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Fable is a literary genre: a succinct fictional story, in
prose Prose is a form of written or spoken language A language is a structured system of communication Communication (from Latin ''communicare'', meaning "to share" or "to be in relation with") is "an apparent answer to the painful divisions ...

prose
or
verse Verse may refer to: Poetry * Verse, an occasional synonym for poetry Poetry (derived from the Greek language, Greek ''poiesis'', "making") is a form of literature that uses aesthetics, aesthetic and often rhythmic qualities of language ...
, that features
animal Animals (also called Metazoa) are multicellular A multicellular organism is an organism In biology, an organism () is any organic, life, living system that functions as an individual entity. All organisms are composed of cells ...

animal
s,
legendary creature A legendary creature (also known as a ''mythological'', ''mythic'' or ''fabulous'' creature) is a supernatural The supernatural encompasses supposed phenomena or entities that are not subject to the Scientific law, laws of nature. This t ...
s,
plant Plants are predominantly photosynthetic Photosynthesis is a process used by plants and other organisms to Energy transformation, convert light energy into chemical energy that, through cellular respiration, can later be released to fuel ...

plant
s, inanimate objects, or forces of nature that are
anthropomorphized Anthropomorphism is the attribution of human Humans (''Homo sapiens'') are the most abundant and widespread species In biology, a species is the basic unit of biological classification, classification and a taxonomic rank of an ...
, and that illustrates or leads to a particular
moral A moral (from Latin ''morālis'') is a message that is conveyed or a lesson to be learned from a narrative, story or wikt:event, event. The moral may be left to the hearer, reader, or viewer to determine for themselves, or may be explicitly enca ...
lesson (a "moral"), which may at the end be added explicitly as a concise
maxim Maxim or Maksim may refer to: Entertainment *Maxim (magazine), ''Maxim'' (magazine), an international men's magazine ** Maxim (Australia), ''Maxim'' (Australia), the Australian edition ** Maxim (India), ''Maxim'' (India), the Indian edition *Maxim ...
or
saying A saying is any concisely written or spoken expression that is especially memorable because of its meaning or style. Sayings are categorized as follows: * Aphorism An aphorism (from Ancient Greek, Greek ἀφορισμός: ''aphorismos'', d ...

saying
. A fable differs from a
parable A parable is a succinct, Didacticism, didactic story, in prose or Verse (poetry), verse, that illustrates one or more instructive lessons or principles. It differs from a fable in that fables employ animals, plants, inanimate objects, or forces ...
in that the latter ''excludes'' animals, plants, inanimate objects, and forces of nature as actors that assume speech or other powers of humankind. Usage has not always been so clearly distinguished. In the
King James Version The King James Version (KJV), also the King James Bible (KJB) and the Authorized Version, is an of the Christian for the , which was commissioned in 1604 and published in 1611, by sponsorship of King . The include the 39 books of the , a ...

King James Version
of the
New Testament The New Testament grc, Ἡ Καινὴ Διαθήκη, Transliteration, transl. ; la, Novum Testamentum. (NT) is the second division of the Christian biblical canon. It discusses the teachings and person of Jesus in Christianity, Jesus, as ...

New Testament
, "" ("''
mythos Myth is a folklore genre Folklore is the expressive body of culture shared by a particular group of people; it encompasses the tradition A tradition is a belief A belief is an Attitude (psychology), attitude that something is the ca ...
''") was rendered by the
translators Translation is the communication of the Meaning (linguistic), meaning of a #Source and target languages, source-language text by means of an Dynamic and formal equivalence, equivalent #Source and target languages, target-language text. The ...

translators
as "fable" in the
First Epistle to Timothy The First Epistle of Paul to Timothy, usually referred to simply as First Timothy and often written 1 Timothy, is one of three letters in the New Testament The New Testament grc, Ἡ Καινὴ Διαθήκη, Transliteration, transl. ...
, the
Second Epistle to Timothy In the New Testament The New Testament grc, Ἡ Καινὴ Διαθήκη, Transliteration, transl. ; la, Novum Testamentum. (NT) is the second division of the Christian biblical canon. It discusses the teachings and person of Jesus in C ...
, the
Epistle to Titus The Epistle of Paul to Titus, usually referred to simply as Titus, is one of the three pastoral epistles (along with 1 Timothy The First Epistle of Paul to Timothy, usually referred to simply as First Timothy and often written 1 Timothy, i ...
and the
First Epistle of Peter The First Epistle of Peter, usually referred to simply as First Peter and often written 1 Peter, is a book of the New Testament The New Testament grc, Ἡ Καινὴ Διαθήκη, Transliteration, transl. ; la, Novum Testamentum. (NT) ...
. A person who writes fables is a fabulist.


History

The fable is one of the most enduring forms of
folk literature Oral literature or folk literature is a literature Literature broadly is any collection of written Writing is a medium of human communication Communication (from Latin ''communicare'', meaning "to share") is the act of developing ...

folk literature
, spread abroad, modern researchers agree, less by literary anthologies than by oral transmission. Fables can be found in the literature of almost every country.


Aesopic or Aesop's fable

The varying corpus denoted ''Aesopica'' or ''
Aesop's Fables Aesop's Fables, or the Aesopica, is a collection of fable Fable is a literary genre: a succinct fictional story, in prose or verse (poetry), verse, that features animals, legendary creatures, plants, inanimate objects, or forces of nature tha ...
'' includes most of the best-known western fables, which are attributed to the
legend A legend is a Folklore genre, genre of folklore that consists of a narrative featuring human actions, believed or perceived, both by teller and listeners, to have taken place in human history. Narratives in this genre may demonstrate human valu ...

legend
ary
Aesop Aesop ( or ; , ; c. 620–564 BCE) was a Greek#REDIRECT Greek Greek may refer to: Greece Anything of, from, or related to Greece Greece ( el, Ελλάδα, , ), officially the Hellenic Republic, is a country located in Southeast Euro ...

Aesop
, supposed to have been a slave in
ancient Greece Ancient Greece ( el, Ἑλλάς, Hellás) was a civilization belonging to a period of History of Greece, Greek history from the Greek Dark Ages of the 12th–9th centuries BC to the end of Classical Antiquity, antiquity ( AD 600). This era wa ...
around 550 BCE. When
Babrius Babrius ( grc-gre, Βάβριος, ''Bábrios''; century),"Babrius" in ''Chambers's Encyclopædia ''Chambers's Encyclopaedia'' was founded in 1859Chambers, W. & R"Concluding Notice"in ''Chambers's Encyclopaedia''. London: W. & R. Chambers, 186 ...

Babrius
set down fables from the ''Aesopica'' in verse for a
Hellenistic The Hellenistic period spans the period of History of the Mediterranean region, Mediterranean history between the death of Alexander the Great in 323 BC and the emergence of the Roman Empire, as signified by the Battle of Actium in 31  ...

Hellenistic
Prince "Alexander," he expressly stated at the head of Book II that this type of "myth" that Aesop had introduced to the "sons of the Hellenes" had been an invention of "Syrians" from the time of "
Ninos
Ninos
" (personifying
Nineveh Nineveh (; ar, نَيْنَوَىٰ '; syr, ܢܝܼܢܘܹܐ, Nīnwē; akk, ) was an ancient Assyria Assyria (), also called the Assyrian Empire, was a n kingdom and of the that existed as a state from perhaps as early as the 25th ...
to Greeks) and Belos ("ruler").
Epicharmus of Kos Epicharmus of Kos Kos or Cos (; el, Κως ) is a island, part of the island chain in the southeastern . Kos is the third largest island of the Dodecanese by area, after and ; it has a population of 33,388 (2011 census), making it the second ...
and Phormis are reported as having been among the first to invent comic fables. Many familiar fables of Aesop include "
The Crow and the Pitcher ''The Crow and the Pitcher'' is one of Aesop's Fables, numbered 390 in the Perry Index. It relates ancient observation of Corvidae, corvid behaviour that recent scientific studies have confirmed is goal-directed and indicative of causal knowledge ...
", "
The Tortoise and the Hare "The Tortoise and the Hare" is one of Aesop's Fables and is numbered 226 in the Perry Index. The account of a race between unequal partners has attracted conflicting interpretations. The fable itself is a variant of a common folktale theme in wh ...

The Tortoise and the Hare
" and "
The Lion and the Mouse The Lion and the Mouse is one of Aesop's Fables Aesop's Fables, or the Aesopica, is a collection of fables credited to Aesop, a Slavery in ancient Greece, slave and storyteller believed to have lived in ancient Greece between 620 and 564 BCE. ...
". In ancient Greek and Roman education, the fable was the first of the ''
progymnasmata Progymnasmata ( Greek προγυμνάσματα "fore-exercises"; Latin Latin (, or , ) is a classical language belonging to the Italic languages, Italic branch of the Indo-European languages. Latin was originally spoken in the area around Rome ...
''—training exercises in prose composition and public speaking—wherein students would be asked to learn fables, expand upon them, invent their own, and finally use them as persuasive examples in longer forensic or deliberative speeches. The need of instructors to teach, and students to learn, a wide range of fables as material for their declamations resulted in their being gathered together in collections, like those of Aesop.


Africa

African oral culture has a rich story-telling tradition. As they have for thousands of years, people of all ages in Africa continue to interact with nature, including plants, animals and earthly structures such as rivers, plains, and mountains. Grandparents enjoy enormous respect in African societies and fill the new role of story-telling during retirement years. Children and, to some extent, adults are mesmerized by good story-tellers when they become animated in their quest to tell a good fable.
Joel Chandler Harris Joel Chandler Harris (December 9, 1848 – July 3, 1908) was an American journalist, fiction writer, and folklorist best known for his collection of Uncle Remus Uncle Remus is the fictional title character and narrator of a collection of ...

Joel Chandler Harris
wrote African-American fables in the Southern context of slavery under the name of
Uncle Remus Uncle Remus is the fictional title character and narrator of a collection of African American folktales compiled and adapted by Joel Chandler Harris Joel Chandler Harris (December 9, 1848 – July 3, 1908) was an American journalist, fict ...
. His stories of the animal characters Brer Rabbit, Brer Fox, and Brer Bear are modern examples of African-American story-telling, this though should not transcend critiques and controversies as to whether or not Uncle Remus was a racist or apologist for slavery. The Disney movie ''
Song of the South ''Song of the South'' is a 1946 American Live-action animated film, live-action/animated musical film, musical drama film produced by Walt Disney and released by RKO Pictures, RKO Radio Pictures. It is based on the collection of Uncle Remus ...
'' introduced many of the stories to the public and others not familiar with the role that storytelling played in the life of cultures and groups without training in speaking, reading, writing, or the cultures to which they had been relocated to from world practices of capturing Africans and other indigenous populations to provide slave labor to colonized countries.


India

India has a rich tradition of fables, many derived from traditional stories and related to local natural elements. Indian fables often teach a particular moral. In some storiesm the gods have animal aspects, while in others the characters are archetypal talking animals similar to those found in other cultures. Hundreds of fables were composed in
ancient India According to consensus in modern genetics, anatomically modern humans first arrived on the Indian subcontinent from Africa between 73,000 and 55,000 years ago. Quote: "Y-Chromosome and Mt-DNA data support the colonization of South Asia by mod ...
during the
first millennium BCE The 1st millennium BC was the period of time between from the year 1000 BC to 1 BC ( 10th to 1st First or 1st is the ordinal form of the number one (#1). First or 1st may also refer to: *World record A world record is usually the best glob ...
, often as stories within
frame stories A frame is often a structural system that supports other components of a physical construction and/or steel frame that limits the construction's extent. Frame and FRAME may also refer to: Arts and media Film and television * Film frame, one of ...
. Indian fables have a mixed cast of humans and animals. The dialogues are often longer than in fables of Aesop and often comical as the animals try to outwit one another by trickery and deceit. In Indian fables, humanity is not presented as superior to the animals. Prime examples of the fable in India are the Panchatantra and the
Jataka tales The Jataka tales are a voluminous body of literature native to India concerning the previous births of Gautama Buddha in both human and animal form. The future Buddha may appear as a king, an outcast, a god, an elephant—but, in whatever form, ...
. These included
Vishnu Sarma Vishnu Sharma (Sanskrit Sanskrit (, attributively , ''saṃskṛta-'', nominalization, nominally , ''saṃskṛtam'') is a classical language of South Asia belonging to the Indo-Aryan languages, Indo-Aryan branch of the Indo-European languag ...
's ''
Panchatantra The ''Panchatantra'' (: Pañcatantra, : Pañcatantra, sa, पञ्चतन्त्र, "Five Treatises") is an ancient collection of interrelated s in verse and prose, arranged within a .Hitopadesha ''Hitopadesha'' (Sanskrit: हितोपदेशः, IAST: ''Hitopadeśa'', "Beneficial Advice") is an Indian text in the Sanskrit language consisting of fables with both animal and human characters. It incorporates maxims, worldly wisdom and ...

Hitopadesha
'', '' Vikram and The Vampire'', and
Syntipas Syntipas ( el, Συντίπας) is the Greek form of a name also rendered Sandbad ( fa, سندباد) Sindibad ( ar, سندباد), Sendabar ( he, סנדבר), Çendubete (Spanish Spanish may refer to: * Items from or related to Spain: **Spaniards ...
' ''
Seven Wise Masters The ''Seven Wise Masters'' (also called the ''Seven Sages'' or ''Seven Wise Men'') is a cycle of stories of Sanskrit literature, Sanskrit, Persian literature, Persian or Hebrew literature, Hebrew origins. Story and plot The Sultan sends his son ...
'', which were collections of fables that were later influential throughout the
Old World The Old World consists of Africa Africa is the world's second-largest and second-most populous continent, after Asia in both cases. At about 30.3 million km2 (11.7 million square miles) including adjacent islands, it covers 6% o ...
. Ben E. Perry (compiler of the "
Perry Index The Perry Index is a widely used index of "Aesop's Fables" or "Aesopica", the fables credited to Aesop, the storyteller who lived in ancient Greece between 620 and 560 BC. The index was created by Ben Edwin Perry, a professor of classics at the Univ ...
" of Aesop's fables) has argued controversially that some of the Buddhist ''Jataka tales'' and some of the fables in the ''Panchatantra'' may have been influenced by similar
Greek#REDIRECT Greek Greek may refer to: Greece Anything of, from, or related to Greece Greece ( el, Ελλάδα, , ), officially the Hellenic Republic, is a country located in Southeast Europe. Its population is approximately 10.7 million as of ...
and
Near East The Near East ( ar, الشرق الأدنى, al-Sharq al-'Adnā, he, המזרח הקרוב, arc, ܕܢܚܐ ܩܪܒ, fa, خاور نزدیک, Xāvar-e nazdik, tr, Yakın Doğu) is a geographical term which roughly encompasses a transcontinental ...
ern ones. Earlier
Indian epics Indian epic poetry is the epic poetry written in the Indian subcontinent, traditionally called ''Kavya'' (or ''Kāvya''; Sanskrit: काव्य, IAST: ''kāvyá''). The ''Ramayana'' and the ''Mahabharata'', which were originally composed in ...
such as Vyasa's ''
Mahabharata The ''Mahābhārata'' (; sa, महाभारतम्, ', ) is one of the two major Sanskrit Sanskrit (; attributively , ; nominalization, nominally , , ) is a classical language of South Asia that belongs to the Indo-Aryan langua ...

Mahabharata
'' and
Valmiki Valmiki (; Sanskrit Sanskrit (; attributively , ; , , ) is a of that belongs to the branch of the . It arose in South Asia after its predecessor languages had there from the northwest in the late . Sanskrit is the of , the langua ...

Valmiki
's ''
Ramayana ''Rāmāyana'' (; sa, रामायणम्, ) is one of the two major Sanskrit literature, Sanskrit Indian epic poetry, epics of ancient India and important text of Hinduism, the other being the ''Mahabharata, Mahābhārata''. The epi ...

Ramayana
'' also contained fables within the main story, often as
side stories A sequel is a work of literature, film, theatre, television, music or video game that continuity (fiction), continues the story of, or expanded universe, expands upon, some earlier work. In the common context of a narrative work of fiction, a s ...
or
back-story A backstory, background story Story or stories may refer to: Common uses * Story, a narrative (an account of imaginary or real people and events) ** Short story, a piece of prose fiction that typically can be read in one sitting * Story, or stor ...
. The most famous folk stories from the Near East were the ''
One Thousand and One Nights ''One Thousand and One Nights'' ( ar, أَلْفُ لَيْلَةٍ وَلَيْلَةٌ, ) is a collection of Middle East The Middle East ( ar, الشرق الأوسط, ISO 233 The international standard An international standard is a ...
'', also known as the ''Arabian Nights''. The Panchatantra is an ancient Indian assortment of fables. The earliest recorded work, ascribed to Vishnu Sharma, dates to around 300 BCE. The tales are likely much older than the compilation, having been passed down orally prior to the book's compilation. The word “Panchatantra” is a blend of the words "pancha" (which means "five" in Sanskrit) and "tantra" (which means "weave"). It implies weaving together multiple threads of narrative and moral lessons together to form a book.


Europe

Fables had a further long tradition through the
Middle Ages In the history of Europe The history of Europe concerns itself with the discovery and collection, the study, organization and presentation and the interpretation of past events and affairs of the people of Europe since the beginning of ...
, and became part of European high literature. During the 17th century, the
French French (french: français(e), link=no) may refer to: * Something of, from, or related to France France (), officially the French Republic (french: link=no, République française), is a transcontinental country This is a list of co ...

French
fabulist
Jean de La Fontaine Jean de La Fontaine (, , ; 8 July 162113 April 1695) was a French fabulist and one of the most widely read French poets of the 17th century. He is known above all for his '' Fables'', which provided a model for subsequent fabulists across Euro ...

Jean de La Fontaine
(1621–1695) saw the soul of the fable in the moral — a rule of behavior. Starting with the Aesopian pattern, La Fontaine set out to satirize the court, the church, the rising
bourgeoisie Bourgeoisie (; ) is a polysemous Polysemy ( or ; from grc-gre, πολύ-, , "many" and , , "sign") is the capacity for a word or phrase to have multiple meanings, usually related by contiguity of meaning within a semantic fieldIn linguist ...

bourgeoisie
, indeed the entire human scene of his time. La Fontaine's model was subsequently emulated by England's
John Gay John Gay (30 June 1685 – 4 December 1732) was an English poet A poet is a person who creates poetry Poetry (derived from the Greek language, Greek ''poiesis'', "making") is a form of literature that uses aesthetics, aesthetic an ...

John Gay
(1685–1732); Poland's
Ignacy Krasicki Ignacy Błażej Franciszek Krasicki (3 February 173514 March 1801), from 1766 Prince-Bishop of Warmia (in German, ''Ermland'') and from 1795 Archbishop of Gniezno (thus, Primate of Poland), was Poland's leading Polish Enlightenment, Enlightenment ...
(1735–1801); Italy's Lorenzo Pignotti (1739–1812) and Giovanni Gherardo de Rossi (1754–1827); Serbia's Dositej Obradović (1739–1811); Spain's Félix María de Samaniego (1745–1801) and Tomás de Iriarte y Oropesa (1750–1791); France's
Jean-Pierre Claris de Florian Jean-Pierre or Jean Pierre may refer to: People * Karine Jean-Pierre Karine Jean-Pierre (born August 13, 1977) is a American political campaign organizer, activist, political commentator, and author of French Caribbean heritage. Since January ...

Jean-Pierre Claris de Florian
(1755–94); and Russia's
Ivan Krylov Ivan Andreyevich Krylov (russian: Ива́н Андре́евич Крыло́в; February 13, 1769 – November 21, 1844) is Russia's best-known Fable, fabulist and probably the most epigrammatic of all Russian authors. Formerly a dramatist and j ...

Ivan Krylov
(1769–1844).


Modern era

In modern times, while the fable has been trivialized in children's books, it has also been fully adapted to modern adult literature.
Felix Salten Felix Salten (; 6 September 1869 – 8 October 1945) was an Austro-Hungarian Austria-Hungary, often referred to as the Austro-Hungarian Empire or the Dual Monarchy, was a constitutional monarchy A constitutional monarchy is a form ...
's ''
Bambi ''Bambi'' is a 1942 American animated Animation is a method in which figures Figure may refer to: General *A shape, drawing, depiction, or geometric configuration *Figure (wood), wood appearance *Figure (music), distinguished from music ...
'' (1923) is a ''
Bildungsroman In literary criticism Literary criticism (or literary studies) is the study, evaluation, and interpretation of literature. Modern literary criticism is often influenced by literary theory, which is the philosophical analysis, philosophical d ...
'' — a story of a
protagonist 200px, Shakespeare's ''Hamlet, Prince of Denmark.'' William Morris Hunt, oil on canvas, c. 1864 A protagonist (from grc, πρωταγωνιστής, translit=prōtagōnistḗs, lit=one who plays the first part, chief actor) is the main character ...
's coming-of-age — cast in the form of a fable.
James Thurber James Grover Thurber (December 8, 1894 – November 2, 1961) was an American cartoonist A cartoonist (also comic strip creator, comic book artist, graphic novel artist, or comic book illustrator) is a visual artist An artist is a person ...

James Thurber
used the ancient fable style in his books '' Fables for Our Time'' (1940) and ''Further Fables for Our Time'' (1956), and in his stories " The Princess and the Tin Box" in ''The Beast in Me and Other Animals'' (1948) and "The Last Clock: A Fable for the Time, Such As It Is, of Man" in ''Lanterns and Lances'' (1961).
Władysław Reymont Władysław Stanisław Reymont (, born Rejment; 7 May 1867 – 5 December 1925) was a Polish novelist and the 1924 laureate of the Nobel Prize in Literature. His best-known work is the award-winning four-volume novel ''Chłopi'' (''The Peasants'' ...

Władysław Reymont
's ''The Revolt'' (1922), a
metaphor A metaphor is a figure of speech A figure of speech or rhetorical figure is a word or phrase that entails an intentional deviation from ordinary language use in order to produce a rhetoric Rhetoric () is the Art (skill), art of ...
for the
Bolshevik The Bolsheviks (Russian Russian refers to anything related to Russia, including: *Russians (русские, ''russkiye''), an ethnic group of the East Slavic peoples, primarily living in Russia and neighboring countries *Rossiyane (росс ...

Bolshevik
Revolution of 1917 The Russian Revolution was a period of political Politics (from , ) is the set of activities that are associated with Decision-making, making decisions in Social group, groups, or other forms of Power (social and political), power relat ...
, described a revolt by animals that take over their farm in order to introduce "equality."
George Orwell Eric Arthur Blair (25 June 1903 – 21 January 1950) known by his pen name A pen name, also called a ''nom de plume'' () or a literary double, is a pseudonym (or, in some cases, a variant form of a real name) adopted by an author and printed ...

George Orwell
's ''
Animal Farm ''Animal Farm'' is an by , first published in England on 17 August 1945. The book tells the story of a group of farm animals who rebel against their human farmer, hoping to create a society where the animals can be equal, free, and happy. ...
'' (1945) similarly satirized Stalinist Communism in particular, and
totalitarianism Totalitarianism is a form of government A government is the system or group of people governing an organized community, generally a state State may refer to: Arts, entertainment, and media Literature * ''State Magazine'', a monthl ...

totalitarianism
in general, in the guise of animal fable. In the 21st century, the Neapolitan writer Sabatino Scia is the author of more than two hundred fables that he describes as “western protest fables.” The characters are not only animals, but also things, beings, and elements from nature. Scia's aim is the same as in the traditional fable, playing the role of revealer of human society. In Latin America, the brothers Juan and Victor Ataucuri Garcia have contributed to the resurgence of the fable. But they do so with a novel idea: use the fable as a means of dissemination of traditional literature of that place. In the book
"Fábulas Peruanas"
published in 2003, they have collected myths, legends, beliefs of Andean and Amazonian Peru, to write as fables. The result has been an extraordinary work rich in regional nuances. Here we discover the relationship between man and his origin, with nature, with its history, its customs and beliefs then become norms and values.


Fabulists

File:Velázquez - Esopo (Museo del Prado, 1639-41).jpg,
Aesop Aesop ( or ; , ; c. 620–564 BCE) was a Greek#REDIRECT Greek Greek may refer to: Greece Anything of, from, or related to Greece Greece ( el, Ελλάδα, , ), officially the Hellenic Republic, is a country located in Southeast Euro ...

Aesop
, by File:Vyasa.jpg,
Vyasa Krishna Dvaipayana ( sa, कृष्णद्वैपायन, Kṛṣṇadvaipāyana), better known as Vyasa (; sa, व्यासः, Vyāsaḥ, compiler) or Veda Vyasa (वेदव्यासः, ''Veda-vyāsaḥ'', "the one who cl ...

Vyasa
File:Valmiki_Ramayana.jpg,
Valmiki Valmiki (; Sanskrit Sanskrit (; attributively , ; , , ) is a of that belongs to the branch of the . It arose in South Asia after its predecessor languages had there from the northwest in the late . Sanskrit is the of , the langua ...

Valmiki
File:Jean-de-la-fontaine.jpg,
Jean de La Fontaine Jean de La Fontaine (, , ; 8 July 162113 April 1695) was a French fabulist and one of the most widely read French poets of the 17th century. He is known above all for his '' Fables'', which provided a model for subsequent fabulists across Euro ...

Jean de La Fontaine
File:Sullhan saba.jpg, Sulkhan-Saba Orbeliani File:John Gay - Project Gutenberg eText 13790.jpg,
John Gay John Gay (30 June 1685 – 4 December 1732) was an English poet A poet is a person who creates poetry Poetry (derived from the Greek language, Greek ''poiesis'', "making") is a form of literature that uses aesthetics, aesthetic an ...

John Gay
File:Christian Fürchtegott Gellert.jpg, File:Lessing in blue.jpg,
Gotthold Ephraim Lessing Gotthold Ephraim Lessing (, ; 22 January 1729 – 15 February 1781) was a German writer, philosopher, dramatist A playwright or dramatist is a person who writes play (theatre), plays. Etymology The word "play" is from Middle English pleye, ...

Gotthold Ephraim Lessing
File:Krafft the Elder Ignacy Krasicki (detail).jpg,
Ignacy Krasicki Ignacy Błażej Franciszek Krasicki (3 February 173514 March 1801), from 1766 Prince-Bishop of Warmia (in German, ''Ermland'') and from 1795 Archbishop of Gniezno (thus, Primate of Poland), was Poland's leading Polish Enlightenment, Enlightenment ...
File:DositejObradović.jpg, Dositej Obradović File:Samaniego.jpg, Félix María de Samaniego File:Tomas de Iriarte Joaquin Inza.jpg, Tomás de Iriarte y Oropesa File:Jean-Pierre Claris de Florian.jpg,
Jean-Pierre Claris de Florian Jean-Pierre or Jean Pierre may refer to: People * Karine Jean-Pierre Karine Jean-Pierre (born August 13, 1977) is a American political campaign organizer, activist, political commentator, and author of French Caribbean heritage. Since January ...

Jean-Pierre Claris de Florian
File:Ivan Krylov.jpg,
Ivan Krylov Ivan Andreyevich Krylov (russian: Ива́н Андре́евич Крыло́в; February 13, 1769 – November 21, 1844) is Russia's best-known Fable, fabulist and probably the most epigrammatic of all Russian authors. Formerly a dramatist and j ...

Ivan Krylov
File:Andersen-hc.jpg,
Hans Christian Andersen Hans Christian Andersen (, ; 2 April 1805 – 4 August 1875) was a Danish author. Although a prolific writer of plays, travelogues, novels, and poems, he is best remembered for his literary fairy tales A fairy tale, fairytale, wond ...

Hans Christian Andersen
File:Abierce.jpg,
Ambrose Bierce Ambrose Gwinnett Bierce (June 24, 1842 – circa 1914) was an American short story writer, journalist, poet, and Civil War veteran. His book ''The Devil's Dictionary ''The Devil's Dictionary'' is a satirical dictionary written by American Civil ...

Ambrose Bierce
File:Joel Chandler Harris ("Uncle Remus").jpg,
Joel Chandler Harris Joel Chandler Harris (December 9, 1848 – July 3, 1908) was an American journalist, fiction writer, and folklorist best known for his collection of Uncle Remus Uncle Remus is the fictional title character and narrator of a collection of ...

Joel Chandler Harris
File:Wladyslaw Reymont.jpg,
Władysław Reymont Władysław Stanisław Reymont (, born Rejment; 7 May 1867 – 5 December 1925) was a Polish novelist and the 1924 laureate of the Nobel Prize in Literature. His best-known work is the award-winning four-volume novel ''Chłopi'' (''The Peasants'' ...

Władysław Reymont
File:Felix Salten 1910.jpg,
Felix Salten Felix Salten (; 6 September 1869 – 8 October 1945) was an Austro-Hungarian Austria-Hungary, often referred to as the Austro-Hungarian Empire or the Dual Monarchy, was a constitutional monarchy A constitutional monarchy is a form ...
File:Don Marquis.jpg,
Don Marquis Donald Robert Perry Marquis ( ; July 29, 1878 – December 29, 1937) was an American humorist A humorist (American English, American) or humourist (British English, British spelling) is an intellectual who uses humor, or wit, in writing or ...

Don Marquis
File:James Thurber NYWTS.jpg,
James Thurber James Grover Thurber (December 8, 1894 – November 2, 1961) was an American cartoonist A cartoonist (also comic strip creator, comic book artist, graphic novel artist, or comic book illustrator) is a visual artist An artist is a person ...

James Thurber
File:GeoreOrwell.jpg,
George Orwell Eric Arthur Blair (25 June 1903 – 21 January 1950) known by his pen name A pen name, also called a ''nom de plume'' () or a literary double, is a pseudonym (or, in some cases, a variant form of a real name) adopted by an author and printed ...

George Orwell


Classic

*
Aesop Aesop ( or ; , ; c. 620–564 BCE) was a Greek#REDIRECT Greek Greek may refer to: Greece Anything of, from, or related to Greece Greece ( el, Ελλάδα, , ), officially the Hellenic Republic, is a country located in Southeast Euro ...

Aesop
(mid-6th century
BCE Common Era (CE) is one of the year notations used for the Gregorian calendar The Gregorian calendar is the used in most of the world. It was introduced in October 1582 by as a modification of the , reducing the average year from 365.2 ...

BCE
), author/s of ''
Aesop's Fables Aesop's Fables, or the Aesopica, is a collection of fable Fable is a literary genre: a succinct fictional story, in prose or verse (poetry), verse, that features animals, legendary creatures, plants, inanimate objects, or forces of nature tha ...
'' *
Vishnu Sarma Vishnu Sharma (Sanskrit Sanskrit (, attributively , ''saṃskṛta-'', nominalization, nominally , ''saṃskṛtam'') is a classical language of South Asia belonging to the Indo-Aryan languages, Indo-Aryan branch of the Indo-European languag ...
(ca. 200
BCE Common Era (CE) is one of the year notations used for the Gregorian calendar The Gregorian calendar is the used in most of the world. It was introduced in October 1582 by as a modification of the , reducing the average year from 365.2 ...

BCE
), author of the
anthropomorphic Anthropomorphism is the attribution of human Humans (''Homo sapiens'') are the most abundant and widespread species In biology, a species is the basic unit of biological classification, classification and a taxonomic rank of an ...
political treatise and fable collection, the ''
Panchatantra The ''Panchatantra'' (: Pañcatantra, : Pañcatantra, sa, पञ्चतन्त्र, "Five Treatises") is an ancient collection of interrelated s in verse and prose, arranged within a .Bidpai The ''Panchatantra'' (IAST The International Alphabet of Sanskrit Transliteration (IAST) is a transliteration scheme that allows the lossless romanisation Romanization or romanisation, in linguistics Linguistics is the scie ...
(ca. 200
BCE Common Era (CE) is one of the year notations used for the Gregorian calendar The Gregorian calendar is the used in most of the world. It was introduced in October 1582 by as a modification of the , reducing the average year from 365.2 ...

BCE
), author of
Sanskrit Sanskrit (; attributively , ; nominalization, nominally , , ) is a classical language of South Asia that belongs to the Indo-Aryan languages, Indo-Aryan branch of the Indo-European languages. It arose in South Asia after its predecessor langua ...

Sanskrit
(
Hindu Hindus (; ) are persons who regard themselves as culturally, ethnically, or religiously adhering to aspects of Hinduism Hinduism () is an Indian religion Indian religions, sometimes also termed Dharmic religions or Indic re ...

Hindu
) and
Pali Pali () is a Middle Indo-AryanIndo-Aryan refers to: * Indo-Aryan languages ** Indo-Aryan superstrate in Mitanni or Mitanni-Aryan * Indo-Aryan peoples, the various peoples speaking these languages See also *Aryan invasion theory (disambiguat ...
(
Buddhist Buddhism (, ) is the world's fourth-largest religion Religion is a social Social organisms, including humans, live collectively in interacting populations. This interaction is considered social whether they are aware of it or not, an ...

Buddhist
) animal fables in verse and prose, sometimes derived from
Jataka tales The Jataka tales are a voluminous body of literature native to India concerning the previous births of Gautama Buddha in both human and animal form. The future Buddha may appear as a king, an outcast, a god, an elephant—but, in whatever form, ...
*
Syntipas Syntipas ( el, Συντίπας) is the Greek form of a name also rendered Sandbad ( fa, سندباد) Sindibad ( ar, سندباد), Sendabar ( he, סנדבר), Çendubete (Spanish Spanish may refer to: * Items from or related to Spain: **Spaniards ...
(ca. 100
BCE Common Era (CE) is one of the year notations used for the Gregorian calendar The Gregorian calendar is the used in most of the world. It was introduced in October 1582 by as a modification of the , reducing the average year from 365.2 ...

BCE
),
India India, officially the Republic of India (Hindi Hindi (Devanagari: , हिंदी, ISO 15919, ISO: ), or more precisely Modern Standard Hindi (Devanagari: , ISO 15919, ISO: ), is an Indo-Aryan language spoken chiefly in Hindi Belt, ...

India
n
philosopher A philosopher is someone who practices philosophy Philosophy (from , ) is the study of general and fundamental questions, such as those about Metaphysics, existence, reason, Epistemology, knowledge, Ethics, values, Philosophy of mind, mi ...

philosopher
, reputed author of a collection of tales known in
Europe Europe is a continent A continent is any of several large landmass A landmass, or land mass, is a large region In geography Geography (from Greek: , ''geographia'', literally "earth description") is a field of scienc ...

Europe
as '' The Story of the Seven Wise Masters'' *
Gaius Julius Hyginus Gaius Julius Hyginus (; 64 BC – AD 17) was a Latin Latin (, or , ) is a classical language belonging to the Italic languages, Italic branch of the Indo-European languages. Latin was originally spoken in the area around Rome, known as Lat ...
(Hyginus,
Latin Latin (, or , ) is a classical language belonging to the Italic languages, Italic branch of the Indo-European languages. Latin was originally spoken in the area around Rome, known as Latium. Through the power of the Roman Republic, it became ...

Latin
author, native of
Spain , image_flag = Bandera de España.svg , image_coat = Escudo de España (mazonado).svg , national_motto = , national_anthem = , image_map = , map_caption = , image_map2 ...

Spain
or
Alexandria Alexandria ( or ; ar, الإسكندرية ; arz, اسكندرية ; Coptic language, Coptic: Rakodī; el, Αλεξάνδρεια ''Alexandria'') is the List of cities and towns in Egypt, third-largest city in Egypt after Cairo and Giza, ...

Alexandria
, ca. 64 BCE – 17 CE), author of ''Fabulae'' * Phaedrus (15 BCE – 50 CE),
Roman Roman or Romans most often refers to: *Rome , established_title = Founded , established_date = 753 BC , founder = King Romulus , image_map = Map of comune of Rome (metropolitan city of Capital Rome, region Laz ...
fabulist, by birth a
Macedonian Macedonian most often refers to someone or something from or related to Macedonia (disambiguation), Macedonia. Macedonian may specifically refer to: People Modern * Macedonians (ethnic group), the South Slavic ethnic group primarily associated w ...
*
Nizami Ganjavi Nizami Ganjavi ( fa, نظامی گنجوی, lit=Niẓāmī of Ganja, Azerbaijan, Ganja, translit=Niẓāmī Ganjavī) (c. 1141–1209), Nizami Ganje'i, Nizami, or Nezāmi, whose formal name was ''Jamal ad-Dīn Abū Muḥammad Ilyās ibn-Yūsuf ...
(
Persia Iran ( fa, ایران ), also called Persia, and officially the Islamic Republic of Iran, is a country in Western Asia. It is bordered to the northwest by Armenia and Azerbaijan, to the north by the Caspian Sea, to the northeast by Tu ...

Persia
n, 1141–1209) *
Walter of EnglandImage:Aesopus - Aesopus constructus, 1495.tiff, ''Aesopus constructus'' etc., 1495 edition with metrical version of Fabulae Lib. I-IV by Anonymus Neveleti Gualterus Anglicus (Medieval Latin for Walter the Englishman) was an Anglo-Normans, Anglo-Norma ...
(12th century),
Anglo-NormanAnglo-Norman may refer to: *Anglo-Normans The Anglo-Normans ( nrf, Anglo-Normaunds, ang, Engel-Norðmandisca) were the medieval ruling class in England, composed mainly of a combination of ethnic Anglo-Saxons, Normans, Bretons, Flemish people, F ...
poet, published ''Aesop's Fables'' in
distich A couplet is a pair of successive lines Long interspersed nuclear elements (LINEs) (also known as long interspersed nucleotide elements or long interspersed elements) are a group of non-LTR (long terminal repeat A long terminal repeat (LTR) is ...
s c. 1175 *
Marie de France Marie de France (floruit, fl. 1160 to 1215) was a poet, possibly born in what is now France, who lived in England during the late 12th century. She lived and wrote at an unknown court, but she and her work were almost certainly known at the roya ...

Marie de France
(12th century) *
Jalāl ad-Dīn Muhammad Balkhī
Jalāl ad-Dīn Muhammad Balkhī
(
Persia Iran ( fa, ایران ), also called Persia, and officially the Islamic Republic of Iran, is a country in Western Asia. It is bordered to the northwest by Armenia and Azerbaijan, to the north by the Caspian Sea, to the northeast by Tu ...

Persia
n, 1207–73) *
Vardan Aygektsi
Vardan Aygektsi
(died 1250), Armenian priest and fabulist *
Berechiah ha-Nakdan Berechiah ben Natronai Krespia ha-Nakdan ( he, ברכיה בן נטרונאי הנקדן; ) was a Jewish Jews ( he, יְהוּדִים ISO 259-2 , Israeli pronunciation ) or Jewish people are members of an ethnoreligious group and a nation ...
(Berechiah the Punctuator, or
Grammarian Grammarian may refer to: * Alexandrine grammarians, philologists and textual scholars in Hellenistic Alexandria in the 3rd and 2nd centuries BCE * Biblical grammarians, scholars who study the Bible and the Hebrew language * Grammarian (Greco-Roman ...
, 13th century), author of
Jewish Jews ( he, יְהוּדִים ISO 259-2 , Israeli pronunciation ) or Jewish people are an ethnoreligious group and nation originating from the Israelites Israelite origins and kingdom: "The first act in the long drama of Jewish history is ...

Jewish
fables adapted from
Aesop Aesop ( or ; , ; c. 620–564 BCE) was a Greek#REDIRECT Greek Greek may refer to: Greece Anything of, from, or related to Greece Greece ( el, Ελλάδα, , ), officially the Hellenic Republic, is a country located in Southeast Euro ...

Aesop
's Fables *
Robert Henryson Robert Henryson (Middle Scots: Robert Henrysoun) was a poet who flourished in Kingdom of Scotland, Scotland in the period c. 1460–1500. Counted among the Scots language, Scots ''makars'', he lived in the royal burgh of Dunfermline and is a dis ...
(
Scottish Scottish usually refers to something of, from, or related to Scotland, including: *Scottish Gaelic, a Celtic Goidelic language of the Indo-European language family native to Scotland *Scottish English *Scottish national identity, the Scottish iden ...

Scottish
, 15th century), author of ''
The Morall Fabillis of Esope the Phrygian ''The Morall Fabillis of Esope the Phrygian'' is a work of Northern Renaissance The Northern Renaissance was the Renaissance The Renaissance ( , ) , from , with the same meanings. was a period in European history marking the transitio ...
'' *
Leonardo da Vinci Leonardo di ser Piero da Vinci (15 April 14522 May 1519) was an Italian of the who was active as a painter, , engineer, scientist, theorist, sculptor and architect. While his fame initially rested on his achievements as a painter, he als ...

Leonardo da Vinci
(
Italian Italian may refer to: * Anything of, from, or related to the country and nation of Italy ** Italians, an ethnic group or simply a citizen of the Italian Republic ** Italian language, a Romance language *** Regional Italian, regional variants of the ...

Italian
, 1452–1519) *
Biernat of Lublin Biernat of Lublin (Polish language, Polish: ''Biernat z Lublina'', Latin ''Bernardus Lublinius'', ca. 1465 – after 1529) was a Poland, Polish poet, fable, fabulist, translation, translator and physician. He was one of the first Polish-langua ...
(
Polish Polish may refer to: * Anything from or related to Poland Poland, officially the Republic of Poland, is a country located in Central Europe. It is divided into 16 Voivodeships of Poland, administrative provinces, covering an area of , ...

Polish
, 1465? – after 1529) *
Jean de La Fontaine Jean de La Fontaine (, , ; 8 July 162113 April 1695) was a French fabulist and one of the most widely read French poets of the 17th century. He is known above all for his '' Fables'', which provided a model for subsequent fabulists across Euro ...

Jean de La Fontaine
(
French French (french: français(e), link=no) may refer to: * Something of, from, or related to France France (), officially the French Republic (french: link=no, République française), is a transcontinental country This is a list of co ...

French
, 1621–95) * Sulkhan-Saba Orbeliani (
Georgian Georgian may refer to: Common meanings * Anything related to, or originating from Georgia (country) **Georgians, an indigenous Caucasian ethnic group **Georgian language, a Kartvelian language spoken by Georgians **Georgian scripts, three scripts ...
, 1658–1725), author of " A Book of Wisdom and Lies" *
Bernard de Mandeville Bernard Mandeville, or Bernard de Mandeville (; 15 November 1670 – 21 January 1733), was an Anglo-Dutch philosopher, political economist and satirist. Born in Rotterdam Rotterdam (, , ) is the second largest city A city is a large human ...
(
English English usually refers to: * English language English is a West Germanic languages, West Germanic language first spoken in History of Anglo-Saxon England, early medieval England, which has eventually become the World language, leading lan ...

English
, 1670–1733), author of ''
The Fable of the Bees ''The Fable of The Bees: or, Private Vices, Publick Benefits'' (1714) is a book by the Anglo-Dutch social philosopher Bernard Mandeville Bernard Mandeville, or Bernard de Mandeville (; 15 November 1670 – 21 January 1733), was an Anglo-Dutch ...
'' *
John Gay John Gay (30 June 1685 – 4 December 1732) was an English poet A poet is a person who creates poetry Poetry (derived from the Greek language, Greek ''poiesis'', "making") is a form of literature that uses aesthetics, aesthetic an ...

John Gay
(
English English usually refers to: * English language English is a West Germanic languages, West Germanic language first spoken in History of Anglo-Saxon England, early medieval England, which has eventually become the World language, leading lan ...

English
, 1685–1732) *
Christian Fürchtegott Gellert
Christian Fürchtegott Gellert
(
German German(s) may refer to: * Germany (of or related to) **Germania (historical use) * Germans, citizens of Germany, people of German ancestry, or native speakers of the German language ** For citizens of Germany, see also German nationality law **Ger ...

German
, 1715–69) *
Gotthold Ephraim Lessing Gotthold Ephraim Lessing (, ; 22 January 1729 – 15 February 1781) was a German writer, philosopher, dramatist A playwright or dramatist is a person who writes play (theatre), plays. Etymology The word "play" is from Middle English pleye, ...

Gotthold Ephraim Lessing
(
German German(s) may refer to: * Germany (of or related to) **Germania (historical use) * Germans, citizens of Germany, people of German ancestry, or native speakers of the German language ** For citizens of Germany, see also German nationality law **Ger ...

German
, 1729–81) *
Ignacy Krasicki Ignacy Błażej Franciszek Krasicki (3 February 173514 March 1801), from 1766 Prince-Bishop of Warmia (in German, ''Ermland'') and from 1795 Archbishop of Gniezno (thus, Primate of Poland), was Poland's leading Polish Enlightenment, Enlightenment ...
(
Polish Polish may refer to: * Anything from or related to Poland Poland, officially the Republic of Poland, is a country located in Central Europe. It is divided into 16 Voivodeships of Poland, administrative provinces, covering an area of , ...

Polish
, 1735–1801), author of ''
Fables and Parables ''Fables and Parables'' (''Bajki i przypowieści'', 1779), by Ignacy Krasicki (1735–1801), is a work in a long international tradition of fable, fable-writing that reaches back to antiquity. Krasicki's fables and parables have been described as ...
'' (1779) and ''New Fables'' (published 1802) * Dositej Obradović (
Serbia Serbia (, ; Serbian Serbian may refer to: * someone or something related to Serbia, a country in Southeastern Europe * someone or something related to the Serbs, a South Slavic people * in both meanings, depending on the context, it may ref ...

Serbia
n, 1739–1811) * Félix María de Samaniego (
Spanish Spanish may refer to: * Items from or related to Spain: **Spaniards, a nation and ethnic group indigenous to Spain **Spanish language **Spanish cuisine Other places * Spanish, Ontario, Canada * Spanish River (disambiguation), the name of several ...

Spanish
, 1745–1801), best known for "The Ant and the Cicade" * Tomás de Iriarte (
Spanish Spanish may refer to: * Items from or related to Spain: **Spaniards, a nation and ethnic group indigenous to Spain **Spanish language **Spanish cuisine Other places * Spanish, Ontario, Canada * Spanish River (disambiguation), the name of several ...

Spanish
, 1750–91) *
Jean-Pierre Claris de Florian Jean-Pierre or Jean Pierre may refer to: People * Karine Jean-Pierre Karine Jean-Pierre (born August 13, 1977) is a American political campaign organizer, activist, political commentator, and author of French Caribbean heritage. Since January ...

Jean-Pierre Claris de Florian
, (
French French (french: français(e), link=no) may refer to: * Something of, from, or related to France France (), officially the French Republic (french: link=no, République française), is a transcontinental country This is a list of co ...

French
, 1755–94), author of ''Fables'' (published 1802) *
Ivan Dmitriev Ivan Ivanovich Dmitriev ( rus, Ива́н Ива́нович Дми́триев, p=ɪˈvan ɪˈvanəvʲɪtɕ ˈdʲmʲitrʲɪjɪf, a=Ivan Ivanovich Dmitriyev.ru.vorb.oga; – ) was a Russia Russia (russian: link=no, Россия, , ), or ...
(
Russia Russia ( rus, link=no, Россия, Rossiya, ), or the Russian Federation, is a country spanning Eastern Europe Eastern Europe is the eastern region of . There is no consistent definition of the precise area it covers, partly because th ...

Russia
, 1760–1837) *
Ivan Krylov Ivan Andreyevich Krylov (russian: Ива́н Андре́евич Крыло́в; February 13, 1769 – November 21, 1844) is Russia's best-known Fable, fabulist and probably the most epigrammatic of all Russian authors. Formerly a dramatist and j ...

Ivan Krylov
(
Russia Russia ( rus, link=no, Россия, Rossiya, ), or the Russian Federation, is a country spanning Eastern Europe Eastern Europe is the eastern region of . There is no consistent definition of the precise area it covers, partly because th ...

Russia
n, 1769–1844) *
Hans Christian Andersen Hans Christian Andersen (, ; 2 April 1805 – 4 August 1875) was a Danish author. Although a prolific writer of plays, travelogues, novels, and poems, he is best remembered for his literary fairy tales A fairy tale, fairytale, wond ...

Hans Christian Andersen
(
Danish Danish may refer to: * Something of, from, or related to the country of Denmark * A national or citizen of Denmark, also called a "Dane", see Demographics of Denmark * Danish people or Danes, people with a Danish ancestral or ethnic identity * Danis ...

Danish
, 1805–75)


Modern

*
Leo Tolstoy Count Lev Nikolayevich TolstoyTolstoy pronounced his first name as , which corresponds to the romanization ''Lyov''. () (; russian: link=no, Лев Николаевич Толстой,In Tolstoy's day, his name was written as in pre-reform ...

Leo Tolstoy
(1828 – 1910) *
Rafael Pombo José Rafael de Pombo y Rebolledo (November 7, 1833 – May 5, 1912) was a Colombia Colombia ( , ; ), officially the Republic of Colombia (), is a country in South America with Insular region of Colombia, territories in North America. Colombi ...
(1833 – 1912),
Colombia Colombia ( , ; ), officially the Republic of Colombia, is a transcontinental country This is a list of countries located on more than one continent A continent is one of several large landmasses. Generally identified by conv ...

Colombia
n fabulist, poet, writer *
Ambrose Bierce Ambrose Gwinnett Bierce (June 24, 1842 – circa 1914) was an American short story writer, journalist, poet, and Civil War veteran. His book ''The Devil's Dictionary ''The Devil's Dictionary'' is a satirical dictionary written by American Civil ...

Ambrose Bierce
(1842 – ?1914) *
Joel Chandler Harris Joel Chandler Harris (December 9, 1848 – July 3, 1908) was an American journalist, fiction writer, and folklorist best known for his collection of Uncle Remus Uncle Remus is the fictional title character and narrator of a collection of ...

Joel Chandler Harris
(1848 – 1908) *
Sholem Aleichem ) , birth_date = , birth_place = Pereiaslav Pereiaslav ( uk, Перея́слав, translit=Pereiaslav) is an ancient city in the Kyiv Oblast Kyiv Oblast (also known as Kiev Oblast) ( uk, Ки́ївська о́бласть, transli ...

Sholem Aleichem
(1859 – 1916) *
George Ade George Ade (February 9, 1866 – May 16, 1944) was an American writer, syndicated newspaper columnist, and playwright who gained national notoriety at the turn of the 20th century with his "Stories of the Streets and of the Town", a column that u ...

George Ade
(1866 – 1944), ''Fables in Slang'', etc. *
Władysław Reymont Władysław Stanisław Reymont (, born Rejment; 7 May 1867 – 5 December 1925) was a Polish novelist and the 1924 laureate of the Nobel Prize in Literature. His best-known work is the award-winning four-volume novel ''Chłopi'' (''The Peasants'' ...

Władysław Reymont
(1868 – 1925) *
Felix Salten Felix Salten (; 6 September 1869 – 8 October 1945) was an Austro-Hungarian Austria-Hungary, often referred to as the Austro-Hungarian Empire or the Dual Monarchy, was a constitutional monarchy A constitutional monarchy is a form ...
(1869 – 1945) *
Don Marquis Donald Robert Perry Marquis ( ; July 29, 1878 – December 29, 1937) was an American humorist A humorist (American English, American) or humourist (British English, British spelling) is an intellectual who uses humor, or wit, in writing or ...

Don Marquis
(1878 – 1937), author of the fables of archy and mehitabel *
Franz Kafka Franz Kafka (3 July 1883 – 3 June 1924) was a German-speaking The German language (, ) is a West Germanic language mainly spoken in Central Europe Central Europe is the central region of Europe. Central Europe includes contigu ...
(1883 – 1924) *
Damon Runyon Alfred Damon Runyon (October 4, 1880 – December 10, 1946) was an American newspaperman A journalist is an individual trained to collect/gather information in form of text, audio or pictures, processes them to a news-worth form and disseminate ...
(1884 – 1946) *
James Thurber James Grover Thurber (December 8, 1894 – November 2, 1961) was an American cartoonist A cartoonist (also comic strip creator, comic book artist, graphic novel artist, or comic book illustrator) is a visual artist An artist is a person ...

James Thurber
(1894 – 1961), '' Fables for Our Time'' and ''Further Fables for Our Time'' *
George Orwell Eric Arthur Blair (25 June 1903 – 21 January 1950) known by his pen name A pen name, also called a ''nom de plume'' () or a literary double, is a pseudonym (or, in some cases, a variant form of a real name) adopted by an author and printed ...

George Orwell
(1903 – 50) *
Dr. Seuss Theodor Seuss Geisel (;"Seuss"
''
Isaac Bashevis Singer Isaac Bashevis Singer ( yi, יצחק באַשעװיס זינגער; November 11, 1903 – July 24, 1991) was a Polish Polish may refer to: * Anything from or related to Poland Poland ( pl, Polska ), officially the Republic of Poland ...

Isaac Bashevis Singer
(1904 – 91) * Nankichi Niimi (1913 – 1943), Japanese author and poet *Sergey Mikhalkov (1913-2009), Soviet author of children's books *Pierre Gamarra (1919 – 2009) *Richard Adams (1920-2016), author of ''Watership Down'' *José Saramago (1922 – 2010) *Italo Calvino (1923 – 85), ''Cosmicomics'' etc. *Arnold Lobel (1933 – 87), author of ''Fables'', winner 1981 Caldecott Medal *Ramsay Wood (born 1943), author of ''Kalila and Dimna: Fables of Friendship and Betrayal'' *Bill Willingham (born 1956), author of ''Fables (Vertigo), Fables'' graphic novels *David Sedaris (born 1956), author of ''Squirrel Seeks Chipmunk'' *Randall Kenan (born 1963) *Guillermo del Toro (born 1964), Mexico, Mexican filmmaker *Pendleton Ward (born 1982), American animator, creator of ''Adventure Time''


Notable fable collections

*''
Aesop's Fables Aesop's Fables, or the Aesopica, is a collection of fable Fable is a literary genre: a succinct fictional story, in prose or verse (poetry), verse, that features animals, legendary creatures, plants, inanimate objects, or forces of nature tha ...
'' by
Aesop Aesop ( or ; , ; c. 620–564 BCE) was a Greek#REDIRECT Greek Greek may refer to: Greece Anything of, from, or related to Greece Greece ( el, Ελλάδα, , ), officially the Hellenic Republic, is a country located in Southeast Euro ...

Aesop
*''
Jataka tales The Jataka tales are a voluminous body of literature native to India concerning the previous births of Gautama Buddha in both human and animal form. The future Buddha may appear as a king, an outcast, a god, an elephant—but, in whatever form, ...
'' *''
Panchatantra The ''Panchatantra'' (: Pañcatantra, : Pañcatantra, sa, पञ्चतन्त्र, "Five Treatises") is an ancient collection of interrelated s in verse and prose, arranged within a .Vishnu Sarma Vishnu Sharma (Sanskrit Sanskrit (, attributively , ''saṃskṛta-'', nominalization, nominally , ''saṃskṛtam'') is a classical language of South Asia belonging to the Indo-Aryan languages, Indo-Aryan branch of the Indo-European languag ...
*''Baital Pachisi'' (also known as ''Vikram and The Vampire'') *''
Hitopadesha ''Hitopadesha'' (Sanskrit: हितोपदेशः, IAST: ''Hitopadeśa'', "Beneficial Advice") is an Indian text in the Sanskrit language consisting of fables with both animal and human characters. It incorporates maxims, worldly wisdom and ...

Hitopadesha
'' *'' A Book of Wisdom and Lies'' by Sulkhan-Saba Orbeliani *''
Seven Wise Masters The ''Seven Wise Masters'' (also called the ''Seven Sages'' or ''Seven Wise Men'') is a cycle of stories of Sanskrit literature, Sanskrit, Persian literature, Persian or Hebrew literature, Hebrew origins. Story and plot The Sultan sends his son ...
'' by
Syntipas Syntipas ( el, Συντίπας) is the Greek form of a name also rendered Sandbad ( fa, سندباد) Sindibad ( ar, سندباد), Sendabar ( he, סנדבר), Çendubete (Spanish Spanish may refer to: * Items from or related to Spain: **Spaniards ...
*''
One Thousand and One Nights ''One Thousand and One Nights'' ( ar, أَلْفُ لَيْلَةٍ وَلَيْلَةٌ, ) is a collection of Middle East The Middle East ( ar, الشرق الأوسط, ISO 233 The international standard An international standard is a ...
'' (also known as ''Arabian Nights'', ca. 800–900) *''La Fontaine's Fables, Fables'' (1668–94) by
Jean de La Fontaine Jean de La Fontaine (, , ; 8 July 162113 April 1695) was a French fabulist and one of the most widely read French poets of the 17th century. He is known above all for his '' Fables'', which provided a model for subsequent fabulists across Euro ...

Jean de La Fontaine
*''
Fables and Parables ''Fables and Parables'' (''Bajki i przypowieści'', 1779), by Ignacy Krasicki (1735–1801), is a work in a long international tradition of fable, fable-writing that reaches back to antiquity. Krasicki's fables and parables have been described as ...
'' (1779) by
Ignacy Krasicki Ignacy Błażej Franciszek Krasicki (3 February 173514 March 1801), from 1766 Prince-Bishop of Warmia (in German, ''Ermland'') and from 1795 Archbishop of Gniezno (thus, Primate of Poland), was Poland's leading Polish Enlightenment, Enlightenment ...
*''Fairy Tales Told for Children. First Collection., Fairy Tales'' (1837) by
Hans Christian Andersen Hans Christian Andersen (, ; 2 April 1805 – 4 August 1875) was a Danish author. Although a prolific writer of plays, travelogues, novels, and poems, he is best remembered for his literary fairy tales A fairy tale, fairytale, wond ...

Hans Christian Andersen
*''Uncle Remus: His Songs and His Sayings'' (1881) by
Joel Chandler Harris Joel Chandler Harris (December 9, 1848 – July 3, 1908) was an American journalist, fiction writer, and folklorist best known for his collection of Uncle Remus Uncle Remus is the fictional title character and narrator of a collection of ...

Joel Chandler Harris
*''Fantastic Fables'' (1899) by
Ambrose Bierce Ambrose Gwinnett Bierce (June 24, 1842 – circa 1914) was an American short story writer, journalist, poet, and Civil War veteran. His book ''The Devil's Dictionary ''The Devil's Dictionary'' is a satirical dictionary written by American Civil ...

Ambrose Bierce
*'' Fables for Our Time'' (1940) by
James Thurber James Grover Thurber (December 8, 1894 – November 2, 1961) was an American cartoonist A cartoonist (also comic strip creator, comic book artist, graphic novel artist, or comic book illustrator) is a visual artist An artist is a person ...

James Thurber
*''99 Fables'' (1960) by William March *''Collected Fables'' (2000) by
Ambrose Bierce Ambrose Gwinnett Bierce (June 24, 1842 – circa 1914) was an American short story writer, journalist, poet, and Civil War veteran. His book ''The Devil's Dictionary ''The Devil's Dictionary'' is a satirical dictionary written by American Civil ...

Ambrose Bierce
, edited by S. T. Joshi *''Kalīla wa-Dimna


See also

*Allegory *Anthropomorphism *Apologia *Apologue *"The Blind Man and the Lame" *Fabel *''Fables (comics), Fables'' *Fairy tale *Fantastique *Ghost story *Parable *Proverb *Wisdom *"The Wolf and the Lamb"


Further reading

* * *


Notes


References

*
King James Bible
''New Testament (authorised)''. *DLR [David Lee Rubin]. "Fable in Verse", ''The New Princeton Encyclopedia of Poetry and Poetics''. *Read fables b
Aesop
an
La Fontaine
{{Authority control Fables Folklore Narrative techniques Persuasion techniques Short story types Traditional stories Allegory