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The federal subjects of Russia, also referred to as the subjects of the Russian Federation (russian: субъекты Российской Федерации, subyekty Rossiyskoy Federatsii) or simply as the subjects of the federation (russian: субъекты федерации, subyekty federatsii), are the constituent entities of
Russia Russia ( rus, link=no, Россия, Rossiya, ), or the Russian Federation, is a country spanning Eastern Europe Eastern Europe is the eastern region of . There is no consistent definition of the precise area it covers, partly because th ...

Russia
, its top-level political divisions according to the
Constitution of Russia The Constitution of the Russian Federation () was adopted by national referendum on . Russia Russia ( rus, link=no, Россия, Rossiya, ), or the Russian Federation, is a country spanning Eastern Europe Eastern Europe is the ea ...
. Since March 18, 2014, the Russian Federation constitutionally consists of 85 federal subjects. The two located on the
Crimean Peninsula Crimea; crh, Къырым, translit=Kirim/Qırım; grc, Κιμμερία/Ταυρική, translit=Kimmería/Taurikḗ is a peninsula along the northern coast of the Black Sea in Eastern Europe. It has a population of 2.4 million, made up ...

Crimean Peninsula
,
Sevastopol Sevastopol (Russian, Ukrainian: Севастополь); is the largest city in Crimea Crimea (; ; uk, Крим, Krym; crh, Къырым, translit=Kirim/Qırım; grc, Κιμμερία/Ταυρική, translit=Kimmería/Taurikḗ) ...

Sevastopol
and the
Republic of Crimea The Republic of Crimea (, , ), translit. Transliteration is a type of conversion of a text from one script to another that involves swapping Letter (alphabet), letters (thus ''wikt:trans-#Prefix, trans-'' + ''wikt:littera#Latin, liter-'') ...
, are not internationally recognized as part of Russia.
Kaliningrad Oblast Kaliningrad Oblast (russian: Калинингра́дская о́бласть, translit=Kaliningradskaya oblast') is the westernmost federal subjects of Russia, federal subject of Russia. It is a Enclave and exclave, semi-exclave, and is situ ...

Kaliningrad Oblast
is the only federal subject geographically separated from the rest of the Russian Federation by other countries. According to the Russian Constitution, the Russian Federation consists of
republic A republic () is a form of government A government is the system or group of people governing an organized community, generally a state State may refer to: Arts, entertainment, and media Literature * ''State Magazine'', a month ...

republic
s,
krai A krai or kray (; russian: край, , ''kraya'') is one of the types of federal subjects of modern Russia, and was a type of geographical administrative division Administrative division, administrative unitArticle 3(1). , country subdivisio ...

krai
s,
oblasts An oblast (; ) is a type of administrative division of Belarus, Bulgaria Bulgaria (; bg, България, Bǎlgariya), officially the Republic of Bulgaria ( bg, Република България, links=no, Republika Bǎlgariya, ), is a co ...

oblasts
,
cities of federal importance
cities of federal importance
, an
autonomous oblastAn autonomous oblast is an autonomous entity An autonomous administrative division (also referred to as an autonomous area, entity, unit, region, subdivision, or territory) is a subnational administrative division Administrative division, ad ...
and
autonomous okrug Autonomous okrug ( rus, автономный округ, t=avtonomny okrug), occasionally referred to as "autonomous district", "autonomous area", and "autonomous region", is a type of federal subject of Russia and simultaneously an administrativ ...

autonomous okrug
s, all of which are equal subjects of the Russian Federation. Three
Russian cities of federal importance
Russian cities of federal importance
(Moscow, Saint Petersburg, and Sevastopol) have a status of both city and separate federal subject which comprises other cities and towns (
Zelenograd Zelenograd ( rus, Зеленогра́д, p=zʲɪlʲɪnɐˈgrat, lit. ''green city'') is a city A city is a large human settlement.Goodall, B. (1987) ''The Penguin Dictionary of Human Geography''. London: Penguin.Kuper, A. and Kuper, J., eds ( ...
, Troitsk,
Kronstadt Kronstadt (russian: Кроншта́дт, Kronštádt ), also spelled Kronshtadt, Cronstadt or Kronštádt (from german: link=no, Krone for " crown" and ''Stadt'' for "city"; et, Kroonlinn) is a Russian port city in Kronshtadtsky District of t ...

Kronstadt
,
Kolpino Kolpino (russian: Ко́лпино; fi, Kolpina, ') is a administrative divisions of Saint Petersburg, municipal city in Kolpinsky District of the federal cities of Russia, federal city of Saint Petersburg, St. Petersburg, Russia, loca ...
, etc.) within each federal city—keeping older structures of postal addresses. In 1993 the Russian Federation comprised 89 federal subjects. By 2008, the number of federal subjects had decreased to 83 because of several
mergers In corporate finance Corporate finance is the area of finance Finance is the study of financial institutions, financial markets and how they operate within the financial system. It is concerned with the creation and management of money a ...
. In 2014 Sevastopol and the Republic of Crimea became the 84th and 85th federal subjects of Russia.Kremlin.ru
Договор между Российской Федерацией и Республикой Крым о принятии в Российскую Федерацию Республики Крым и образовании в составе Российской Федерации новых субъектов
(''Treaty Between the Russian Federation and the Republic of Crimea on Ascension to the Russian Federation of the Republic of Crimea and on Establishment of New Subjects Within the Russian Federation'')
Every federal subject has its own
head Head Sport GmbH is an American-Austrian manufacturing company Manufacturing is the creation or production Production may be: Economics and business * Production (economics) * Production, the act of manufacturing goods * Production, in th ...
, a
parliament In modern politics and history, a parliament is a legislative A legislature is an assembly Assembly may refer to: Organisations and meetings * Deliberative assembly A deliberative assembly is a gathering of members (of any kind of ...
, and a constitutional court. Each federal subject has its own constitution and legislation. Subjects have equal rights in relations with federal government bodies. The federal subjects have equal representation—two delegates each—in the
Federation Council The Federation Council (russian: Сове́т Федера́ции; ''Soviet Federatsii'', common abbreviation: Совфед (''Sovfed'') or ru , Сенат , translit = Senat , translation = Senate) is the upper house of the Federal Assem ...
, the upper house of the
Federal AssemblyFederal Assembly may refer to: *Federal Assembly (Russia), the Russian federal parliament *Federal Assembly (Czechoslovakia), the former Czechoslovak federal parliament *Federal Assembly (Federation of Rhodesia and Nyasaland), the former federal par ...
. They do, however, differ in the degree of
autonomy In developmental psychology Developmental psychology is the scientific Science () is a systematic enterprise that Scientific method, builds and organizes knowledge in the form of Testability, testable explanations and predictions ...
they enjoy. Post-Soviet Russia formed during the history of the
Russian Soviet Federative Socialist Republic The Russian Soviet Federative Socialist Republic (Russian SFSR or RSFSR; rus, links=1, Росси́йская Сове́тская Федерати́вная Социалисти́ческая Респу́блика, Rossíyskaya Sovétskaya ...
within the
USSR The Soviet Union,. officially the Union of Soviet Socialist Republics. (USSR),. was a socialist state that spanned Eurasia during its existence from 1922 to 1991. It was nominally a Federation, federal union of multiple national Republics of ...

USSR
and did not change at the time of the
dissolution of the Soviet Union The dissolution of the Soviet Union, also negatively connoted as rus, Разва́л Сове́тского Сою́за, r=Razvál Sovétskovo Sojúza, ''Ruining of the Soviet Union''. (1988–1991) was the process of internal political, ...
in 1991. In 1992, during so-called "
parade of sovereignties The parade of sovereignties (russian: Парад суверенитетов, Parad suverenitetov) was a series of declarations of sovereignty Sovereignty is the supreme authority within a territory. In any state, sovereignty is assigned to the ...
", separatist sentiments and the
War of Laws The War of Laws (russian: Война законов, ''Voyna zakonov'') was the series of conflicts between the central government of the Soviet Union and the governments of the Soviet republics during the so-called "parade of sovereignties" in the ...
within Russia, the Russian regions signed the Federation Treaty (russian: Федеративный договор ''Federativny dogovor''), establishing and regulating the current inner composition of Russia, based on the division of authorities and powers among Russian government bodies and government bodies of constituent entities. The Federation Treaty was included in the text of the 1978 Constitution of the Russian SFSR.The current
Constitution of Russia The Constitution of the Russian Federation () was adopted by national referendum on . Russia Russia ( rus, link=no, Россия, Rossiya, ), or the Russian Federation, is a country spanning Eastern Europe Eastern Europe is the ea ...
, adopted by national referendum on 12 December 1993, came into force on 25 December 1993 and abolished the model of the Soviet system of government introduced in 1918 by
Vladimir Lenin Vladimir Ilyich Ulyanov. ( 1870 – 21 January 1924), better known by his alias Lenin,. was a Russian revolutionary, politician, and political theorist. He served as the first and founding head of government The head of government is e ...

Vladimir Lenin
and based on the right to secede from the country and on unlimited sovereignty of federal subjects (in practice secession was never allowed), which conflicts with the country's integrity and federal laws. The new constitution eliminated a number of legal conflicts, reserved the rights of the regions, introduced local self-government and did not grant the Soviet-era right to secede from the country. In the late 1990s and early 2000s, the political system became ''de jure'' closer to other modern federal states with a republican form of government in the world.In the 2000s, following the policy of
Vladimir Putin Vladimir Vladimirovich Putin, (born 7 October 1952) is a Russian politician and former intelligence officer who is serving as the current president of Russia. He has been serving in this position since 2012, and he previously held this of ...

Vladimir Putin
and of the
United Russia United Russia ( rus, links=no, Единая Россия, Yedinaya Rossiya, (j)ɪˈdʲinəjə rɐˈsʲijə) is the ruling Political parties in Russia, political party of Russia. United Russia is the largest party in Russia, and it holds 336 (or ...
party (the dominant party in all federal subjects), the Russian parliament changed the distribution of tax revenues, reduced the number of elections in the regions and gave more power to the federal authorities.


Terminology

An official government translation of the
Constitution of Russia The Constitution of the Russian Federation () was adopted by national referendum on . Russia Russia ( rus, link=no, Россия, Rossiya, ), or the Russian Federation, is a country spanning Eastern Europe Eastern Europe is the ea ...
in Article 5 states: "1. The Russian Federation shall consist of
republic A republic () is a form of government A government is the system or group of people governing an organized community, generally a state State may refer to: Arts, entertainment, and media Literature * ''State Magazine'', a month ...

republic
s,
krai A krai or kray (; russian: край, , ''kraya'') is one of the types of federal subjects of Russia, federal subjects of Krais of Russia, modern Russia, and was a type of geographical administrative division in the Krais of the Russian Empire, R ...

krai
s,
oblast An oblast (; ; Cyrillic script, Cyrillic (in most languages, including Russian language, Russian and Ukrainian language, Ukrainian): , Bulgarian language, Bulgarian: ) is a type of administrative division of Belarus, Bulgaria, Kazakhstan, Kyrgyzs ...

oblast
s,
cities of federal significance
cities of federal significance
, an
autonomous oblastAn autonomous oblast is an autonomous entity An autonomous administrative division (also referred to as an autonomous area, entity, unit, region, subdivision, or territory) is a subnational administrative division Administrative division, ad ...
and
autonomous okrug Autonomous okrug ( rus, автономный округ, t=avtonomny okrug), occasionally referred to as "autonomous district", "autonomous area", and "autonomous region", is a type of federal subject of Russia and simultaneously an administrativ ...

autonomous okrug
s, which shall have equal rights as constituent entities of the Russian Federation." Another translation of the
Constitution of Russia The Constitution of the Russian Federation () was adopted by national referendum on . Russia Russia ( rus, link=no, Россия, Rossiya, ), or the Russian Federation, is a country spanning Eastern Europe Eastern Europe is the ea ...
gives for article 65: "''The Russian Federation includes the following subjects of the Russian Federation:''". How to translate the Russian term was discussed during the 49th annual (2008)
American Translators Association The American Translators Association (ATA) is the largest professional association A professional association (also called a professional body, professional organization, or professional society) seeks to advocacy, further a particular profes ...
conference in
Orlando Orlando () is a city in the U.S. state of Florida and is the county seat of Orange County, Florida, Orange County. In Central Florida, it is the center of the Greater Orlando, Orlando metropolitan area, which had a population of 2,509,831, accor ...

Orlando
, in which Tom Fennel, a freelance translator, argued that the term "constituent entity of the Russian Federation" should be preferred to "subject". This recommendation is also shared by Tamara Nekrasova, Head of Translation Department, Goltsblat BLP, who in her "Traps & Mishaps in Legal Translation" presentation in Paris stated that "''constituent entity of the Russian Federation'' is more appropriate than ''subject of the Russian Federation'' (subject would be OK for a monarchy)".


Types

Each federal subject belongs to one of the following types:


List

a. The largest city is also listed when it is different from the capital/administrative center. b. According to Article 13 of the Charter of Leningrad Oblast, the governing bodies of the oblast are located in the city of
St. Petersburg
St. Petersburg
. However, St. Petersburg is not officially the administrative center of the oblast. c. According to Article 24 of the Charter of Moscow Oblast, the governing bodies of the oblast are located in the city of
Moscow Moscow ( , American English, US chiefly ; rus, links=no, Москва, r=Moskva, p=mɐˈskva, a=Москва.ogg) is the Capital city, capital and List of cities and towns in Russia by population, largest city of Russia. The city stands on the ...

Moscow
and throughout the territory of Moscow Oblast. However, Moscow is not officially the administrative center of the oblast. d. Not recognized internationally as a part of Russia. e. In February 2000, the former code of 20 for the Chechen Republic was cancelled and replaced with code 95. License plate production was suspended due to the Chechen Wars, causing numerous issues, which in turn forced the region to use a new code.


Statistics of federal subjects

* List of federal subjects of Russia by GRP * Armorial of Russia (Coat of arms of Russian federal subjects) * List of federal subjects of Russia by incidence of substance abuse *
List of federal subjects of Russia by GDP per capita This is a list of Russian federal subjects by GDP per capita by purchasing power parity (PPP) and Nominal GDP Gross domestic product (GDP) is a monetary In a 1786 James Gillray caricature, the plentiful money bags handed to King George I ...
* List of federal subjects of Russia by murder rate * List of federal subjects of Russia by life expectancy *
List of federal subjects of Russia by population The following is a list of the 85 federal subjects of Russia The federal subjects of Russia, also referred to as the subjects of the Russian Federation (russian: субъекты Российской Федерации, subyekty Rossiyskoy Fede ...
* List of federal subjects of Russia by total fertility rate *
List of federal subjects of Russia by Human Development Index This is a list of Russian Federal subjects of Russia, federal subjects by Human Development Index as of 2016. Federal districts This is a list of Russian Federal districts of Russia, federal districts by Human Development Index as of 2018. U ...
* List of federal subjects of Russia by unemployment rate *
Regional parliaments of Russia The regional parliaments of Russia are the legislature, legislative bodies of power in the Federal Subjects of Russia, regions of Russia (Republics of Russia, republics, Krais of Russia, krais, Oblasts of Russia, oblasts, Autonomous okrugs of Russia ...
*
List of current heads of federal subjects of Russia The following is a list of heads of the federal subjects of the Russian Federation. Current Former This is a complete list of the former heads of the federal subjects of Russia The federal subjects of Russia, also referred to as the subjec ...
*
Forest cover by federal subject in RussiaThe forest cover in Russia by Federal subjects of Russia, federal subject as published by the Unified Interdepartmental Statistical Information System. The total forest area in 2017 was estimated to be around 46.4% of Russia's land area. , Kemerovo ...
* ISO 3166-2:RU


Mergers, splits and internal territorial changes

Starting in 2005, some of the federal subjects were merged into larger territories. In this process, six very sparsely populated subjects (comprising in total 0.3% of the population of Russia) were integrated into more populated subjects, with the hope that the economic development of those territories would benefit from the much larger means of their neighbours. The merging process was finished on 1 March 2008. No new mergers have been planned since March 2008. The six territories became "administrative-territorial regions with special status". They have large proportions of minorities, with Russians being a majority only in three of them. Four of those territories have a second official language in addition to Russian:
BuryatBuryat or Buriat may refer to: *Buryats, a Mongol people *Buryat language, a Mongolic language *Buryatia, also known as the "Buryat Republic", a federal subject of Russia {{Disambig Language and nationality disambiguation pages ...
(in two of the merged territories), Komi-Permian, Koryak. This is an exception: all the other official languages of Russia (other than Russian) are set by the Constitutions of its constituent Republics (
Mordovia The Republic of Mordovia ( rus, Респу́блика Мордо́вия, r=Respublika Mordoviya, p=rʲɪsˈpublʲɪkə mɐrˈdovʲɪjə; Moksha/ Erzya: Мордовия Республикась, ''Mordovija Respublikaś'') is a federal subjec ...

Mordovia
,
Chechnya Chechnya (russian: Чечня́; ce, Нохчийчоь, Noxçiyçö), officially the Chechen Republic; ce, Нохчийн Республика, Noxçiyn Respublika , is a constituent republic A constituent state is a state entity that c ...

Chechnya
,
Dagestan village of Grar File:Сулакский каньон.jpg, Kara-Koysu River Canyon Dagestan (; russian: Дагеста́н), officially the Republic of Dagestan (russian: Респу́блика Дагеста́н), is a republics of Russia, rep ...

Dagestan
etc.). The status of the "administrative-territorial regions with special status" has been a subject of criticism because it does not appear in the Constitution of the Russian Federation. In addition to those six territories that entirely ceased to be subjects of the Russian Federation and were downgraded to territories with special status, another three subjects have a status of subject but are simultaneously part of a more populated subject: *
Nenets Autonomous Okrug Nenets Autonomous Okrug (russian: Не́нецкий автоно́мный о́круг; Nenets languages, Nenets: Ненёцие автономной ӈокрук, ''Nenjocije awtonomnoj ŋokruk'') is a federal subjects of Russia, federal subjec ...
(2010 population of 42090) is a subject since 1993, but is also, according to its Constitution, a part of
Arkhangelsk Oblast Arkhangelsk Oblast (russian: Арха́нгельская о́бласть, ''Arkhangelskaya oblast'') is a federal subject The federal subjects of Russia, also referred to as the subjects of the Russian Federation (russian: субъекты ...
*
Khanty-Mansi Autonomous Okrug Khanty-Mansi Autonomous Okrug–Yugra (Russian language, Russian and Mansi language, Mansi: Ханты-Мансийский автономный округ — Югра, ''Khanty-Mansiysky avtonomny okrug — Yugra;'' Khanty language, Khanty: Х ...
obtained autonomy in 1977, but is simultaneously part of
Tyumen Oblast Tyumen Oblast (russian: Тюме́нская о́бласть, ''Tyumenskaya oblast'') is a federal subject The federal subjects of Russia, also referred to as the subjects of the Russian Federation (russian: субъекты Российс ...
*
Yamalo-Nenets Autonomous Okrug The Yamalo-Nenets Autonomous Okrug (YaNAO; russian: Яма́ло-Не́нецкий автоно́мный о́круг (ЯНАО), ; yrk, Ямалы-Ненёцие автономной ӈокрук, ) is a federal subjects of Russia, federal su ...
obtained the status of subject in 1992 (after obtaining autonomy in 1977), but is also part of Tyumen Oblast. With an estimated population of 49348 as of 2018, Chukotka is currently the least populated subject of Russia that is not part of a more populated subject. It was separated from
Magadan Oblast Magadan Oblast ( rus, Магаданская область, r=Magadanskaya oblast, p=məgɐˈdanskəjə ˈobləsʲtʲ) is a federal subjects of Russia, federal subject (an oblast) of Russia. It is geographically located in the Russian Far East, ...
in 1993. Chukotka is one of the richest subjects of Russia (with a GRP per capita equivalent to that of Australia) and therefore does not fit in the pattern of merging a subject to benefit from the economic dynamism of the neighbour. In 1992,
Ingushetia Ingushetia (; russian: Ингуше́тия), officially the Republic of Ingushetia (russian: Респу́блика Ингуше́тия; Ingush: Гӏалгӏай Мохк), is a republic A republic () is a form of government A go ...

Ingushetia
separated from
Chechnya Chechnya (russian: Чечня́; ce, Нохчийчоь, Noxçiyçö), officially the Chechen Republic; ce, Нохчийн Республика, Noxçiyn Respublika , is a constituent republic A constituent state is a state entity that c ...

Chechnya
, both to stay away from the growing violence in Chechnya and as a bid to obtain the Eastern part of Northern Ossetia (it did not work: the Chechen conflict spread violence to Ingushetia, and North Ossetia retained its Prigorodny District). Those two Muslim republics, populated in vast majority (95%+) by closely related Vainakh people, speaking Vainakhish languages, remain the two poorest subjects of Russia, with the GRP per capita of Ingushetia being equivalent to that of Iraq. According to 2016 statistics, however they are also the safest regions of Russia, and also have the lowest alcohol consumption, with alcohol poisoning at least 40 times lower than the national average. Until 1994, Sokolsky District, Nizhny Novgorod Oblast was part of
Ivanovo Oblast Ivanovo Oblast (russian: Ива́новская о́бласть, ''Ivanovskaya oblast'') is a federal subjects of Russia, federal subject of Russia (an oblast). It had a population of 1,061,651 as of the Russian Census (2010), 2010 Russian C ...
. In 2011–2012, the territory of Moscow increased by 140% (to ) by acquiring part of
Moscow Oblast Moscow Oblast ( rus, Моско́вская о́бласть, r=Moskovskaya oblast', p=mɐˈskofskəjə ˈobləsʲtʲ), or Podmoskovye ( rus, Подмоско́вье, p=pədmɐˈskovʲjə, literally "wiktionary:под-, under Moscow"), is a fe ...

Moscow Oblast
. On 13 May 2020, the governors of Arkhangelsk Oblast and Nenets Autonomous Okrug announced their plan to merge following the collapse of oil prices stemming from the
COVID-19 pandemic The COVID-19 pandemic is an ongoing global pandemic A pandemic (from , , "all" and , , "local people" the 'crowd') is an of an that has spread across a large region, for instance multiple or worldwide, affecting a substantial numbe ...

COVID-19 pandemic
. The process was scrapped on 2 July due to its unpopularity among the population.


See also

*
Subdivisions of Russia Russia Russia ( rus, link=no, Россия, Rossiya, ), or the Russian Federation, is a country spanning Eastern Europe Eastern Europe is the eastern region of . There is no consistent definition of the precise area it covers, partly ...

Subdivisions of Russia
*
Federal districts of Russia The federal districts (russian: федера́льные округа́, ''federalnyye okruga'') are groupings of the federal subjects of Russia, federal subjects of Russia. Federal districts are not mentioned in the nation's constitution, and d ...

Federal districts of Russia
*
Economic regions of Russia is divided into twelve economic regions (russian: экономи́ческие райо́ны, ''ekonomicheskiye rayony'', sing. ''ekonomichesky rayon'')—groups of sharing the following characteristics: *Common economic and social goals and p ...

Economic regions of Russia
*
History of the administrative division of Russia The modern administrative-territorial structure of Russia is a system of territorial organization which is a product of a centuries-long evolution and reforms. Early history The Kievan Rus' as it formed in the 10th century remained a more or le ...
* Armorial of Russia *
Republics of the Soviet Union The Republics of the Union of Soviet Socialist Republics or the Union Republics ( rus, Сою́зные Респу́блики, r=Soyúznye Respúbliki) were National delimitation in the Soviet Union, ethnically based administrative units of ...
* Flags of the Soviet Republics *
Flags of the federal subjects of Russia This gallery of flags of federal subjects of Russia shows the flag A flag is a piece of textile, fabric (most often rectangular or quadrilateral) with a distinctive design and colours. It is used as a symbol, a signalling device, or for decorat ...
*
List of federal subjects of Russia by population The following is a list of the 85 federal subjects of Russia The federal subjects of Russia, also referred to as the subjects of the Russian Federation (russian: субъекты Российской Федерации, subyekty Rossiyskoy Fede ...
*
List of heads of federal subjects of Russia The following is a list of heads of the federal subjects of the Russian Federation. Current Former This is a complete list of the former heads of the federal subjects of Russia. *Republic of Adygea: Aslan Tkhakushinov (2007–2017), Khazret So ...


References


Notes


Sources

* {{Authority control
Federal subjects The federal subjects of Russia, also referred to as the subjects of the Russian Federation (russian: субъекты Российской Федерации, subyekty Rossiyskoy Federatsii) or simply as the subjects of the federation (russian: ...
Russia 1 Russia-1 (russian: Россия-1) is a state-owned Russia Russia ( rus, link=no, Россия, Rossiya, ), or the Russian Federation, is a country spanning Eastern Europe Eastern Europe is the eastern region of . There is no consist ...
First-level administrative divisions by country Countries' first-level (top-level) administrative division Administrative division, administrative unitArticle 3(1). , country subdivision, administrative region, subnational entity, first-level subdivision, as well as many similar terms, are g ...
* Russian-speaking countries and territories History of Russia (1992–present)