HOME

TheInfoList



A fair (archaic: faire or fayre) is a gathering of people for a variety of entertainment or commercial activities. It is normally of the essence of a fair that it is temporary with scheduled times lasting from an afternoon to several weeks.


Types

Variations of fairs from generally smallest or biggest include: *
Village fair Village Fair (VF) is an annual music festival located in Bathurst, Australia Australia, officially the Commonwealth of Australia, is a Sovereign state, sovereign country comprising the mainland of the Australia (continent), Australian ...

Village fair
or
fête A fête, or fete, is an elaborate festival A festival is an event ordinarily celebrated by a community and centering on some characteristic aspect of that community and its religion Religion is a social system, social-cultural system of ...
, an elaborate periodic festival, party or celebration. Held by the locals to original to celebrate a good harvests or religious gatherings. *
Temple fair Miaohui (), literally temple gatherings or translated as temple fairs, also called yíngshén sàihuì ( "collective rituals to greet the gods"), are Chinese religious gatherings held by folk temples for the worship of the Chinese gods and imm ...
, yearly fair held in temples of various religions * Traveling funfair/
carnival Carnival is a Western Christian festive season A season is a division of the year based on changes in weather, ecology, and the number of daylight hours in a given region. On Earth, seasons are the result of Earth's orbit around the Sun and E ...
, an amusement show made up of amusement rides, food vending stalls, merchandise vending stalls, games of "chance and skill", thrill acts and (now less commonly) animal acts. * A town/city's
street fair A street fair A fair (archaic: faire or fayre) is a gathering of people for a variety of entertainment or commercial activities. It is normally of the essence of a fair that it is temporary with scheduled times lasting from an afternoon to sever ...
or
market Market may refer to: *Market (economics) *Market economy *Marketplace, a physical marketplace or public market Geography *Märket, an island shared by Finland and Sweden Art, entertainment, and media Films *Market (1965 film), ''Market'' (1965 ...

market
celebrates character of a neighborhood and local merchants. *
County fair An agricultural show is a public event exhibiting the equipment, animals, sports and recreation associated with agriculture Agriculture is the science, art and practice of cultivating plants and livestock. Agriculture was the key developmen ...
(USA) or
county show In the United Kingdom, a county show is a summer outdoor agricultural show An agricultural show is a public event exhibiting the equipment, animals, sports and recreation associated with agriculture Agriculture is the science, art and pra ...
(UK), a public event exhibiting the equipment, animals, sports and recreation associated with agriculture and animal husbandry. * Regional or
state fairA state fair is a competitive and recreational gathering in the United States. It may also refer to: * ''State Fair'' (novel), a 1932 novel by Phil Stong ** ''State Fair'' (1933 film), based on the novel ** State Fair (1945 film), ''State Fai ...
, an annual competitive and recreational gathering. Including exhibits or competitors that have won in their categories at the local fairs. *
Trade fair A trade fair (trade show, trade exhibition, or trade exposition) is an exhibition organized so that companies A company, abbreviated as co., is a Legal personality, legal entity representing an association of people, whether Natural person, na ...

Trade fair
, an exhibition organized so that companies in a specific industry can showcase and demonstrate their latest products and services, study activities of rivals, and examine recent market trends and opportunities. *
Festival A festival is an event ordinarily celebrated by a community A community is a social unit (a group of living things) with commonality such as norms, religion Religion is a social system, social-cultural system of designated religious b ...

Festival
, an event ordinarily coordinated with a theme e.g. music, art, season, tradition, history, ethnicity, religion, or a national holiday.


History

The
Roman Roman or Romans usually refers to: *Rome, the capital city of Italy *Ancient Rome, Roman civilization from 8th century BC to 5th century AD *Roman people, the people of ancient Rome *''Epistle to the Romans'', shortened to ''Romans'', a letter in ...

Roman
fairs were
holiday A holiday is a day set aside by Norm (social), custom or by law on which normal activities, especially business or work including school, are suspended or reduced. Generally, holidays are intended to allow individuals to celebrate or commemorate a ...

holiday
s on which there was an intermission of labour and pleadings. In the Roman provinces of
Judea Judea or Judaea, and the modern version of Judah (; from he, יהודה, Hebrew language#Modern Hebrew, Standard ''Yəhūda'', Tiberian vocalization, Tiberian ''Yehūḏā''; el, Ἰουδαία, ; la, Iūdaea) is the ancient, historic, Bib ...
and
Syria Palaestina Syria Palaestina (literally, "Palestinian Syria";Trevor Bryce, 2009, ''The Routledge Handbook of the Peoples and Places of Ancient Western Asia''Roland de Vaux, 1978, ''The Early History of Israel'', Page 2: "After the revolt of Bar Cochba in A. ...
, Jewish
rabbi A rabbi is a spiritual leader or religious teacher in Judaism. One becomes a rabbi by being ordained by another rabbi, following a course of study of Jewish texts such as the Talmud. The basic form of the rabbi developed in the Pharisees, Phar ...

rabbi
s prohibited
Jews Jews ( he, יְהוּדִים ISO 259-2 , Israeli pronunciation ) or Jewish people are an ethnoreligious group and nation originating from the Israelites Israelite origins and kingdom: "The first act in the long drama of Jewish history is t ...

Jews
from participating in fairs in certain towns because the religious nature of the fairs contravened the prescribed practice of
Judaism Judaism is an Abrahamic The Abrahamic religions, also referred to collectively as the world of Abrahamism and Semitic religions, are a group of Semitic-originated religion Religion is a social system, social-cultural system of de ...
. In the
Middle Ages In the history of Europe, the Middle Ages or medieval period lasted approximately from the 5th to the late 15th centuries, similarly to the Post-classical, Post-classical period of global history. It began with the fall of the Western Roma ...
, many fairs developed as temporary markets and were especially important for long-distance and
international trade International trade is the exchange of capital, goods, and services across international borders or territories because there is a need or want of goods or services. In most countries, such trade represents a significant share of gross dom ...
, as wholesale traders travelled, sometimes for many days, to fairs where they could be sure to meet those they needed to buy from or sell to. Fairs were usually tied to special
Christian Christians () are people who follow or adhere to Christianity, a monotheistic Abrahamic religion based on the life and teachings of Jesus in Christianity, Jesus Christ. The words ''Christ (title), Christ'' and ''Christian'' derive from the Koi ...
religious occasions, such as the Saint's day of the local church. Stagshaw in England, is documented to have held annual fairs as early as 1293 consisting of the sales of animals. Along with the main fair held on 4 July, the city also hosted smaller fairs throughout the year where specific types of animals were sold, such as one for horses, one for lambs, and one for ewes. The
Kumbh Mela Kumbh Mela or Kumbha Mela () is a major pilgrimage and festival in Hinduism. It is celebrated in a cycle of approximately 12 years, to celebrate every revolution Brihaspati (Jupiter) completes, at four river-bank pilgrimage sites: the Allahaba ...
, held every twelve years, at
Allahabad Allahabad (), officially known as Prayagraj, also known as Ilahabad, is a metropolis in the background A metropolis () is a large city or conurbation which is a significant economic, political, and cultural center for a country or re ...
,
Haridwar Haridwar (; , is a city and municipal corporation in Haridwar district of Uttarakhand, India. With a population of 228,832 in 2011, it is the second largest city in the state and the largest in the district. The city is situated on the right ba ...

Haridwar
,
Nashik Nashik ( also called as Nasik ) is an ancient city and the largest city in the northern region of the Indian state of Maharashtra. Situated on the banks of river Godavari River, Godavari, Nashik is the fourth largest city in Maharashtra, after M ...

Nashik
, and
Ujjain Ujjain (, Hindustani language, Hindustani pronunciation: Help:IPA/Hindi and Urdu, d͡ːʒɛːn is a city in Ujjain district of the States and territories of India, Indian state of Madhya Pradesh. It is the fifth-largest city in Madhya Prade ...

Ujjain
is one of the largest fairs in India, where more than 60 million people gathered in January 2001, making it the largest gathering anywhere in the world. ''
Kumbha A kumbha ( sa, कुम्भ) is a type of pottery Pottery is the process and the products of forming vessels and other objects with clay and other ceramic materials, which are fired at high temperatures to give them a hard, durable form ...
'' means a pitcher and ''Mela'' means ''fair'' in Sanskrit. In the United States, fairs draw in as many as 150 million people each summer. Children's competitions at an American fair range from breeding small animals to robotics, whilst the organization
4-H 4-H is a U.S.-based network of youth organizations whose mission is "engaging youth to reach their fullest potential while advancing the field of youth development". Its name is a reference to the occurrence of the initial letter H four times i ...
has become a traditional association.


Legacy


Legal implications

Fairs attracted great numbers of people and they often resulted in public order issues and sometimes riots. The holding of fairs was, therefore, granted by
royal charter A royal charter is a formal grant issued by a monarch under royal prerogative as letters patent. Historically, they have been used to promulgate public laws, the most famous example being the English Magna Carta (great charter) of 1215, but si ...

royal charter
. Initially they were only allowed in towns and places where order could be maintained due to the presence of a bishop, sheriff or governor. Later various benefits were granted to specific fairs, such as the granting of a holiday status to a fair or protections against arrest for specific laws for the duration of the fair. Officials were authorised to mete out justice to those who attended their fair; this led to even the smallest fair having a court to adjudicate on offences and disputes arising within the fairground. These courts were called a ''pye powder'' court (from
Old French Old French (, , ; Modern French French ( or ) is a Romance language of the Indo-European family. It descended from the Vulgar Latin of the Roman Empire, as did all Romance languages. French evolved from Gallo-Romance, the Latin spok ...
''pieds pouldres'', literally "dusty feet", meaning an itinerant trader, from
Medieval Latin Medieval Latin was the form of Latin Latin (, or , ) is a classical language belonging to the Italic languages, Italic branch of the Indo-European languages. Latin was originally spoken in the area around Rome, known as Latium. Through the p ...
''pedes pulverosi'').


In art and language

The chaotic nature of the Stagshaw Bank Fair with masses of people and animals and stalls inspired the Newcastle colloquialism "like a Stagey Bank Fair" to describe a general mess. The American
county fair An agricultural show is a public event exhibiting the equipment, animals, sports and recreation associated with agriculture Agriculture is the science, art and practice of cultivating plants and livestock. Agriculture was the key developmen ...
is featured in E. B. White's ''
Charlotte's Web ''Charlotte's Web'' is a book of children's literature Children's literature or juvenile literature includes stories, books, magazines, and poems that are made for children. Modern children's literature is classified in two different ways: ...
''.


See also

*
Art exhibition satirizes the ''bourgeoisie Bourgeoisie (; ) is a polysemous French term that can mean: * a sociologically defined social class, especially in contemporary times, referring to people with a certain cultural Culture () is an umbrella t ...

Art exhibition
* China fairing * Lists of festivals


References


Further reading

* {{Authority control