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A factory, manufacturing plant or a production plant is an
industrial Industrial may also refer to: Industry * Industrial archaeology, the study of the history of the industry * Industrial engineering, engineering dealing with the optimization of complex industrial processes or systems * Industrial loan company, a f ...
site, often a complex consisting of several buildings filled with
machinery A machine is any physical system with ordered structural and functional properties. It may represent human-made or naturally occurring device molecular machine A molecular machine, nanite, or nanomachine is a molecular component that produc ...
, where workers
manufacture Manufacturing is the production of goods In economics Economics () is the social science that studies how people interact with value; in particular, the Production (economics), production, distribution (economics), distribution, and Co ...
items or operate machines which
process A process is a series or set of activities that interact to produce a result; it may occur once-only or be recurrent or periodic. Things called a process include: Business and management *Business process A business process, business method ...
each item into another. They are a critical part of modern
economic production Production is the process of combining various material inputs and immaterial inputs (plans, know-how) in order to make something for consumption (output). It is the act of creating an output (economics), output, a goods and services, good or servic ...
, with the majority of the world's
goods In economics Economics () is a social science Social science is the branch A branch ( or , ) or tree branch (sometimes referred to in botany Botany, also called , plant biology or phytology, is the science of plant ...

goods
being created or processed within factories. Factories arose with the introduction of machinery during the
Industrial Revolution The Industrial Revolution was the transition to new manufacturing processes in Great Britain, continental Europe Continental Europe or mainland Europe is the contiguous continent A continent is any of several large landmasse ...
, when the
capital Capital most commonly refers to: * Capital letter Letter case (or just case) is the distinction between the letters that are in larger uppercase or capitals (or more formally ''majuscule'') and smaller lowercase (or more formally ''minusc ...
and space requirements became too great for
cottage industry The putting-out system is a means of subcontracting A subcontractor is an individual or (in many cases) a business Business is the activity of making one's living or making money by producing or buying and selling Product (business), produc ...
or workshops. Early factories that contained small amounts of machinery, such as one or two
spinning mule The spinning mule is a machine used to spin cotton Cotton is a soft, fluffy staple fiber Fiber or fibre (from la, fibra, links=no) is a natural Nature, in the broadest sense, is the natural, physical, material world or u ...
s, and fewer than a dozen workers have been called "glorified workshops". Most modern factories have large warehouses or
warehouse A warehouse is a building for storing goods In economics Economics () is the social science that studies how people interact with value; in particular, the Production (economics), production, distribution (economics), distribution, an ...

warehouse
-like facilities that contain heavy equipment used for
assembly line
assembly line
production. Large factories tend to be located with access to multiple modes of transportation, with some having
rail Rail or rails may refer to: Rail transport *Rail transport and related matters *Rail (rail transport) or railway lines, the running surface of a railway Film *Rails (film), ''Rails'' (film), a 1929 Italian film by Mario Camerini *Rail (1967 fil ...

rail
,
highway A highway is any public or private road A road is a wide way leading from one place to another, typically one with a specially prepared surface which vehicles and bikes can use. Roads consist of one or two roadways (British English: ...

highway
and water loading and unloading facilities. In some countries like Australia, it is common to call a factory building a "
Shed A shed is typically a simple, single-story roofed structure in a back garden A back garden is a residential garden located at the rear of a property, on the other side of the house from the front garden. Such gardens have a special place in ...

Shed
". Factories may either make discrete products or some type of continuously produced material, such as
chemical A chemical substance is a form of matter In classical physics and general chemistry, matter is any substance that has mass and takes up space by having volume. All everyday objects that can be touched are ultimately composed of atoms, which ...

chemical
s,
pulp and paper Image:InternationalPaper6413.jpg, frame, International Paper is the world's largest pulp and paper maker. The pulp and paper industry comprises companies that use wood as raw material and produce Pulp (paper), pulp, paper, paperboard and other cell ...
, or refined
oil products In the international petroleum industry, crude oil products are traded on various oil bourses based on established chemical profiles, delivery locations, and financial terms. The chemical profiles, or crude oil assays, specify important propertie ...
. Factories manufacturing chemicals are often called ''
plants Plants are predominantly photosynthetic Photosynthesis is a process used by plants and other organisms to convert Conversion or convert may refer to: Arts, entertainment, and media * Conversion (Doctor Who audio), "Conversion" (''Docto ...

plants
'' and may have most of their equipment –
tank A tank is an armored fighting vehicle An armoured fighting vehicle (AFV) is an armed combat vehicle protected by armour, generally combining operational mobility with offensive and defensive capabilities. AFVs can be wheeled or tr ...
s,
pressure vessel A pressure vessel is a container designed to hold gases or liquids at a pressure Pressure (symbol: ''p'' or ''P'') is the force In physics Physics is the natural science that studies matter, its Elementary particle, fundamen ...
s,
chemical reactor A chemical reactor is an enclosed volume in which a chemical reaction A chemical reaction is a process that leads to the chemical transformation of one set of chemical substances to another. Classically, chemical A chemical substance is a fo ...
s, pumps and piping – outdoors and operated from
control room Christopher C. Kraft Jr. Mission Control Center, NASA's "Shuttle" (White) Flight Control Room in Houston, Texas A control room or operations room is a room serving as a central space where a large physical facility or physically dispersed ser ...

control room
s.
Oil refineries An oil refinery or petroleum refinery is an industrial process Industrial processes are procedures involving chemical A chemical substance is a form of matter having constant chemical composition and characteristic properties. Some referenc ...
have most of their equipment outdoors. Discrete products may be
final good A final good or consumer good is a final product In Production (economics), production, a final product, or finished product is a product (business), product that is ready for sale.Wouters, Mark; Selto, Frank H.; Hilton, Ronald W.; Maher, Mich ...
s, or parts and sub-assemblies which are made into final products elsewhere. Factories may be supplied parts from elsewhere or make them from
raw material A raw material, also known as a feedstock, unprocessed material, or primary commodity, is a basic material that is used to produce goods, finished Product (business), products, energy, or intermediate materials that are feedstock for future finis ...
s. Continuous production industries typically use heat or
electricity Electricity is the set of physical Physical may refer to: *Physical examination, a regular overall check-up with a doctor *Physical (album), ''Physical'' (album), a 1981 album by Olivia Newton-John **Physical (Olivia Newton-John song), "Physi ...

electricity
to transform streams of raw materials into finished products. The term ''mill'' originally referred to the milling of grain, which usually used natural resources such as water or wind power until those were displaced by
steam power from Stott Park Bobbin Mill, Cumbria, England A steam engine is a heat engine In thermodynamics Thermodynamics is a branch of physics that deals with heat, Work (thermodynamics), work, and temperature, and their relation to energy ...

steam power
in the 19th century. Because many processes like spinning and weaving, iron rolling, and paper manufacturing were originally powered by water, the term survives as in ''steel mill'', ''paper mill'', etc.


History

Max Weber Maximilian Karl Emil Weber (; ; 21 April 186414 June 1920) was a German Sociology, sociologist, historian, jurist, and political economy, political economist regarded as among the most important theorists of the development of Modernity, modern ...

Max Weber
considered production during ancient times as never warranting classification as factories, with methods of production and the contemporary economic situation incomparable to modern or even pre-modern developments of industry. In ancient times, the earliest production limited to the household, developed into a separate endeavor independent to the place of inhabitation with production at that time only beginning to be characteristic of industry, termed as "unfree shop industry", a situation caused especially under the reign of the Egyptian pharaoh, with slave employment and no differentiation of skills within the slave group comparable to modern definitions as
division of labour The division of labour is the separation of tasks in any economic system An economic system, or economic order, is a system A system is a group of interacting Interaction is a kind of action that occurs as two or more objects have an ...
. According to translations of Demosthenes and Herodotus,
Naucratis Naucratis or Naukratis ( grc-gre, Ναύκρατις, "Naval Command"; Egyptian Egyptian describes something of, from, or related to Egypt. Egyptian or Egyptians may refer to: Nations and ethnic groups * Egyptians, a national group in North Afr ...

Naucratis
was a, or the only, factory in the entirety of ancient
Egypt Egypt ( ar, مِصر, Miṣr), officially the Arab Republic of Egypt, is a transcontinental country This is a list of countries located on more than one continent A continent is one of several large landmasses. Generally identi ...

Egypt
. A source of 1983 (Hopkins), states the largest factory production in ancient times was of 120 slaves within 4th century BC Athens. An article within the New York Times article dated 13 October 2011 states: ... discovered at Blombos Cave, a cave on the south coast of South Africa where 100,000-year-old tools and ingredients were found with which
early modern human Early modern human (EMH) or anatomically modern human (AMH) are terms used to distinguish ''Homo sapiens'' (the only extant Hominina species) that are anatomically consistent with the range of phenotypes seen in contemporary humans from extin ...
s mixed an
ochre Ochre ( ; from grc, ὤχρα, from , , pale), or ocher in American English American English (AmE, AE, AmEng, USEng, en-US), sometimes called United States English or U.S. English, is the set of variety (linguistics), varieties of the ...
-based
paint Paint is any pigmented liquid A liquid is a nearly incompressible In fluid mechanics Fluid mechanics is the branch of physics concerned with the mechanics Mechanics (Ancient Greek, Greek: ) is the area of physics concerned wi ...

paint
. Although The ''Cambridge Online Dictionary'' definition of factory states: elsewhere: The first machine is stated by one source to have been traps used to assist with the capturing of animals, corresponding to the machine as a mechanism operating independently or with very little force by interaction from a human, with a capacity for use repeatedly with operation exactly the same on every occasion of functioning. The
wheel File:Roue primitive.png, An early wheel made of a solid piece of wood A wheel is a circular component that is intended to rotate on an axle An axle or axletree is a central shaft for a rotating wheel or gear. On wheeled vehicles, the ...

wheel
was invented c. 3000 BC, the spoked wheel c. 2000 BC. The
Iron Age The Iron Age is the final epoch of the three-age division of the prehistory Prehistory, also known as pre-literary history, is the period of human history Human history, or world history, is the narrative of Human, humanity's pa ...
began approximately 1200–1000 BC. However, other sources define machinery as a means of production. Archaeology provides a date for the earliest city as 5000 BC as Tell Brak (Ur ''et al.'' 2006), therefore a date for cooperation and factors of demand, by an increased community size and population to make something like factory level production a conceivable necessity. Archaeologist Bonnet, unearthed the foundations of numerous
workshop Beginning with the Industrial Revolution The Industrial Revolution was the transition to new manufacturing processes in Great Britain, continental Europe Continental Europe or mainland Europe is the contiguous continent ...

workshop
s in the city of
Kerma Kerma was the capital city of the Kerma culture, which was located in present-day Sudan at least 5500 years ago. Kerma is one of the largest archaeological sites in ancient Nubia. It has produced decades of extensive excavations and research, incl ...

Kerma
proving that as early as 2000 BC Kerma was a large urban capital. The
watermill A watermill or water mill is a mill that uses hydropower Hydropower (from el, ὕδωρ, "water"), also known as water power, is the use of falling or fast-running water to Electricity generation, produce electricity or to power machines. T ...

watermill
was first made in the
Persian Empire The Achaemenid Empire (; peo, wikt:𐎧𐏁𐏂𐎶, 𐎧𐏁𐏂, translit=Xšāça, translation=The Empire), also called the First Persian Empire, was an ancient Iranian peoples, Iranian empire based in Western Asia founded by Cyrus the Grea ...
some time before 350 BC. In the 3rd century BC,
Philo of Byzantium Philo of Byzantium ( el, , ''Phílōn ho Byzántios'', ca. 280 BC – ca. 220 BC), also known as Philo Mechanicus, was a Greek engineer, physicist and writer on mechanics Mechanics (Greek Greek may refer to: Greece Anything of, from, or ...
describes a water-driven wheel in his technical treatises. Factories producing
garum Garum is a fermented Fermentation is a metabolic Metabolism (, from el, μεταβολή ''metabolē'', "change") is the set of life Life is a characteristic that distinguishes physical entities that have biological proces ...
were common in the
Roman Empire The Roman Empire ( la, Imperium Rōmānum ; grc-gre, Βασιλεία τῶν Ῥωμαίων, Basileía tôn Rhōmaíōn) was the post-Republican Republican can refer to: Political ideology * An advocate of a republic, a type of governme ...

Roman Empire
. The Barbegal aqueduct and mills are an industrial complex from the 2nd century AD found in southern France. By the time of the 4th century AD, there was a water-milling installation with a capacity to grind 28 tons of grain per day, a rate sufficient to meet the needs of 80,000 persons, in the Roman Empire. The large population increase in medieval Islamic cities, such as
Baghdad Baghdad (; ar, بَغْدَاد ) is the capital of Iraq Iraq ( ar, الْعِرَاق, translit=al-ʿIrāq; ku, عێراق, translit=Êraq), officially the Republic of Iraq ( ar, جُمْهُورِيَّة ٱلْعِرَاق '; ku, ...

Baghdad
's 1.5 million population, led to the development of large-scale factory milling installations with higher productivity to feed and support the large growing population. A 10th-century grain-processing factory in the Egyptian town of
Bilbays Belbeis ( ar, بلبيس  ; Bohairic cop, Ⲫⲉⲗⲃⲉⲥ/Ⲫⲉⲗⲃⲏⲥ ') is an ancient fortress A fortification is a military A military, also known collectively as armed forces, is a heavily armed, highly organized ...
, for example, produced an estimated 300 tons of grain and flour per day. Both watermills and
windmill A windmill is a structure that converts wind power into rotational energy by means of vanes called windmill sail, sails or blades, specifically to mill (grinding), mill grain (gristmills), but the term is also extended to windpumps, wind turbine ...

windmill
s were widely used in the Islamic world at the time.Adam Lucas (2006), ''Wind, Water, Work: Ancient and Medieval Milling Technology'', p. 65,
Brill Publishers Brill () (known as E. J. Brill, Koninklijke Brill, Brill Academic Publishers) is a Dutch international academic publisher Publishing is the activity of making information, literature, music, software and other content available to the pu ...
,
The Venice Arsenal also provides one of the first examples of a factory in the modern sense of the word. Founded in 1104 in
Venice Venice ( ; it, Venezia ; vec, Venesia or ) is a city in northeastern Italy Italy ( it, Italia ), officially the Italian Republic ( it, Repubblica Italiana, links=no ), is a country consisting of delimited by the and surrounding ...

Venice
,
Republic of Venice The Republic of Venice ( it, Repubblica di Venezia; vec, Repùblega de Venèsia) or Venetian Republic ( it, Repubblica Veneta; vec, Repùblega Vèneta), traditionally known as La Serenissima ( en, Most Serene Republic Most Serene Republic ( ...
, several hundred years before the
Industrial Revolution The Industrial Revolution was the transition to new manufacturing processes in Great Britain, continental Europe Continental Europe or mainland Europe is the contiguous continent A continent is any of several large landmasse ...
, it
mass-produced Mass production, also known as flow production or continuous production, is the production of substantial amounts of standardized Standardization or standardisation is the process of implementing and developing technical standard A techni ...
ships on s using manufactured parts. The Venice Arsenal apparently produced nearly one ship every day and, at its height, employed 16,000 people.


Industrial Revolution

One of the earliest factories was
John Lombe John Lombe (1693 in Norwich – November 20, 1722 in Derby) was a silk spinner in the 18th century Derby, England. Biography Lombe was born in Norwich in approximately 1693, the son of a worsted weaver. He was a younger half-brother of Thom ...
's water-powered silk mill at
Derby Derby ( ) is a City status in the United Kingdom, city and Unitary authorities of England, unitary authority area in Derbyshire, England. It lies on the banks of the River Derwent, Derbyshire, River Derwent in the south of Derbyshire, of which ...

Derby
, operational by 1721. By 1746, an integrated
brass mill A brass mill is a mill Mill may refer to: Science and technology * Mill (grinding) * Milling (machining) * List of types of mill * Mill, the arithmetic unit of the Analytical Engine early computer * Textile manufacturing, Textile mill * Steel mil ...
was working at
Warmley Warmley is a village in South Gloucestershire, England. Warmley is situated in between Bristol and Bath, Somerset, Bath. It is a parish, with its own church, and has some minor landmarks, such as a World War One memorial the focus of Remembranc ...
near
Bristol Bristol () is a city A city is a large human settlement.Goodall, B. (1987) ''The Penguin Dictionary of Human Geography''. London: Penguin.Kuper, A. and Kuper, J., eds (1996) ''The Social Science Encyclopedia''. 2nd edition. London: Routle ...

Bristol
. Raw material went in at one end, was
smelted Smelting is a process of applying heat to ore ore – psilomelane Psilomelane is a group name for hard black manganese oxides including hollandite and romanechite. Psilomelane consists of hydrous manganese Manganese is a chem ...
into brass and was turned into pans, pins, wire, and other goods. Housing was provided for workers on site.
Josiah Wedgwood Josiah Wedgwood (12 July 1730 – 3 January 1795) was an English potter, entrepreneur, and abolitionist. He founded the Wedgwood company. He developed improved pottery bodies by a long process of systematic experimentation, and was the lead ...

Josiah Wedgwood
in Staffordshire and
Matthew Boulton Matthew Boulton (; 3 September 172817 August 1809) was an English manufacturer and business partner of Scottish engineer James Watt James Watt (; 30 January 1736 (19 January 1736 OS) – 25 August 1819) was a Scottish inventor, mecha ...

Matthew Boulton
at his
Soho Manufactory The Soho Manufactory () was an early factory A factory, manufacturing plant or a production plant is an industrial site, often a complex consisting of several buildings filled with machinery A machine is a man-made device that uses power ...
were other prominent early industrialists, who employed the factory system. The factory system began widespread use somewhat later when
cotton Cotton is a soft, fluffy staple fiber Fiber or fibre (from la, fibra, links=no) is a natural Nature, in the broadest sense, is the natural, physical, material world or universe The universe ( la, universus) is all of s ...

cotton
spinning Spin or spinning may refer to: Businesses * SPIN (cable system) SPIN (or South Pacific Island Network) was a submarine communications cable, submarine communications cable system that would connect the New Zealand to Tahiti and would connect sev ...
was mechanized.
Richard Arkwright Sir Richard Arkwright (23 December 1732 – 3 August 1792) was an English inventor and a leading entrepreneur during the early Industrial Revolution The Industrial Revolution was the transition to new manufacturing processes in Great ...

Richard Arkwright
is the person credited with inventing the prototype of the modern factory. After he patented his
water frame #REDIRECT Water frame#REDIRECT Water frame upModel of a water frame in the Museum for Early Industrialisation in Wuppertal. The water frame is a spinning frame that is powered by a water-wheel. Water frames in general have existed since Ancient ...
in 1769, he established Cromford Mill, in
Derbyshire Derbyshire (; or ) is a county in the East Midlands of England. It includes much of the Peak District, Peak District National Park, the southern end of the Pennines, Pennine range of hills, and part of the The National Forest (England), Nation ...

Derbyshire
, England, significantly expanding the village of
Cromford Cromford is a village and civil parish in Derbyshire Derbyshire () is a county in the East Midlands of England. Much of the Peak District, Peak District National Park lies within Derbyshire, containing the southern extremity of the Pennines, ...
to accommodate the migrant workers new to the area. The factory system was a new way of organizing
workforce The workforce or labour force is the labour Labour or labor may refer to: * Childbirth Childbirth, also known as labour or delivery, is the ending of pregnancy where one or more babies leaves the uterus by passing through the vagina or b ...
made necessary by the development of machines which were too large to house in a worker's cottage. Working hours were as long as they had been for the farmer, that is, from dawn to dusk, six days per week. Overall, this practice essentially reduced skilled and unskilled workers to replaceable commodities. Arkwright's factory was the first successful cotton spinning factory in the world; it showed unequivocally the way ahead for industry and was widely copied. Between 1770 and 1850 mechanized factories supplanted traditional artisan shops as the predominant form of manufacturing institution, because the larger-scale factories enjoyed a significant technological and supervision advantage over the small artisan shops. The earliest factories (using the
factory system (Slovakia Slovakia (; sk, Slovensko ), officially the Slovak Republic ( sk, Slovenská republika, links=no ), is a landlocked country in Central Europe. It is bordered by Poland to the north, Ukraine to the east, Hungary to the south, Au ...
) developed in the cotton and wool textiles industry. Later generations of factories included mechanized shoe production and manufacturing of machinery, including machine tools. After this came factories that supplied the railroad industry included rolling mills, foundries and locomotive works, along with agricultural-equipment factories that produced cast-steel plows and reapers. Bicycles were mass-produced beginning in the 1880s. The Nasmyth, Gaskell and Company's Bridgewater Foundry, which began operation in 1836, was one of the earliest factories to use modern materials handling such as cranes and rail tracks through the buildings for handling heavy items. Large scale
electrification Electrification is the process of powering by electricity Electricity is the set of physical phenomena associated with the presence and motion Image:Leaving Yongsan Station.jpg, 300px, Motion involves a change in position In physics, mo ...

electrification
of factories began around 1900 after the development of the which was able to run at constant speed depending on the number of poles and the current electrical frequency. At first larger motors were added to
line shaft A line shaft is a power-driven rotating shaft for power transmission Power transmission is the movement of energy from its place of generation to a location where it is applied to perform useful Mechanical work, work. Power (physics), Power is ...

line shaft
s, but as soon as small horsepower motors became widely available, factories switched to unit drive. Eliminating
line shaft A line shaft is a power-driven rotating shaft for power transmission Power transmission is the movement of energy from its place of generation to a location where it is applied to perform useful Mechanical work, work. Power (physics), Power is ...

line shaft
s freed factories of layout constraints and allowed factory layout to be more efficient. Electrification enabled sequential
automation Automation describes a wide range of technologies that reduce human intervention in processes. Human intervention is reduced by predetermining decision criteria, subprocess relationships, and related actions — and embodying those predeterm ...
using
relay logic Relay logic is a method of implementing combinational logic in electrical control circuits by using several electrical relays wired in a particular configuration. Ladder logic The schematic diagrams for relay logic circuits are often called li ...
.


Assembly line

Henry Ford Henry Ford (July 30, 1863 – April 7, 1947) was an American industrialist A business magnate is someone who has achieved great success and enormous wealth through the ownership of multiple lines of enterprise. The term characteristicall ...

Henry Ford
further revolutionized the factory concept in the early 20th century, with the innovation of the
mass production Mass production, also known as flow production or continuous production, is the production of substantial amounts of standardized Standardization or standardisation is the process of implementing and developing technical standard A techni ...
. Highly specialized laborers situated alongside a series of rolling ramps would build up a product such as (in Ford's case) an
automobile A car (or automobile) is a wheeled motor vehicle A motor vehicle, also known as motorized vehicle or automotive vehicle, is a self-propelled vehicle, commonly wheeled, that does not operate on Track (rail transport), rails (such as trains o ...

automobile
. This concept dramatically decreased production costs for virtually all manufactured goods and brought about the age of
consumerism Consumerism is a and economic order that encourages the acquisition of in ever-increasing amounts. With the , but particularly in the 20th century, led to —the of goods would grow beyond consumer , and so manufacturers turned to and to ...
. In the mid - to late 20th century, industrialized countries introduced next-generation factories with two improvements: # Advanced
statistical Statistics is the discipline that concerns the collection, organization, analysis, interpretation, and presentation of data. In applying statistics to a scientific, industrial, or social problem, it is conventional to begin with a statist ...

statistical
methods of
quality control Quality control (QC) is a process by which entities review the quality of all factors involved in production. ISO 9000 The ISO 9000 family of quality management systems A quality management system (QMS) is a collection of business process ...

quality control
, pioneered by the American mathematician
William Edwards Deming Dr. William Edwards Deming (October 14, 1900 – December 20, 1993) was an American engineer, statistician, professor, author, lecturer, and management consultant. Educated initially as an electrical engineer and later specializing in mathemati ...

William Edwards Deming
, whom his home country initially ignored. Quality control turned Japanese factories into world leaders in
cost-effectiveness Cost-effectiveness analysis (CEA) is a form of economic analysis that compares the relative costs and outcomes (effects) of different courses of action. Cost-effectiveness analysis is distinct from cost–benefit analysis, which assigns a monetar ...
and production quality. #
Industrial robot An industrial robot is a robot A robot is a machine—especially one Computer program, programmable by a computer—capable of carrying out a complex series of actions automatically. A robot can be guided by an external control device, o ...

Industrial robot
s on the factory floor, introduced in the late 1970s. These computer-controlled welding arms and grippers could perform simple tasks such as attaching a car door quickly and flawlessly 24 hours a day. This too cut costs and improved speed. Some speculation as to the future of the factory includes scenarios with rapid prototyping,
nanotechnology Nanotechnology, also shortened to nanotech, is the use of matter on an atom An atom is the smallest unit of ordinary matter In classical physics and general chemistry, matter is any substance that has mass and takes up space by havi ...

nanotechnology
, and
orbit In celestial mechanics, an orbit is the curved trajectory of an physical body, object such as the trajectory of a planet around a star, or of a natural satellite around a planet, or of an satellite, artificial satellite around an object or po ...

orbit
al zero-
gravity Gravity (), or gravitation, is a by which all things with or —including s, s, , and even —are attracted to (or ''gravitate'' toward) one another. , gravity gives to s, and the causes the s of the oceans. The gravitational attracti ...

gravity
facilities.


Historically significant factories

*
Venetian Arsenal Entrance to the Arsenal ca. 1860–70. Photo by Venetian photographer Carlo Ponti The Venetian Arsenal ( it, Arsenale di Venezia) is a complex of former shipyard A shipyard (also called a dockyard) is a place where ships are built and re ...
* Cromford Mill *
Lombe's Mill Lombe's Mill was the first successful silk throwing Silk throwing is the industrial process wherein silk that has been reeled into Skein (unit), skeins, is cleaned, receives a twist and is wound onto bobbins. The yarn is now twisted together with ...
*
Soho Manufactory The Soho Manufactory () was an early factory A factory, manufacturing plant or a production plant is an industrial site, often a complex consisting of several buildings filled with machinery A machine is a man-made device that uses power ...
*
Portsmouth Block Mills Portsmouth () is a port city primarily built on Portsea Island in the county of Hampshire Hampshire (, ; abbreviated to Hants) is a Counties of England, county in South East England on the English Channel coast. The county town is Winchest ...

Portsmouth Block Mills
*
Slater Mill Historic Site The Slater Mill is a historic textile mill complex on the banks of the Blackstone River in Pawtucket, Rhode Island, modeled after cotton spinning mills first established in England. It is the first water-powered cotton spinning mill in North Am ...
* Lowell Mills *
Springfield Armory The Springfield Armory, located in the city of Springfield, Massachusetts, was the primary center for the manufacture of United States military firearms from 1777 until its closing in 1968. It was the first federal armory and one of the first fa ...

Springfield Armory
*
Harpers Ferry Armory The Harpers Ferry Armory, more formally known as the United States Armory and Arsenal at Harpers Ferry, was the second federal armory created by the United States government. (The first was the Springfield Armory.) It was located in Harpers Ferry, ...

Harpers Ferry Armory
*
Nasmyth, Gaskell and Company Nasmyth, Gaskell and Company, originally called The Bridgewater Foundry, specialised in the production of Machine tool, heavy machine tools and locomotives. It was located in Patricroft, in Salford, Greater Manchester, Salford England, close to ...
also called the Bridgewater Foundry *
Baldwin Locomotive Works The Baldwin Locomotive Works (BLW) was an American manufacturer of railroad locomotives from 1825 to 1956. Originally located in Philadelphia, it moved to nearby Eddystone, Pennsylvania, in the early 20th century. The company was for decades th ...
*
Highland Park Ford Plant The Highland Park Ford Plant is a former Ford Motor Company Ford Motor Company (commonly known as Ford) is an American multinational Multinational may refer to: * Multinational corporation, a corporate organization operating in multipl ...
*
Ford River Rouge Complex The Ford River Rouge Complex (commonly known as the Rouge Complex, River Rouge, or The Rouge) is a Ford Motor Company automobile A car (or automobile) is a wheeled motor vehicle used for transportation. Most definitions of ''cars'' say that ...
*
Hawthorne Works The Hawthorne Works was a large factory complex of the Western Electric The Western Electric Company was an American electrical engineering and manufacturing company officially founded in 1869. A wholly owned subsidiary of American Telephone & T ...
*
Stalingrad Tractor Plant , romanized_name = , former_name = , type = Open joint-stock company , traded_as = , industry = machine industry, Machinery, Defense (military), Defence , fate = , predecessor = , successor = , founded = , founder = ...


Siting the factory

Before the advent of Public transport, mass transportation, factories' needs for ever-greater concentrations of labourers meant that they typically grew up in an urban setting or fostered their own urbanization. Industrial slums developed, and reinforced their own development through the interactions between factories, as when one factory's output or waste-product became the raw materials of another factory (preferably nearby). Canals and Rail transport, railways grew as factories spread, each clustering around sources of cheap energy, available materials and/or mass markets. The exception proved the rule: even Greenfield land, greenfield factory sites such as Bournville, founded in a rural setting, developed their own housing and profited from convenient communications systems. Regulation curbed some of the worst excesses of industrialization's factory-based society, labourers of Factory Acts leading the way in Britain. Trams, automobiles and Urban planning, town planning encouraged the separate development of industrial suburbs and residential suburbs, with labourers commuting between them. Though factories dominated the Industrial Era, the growth in the Tertiary sector of the economy, service sector eventually began to dethrone them: the focus of labour, in general, shifted to central-city office towers or to semi-rural campus-style establishments, and many factories stood deserted in local Rust Belt, rust belts. The next blow to the traditional factories came from globalization. Manufacturing processes (or their logical successors, Assembly line, assembly plants) in the late 20th century re-focussed in many instances on Special Economic Zones in developing countries or on maquiladoras just across the national boundaries of industrialized states. Further re-location to the least industrialized nations appears possible as the benefits of outsourcing, out-sourcing and the lessons of flexible location apply in the future.


Governing the factory

Much of management theory developed in response to the need to control factory processes. Assumptions on the hierarchies of unskilled, semi-skilled and skilled laborers and their supervisors and managers still linger on; however an example of a more contemporary approach to handle design applicable to manufacturing facilities can be found in Socio-technical systems, Socio-Technical Systems (STS).


Shadow factories

A shadow factory is one of a number of manufacturing sites built in dispersed locations in times of war to reduce the risk of disruption due to enemy strategic bombing, air-raids and often with the dual purpose of increasing manufacturing capacity. Before World War II Britain had built many British shadow factories, shadow factories.


British shadow factories

Production of the Supermarine Spitfire at its parent company's base at Woolston, Southampton was vulnerable to enemy attack as a high-profile target and was well within range of ''Luftwaffe'' bombers. Indeed, on 26 September 1940 this facility was completely destroyed by an enemy bombing raid. Supermarine had already established a plant at Castle Bromwich; this action prompted them to further disperse Spitfire production around the country with many premises being requisitioned by the British Government. Connected to the Spitfire was production of its equally important Rolls-Royce Merlin engine, Rolls-Royce Limited, Rolls-Royce's main aircraft engine, aero engine facility was located at
Derby Derby ( ) is a City status in the United Kingdom, city and Unitary authorities of England, unitary authority area in Derbyshire, England. It lies on the banks of the River Derwent, Derbyshire, River Derwent in the south of Derbyshire, of which ...

Derby
, the need for increased output was met by building new factories in Bentley Crewe, Crewe and Glasgow and using a purpose-built factory of Ford of Britain in Trafford Park Manchester.Pugh 2000, pp. 192-198.


Gallery

Image:Herten - Zeche Ewald 12 ies.jpg, Zeche Ewald in Herten, exterior (2011) Image:Herten - Zeche Ewald 14 ies.jpg, Zeche Ewald in Herten, interior (2011) File:Fox Brothers, Coldharbour Mill, Uffculme - geograph.org.uk - 97156.jpg, Coldharbour Mill Working Wool Museum, Coldharbour Mill textile factory, built in 1799. File:Adolph Menzel - Eisenwalzwerk - Google Art Project.jpg, Adolph von Menzel: ''Moderne Cyklopen'' File:New Lanark buildings 2009.jpg, New Lanark mill File:Workers in the fuse factory Woolwich Arsenal Flickr 4615367952 d40a18ec24 o.jpg, Workers in the fuse factory, Royal Arsenal, Woolwich Arsenal late 1800s File:Airacobra P39 Assembly LOC 02902u.jpg, The assembly plant of the Bell Aircraft Corporation at Wheatfield, New York, United States, 1944 File:River Rouge tool and die8b00276r.jpg, Interior of the Ford River Rouge Complex, Rouge Tool & Die works, 1944 File:Hyundai car assembly line.jpg, Hyundai Motor Company, Hyundai's Assembly line (about 2005) File:Daniscon Kotkan tehdas 1.jpg, Danisco, Danisco Sweeteners factory in Kotka, Finland (2015) File:Apmisc-MSFC-6870792.jpg, alt=A large horizontal rocket with USA painted on the side inside of a manufacturing facility, First stages of Saturn V rockets being manufactured at the NASA Michoud Assembly Facility, Michoud rocket factory in the 1960s File:NASA SSPF factory panorama.jpg, Space station modules being manufactured in the Space Station Processing Facility File:ThyssenKrupp_Duisburg_016.jpg, A ladle pouring molten steel into a Basic Oxygen Furnace for secondary steelmaking, inside a steel mill factory in Germany File:At_Boeing's_Everett_factory_near_Seattle_(9130160595).jpg, Airplanes being manufactured at the Boeing Everett Factory assembly line


See also

* British shadow factories * Company Town * Factory farming, Factory farm * Factory system *
Industrial robot An industrial robot is a robot A robot is a machine—especially one Computer program, programmable by a computer—capable of carrying out a complex series of actions automatically. A robot can be guided by an external control device, o ...

Industrial robot
* Industrial railway *
Industrial Revolution The Industrial Revolution was the transition to new manufacturing processes in Great Britain, continental Europe Continental Europe or mainland Europe is the contiguous continent A continent is any of several large landmasse ...
* List of production topics * Lockout (industry), Lockout * Manufacturing * Plant layout study * Software factory * Powerhouse (instrumental)


Notes


References

* Needham, Joseph (1986). ''Science and Civilization in China: Volume 5, Part 1''. Taipei: Caves Books, Ltd. * Thomas, Dublin(1995). "Transforming Women's Work page: New England Lives in the Industrial Revolution 77, 118" Cornell University Press. * Price, Alfred. ''The Spitfire Story: Second edition''. London: Arms and Armour Press Ltd., 1986. . * Pugh, Peter. ''The Magic of a Name – The Rolls-Royce Story – The First 40 Years''. Cambridge, England. Icon Books Ltd, 2000. * Thomas, Dublin(1981). "Women at Work: The Transformation of Work and Community in Lowell, Massachusetts, 1826–1860: pp. 86–107" New York: Columbia University Press. *


Further reading

* Christian, Gallope, D (1987) "Are the classical management functions useful in describing managerial processes?" Academy of Management Review. v 12 n 1, pp. 38–51 * Peterson, T (2004) "Ongoing legacy of R.L. Katz: an updated typology of management skills", Management Decision. v 42 n10, pp. 1297–1308 * Mintzberg, H (1975) "The manager's job: Folklore and fact", Harvard Business Review, v 53 n 4, July – August, pp. 49–61 * Hales, C (1999) "Why do managers do what they do? Reconciling evidence and theory in accounts of managerial processes", British Journal of Management, v 10 n4, pp. 335–50 * Mintzberg, H (1994) "Rounding out the Managers job", Sloan Management Review, v 36 n 1 pp. 11–26. * Rodrigues, C (2001) "Fayol's 14 principles then and now: A plan for managing today's organizations effectively", Management Decision, v 39 n10, pp. 880–89 * Twomey, D. F. (2006) "Designed emergence as a path to enterprise", Emergence, Complexity & Organization, Vol. 8 Issue 3, pp. 12–23 * McDonald, G (2000) Business ethics: practical proposals for organisations Journal of Business Ethics. v 25(2) pp. 169–85


External links

* * {{Authority control Manufacturing plants, Industrial buildings, Manufacturing buildings and structures, Industrial Revolution