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Financial services are the economic services provided by the
finance Finance is a term for the management, creation, and study of money In a 1786 James Gillray caricature, the plentiful money bags handed to King George III are contrasted with the beggar whose legs and arms were amputated, in the left corn ...

finance
industry, which encompasses a broad range of
business Business is the activity of making one's living or making money by producing or buying and selling products (such as goods and services). Simply put, it is "any activity or enterprise entered into for profit." Having a business name A trad ...

business
es that manage money, including
credit union A credit union, a type of financial institution similar to a commercial bank, is a member-owned financial cooperative, controlled by its members and operated on a not-for-profit basis. Credit unions generally provide services to members simila ...
s,
bank A bank is a financial institution Financial institutions, otherwise known as banking institutions, are corporation A corporation is an organization—usually a group of people or a company—authorized by the State (polity), stat ...

bank
s,
credit-card A credit card is a payment card issued to users (cardholders) to enable the cardholder to pay a merchant for goods and services based on the cardholder's promise to the card issuer to pay them for the amounts plus the other agreed charges. ...
companies,
insurance Insurance is a means of protection from financial loss. It is a form of risk management Risk management is the identification, evaluation, and prioritization of risk In simple terms, risk is the possibility of something bad happening. ...

insurance
companies,
accountancy Accounting or Accountancy is the measurement ' Measurement is the number, numerical quantification (science), quantification of the variable and attribute (research), attributes of an object or event, which can be used to compare with other obj ...
companies, consumer-finance companies, stock brokerages,
investment funds 200px, thumbnail, The values and performance of collective funds are listed in newspapers An investment fund is a way of investing money alongside other investors in order to benefit from the inherent advantages of working as part of a group such a ...
, individual managers, and some
government-sponsored enterprise A government-sponsored enterprise (GSE) is a type of financial services corporation created by the United States Congress. Their intended function is to enhance the flow of Credit (finance), credit to targeted sectors of the economy, to make those ...
s.


History

The term "financial services" became more prevalent in the
United States The United States of America (U.S.A. or USA), commonly known as the United States (U.S. or US) or America, is a country Continental United States, primarily located in North America. It consists of 50 U.S. state, states, a Washington, D.C., ...

United States
partly as a result of the GrammLeachBliley Act of the late 1990s, which enabled different types of companies operating in the U.S. financial services industry at that time to merge. Companies usually have two distinct approaches to this new type of business. One approach would be a bank that simply buys an insurance company or an
investment bank Investment is the dedication of an asset to attain an increase in value over a period of time. Investment requires a sacrifice of some present asset, such as time, money, or effort. In finance Finance is the study of financial institution ...
, keeps the original
brand A brand is a name, term, design, symbol or any other feature that identifies one seller's good or service as distinct from those of other sellers. Brands are used in business Business is the activity of making one's living or making mon ...

brand
s of the acquired firm, and adds the
acquisition Acquisition may refer to: * Takeover, the purchase of one company by another * Mergers and acquisitions, transactions in which the ownership of companies or their operating units are transferred or consolidated with other entities * Procurement, fi ...
to its
holding company A holding company is a company whose primary business is holding a controlling interest in the securities of other companies. A holding company usually does not produce goods or services itself. Its purpose is to own shares of other companies ...
simply to diversify its
earnings Earnings are the net benefits of a corporation A corporation is an organization—usually a group of people or a company—authorized by the State (polity), state to act as a single entity (a legal entity recognized by private and public law ...
. Outside the U.S. (e.g.
Japan Japan ( ja, 日本, or , and formally ) is an island country An island country or an island nation is a country A country is a distinct territory, territorial body or political entity. It is often referred to as the land of an in ...

Japan
), non-financial services companies are permitted within the holding company. In this scenario, each company still looks independent and has its own customers, etc. In the other style, a bank would simply create its own insurance division or brokerage division and attempt to sell those products to its own existing customers, with incentives for combining all things with one company.


Relationship to the government

The financial sector is traditionally among those to receive government support in times of widespread economic crisis. Such bailouts, however, enjoy less public support than those for other industries.


Banks


Commercial banking services

A commercial bank is what is commonly referred to as simply a bank. The term "
commercial Commercial may refer to: * a dose of advertising conveyed through media (such as - for example - radio or television) ** Radio advertisement ** Television advertisement * (adjective for:) commerce, a system of voluntary exchange of products and se ...

commercial
" is used to distinguish it from an
investment bank Investment is the dedication of an asset to attain an increase in value over a period of time. Investment requires a sacrifice of some present asset, such as time, money, or effort. In finance Finance is the study of financial institution ...
, a type of financial services entity which instead of lending money directly to a business, helps businesses raise money from other firms in the form of bonds (debt) or
stock In finance, stock (also capital stock) consists of all of the shares In financial markets A financial market is a market in which people trade financial securities and derivatives at low transaction costs. Some of the securities i ...

stock
(equity). The primary operations of commercial banks include: * Keeping money
safe A safe (also called a strongbox or coffer) is a secure lockable box used for securing valuable objects against theft Theft is the taking of another person's property Property is a system of rights that gives people legal control of va ...

safe
while also allowing withdrawals when needed * Issuance of
chequebook A cheque, or check (American English American English (AmE, AE, AmEng, USEng, en-US), sometimes called United States English or U.S. English, is the set of varieties of the English language native to the United States. Currently, Am ...
s so that bills can be paid and other kinds of payments can be delivered by the post * Provide
personal loan In finance Finance is the study of financial institutions, financial markets and how they operate within the financial system. It is concerned with the creation and management of money and investments. Savers and investors have money availa ...
s, commercial loans, and
mortgage loan A mortgage loan or simply mortgage () is a loan used either by purchasers of real property to raise funds to buy real estate, or by existing property owners to raise funds for any purpose while putting a lien on the property being mortgaged. T ...
s (typically loans to purchase a home, property or business) * Issuance of
credit card #REDIRECT Credit card A credit card is a payment card issued to users (cardholders) to enable the cardholder to pay a merchant for goods and services based on the cardholder's promise to the card issuer to pay them for the amounts plus the ...

credit card
s and processing of credit card transactions and billing * Issuance of
debit card A debit card (also known as a bank card, plastic card or check card) is a payment card that can be used in place of cash to make purchases. It is similar to a credit card, but unlike a credit card, the money for the purchase must be in the cardho ...
s for use as a substitute for
cheque A cheque, or check (American English American English (AmE, AE, AmEng, USEng, en-US), sometimes called United States English or U.S. English, is the set of varieties of the English language native to the United States. Currently, A ...
s * Allow financial transactions at branches or by using
automatic teller machine An automated teller machine (ATM) or cash machine (in British English British English (BrE) is the standard dialect of the English language English is a West Germanic languages, West Germanic language first spoken in History ...
s (ATMs) * Provide wire transfers of funds and electronic fund transfers between banks * Facilitation of standing orders and direct
debit Debits and credits in double entry bookkeeping are entries made in account ledger A ledger is a book or collection of accounts in which account transactions are recorded. Each account has an opening or carry-forward balance Balance may refe ...

debit
s, so payments for bills can be made automatically * Provide
overdraft An overdraft occurs when money is withdrawn in excess of what is on the current account. In this situation the account is said to be "overdrawn". If there is a prior agreement with the account provider for an overdraft, and the amount overdrawn i ...
agreements for the temporary advancement of the bank's own money to meet the monthly spending commitments of a customer in their current account. * Provide
internet banking Online banking, also known as internet banking, web banking or home banking, is an electronic payment system that enables customers of a bank or other financial institution to conduct a range of financial transactions through the financial instit ...
system to facilitate the customers to view and operate their respective accounts through the internet. * Provide charge card advances of the bank's own money for customers wishing to settle credit advances monthly. * Provide a check guaranteed by the bank itself and prepaid by the customer, such as a
cashier's check A cashier's check (or cashier's cheque, cashier's order) is a check Check or cheque, may refer to: Places * Check, Virginia Check is an unincorporated community in Floyd County, Virginia, Floyd County, Virginia, United States. Check is located o ...
or
certified check A certified check (or certified cheque) is a form of check for which the bank verifies that sufficient funds exist in the account to cover the check, and so certifies, at the time the check is written. Those funds are then set aside in the bank's i ...
. *
Notary A notary is a person authorised to perform acts in legal affairs, in particular witnessing signatures on documents. The form that the notarial profession takes varies with local legal systems. A notary, while a legal professional, is distinc ...
service for financial and other documents * Accepting the deposits from customers and provide credit facilities to them. * Sell investment products like mutual funds Etc. The United States is the largest location for commercial banking services.


Investment banking services

*
Underwriting Underwriting (UW) services are provided by some large financial institution Financial institutions, otherwise known as banking institutions, are corporation A corporation is an organization—usually a group of people or a company—a ...
debt and
equity Equity may refer to: Finance, accounting and ownership *Equity (finance), ownership of assets that have liabilities attached to them ** Stock, equity based on original contributions of cash or other value to a business ** Home equity, the differe ...

equity
for the private and public sector for such entities to raise capital. *
Mergers and acquisitions In , mergers and acquisitions (M&A) are transactions in which the ownership of , other business organizations, or their operating units are transferred or with other entities. As an aspect of , M&A can allow enterprises to grow or , and change ...
– Work to underwrite and advise companies on mergers or takeovers. *
Structured finance Structured finance is a sector of finance Finance is a term for the management, creation, and study of money In a 1786 James Gillray caricature, the plentiful money bags handed to King George III are contrasted with the beggar whose leg ...
– Develop intricate (typically derivative) products for high net worth individuals and institutions with more intricate financial needs. *
Restructuring Restructuring is the corporate management term for the act of reorganizing the legal, ownership, operational, or other structures of a company (law), company for the purpose of making it more profitable, or better organized for its present need ...
– Assist in financially reorganizing companies *
Investment management Investment management is the professional asset management Asset management refers to a systematic approach to the governance and realization of value from the things that a group or entity is responsible for, over their whole life cycles. It ...
– Management of assets (e.g., real estate) to meet specified investment goals of clients. *
Securities research Security (finance), Securities research is a discipline within the financial services industry. Securities research professionals are known most generally as "analysts", "research analysts", or "securities analysts"; all the foregoing terms are ...
– Maintain their own department that services to assist their traders, clients and maintain a public stance on specific securities and industries. *
Broker A broker is a person or firm who arranges transactions between a Purchasing, buyer and a sales, seller for a commission (remuneration), commission when the deal is executed. A broker who also acts as a seller or as a buyer becomes a :wikt:princip ...
Services – Buy and sell securities on behalf of their clients (sometimes may involve financial consulting as well). *
Prime Brokerage Prime brokerage is the generic name for a bundled package of services offered by investment banks, Wealth management, wealth management firms, and Security (finance), securities dealers to hedge funds which need the ability to borrow securities an ...
– An exclusive type of bundled broker service specifically meant to service the needs of hedge funds. *
Private banking Private banking is bank A bank is a financial institution that accepts Deposit account, deposits from the public and creates a demand deposit while simultaneously making loans. Lending activities can be directly performed by the bank or indir ...
– Private banks provide banking services exclusively to
high-net-worth individual High-net-worth individual (HNWI) is a term used by some segments of the financial services industry to designate persons whose investible wealth (assets such as stocks and bond (finance), bonds) exceed a given amount. Typically, these individuals ...
s. Many financial services firms require a person or family to have a certain minimum net worth to qualify for private banking service. New York City and London are the largest centers of investment banking services. NYC is dominated by U.S. domestic business, while in London
international business International business refers to the trade of goods, services, technology, capital and/or knowledge across national borders and at a global or transnational scale. It involves cross-border transactions of goods and services between two or more ...
and commerce make up a significant portion of investment banking activity.


Foreign exchange services

FX or Foreign exchange services are provided by many banks and specialists foreign exchange brokers around the world. Foreign exchange services include: *
Currency exchange A bureau de change (plural bureaux de change, both ) (British English) or currency exchange (Comparison of American and British English, American English) is a business where people can exchange one currency for another. Nomenclature Although or ...
– where clients can purchase and sell foreign currency banknotes. *
Wire transfer Wire transfer, bank transfer or credit transfer, is a method of electronic funds transfer from one person or entity to another. A wire transfer can be made from one bank account A bank account is a financial account maintained by a bank or ot ...
– where clients can send funds to international banks abroad. *
Remittance A remittance is a non-commercial transfer of money by a foreign worker, a member of a diaspora A diaspora () is a scattered population whose origin lies in a separate geographic locale. Historically, the word diaspora was used to refer t ...
– where clients that are migrant workers send money back to their home country. London handled 36.7% of global currency transactions – an average daily turnover of
US$ The United States dollar (symbol A symbol is a mark, sign, or word In linguistics, a word of a spoken language can be defined as the smallest sequence of phonemes that can be uttered in isolation with semantic, objective or pragmatics, ...
1.85 trillion – with more US dollars traded in London than New York, and more
Euros The euro (symbol A symbol is a mark, sign, or word In linguistics, a word of a spoken language can be defined as the smallest sequence of phonemes that can be uttered in isolation with semantic, objective or pragmatics, practical ...
traded than in every other city in Europe combined.


Investment services

*
Collective investment fund The values and performance of collective funds are listed in newspapers. An investment fund is a way of investing Investment is the dedication of an asset to attain an increase in value over a period of time. Investment requires a sacrifice of ...
– A fund that acts as an investment pool so investors can put money into a fund that will reinvest it into a variety of securities based upon their common, outlined investment goal. *Investment Advisory Offices – Run by
registered investment advisorsA registered investment adviser (RIA) is a firm that is an investment adviser in the United States, registered as such with the Securities and Exchange Commission or a state's securities agency. The numerous references to RIAs within the Investment A ...
who advises clients in financial planning and invests their money. * Hedge fund management – Hedge funds often employ the services of "
prime brokerage Prime brokerage is the generic name for a bundled package of services offered by investment banks, Wealth management, wealth management firms, and Security (finance), securities dealers to hedge funds which need the ability to borrow securities an ...
" divisions at major investment banks to execute their trades. *
Private equity Private equity (PE) typically refers to investment funds, generally organized as limited partnerships, that buy and restructure companies that are not publicly traded. Private equity is a type of equity and one of the asset classes consisti ...
– Private equity funds are typically closed-end funds, which usually take controlling equity stakes in businesses that are either private or taken private once acquired. Private equity funds often use leveraged buyouts (LBOs) to acquire the firms in which they invest. The most successful private equity funds can generate returns significantly higher than provided by the equity markets. *
Venture capital Venture capital (VC) is a form of private equity Private equity (PE) typically refers to investment funds, generally organized as limited partnerships, that buy and restructure companies that are not publicly traded. Private equity is a ty ...
– Private equity capital typically provided by professional, outside investors to new, high-growth-potential companies in the interest of taking the company to an IPO or trade sale of the business. Startup companies are typically fueled by an
angel investor An angel investor (also known as a business angel, informal investor, angel funder, private investor, or seed investor) is an individual who provides capital for a business start-up, usually in exchange for convertible debt In finance Fina ...
. * Family office – Investment and wealth management firm that handles a wealthy family or small group of wealthy individuals with financial plans tailored to their needs. Similar to
private banking Private banking is bank A bank is a financial institution that accepts Deposit account, deposits from the public and creates a demand deposit while simultaneously making loans. Lending activities can be directly performed by the bank or indir ...
. *Advisory services – These firms (or departments within a larger entity) service clients with financial advisers who serve as both, a broker as well as a financial consultant. * Custody services – the safe-keeping and processing of the world's securities trades and servicing the associated portfolios. Assets under custody in the world are approximately US$100 trillion. New York City is the largest center of investment services, followed by London.


Insurance

*Insurance brokerage –
Insurance broker An insurance broker is an intermediary An intermediary (or go-between) is a third party that offers intermediation services between two parties, which involves conveying messages between principals in a dispute, preventing direct contact a ...
s shop for insurance (generally corporate property and casualty insurance) on behalf of customers. Recently several websites have been created to give consumers basic price comparisons for services such as insurance, causing controversy within the industry. *Insurance underwriting – Personal lines insurance
underwriter Underwriting (UW) services are provided by some large financial institutions, such as banks, insurance companies and investment houses, whereby they guarantee payment in case of damage or financial loss and accept the financial risk for liability ...
s actually underwrite insurance for individuals, a service still offered primarily through agents,
insurance broker An insurance broker is an intermediary An intermediary (or go-between) is a third party that offers intermediation services between two parties, which involves conveying messages between principals in a dispute, preventing direct contact a ...
s, and
stock broker A stockbroker, share holder registered representative (in the United States and Canada), trading representative (in Singapore), or more broadly, an investment broker, investment adviser, financial adviser, wealth manager, or investment professiona ...
s. Underwriters may also offer similar commercial lines of coverage for businesses. Activities include insurance and
annuities An annuity is a series of payments made at equal intervals.Kellison, Stephen G. (1970). ''The Theory of Interest''. Homewood, Illinois: Richard D. Irwin, Inc. p. 45 Examples of annuities are regular deposits to a savings account, monthly home mortga ...
,
life insurance Life insurance (or life assurance, especially in the Commonwealth of Nations The Commonwealth of Nations, generally known simply as the Commonwealth, is a political association of 54 member states, almost all of which are former territorie ...
, retirement insurance,
health insurance Health insurance or medical insurance (also known as medical aid in South Africa) is a type of insurance Insurance is a means of protection from financial loss. It is a form of risk management Risk management is the identification, ev ...
, and
property insurance Property is a system of rights that gives people legal control of valuable things, and also refers to the valuable things themselves. Depending on the nature of the property, an owner of property may have the right to consume, alter, share, re ...
and
casualty insuranceCasualty insurance is a problematically defined term which broadly encompasses insurance not directly concerned with life insurance, health insurance, or property insurance. Casualty insurance is mainly liability coverage of an individual or ...
. *Finance and insurance – a service still offered primarily at asset dealerships. The F&I manager encompasses the financing and insuring of the asset which is sold by the dealer. F&I is often called "the second gross" in dealerships that have adopted the model *
Reinsurance Reinsurance is insurance Insurance is a means of protection from financial loss. It is a form of risk management, primarily used to hedge against the risk of a contingent or uncertain loss. An entity which provides insurance is known as a ...
– Reinsurance is insurance sold to insurers themselves, to protect them from catastrophic losses. The United States, followed by Japan and the United Kingdom are the largest insurance markets in the world.


Other financial services

*Angel investment networks – A group of
angel investors An angel investor (also known as a business angel, informal investor, angel funder, private investor, or seed investor) is an individual who provides capital for a business Startup company, start-up, usually in exchange for convertible debt or owne ...
can create their own network to be the financial foundation for future companies. *Credit card networking – Companies that serve as the bridge between the retailers and the banks who issue the bank cards. The four major credit card networks are:
Mastercard#REDIRECT Mastercard Mastercard Incorporated (stylized as MasterCard from 1979 to 2016 and mastercard since 2016) is an American multinational financial services Financial services are the Service (economics), economic services provided by the ...

Mastercard
,
Visa Inc. Visa Inc. (; stylized as ''VISA'') is an American Multinational corporation, multinational financial services corporation headquartered in Foster City, California, United States. It facilitates electronic funds transfers throughout the world, ...
,
rupay RuPay ''(portmanteau of Rupee and Payment)'' is an Indian multinational Multinational may refer to: * Multinational corporation, a corporate organization operating in multiple countries * Multinational force, a military body from multiple coun ...

rupay
,
American Express The American Express Company (Amex) is a multinational Multinational may refer to: * Multinational corporation, a corporate organization operating in multiple countries * Multinational force, a military body from multiple countries * Multinat ...
and
Discover Financial Discover Financial Services is an American financial services Financial services are the Service (economics), economic services provided by the finance industry, which encompasses a broad range of businesses that manage money, including credit u ...
. *
Conglomerate Conglomerate or conglomeration may refer to: * Conglomerate (company) * Conglomerate (geology) * Conglomerate (mathematics) In popular culture: * The Conglomerate (American group), a production crew and musical group founded by Busta Rhymes ** Con ...
s – A financial services company, such as a
universal bank A universal bank participates in many kinds of banking activities and is both a commercial bank and an investment bank as well as providing other financial services Financial services are the Service (economics), economic services provided by ...
, that is active in more than one sector of the financial services market e.g. life insurance, general insurance, health insurance, asset management,
retail banking Retail banking, also known as consumer banking or personal banking, is the provision of services by a bank A bank is a financial institution Financial institutions, otherwise known as banking institutions, are corporation A co ...
, wholesale banking, investment banking, etc. A key rationale for the existence of such businesses is the existence of diversification benefits that are present when different types of businesses are aggregated. As a consequence,
economic capital __NOTOC__ In finance Finance is the study of financial institutions, financial markets and how they operate within the financial system. It is concerned with the creation and management of money and investments. Savers and investors have money ...
for a conglomerate is usually substantially less than
economic capital __NOTOC__ In finance Finance is the study of financial institutions, financial markets and how they operate within the financial system. It is concerned with the creation and management of money and investments. Savers and investors have money ...
is for the sum of its parts. * Debt resolution – A consumer service that assists individuals that have too much debt to pay off as requested, but do not want to file bankruptcy and wish to pay off their debts owed. This debt can be accrued in various ways including but not limited to personal loans, credit cards, or in some cases merchant accounts. *Financial market utilities – Organizations that are part of the infrastructure of financial services, such as
stock exchange A stock exchange, securities exchange, or bourse is an exchange Exchange may refer to: Places United States * Exchange, Indiana Exchange is an Unincorporated area, unincorporated community in Green Township, Morgan County, Indiana, Green To ...
s, clearing houses, derivative and commodity exchanges and
payment system A payment system is any system used to settle financial transactions through the transfer of monetary value. This includes the institutions, instruments, people, rules, procedures, standards, and technologies that make its exchange possible.Biago B ...
s such as
real-time gross settlement Real-time gross settlement (RTGS) systems are specialist Electronic funds transfer, funds transfer systems where the transfer of money or securities takes place from one bank to any other bank on a "real-time" and on a "gross (economics), gross" bas ...
systems or
interbank network Interbank is a Peruvian provider of financial services. History Image:Banco Internacional del Peru.jpg, 250px, Interbank office in Arequipa In 1897, Elias Mujica opened an agency at Jiron de la Union in Lima's historical center under the name o ...
s. *Payment recovery – Assistance in recovering money inadvertently paid to vendors by businesses, such as by accidental duplicate payment of an invoice or failure to return a deposit.


Financial exports

A financial export is a financial service provided by a domestic firm (regardless of ownership) to a foreign firm or individual. While financial services such as banking, insurance, and investment management are often seen as domestic services, an increasing proportion of financial services are now being handled abroad, in other
financial centre A financial centre, financial center, or financial hub is a location with a concentration of participants Participation or Participant may refer to: Politics *Participation (decision making), mechanisms for people to participate in social d ...
s, for a variety of reasons. Some smaller financial centres, such as
Bermuda ) , anthem = "God Save the Queen "God Save the Queen", alternatively "God Save the King" (dependent on the gender of the reigning monarch), is the or in most s, their territories, and the British . The author of the tune is unknown, ...

Bermuda
,
Luxembourg Luxembourg ( ; lb, Lëtzebuerg ; french: link=no, Luxembourg; german: link=no, Luxemburg), officially the Grand Duchy of Luxembourg, ; french: link=no, Grand-Duché de Luxembourg ; german: link=no, Großherzogtum Luxemburg is a landlocked ...

Luxembourg
, and the
Cayman Islands The Cayman Islands () is a self-governing British overseas territories, British Overseas Territory, the largest by population, in the western Caribbean Sea. The territory comprises the three islands of Grand Cayman, Cayman Brac and Little Caym ...

Cayman Islands
, lack sufficient size for a domestic financial services sector and have developed a role providing services to non-residents as
offshore financial centre An offshore financial centre (OFC) is defined as a "country or jurisdiction that provides financial services to nonresidents on a scale that is incommensurate with the size and the financing of its domestic economy." "Offshore" does not refer ...
s. The increasing competitiveness of financial services has meant that some countries, such as Japan, which were once self-sufficient, have increasingly imported financial services. The leading financial exporter, in terms of exports less imports, is the
United Kingdom The United Kingdom of Great Britain and Northern Ireland, commonly known as the United Kingdom (UK) or Britain,Usage is mixed. The Guardian' and Telegraph' use Britain as a synonym for the United Kingdom. Some prefer to use Britain as shorth ...

United Kingdom
, which had $95 billion of financial exports in 2014. The UK's position is helped by both unique institutions (such as
Lloyd's of London Lloyd's of London, generally known simply as Lloyd's, is an insurance Insurance is a means of protection from financial loss. It is a form of risk management Risk management is the identification, evaluation, and prioritization of ...
for insurance, the
Baltic Exchange The Baltic Exchange (incorporated as The Baltic Exchange Limited) is a membership organisation for the maritime industry, and freight market information provider for the trading and settlement of physical and derivative In mathematics, th ...
for shipping etc.) and an environment that attracts foreign firms; many international corporations have global or regional headquarters in the
London London is the capital Capital most commonly refers to: * Capital letter Letter case (or just case) is the distinction between the letters that are in larger uppercase or capitals (or more formally ''majuscule'') and smaller lowerc ...

London
and are listed on the
London Stock Exchange London Stock Exchange (LSE) is a stock exchange A stock exchange, securities exchange, or bourse is an exchange Exchange may refer to: Places United States * Exchange, Indiana Exchange is an Unincorporated area, unincorporated community ...
, and many banks and other financial institutions operate there or in
Edinburgh Edinburgh (; sco, Edinburgh; gd, Dùn Èideann ) is the capital city of Scotland and one of its 32 Council areas of Scotland, council areas. Historically part of the county of Midlothian (interchangeably Edinburghshire before 1921), it is ...

Edinburgh
.


See also

*
Alternative financial services A shop window in Falls Church, Virginia. An alternative financial service (AFS) is a financial service provided outside traditional banking A bank is a financial institution that accepts deposits from the public and creates a demand de ...
*
Financial analyst A financial analyst is a professional, undertaking financial analysis Financial analysis (also referred to as financial statement analysis or accounting analysis or Analysis of finance) refers to an assessment of the viability, stability, and prof ...
*
Financial crime Financial crime is crime committed against property Property (''latin: Res Privata'') in the Abstract and concrete, abstract is what belongs to or with something, whether as an attribute or as a component of said thing. In the context of this a ...
*
Financial data vendorsA financial data vendor provides market data Example of a stock chart, the stock shown is SourceForge, Inc. In finance, market data is price and Trader (finance), trade-related data for a financial instrument reported by a trading venue such as a s ...
*
Financial markets A financial market is a market Market may refer to: *Market (economics) *Market economy *Marketplace, a physical marketplace or public market Geography *Märket, an island shared by Finland and Sweden Art, entertainment, and media Films *Ma ...
*
Financial technology Financial technology (abbreviated fintech or FinTech) is the technology Technology ("science of craft", from Greek#REDIRECT Greek Greek may refer to: Greece Anything of, from, or related to Greece Greece ( el, Ελλάδα, , ), ...

Financial technology
*
Financialization Financialization (or financialisation in British English) is a term sometimes used to describe the development of financial capitalism during the period from 1980 to present, in which Financial leverage, debt-to-equity ratios increased and finan ...
* Insider threat *
International Monetary Fund The International Monetary Fund (IMF) is an international financial institution, headquartered in Washington, D.C. ) , image_skyline = , image_caption = Clockwise from top left: the Washington Monument The ...

International Monetary Fund
*
List of banks Lists of banks are contained in the following articles: By continent * List of banks in Africa – Each country in Africa has a list of banks operating in that country * List of banks in Asia – Asia has a list of banks operating in that cou ...
*
List of investment banks The following list catalogues the largest, most profitable, and otherwise notable investment banks. This list of investment banks notes full-service banks, financial conglomerates, independent investment banks, private placement Private placeme ...
*
List of countries by share of population with access to financial services The following list ranks countries by the share of population with access to financial services Financial services are the Service (economics), economic services provided by the finance industry, which encompasses a broad range of businesses that ...
*
List of largest financial services companies by revenue The following is a list of the world's largest publicly traded financial services Financial services are the economic services provided by the finance Finance is a term for the management, creation, and study of money In a 1786 Jame ...
*


References


Further reading

*


External links


The role of the Financial Services Sector in Expanding Economic Opportunity , A report by Christopher N. Sutton and Beth Jenkins , John F. Kennedy School of Government , Harvard University
{{DEFAULTSORT:Financial Services Financial markets