language family **Proto-Greek language, the assumed last common ancestor of ...
, the main such properties are the stroke width, called weight, the style or angle and the character width. The regular or standard font is sometimes labeled ''roman'', both to distinguish it from ''bold'' or ''thin'' and from ''italic'' or ''oblique''. The keyword for the default, regular case is often omitted for variants and never repeated, otherwise it would be ''Bulmer regular italic'', ''Bulmer bold regular'' and even ''Bulmer regular regular''. ''Roman'' can also refer to the language coverage of a font, acting as a shorthand for "Western European". Different fonts of the same typeface may be used in the same work for various degrees of readability and
emphasis Emphasis or emphatic may refer to: Communication * Emphasis (telecommunications), intentional alteration of the amplitude-vs.-frequency characteristics of the signal meant to reduce adverse effects of noise * Cultural emphasis, alleged tendency of ...
, or in a specific design to make it be of more visual interest.


Weight

The weight of a particular font is the thickness of the character outlines relative to their height. A typeface may come in fonts of many weights, from ultra-light to extra-bold or black; four to six weights are not unusual, and a few typefaces have as many as a dozen. Many typefaces for office, web and non-professional use come with a normal and a bold weight which are linked together. If no bold weight is provided, many renderers (browsers, word processors, graphic and DTP programs) support a bolder font by rendering the outline a second time at an offset, or smearing it slightly at a diagonal angle. The base weight differs among typefaces; that means one font may appear bolder than another font. For example, fonts intended to be used in posters are often bold by default while fonts for long runs of text are rather light. Weight designations in font names may differ in regard to the actual absolute stroke weight or density of glyphs in the font. Attempts to systematize a range of weights led to a numerical classification first used by
Adrian Frutiger Adrian Johann Frutiger ( ; 24 May 1928 – 10 September 2015) was a Swiss typeface designer who influenced the direction of type design in the second half of the 20th century. His career spanned the hot metal, phototypesetting and digital ty ...
with the
Univers Univers () is the name of a large sans-serif typeface family designed by Adrian Frutiger and released by his employer Deberny & Peignot in 1957. Classified as a neo-grotesque sans-serif, one based on the model of nineteenth-century German typefaces ...
typeface: 35 ''Extra Light'', 45 ''Light'', 55 ''Medium'' or ''Regular'', 65 ''Bold'', 75 ''Extra Bold'', 85 ''Extra Bold'', 95 ''Ultra Bold'' or ''Black''. Deviants of these were the "6 series" (italics), e.g. ''46 Light Italics'' etc., the "7 series" (condensed versions), e.g. ''57 Medium Condensed'' etc., and the "8 series" (condensed italics), e.g. 68 ''Bold Condensed Italics''. From this brief numerical system it is easier to determine exactly what a font's characteristics are, for instance "Helvetica 67" (HE67) translates to "Helvetica Bold Condensed". The first algorithmic description of fonts was made by
Donald Knuth Donald Ervin Knuth ( ; born January 10, 1938) is an American computer scientist, mathematician, and professor emeritus at Stanford University. He is the 1974 recipient of the ACM Turing Award, informally considered the Nobel Prize of computer scie ...
in his
Metafont Metafont is a description language used to define raster fonts. It is also the name of the interpreter that executes Metafont code, generating the bitmap fonts that can be embedded into e.g. PostScript. Metafont was devised by Donald Knuth as a com ...
description language and interpreter. The
TrueType#REDIRECT TrueType#REDIRECT TrueType {{Redirect category shell, 1= {{R from other capitalisation ...
{{Redirect category shell, 1= {{R from other capitalisation ...
font format introduced a scale from 100 through 900, which is also used in
CSS Cascading Style Sheets (CSS) is a style sheet language used for describing the presentation of a document written in a markup language such as HTML. CSS is a cornerstone technology of the World Wide Web, alongside HTML and JavaScript. CSS ...
and
OpenType OpenType is a format for scalable computer fonts. It was built on its predecessor TrueType, retaining TrueType's basic structure and adding many intricate data structures for prescribing typographic behavior. OpenType is a registered trademark of ...
, where 400 is regular (roman or plain). The Mozilla Developer Network provides the following rough mapping to typical font weight names: Font mapping varies by font designer. A good example is Bigelow & Holmes's Go font family. In this family, '
he He or HE may refer to: Language * He (pronoun), an English pronoun * He (kana), the romanization of the Japanese kana へ and ヘ * He (letter), the fifth letter of many Semitic alphabets * He (Cyrillic), a letter of the Cyrillic script called '' ...
fonts have CSS numerical weights of 400, 500, and 600. Although CSS specifies "Bold" as a 700 weight and 600 as Semibold or Demibold, the Go numerical weights match the actual progression of the ratios of stem thicknesses: Normal:Medium = 400:500; Normal:Bold = 400:600.' The terms ''normal'', ''regular'' and ''plain (''sometimes ''book)'', are used for the standard weight font of a typeface. Where both appear and differ, ''book'' is often lighter than ''regular'', but in some typefaces it is bolder. Before the arrival of computers, each weight had to be drawn manually. As a result, many older multi-weight families such as
Gill Sans Gill Sans is a humanist sans-serif typeface designed by Eric Gill and released by the British branch of Monotype from 1928 onwards. Gill Sans is based on Edward Johnston's 1916 "Underground Alphabet", the corporate font of London Underground. As ...
and
Monotype Grotesque Monotype Grotesque is a family of sans-serif typefaces released by the Monotype Corporation for its hot metal typesetting system. It belongs to the grotesque or industrial genre of early sans-serif designs. Like many early sans-serifs, it forms a ...
have considerable differences in styles from light to extra-bold. Since the 1980s, it has become common to use automation to construct a range of weights as points along a trend, multiple master or other parameterized font design. This means that many modern digital fonts such as
Myriad A myriad (from Ancient Greek grc, μυριάς, translit=myrias, label=none) is technically the number ten thousand; in that sense, the term is used almost exclusively in translations from Greek, Latin, Korean, Japanese, or Chinese, or when talking a ...
and TheSans are offered in a large range of weights which offer a smooth and continuous transition from one weight to the next, although some digital fonts are created with extensive manual corrections. As digital font design allows more variants to be created faster, a common development in professional font design is the use of "grades": slightly different weights intended for different types of paper and ink, or printing in a different region with different ambient temperature and humidity. For example, a thin design printed on book paper and a thicker design printed on coated paper, high-gloss magazine paper may come out looking identical, since in the former case the ink will soak and spread out more. Grades are offered with characters having the same width on all grades, so that a change of printing materials does not affect copy-fit. Grades are common on serif fonts with their finer details. Fonts in which the bold and non-bold letters have the same width are “duplexed (font), duplexed”.


Slope

In European typefaces, especially Roman ones, a slope or slanted style is used to emphasize important words. This is called italic type, ''italic'' type or oblique type. These designs normally slant to the right in left-to-right scripts. Oblique styles are often called italic, but differ from 'true italic' styles. Italic styles are more flowing than the normal typeface, approaching a more handwriting, handwritten, cursive style, possibly using typographic ligature, ligatures more commonly or gaining swash (typography), swashes. Although rarely encountered, a typographic face may be accompanied by a matching calligraphic face (''cursive'', ''script''), giving an exaggeratedly italic style. In many sans-serif and some serif typefaces, especially in those with strokes of even thickness the characters of the italic fonts are only ''slanted'', which is often done algorithmically, without otherwise changing their appearance. Such ''oblique type, oblique'' fonts are not true italics, because lower-case letter-shapes do not change, but are often marketed as such. Fonts normally do not include both oblique and italic styles: the designer chooses to supply one or the other. Since italic styles clearly look different to regular (roman) styles, it is possible to have "upright italic" designs that take a more cursive form but remain upright; Computer Modern is an example of a font that offers this style. In Latin-script countries, upright italics are rare but are sometimes used in mathematics or in complex documents where a section of text already in italics needs a "double italic" style to add emphasis to it. For example, the Cyrillic Lower case, minuscule "т" may look like a smaller form of its capital letter, majuscule "Т" or more like a roman small "m" as in its standard italic appearance; in this case the distinction between styles is also a matter of local preference. In Frutiger's nomenclature the second digit for upright fonts is a 5, for italic fonts a 6 and for condensed italic fonts an 8. The two Kana, Japanese syllabaries, katakana and hiragana, are sometimes seen as two styles or typographic variants of each other, but usually are considered separate character sets as a few of the characters have separate kanji origins and the scripts are used for different purposes. The blackletter, ''gothic'' style of the roman script with broken letter forms, on the other hand, is usually considered a mere typographic variant. Cursive-only scripts such as Arabic alphabet, Arabic also have different styles, in this case for example Naskh (script), Naskh and Kufic, although these often depend on application, area or era. There are other aspects that can differ among font styles, but more often these are considered immanent features of the typeface. These include the look of digits (text figures) and the minuscules, which may be smaller versions of the capital letters (''small caps'') although the script has developed characteristic shapes for them. Some typefaces do not include separate glyphs for the cases at all, thereby abolishing the letter case, bicamerality. While most of these use uppercase characters only, some labeled ''unicase'' exist which choose either the majuscule or the minuscule glyph at a common height for both characters.


Width

Some typefaces include fonts that vary the width of the characters (''stretch''), although this feature is usually rarer than weight or slope. Narrower fonts are usually labeled ''compressed'', ''condensed'' or ''narrow''. In Frutiger's system, the second digit of condensed fonts is a 7. Wider fonts may be called ''wide'', ''extended'' or ''expanded''. Both can be further classified by prepending ''extra'', ''ultra'' or the like. Compressing a font design to a condensed weight is a complex task, requiring the strokes to be slimmed down proportionally and often making the capitals straight-sided. It is particularly common to see condensed fonts for sans-serif and slab-serif families, since it is relatively practical to modify their structure to a condensed weight. Serif text faces are often only issued in the regular width. These separate fonts have to be distinguished from techniques that alter the letter-spacing to achieve narrower or smaller words, especially for Justification (typesetting), justified text alignment. Most typefaces either have Typeface#Proportion, proportional or Monospaced font, monospaced (i.e. typewriter-style) letter widths, if the script provides the possibility. There are, however, superfamilies covering both styles. Some fonts also provide both Typeface#Typesetting numbers, proportional and fixed-width (''tabular'') digits, where the former usually coincide with lowercase text figures and the latter with uppercase lining figures. The width of a font will depend on its intended use. Times New Roman was designed with the goal of having small width, to fit more text into a newspaper. On the other hand, Palatino has large width to increase readability. The "billing block" on a movie poster often uses extremely condensed type in order to meet union requirements on the people who must be credited and the font height relative to the rest of the poster.


Optical size

Some professional digital typefaces include fonts that are optimised for certain sizes, for instance by using a thinner stroke weight if they are intended for display type, large-size display use, or by using ink traps if they are to be printed at small size on poor-quality paper. This was a natural feature in the metal type period for most typefaces, since each size would be cut separately and made to its own slightly different design. As an example of this, experienced Linotype designer Chauncey H. Griffith commented in 1947 that for a type he was working on intended for newspaper use, the 6 point size was not 50% as wide as the 12 point size, but about 71%. However, it declined in use as pantograph engraving, and especially phototypesetting and digital fonts made printing the same font at any size simpler. A mild revival has taken place in recent years. Optical sizes are more common for serif fonts, since their typically finer detail and higher contrast benefits more from being bulked up for smaller sizes and made less overpowering at larger ones. There are several naming schemes for such variant designs. One such scheme, invented and popularized by Adobe Systems, refers to the variant fonts by the applications they are typically used for, with the exact point sizes intended varying slightly by typeface: ; Poster: Extremely large sizes, usually larger than 72 point ; Display: Large sizes, typically 19–72 point ; Subhead: Large text, typically about 14–18 point ; (Regular): Usually left unnamed, typically about 10–13 point ; Small Text (''SmText''): Typically about 8–10 point ; Caption: Very small, typically about 4–8 point


Metrics

Typeface#Font metrics, ''Font metrics'' refers to metadata consisting of numeric values relating to size and space in the font overall, or in its individual glyphs. Font-wide metrics include cap height (the height of the capitals), x-height (the height of the lower-case letters) and Ascender (typography), ascender height, descender depth, and the font bounding box. Glyph-level metrics include the glyph bounding box, the advance width (the proper distance between the glyph's initial pen position and the next glyph's initial pen position), and sidebearings (space that pads the glyph outline on either side). Many digital (and some metal type) fonts are able to be Kerning, kerned so that characters can be fitted more closely; the pair 'Wa' is a common example of this. Some fonts, especially those intended for professional use, are duplexed: made with multiple weights having the same character width so that (for example) changing from regular to bold or italic does not affect word wrap. Sabon as originally designed was a notable example of this. (This was a standard feature of the Linotype hot metal typesetting system with regular and italic being duplexed, requiring awkward design choices as italics normally are narrower than the roman.) A particularly important basic set of fonts that became an early standard in digital printing was the PostScript fonts#Core Font Set, Core Font Set included in the PostScript printing system developed by Apple and Adobe. To avoid paying licensing fees for this set, many computer companies commissioned "metrically-compatible" knock-off fonts with the same spacing, which could be used to display the same document without it seeming clearly different. Arial and Century Gothic are notable examples of this, being functional equivalents to the PostScript standard fonts Helvetica and ITC Avant Garde respectively. Some of these sets were created in order to be freely redistributable, for example Red Hat's Liberation fonts and Google's Croscore fonts, which duplicate the PostScript set and other common fonts used in Microsoft software such as Calibri. It is not a requirement that a metrically compatible design be identical to its origin in appearance apart from width.


Serifs

Although most typefaces are characterised by their use of serifs, there are font superfamily, superfamilies that incorporate serif (antiqua) and sans-serif (grotesque) or even intermediate slab serif (Egyptian) or semi-serif fonts with the same base outlines. A more common font variant, especially of serif typefaces, is that of alternate capitals. They can have swash (typography), swashes to go with italic minuscules or they can be of a flourish design for use as initials (''drop caps'').


Typefaces may be made in variants for different uses. These may be issued as separate font files, or the different characters may be included in the same font file if the font is a modern format such as
OpenType OpenType is a format for scalable computer fonts. It was built on its predecessor TrueType, retaining TrueType's basic structure and adding many intricate data structures for prescribing typographic behavior. OpenType is a registered trademark of ...
and the application used can support this. Alternative characters are often called stylistic alternates. These may be switched on to allow users more flexibility to customise the font to suit their needs. The practice is not new: in the 1930s,
Gill Sans Gill Sans is a humanist sans-serif typeface designed by Eric Gill and released by the British branch of Monotype from 1928 onwards. Gill Sans is based on Edward Johnston's 1916 "Underground Alphabet", the corporate font of London Underground. As ...
, a British design, was sold abroad with alternative characters to make it resemble fonts such as Futura (typeface), Futura popular in other countries, while Bembo from the same period has two styles of 'R': one with a stretched-out leg, matching its fifteenth-century model, and one less-common shorter version. With modern digital fonts, it is possible to group related alternative characters into stylistic sets, which may be turned on and off together. For example, in Caslon#Williams Caslon Text, Williams Caslon Text, a revival of the 18th century font Caslon, the default italic forms have many swashes matching the original design. For a more spare appearance, these can all be turned off at once by engaging stylistic set 4. Junicode, intended for academic publishing, uses ss15 to enable a E caudata, variant form of 'e' used in medieval Latin. A corporation commissioning a modified version of a commercial font for their own use, meanwhile, might request that their preferred alternates be set to default. It is common for fonts intended for use in books for young children to use simplified, single-storey forms of the lowercase letters ''a'' and ''g'' (sometimes also ''y'' and ''l''); these may be called ''infant'' or ''schoolbook'' alternates. They are traditionally believed to be easier for children to read and less confusing as they resemble the forms used in handwriting. Often schoolbook characters are released as a supplement to popular families such as Akzidenz-Grotesk,
Gill Sans Gill Sans is a humanist sans-serif typeface designed by Eric Gill and released by the British branch of Monotype from 1928 onwards. Gill Sans is based on Edward Johnston's 1916 "Underground Alphabet", the corporate font of London Underground. As ...
and Bembo; a well-known font intended specifically for school use is Sassoon Sans. Besides alternate characters, in the metal type era ''The New York Times'' commissioned custom condensed single sorts for common long names that might often appear in news headings, such as Dwight Eisenhower, "Eisenhower", Neville Chamberlain, "Chamberlain" or Rockefeller family, "Rockefeller".


Digits

Image:Mediaevalziffern.svg, Hoefler Text uses text figures as its default digits, providing upper-case or lining figures as an alternative. Fonts can have multiple kinds of digits, including, as described above, proportional (variable width) and tabular (fixed width) as well as lining (upper-case height) and text (lower-case height) figures. They may also include separate styles for superscript and subscript digits. Professional fonts may include even more complex settings for typesetting digits, such as digits intended to match the height of small caps. In addition, some fonts such as Adobe’s Acumin and Christian Schwartz’s Helvetica#Neue Haas Grotesk (2010), Neue Haas Grotesk digitisation offer two heights of lining (upper-case height) figures: one slightly lower than cap height, intended to blend better into continuous text, and one at exactly the cap height to look better in combination with capitals for uses such as UK postcodes. With the OpenType format, it is possible to bundle all these into a single digital font file, but earlier font releases may have only one type per file.


Subsetting

A typical font may contain hundreds or even thousands of glyphs, often representing characters from many different languages. Oftentimes, users may only need a small subset of the glyphs that are available to them. Subsetting is the process of removing unnecessary glyphs from a font file, usually with the goal of reducing file size. This is particularly important for web fonts, since reducing file size often means reducing page load time and server load. Alternatively, fonts may be issued in different files for different regions of the world, though with the spread of the OpenType format this is now increasingly uncommon.


See also

* Ampersand * Clip font * Font embedding * Graphics, Graphic * List of fonts


References


Notes


Further reading

*Blackwell, Lewis. ''20th Century Type.'' Yale University Press: 2004. . *Fiedl, Frederich, Nicholas Ott and Bernard Stein. ''Typography: An Encyclopedic Survey of Type Design and Techniques Through History.'' Black Dog & Leventhal: 1998. . *Lupton, Ellen. ''Thinking with Type: A Critical Guide for Designers, Writers, Editors, & Students,'' Princeton Architectural Press: 2004. . *Headley, Gwyn. ''The Encyclopaedia of Fonts.'' Cassell Illustrated: 2005. . *Macmillan, Neil. ''An A–Z of Type Designers.'' Yale University Press: 2006. . {{Typography terms Typesetting Typography Articles containing video clips