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Firs (''Abies'') are a
genus Genus /ˈdʒiː.nəs/ (plural genera /ˈdʒen.ər.ə/) is a taxonomic rank In biological classification In biology, taxonomy () is the scientific study of naming, defining (Circumscription (taxonomy), circumscribing) and classifying gr ...
of 48–56
species In biology, a species is the basic unit of biological classification, classification and a taxonomic rank of an organism, as well as a unit of biodiversity. A species is often defined as the largest group of organisms in which any two individu ...

species
of
evergreen In botany Botany, also called , plant biology or phytology, is the science of plant life and a branch of biology. A botanist, plant scientist or phytologist is a scientist who specialises in this field. The term "botany" comes from the Anc ...

evergreen
coniferous Conifers are a group of cone-bearing seed plants The spermatophytes (; ), also known as phanerogams (taxon Phanerogamae) or phaenogams (taxon Phaenogamae), comprise those plants that produce seeds, hence the alternative name seed plants. They ...
tree In botany, a tree is a perennial plant with an elongated Plant stem, stem, or trunk (botany), trunk, supporting branches and leaves in most species. In some usages, the definition of a tree may be narrower, including only wood plants with se ...

tree
s in the
family In , family (from la, familia) is a of people related either by (by recognized birth) or (by marriage or other relationship). The purpose of families is to maintain the well-being of its members and of society. Ideally, families would off ...
Pinaceae The Pinaceae, pine family, are conifer Conifers are a group of conifer cone, cone-bearing Spermatophyte, seed plants, a subset of gymnosperms. Scientifically, they make up the phylum, division Pinophyta (), also known as Coniferophyta () or Con ...

Pinaceae
. They are found through much of
North North is one of the four compass points The points of the compass are the vectors by which planet A planet is an astronomical body orbiting a star or Stellar evolution#Stellar remnants, stellar remnant that is massive enough to be Hydro ...

North
and
Central America Central America ( es, América Central, , ''Centroamérica'' ) is a region of the Americas The Americas (also collectively called America) is a landmass comprising the totality of North North is one of the four compass points or ...

Central America
,
Europe Europe is a continent A continent is any of several large landmasses. Generally identified by convention (norm), convention rather than any strict criteria, up to seven geographical regions are commonly regarded as continents. Ordered ...

Europe
,
Asia Asia () is 's largest and most populous , located primarily in the and . It shares the continental of with the continent of and the continental landmass of with both Europe and . Asia covers an area of , about 30% of Earth's total lan ...

Asia
, and
North Africa North Africa or Northern Africa is a region encompassing the northern portion of the African continent. There is no singularly accepted scope for the region, and it is sometimes defined as stretching from the Atlantic shores of Mauritania in th ...

North Africa
, occurring in mountains over most of the range. Firs are most closely related to the genus ''
Cedrus ''Cedrus'', common English name cedar, is a genus of ous s in the plant family (subfamily Abietoideae). They are to the mountains of the western and the , occurring at altitudes of 1,500–3,200 m in the Himalayas and 1,000–2,200  ...
'' (cedar).
Douglas fir The Douglas fir (''Pseudotsuga menziesii'') is an evergreen In botany Botany, also called , plant biology or phytology, is the science of plant life and a branch of biology. A botanist, plant scientist or phytologist is a scientist who ...
s are not true firs, being of the genus ''
Pseudotsuga ''Pseudotsuga'' is a genus of evergreen In botany Botany, also called , plant biology or phytology, is the science Science (from the Latin word ''scientia'', meaning "knowledge") is a systematic enterprise that Scientific method, ...
''. The genus name is derived from the Latin "to rise" as a reference to their height. The common English name originates with the Old Norse, fyri, or the Old Danish, fyr. They are large trees, reaching heights of tall with trunk diameters of when mature. Firs can be distinguished from other members of the pine family by the way in which their needle-like
leaves A leaf (plural leaves) is the principal lateral appendage of the vascular plant plant stem, stem, usually borne above ground and specialized for photosynthesis. The leaves, stem, flower and fruit together form the shoot system. Leaves are ...

leaves
are attached singly to the branches with a base resembling a
suction cup Image:Suction cup pressure from collisions.svg, 232px, alt=A figure showing that the pressure exerted outside the suction cup exceeds the pressure inside. This pressure difference holds the suction cup in contact with the surface., The pressure on ...

suction cup
, and by their
cones A cone is a three-dimensional space, three-dimensional geometric shape that tapers smoothly from a flat base (frequently, though not necessarily, circular) to a point called the Apex (geometry), apex or vertex (geometry), vertex. A cone is fo ...
, which, like those of true cedars (''
Cedrus ''Cedrus'', common English name cedar, is a genus of ous s in the plant family (subfamily Abietoideae). They are to the mountains of the western and the , occurring at altitudes of 1,500–3,200 m in the Himalayas and 1,000–2,200  ...
''), stand upright on the branches like candles and disintegrate at maturity. Identification of the different species is based on the size and arrangement of the leaves, the size and shape of the cones, and whether the bract scales of the cones are long and exserted, or short and hidden inside the cone.


Leaves

File:Abies alba PID1015-3.jpg, '''' – the underside of leaves have two whitish strips formed by
wax Waxes are a diverse class of organic compound In , organic compounds are generally any s that contain - . Due to carbon's ability to (form chains with other carbon s), millions of organic compounds are known. The study of the properties, ...
-covered
stoma File:LeafUndersideWithStomata.jpg, The underside of a leaf. In this species (''Tradescantia zebrina'') the guard cells of the stomata are green because they contain chlorophyll while the epidermal cells are chlorophyll-free and contain red pigme ...

stoma
tal bands; the bases of the needles are shaped like suction cups. Abgragra-top.jpg, '' A. grandis'' foliage – upper side of the leaves Abies Orjen foliage.jpg, Atypical '''' foliage from
calcareous ''Calcareous'' is an adjective meaning "mostly or partly composed of calcium carbonate Calcium carbonate is a chemical compound A chemical compound is a chemical substance composed of many identical molecules (or molecular entity, molecula ...
fir forests on
Firs can be distinguished from other members of the pine family by the unique attachment of their needle-like
leaves A leaf (plural leaves) is the principal lateral appendage of the vascular plant plant stem, stem, usually borne above ground and specialized for photosynthesis. The leaves, stem, flower and fruit together form the shoot system. Leaves are ...

leaves
to the twig by a base that resembles a small
suction cup Image:Suction cup pressure from collisions.svg, 232px, alt=A figure showing that the pressure exerted outside the suction cup exceeds the pressure inside. This pressure difference holds the suction cup in contact with the surface., The pressure on ...

suction cup
. The leaves are significantly flattened, sometimes even looking like they are pressed, as in ''
A. sibirica
A. sibirica
''. The leaves have two whitish lines on the bottom, each of which is formed by
wax Waxes are a diverse class of organic compound In , organic compounds are generally any s that contain - . Due to carbon's ability to (form chains with other carbon s), millions of organic compounds are known. The study of the properties, ...
-covered
stoma File:LeafUndersideWithStomata.jpg, The underside of a leaf. In this species (''Tradescantia zebrina'') the guard cells of the stomata are green because they contain chlorophyll while the epidermal cells are chlorophyll-free and contain red pigme ...

stoma
tal bands. In most species, the upper surface of the leaves is uniformly green and shiny, without
stoma File:LeafUndersideWithStomata.jpg, The underside of a leaf. In this species (''Tradescantia zebrina'') the guard cells of the stomata are green because they contain chlorophyll while the epidermal cells are chlorophyll-free and contain red pigme ...

stoma
ta or with a few on the tip, visible as whitish spots. Other species have the upper surface of leaves dull, gray-green or bluish-gray to silvery (
glaucous ''Glaucous'' (, ) is used to describe the pale grey or bluish-green appearance of the surfaces of some plants, as well as in the names of birds, such as the glaucous gull (''Larus hyperboreus''), glaucous-winged gull (''Larus glaucescens''), glau ...
), coated by wax with variable number of
stoma File:LeafUndersideWithStomata.jpg, The underside of a leaf. In this species (''Tradescantia zebrina'') the guard cells of the stomata are green because they contain chlorophyll while the epidermal cells are chlorophyll-free and contain red pigme ...

stoma
tal bands, and not always continuous. An example species with shiny green leaves is ''
A. alba
A. alba
'', and an example species with dull waxy leaves is ''
A. concolor
A. concolor
''. The tips of leaves are usually more or less notched (as in '' A. firma''), but sometimes rounded or dull (as in ''
A. concolor
A. concolor
'', '' A. magnifica'') or sharp and prickly (as in ''
A. bracteata
A. bracteata
'', '' A. cephalonica'', ''
A. holophylla
A. holophylla
''). The leaves of young plants are usually sharper. The way they spread from the shoot is very diverse, only in some species comb-shaped, with the leaves arranged on two sides, flat (''
A. alba
A. alba
'')


Cones

Abies cone & bits.jpg, Intact and disintegrated
Bulgarian fir ''Abies borisii-regis'' (Bulgarian fir) is a species of fir native to the mountains of the Balkan Peninsula in Bulgaria, northern Greece, North Macedonia, Albania and Serbia. It occurs at altitudes of 800–1,800 m, on mountains with an ...
cones Abies holophylla Manchurian Fir cones.jpg, Immature cones of some of species or races are green, not purple-bluish: for instance, Manchurian fir. Manchurian Fir Abies holophylla disintegrating cones.jpg, Disintegrating cones of Manchurian fir
Firs differ from other conifers in having erect, cylindrical
cones A cone is a three-dimensional space, three-dimensional geometric shape that tapers smoothly from a flat base (frequently, though not necessarily, circular) to a point called the Apex (geometry), apex or vertex (geometry), vertex. A cone is fo ...
long that disintegrate at maturity to release the winged
seed A seed is an embryonic ''Embryonic'' is the twelfth studio album by experimental rock band the Flaming Lips released on October 13, 2009, on Warner Bros. Records, Warner Bros. The band's first double album, it was released to generally positi ...

seed
s. In contrast to
spruce A spruce is a tree In botany, a tree is a perennial plant with an elongated Plant stem, stem, or trunk (botany), trunk, supporting branches and leaves in most species. In some usages, the definition of a tree may be narrower, including ...

spruce
s, fir cones do not hang. Even large fir cones grow upwards like "candles", the new growth of the tree. Mature cones are usually brown, young in summer can be green, for example: :'' A. grandis'', '''', '''' or purple and blue, sometimes very dark: :'' A. fraseri'', '' A. homolepis'' (var. ''umbellata'' green), '''' ('Flava' green), '' A. lasiocarpa'', '''' (f. ''chlorocarpa'' green), '''', '' A. veitchii'' (var. ''olivacea'' green).


Classification


Section ''Abies''

Section ''Abies'' is found in central, south, and eastern Europe and Asia Minor. * ''
Abies alba ''Abies alba'', the European silver fir or silver fir, is a fir Firs (''Abies'') are a genus Genus /ˈdʒiː.nəs/ (plural genera /ˈdʒen.ər.ə/) is a taxonomic rank In biological classification In biology Biology is t ...

Abies alba
'' – silver fir * ''
Abies nebrodensis ''Abies nebrodensis'', the Sicilian fir, is a fir native to the Madonie mountains in northern Sicily. Taxonomy It is closely related to silver fir, ''Abies alba'', which replaces it in the Apennine Mountains of Italy and elsewhere further north ...

Abies nebrodensis
'' – Sicilian fir * ''
Abies borisii-regis ''Abies borisii-regis'' (Bulgarian fir) is a species of fir native to the mountain A mountain is an elevated portion of the Earth's crust, generally with steep sides that show significant exposed bedrock. A mountain differs from a plateau ...
'' – Bulgarian fir * ''
Abies cephalonica ''Abies cephalonica'' or Greek fir is a fir Firs (''Abies'') are a genus Genus (plural genera) is a taxonomic rank Taxonomy (general) is the practice and science of classification of things or concepts, including the principles that und ...
'' – Greek fir * '''' – Nordmann fir or Caucasian fir ** ''Abies nordmanniana'' subsp. ''equi – trojani'' – Kazdağı fir, Turkish fir ** ''Abies nordmanniana'' subsp. ''bornmuelleriana'' – Uludağ fir * ''
Abies pinsapo ''Abies pinsapo'', the Spanish fir, is a species of tree in the family Pinaceae The Pinaceae, pine family, are trees or shrubs, including many of the well-known conifer Conifers are a group of cone-bearing seed plants, a subset of gymnospe ...

Abies pinsapo
'' – Spanish fir ** ''Abies pinsapo'' var. ''marocana'' – Moroccan fir * '' Abies numidica'' – Algerian fir * '' Abies cilicica'' – Syrian fir


Section ''Balsamea''

Section ''Balsamea'' is found in northern Asia and North America, and high mountains further south. * '' Abies fraseri'' – Fraser fir * ''
Abies balsamea ''Abies balsamea'' or balsam fir is a North American fir Firs (''Abies'') are a genus Genus /ˈdʒiː.nəs/ (plural genera /ˈdʒen.ər.ə/) is a taxonomic rank In biological classification In biology Biology is the natur ...

Abies balsamea
'' – balsam fir ** ''Abies balsamea'' var. ''phanerolepis'' – bracted balsam fir * ''
Abies lasiocarpa ''Abies lasiocarpa'', the subalpine fir or Rocky Mountain fir, is a western North American fir tree. Description It is a medium-sized evergreen conifer growing to tall, exceptionally to tall, with a trunk up to across, and a very narrow conic ...
'' – subalpine fir ** ''Abies lasiocarpa'' var. ''arizonica'' – corkbark fir ** ''Abies lasiocarpa'' var. ''bifolia'' – Rocky Mountains subalpine fir * ''
Abies sibirica ''Abies sibirica'', the Siberian fir, is a conifer Conifers are a group of cone-bearing seed plants, a subset of gymnosperms. Scientifically, they make up the division Pinophyta (), also known as Coniferophyta () or Coniferae. The division ...

Abies sibirica
'' – Siberian fir ** ''Abies sibirica'' var. ''semenovii'' * ''
Abies sachalinensis ''Abies sachalinensis'', the Sakhalin fir, is a species of conifer Conifers are a group of cone-bearing seed plants, a subset of gymnosperms. Scientifically, they make up the division Pinophyta (), also known as Coniferophyta () or Conifera ...
'' – Sakhalin fir * '''' – Korean fir * ''
Abies nephrolepis ''Abies nephrolepis'', commonly known as Khingan fir, is a species of fir native to northeastern China China, officially the People's Republic of China (PRC), is a country in East Asia. It is the List of countries and dependencies by popula ...

Abies nephrolepis
'' – Khinghan fir * ''
Abies veitchii ''Abies veitchii'' (Veitch's fir; シラビソ or シラベ shirabiso or shirabe), also known as Veitch's silver-fir, is a fir native to Japan on the islands of Honshū and Shikoku. It lives in moist soils in cool wet mountain forests at elevatio ...
'' – Veitch's fir ** ''Abies veitchii'' var. ''sikokiana'' – Shikoku fir


Section ''Grandis''

Section ''Grandis'' is found in western North America to Mexico, Guatemala, Honduras and El Salvador, in lowlands in the north, moderate altitudes in south. * ''
Abies grandis ''Abies grandis'' (grand fir, giant fir, lowland white fir, great silver fir, western white fir, Vancouver fir, or Oregon fir) is a fir native to the Pacific Northwest and Northern California Northern California (colloquially known as NorCa ...
'' – grand fir or giant fir ** ''Abies grandis'' var. ''grandis'' – Coast grand fir ** ''Abies grandis'' var. ''idahoensis'' – interior grand fir * ''
Abies concolor ''Abies concolor'', the white fir, is a coniferous tree in the pine family Pinaceae. This tree is native to the mountains of western North America from the southern Cascade range in Oregon, south throughout California and into the Sierra de San P ...

Abies concolor
'' – white fir ** ''Abies concolor'' subsp. ''concolor'' – Rocky Mountain white fir or Colorado white fir ** ''Abies concolor'' subsp. ''lowiana'' – Low's white fir or Sierra Nevada white fir * '' Abies durangensis'' – Durango fir ** ''Abies durangensis'' var. ''coahuilensis'' – Coahuila fir * ''
Abies flinckii ''Abies flinckii'', commonly known as the Jalisco fir, is a species of conifer Conifers are a group of cone-bearing seed plants, a subset of gymnosperms. Scientifically, they make up the division Pinophyta (), also known as Coniferophyta ( ...
'' – Jalisco fir * '' Abies guatemalensis'' – Guatemalan fir ** ''Abies guatemalensis'' var. ''guatemalensis'' ** ''Abies guatemalensis'' var. ''jaliscana'' * '' Abies vejarii''


Section ''Momi''

Section ''Momi'' is found in east and central Asia and the Himalaya, generally at low to moderate altitudes. * '''' – Taiwan fir * '' Abies homolepis'' – Nikko fir * '' Abies recurvata'' – Min fir ** ''Abies recurvata'' var. ''ernestii'' – Min fir * ''
Abies firma ''Abies firma'', the momi fir, is a species of fir native to central and southern Japan , image_flag = Flag of Japan.svg , alt_flag = Centered deep red circle on a white rectangle , image_coat ...
'' – Momi fir * '' Abies beshanzuensis'' – Baishanzu fir * ''
Abies holophylla ''Abies holophylla'', also called needle fir or Manchurian fir, is a species of fir native to mountainous regions of northern Korea, southern Ussuriland, and China in the provinces of Heilongjiang, Jilin, and Liaoning. It is an evergreen conifer ...

Abies holophylla
'' – Manchurian fir * '' Abies chensiensis'' – Shensi fir ** ''Abies chensiensis'' subsp. ''salouenensis'' – Salween fir * ''
Abies pindrow ''Abies pindrow'', the pindrow fir or west Himalayan fir, is a fir native to the western Himalaya and adjacent mountains, from northeast Afghanistan Afghanistan (; Pashto/Dari language, Dari: , Pashto: , Dari: ), officially the Islamic R ...

Abies pindrow
'' – Pindrow fir * '' Abies ziyuanensis'' – Ziyuan fir


Section ''Amabilis''

Section ''Amabilis'' is found in the Pacific Coast mountains in North America and Japan, in high rainfall areas. * ''
Abies amabilis ''Abies amabilis'', commonly known as the Pacific silver fir, is a fir native to the Pacific Northwest The Pacific Northwest (PNW), sometimes referred to as Cascadia, is a geographic region in western North America North America is ...

Abies amabilis
'' – Pacific silver fir * ''
Abies mariesii Image:Abies mariesii3.JPG, 240px, Maries' fir leaves ''Abies mariesii'' (Maries' fir, in Japanese, オオシラビソ or アオモリトドマツ, Ōshirabiso, or Aomoritodomatsu) is a fir native to the mountains of central and northern Honshū, ...
'' – Maries' fir


Section ''Pseudopicea''

Section ''Pseudopicea'' is found in the at high altitudes. * '' Abies delavayi'' – Delavay's fir ** ''Abies delavayi'' var. ''nukiangensis'' ** ''Abies delavayi'' var. ''motuoensis'' ** ''Abies delavayi'' subsp. ''fansipanensis'' * '' Abies fabri'' – Faber's fir ** ''Abies fabri'' subsp. ''minensis'' * '' Abies forrestii'' – Forrest's fir * ''
Abies densa ''Abies densa'', the Bhutan fir, is a conifer Conifers are a group of cone-bearing seed plants, a subset of gymnosperms. Scientifically, they make up the division Pinophyta (), also known as Coniferophyta () or Coniferae. The division cont ...
'' – Bhutan fir * ''
Abies spectabilis ''Abies spectabilis'', the East Himalayan fir, is a conifer species In biology, a species is the basic unit of biological classification, classification and a taxonomic rank of an organism, as well as a unit of biodiversity. A species is of ...
'' – East Himalayan fir * '' Abies fargesii'' – Farges' fir * '' Abies fanjingshanensis'' – Fanjingshan fir * '' Abies yuanbaoshanensis'' – Yuanbaoshan fir * '' Abies squamata'' – flaky fir


Section ''Oiamel''

Section ''Oiamel'' is found in central Mexico at high altitudes. * ''
Abies religiosa ''Abies religiosa'', the oyamel fir or sacred fir, (known as in Spanish) is a fir native to the mountain A mountain is an elevated portion of the Earth's crust, generally with steep sides that show significant exposed bedrock. A mountain ...
'' – sacred fir * '''' – Hickel's fir ** ''Abies hickelii'' var. ''oaxacana'' – Oaxaca fir


Section ''Nobilis''

Section ''Nobilis'' (western
U.S. The United States of America (USA), commonly known as the United States (U.S. or US), or America, is a country primarily located in North America North America is a continent entirely within the Northern Hemisphere and almost all ...

U.S.
, high altitudes) * ''
Abies procera Firs (''Abies'') are a genus of 48–56 species of evergreen coniferous trees in the family (biology), family Pinaceae. They are found through much of North America, North and Central America, Europe, Asia, and North Africa, occurring in mounta ...

Abies procera
'' – noble fir * ''
Abies magnifica ''Abies magnifica'', the red fir or silvertip fir, is a western North America North America is a continent A continent is any of several large landmasses. Generally identified by convention (norm), convention rather than any st ...
'' – red fir ** ''Abies magnifica'' var. ''shastensis'' – Shasta red fir


Section ''Bracteata''

Section ''Bracteata'' (
California California is a state State may refer to: Arts, entertainment, and media Literature * ''State Magazine'', a monthly magazine published by the U.S. Department of State * The State (newspaper), ''The State'' (newspaper), a daily newspaper i ...

California
coast) * '''' – bristlecone fir


Section ''Incertae sedis''

Section ''Incertae sedis'' * †''
Abies milleri ''Abies milleri'', an extinct species of fir known from fossil remains found in deposits from the early Eocene Ypresian Stage (stratigraphy), stage (around 49.5 mya) in Washington (U.S. state), Washington State, USA, is the oldest confirmed record ...
'' – (Extinct) Early
Eocene The Eocene ( ) Epoch is a geological epoch In chronology 222px, Joseph Scaliger's ''De emendatione temporum'' (1583) began the modern science of chronology Chronology (from Latin Latin (, or , ) is a classical language belonging to the ...


Uses and ecology

Wood Wood is a porous and fibrous structural tissue found in the stems and roots of tree In botany, a tree is a perennial plant with an elongated Plant stem, stem, or trunk (botany), trunk, supporting branches and leaves in most species. ...

Wood
of most firs is considered unsuitable for general
timber Lumber, also known as timber, is wood Wood is a porous and fibrous structural tissue found in the stems and roots of tree In botany, a tree is a perennial plant with an elongated Plant stem, stem, or trunk (botany), trunk, sup ...

timber
use and is often used as pulp or for the manufacture of
plywood Plywood is a material manufactured from thin layers or "plies" of wood veneer In woodworking, veneer refers to thin slices of wood and sometimes bark, usually thinner than 3 mm (1/8 inch), that typically are glued onto core panels (typic ...

plywood
and rough timber. Because this genus has no insect or decay resistance qualities after logging, it is generally recommended in construction purposes for indoor use only (e.g. indoor
drywall Drywall (also known as plasterboard, wallboard, sheet rock, gypsum board, buster board, custard board, or gypsum panel) is a panel made of calcium sulfate Calcium sulfate (or calcium sulphate) is the inorganic compound with the formula CaSO4 ...

drywall
on framing). Firwood left outside cannot be expected to last more than 12 to 18 months, depending on the type of climate it is exposed to.
Nordmann fir ''Abies nordmanniana'', the Nordmann fir or Caucasian fir, is a fir Firs (''Abies'') are a genus Genus (plural genera) is a taxonomic rank Taxonomy (general) is the practice and science of classification of things or concepts, including ...
, noble fir, Fraser fir and balsam fir are popular Christmas trees, generally considered to be the best for this purpose, with aromatic foliage that does not shed many needles on drying out. Many are also decorative garden trees, notably Korean fir and Fraser fir, which produce brightly coloured cones even when very young, still only tall. Other firs can grow anywhere between tall. Fir Tree Appreciation Day is June 18. ''
Abies religiosa ''Abies religiosa'', the oyamel fir or sacred fir, (known as in Spanish) is a fir native to the mountain A mountain is an elevated portion of the Earth's crust, generally with steep sides that show significant exposed bedrock. A mountain ...
''—sacred fir, is the overwinter host for the Danaus plexippus, monarch butterfly . Firs are used as food plants by the caterpillars of some Lepidoptera species, including ''Chionodes abella'' (recorded on white fir), autumnal moth, Korscheltellus, conifer swift (a pest of balsam fir), engrailed (moth), the engrailed, grey pug, mottled umber, pine beauty and the tortrix moths ''Cydia illutana'' (whose caterpillars are recorded to feed on European silver fir cone scales) and ''Cydia duplicana, C. duplicana'' (on European silver fir bark around injuries or canker). ''Abies spectabilis'' or Talispatra is used in Ayurveda as an antitussive (cough suppressant) drug.


Phytochemistry

''Abies'' produce a variety of terpenoids. The analyses of the Zavarin group - from Smedman et al 1969 to Zavarin et al 1977 - showed variation in terpenoid composition of the bark by genetics, geography, age and size of the tree.


References


Bibliography

Philips, Roger. ''Trees of North America and Europe'', Random House, Inc., New York , 1979.


External links


''Abies''
at The Gymnosperm Database

at the Arboretum de Villardebelle—images of cones of selected species
Platt, Karen
"Gold Fever" provides descriptions of golden or yellow-leaved Abies cultivars {{authority control Abies, Pinaceae Extant Ypresian first appearances Taxa named by Philip Miller