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An expatriate (often shortened to expat) is a person residing in a country other than their native country. In common usage, the term often refers to professionals, skilled workers, or artists taking positions outside their home country, either independently or sent abroad by their employers. However, the term 'expatriate' is also used for retirees and others who have chosen to live outside their native country. Historically, it has also referred to
exile Image:Dante exile.jpg, ''Dante in Exile'' by To be in exile means to be forced away from one's home (i.e. village, town, city, State (polity), state, province, territory or even country) and unable to return. People (or corporations and even go ...

exile
s.


Etymology

The word ''expatriate'' comes from the
Latin Latin (, or , ) is a classical language belonging to the Italic branch of the Indo-European languages. Latin was originally spoken in the area around Rome, known as Latium. Through the power of the Roman Republic, it became the dominant la ...
terms ''
ex
ex
'' ("out of") and ''
patria Patria may refer to: Entertainment * Patria (novel), a 2016 novel by Spanish writer Fernando Aramburu * Patria (TV series), a 2020 limited television series, based on the novel * Patria (serial), ''Patria'' (serial), a 1917 American serial film ...

patria
'' ("native country, fatherland").


Semantics

Dictionary definitions for the current meaning of the word include: :Expatriate: :* 'A person who lives outside their native country' (Oxford), or :* 'living in a foreign land' (Webster's). These definitions contrast with those of other words with a similar meaning, such as: : Migrant: :* 'A person who moves from one place to another in order to find work or better living conditions' (Oxford), or :* 'one that migrates: such as a: a person who moves regularly in order to find work especially in harvesting crops' (Webster's); ::::::or :
Immigrant Immigration is the international movement of people to a destination country A country is a distinct territory, territorial body or political entity. It is often referred to as the land of an individual's birth, residence or citizenship ...

Immigrant
:* 'A person who comes to live permanently in a foreign country' (Oxford), or :* 'one that immigrates: such as a: a person who comes to a country to take up permanent residence (Webster's). The varying use of these terms for different groups of foreigners can be seen as implying nuances about wealth, intended length of stay, perceived motives for moving, nationality, and even race. This has caused controversy, with some commentators asserting that the traditional use of the word "expat" has had
racist Racism is the belief that groups of humans possess different behavioral traits corresponding to physical appearance and can be divided based on the Supremacism, superiority of one Race (human categorization), race over another.
connotations. An older usage of the word ''expatriate'' referred to an
exile Image:Dante exile.jpg, ''Dante in Exile'' by To be in exile means to be forced away from one's home (i.e. village, town, city, State (polity), state, province, territory or even country) and unable to return. People (or corporations and even go ...

exile
. Alternatively, when used as a verbal noun, ''expatriation'' can mean the act of someone renouncing allegiance to their native country, as in the preamble to the United States
Expatriation Act of 1868 The Expatriation Act of 1868 was an act of the 40th United States Congress that declared, as part of the United States nationality law United States nationality law details the conditions in which a person holds United States nationality ...
which states: 'the right of expatriation is a natural and inherent right of all people, indispensable to the enjoyment of the rights of life, liberty and the pursuit of happiness'. Some
neologism A neologism (; from Greek νέο- ''néo-'', "new" and λόγος ''lógos'', "speech, utterance") is a relatively recent or isolated term, word, or phrase that may be in the process of entering common use, but that has not yet been fully accepted ...
s have been coined, including: * ''dispatriate'', an expatriate who intentionally distances themselves from their nation of origin; *''flexpatriate'', an employee who often travels internationally for
business Business is the activity of making one's living or making money by producing or buying and selling products (such as goods and services). Simply put, it is "any activity or enterprise entered into for profit." Having a business name A trad ...

business
(see "Business expatriates" below); * '' inpatriate'', an employee sent from a foreign subsidiary to work in the country where a company has its headquarters; * ''rex-pat'', a repeat expatriate, often someone who has chosen to return to a foreign country after completing a work assignment; * ''
sexpat Sex tourism refers to the practice of traveling to different countries or continents with the intention of engaging in sexual activity or relationships in exchange for money. This practice predominantly operates in countries where sex work is leg ...
'', a
sex tourist Sex tourism refers to the practice of traveling to different countries or continents with the intention of engaging in sexual activity Human sexual activity, human sexual practice or human sexual behaviour is the manner in which humans exp ...
. The term "expatriate" is sometimes misspelled as "ex-patriot", which author
Anu Garg Anu Garg (born April 5, 1967) is an American author and speaker. He is also the founder of Wordsmith.org, an online community comprising word lovers from an estimated 195 countries. His books explore the joy of words. He has authored several books ...
has characterised as an example of an
eggcorn In linguistics, an eggcorn is an alteration of a phrase through the mishearing or reinterpretation of one or more of its elements, creating a new phrase having a different meaning from the original but which still makes sense and is plausible when u ...
.


History


Types of expat community

In the 19th century, travel became easier by way of
steamship A steamship, often referred to as a steamer, is a type of steam-powered vessel Steam-powered vessels include steamboats and steamships. Smaller steamboats were developed first. They were replaced by larger steamships which were often ocean-going. ...

steamship
or
train In rail transport Rail transport (also known as train transport) is a means of transferring passengers and goods on wheeled vehicles running on rails, which are located on tracks. In contrast to road transport, where the vehicles run ...

train
. People could more readily choose to live for several years in a foreign country, or be sent there by employers. The table below aims to show significant examples of expatriate communities which have developed since that time: During the 1930s,
Nazi Germany Nazi Germany, (lit. "National Socialist State"), ' (lit. "Nazi State") for short; also ' (lit. "National Socialist Germany") officially known as the German Reich from 1933 until 1943, and the Greater German Reich from 1943 to 1945, was ...

Nazi Germany
revoked the citizenship of many opponents, such as
Albert Einstein Albert Einstein ( ; ; 14 March 1879 – 18 April 1955) was a German-born , widely acknowledged to be one of the greatest physicists of all time. Einstein is known for developing the , but he also made important contributions to the develo ...

Albert Einstein
, ,
Willy Brandt Willy Brandt (; born Herbert Ernst Karl Frahm; 18 December 1913 – 8 October 1992) was a German politician and statesman who was leader of the Social Democratic Party of Germany (SPD) from 1964 to 1987 and served as the chancellor of West Germa ...

Willy Brandt
and
Thomas Mann Paul Thomas Mann ( , ; ; 6 June 1875 – 12 August 1955) was a German novelist, short story writer, social critic, philanthropist, essayist, and the 1929 Nobel Prize in Literature laureate. His highly symbolic and ironic epic novels and novella ...
, often expatriating entire families. Students who study in another country may or may not be referred to as expatriates.


Worldwide distribution of expats

In 2002, terrorist attacks against Westerners at times curtailed the party lifestyle of some expatriate communities, especially in the Middle East. The number of expatriates in the world is difficult to determine, since there is no governmental census. Finaccord estimated the number to be 66.2 million in 2017. In 2013, the United Nations estimated that 232 million people, or 3.2% of the world population, lived outside their home country. As of 2019, according to the
United Nations The United Nations (UN) is an intergovernmental organization that aims to maintain international peace and international security, security, develop friendly relations among nations, achieve international cooperation, and be a centre for har ...

United Nations
, the number of international migrants globally reached an estimated 272 million, or 3.5% of the world population.


Business expatriates

Some
multinational corporations A multinational company (MNC) is a corporate A corporation is an organization—usually a group of people or a company A company, abbreviated as co., is a Legal personality, legal entity representing an association of people, whether Nat ...
send employees to foreign countries to work in branch offices or subsidiaries. Expatriate employees allow a parent company to more closely control its foreign subsidiaries. They can also improve global coordination. A 2007 study found the key drivers for expatriates to pursue international
career The career is an individual's metaphorical "journey" through learning, and other aspects of . There are a number of ways to define career and the term is used in a variety of ways. Definitions The ' defines the word "career" as a 's "course ...
s were: breadth of responsibilities, nature of the international environment (
risk In simple terms, risk is the possibility of something bad happening. Risk involves uncertainty Uncertainty refers to Epistemology, epistemic situations involving imperfect or unknown information. It applies to predictions of future events, to ...

risk
and challenge), high levels of
autonomy The federal subject The federal subjects of Russia, also referred to as the subjects of the Russian Federation (russian: субъекты Российской Федерации, subyekty Rossiyskoy Federatsii) or simply as the subjects o ...

autonomy
of international posts, and
cultural Culture () is an umbrella term which encompasses the social behavior Social behavior is behavior among two or more organisms within the same species, and encompasses any behavior in which one member affects the other. This is due to an int ...

cultural
differences (rethinking old ways). However, expatriate professionals and independent expatriate hires are often more expensive than local employees. Expatriate salaries are usually augmented with allowances to compensate for a higher
cost of living Protests in Aysén due to the high cost of living in Patagonia Cost of living is the cost In production, research Research is "creativity, creative and systematic work undertaken to increase the stock of knowledge". It involves the ...
or hardships associated with a foreign posting. Other expenses may need to be paid, such as health care, housing, or fees at an
international school#REDIRECT International school An international school is a school A school is an educational institution designed to provide learning spaces and learning environments for the teaching of students (or "pupils") under the direction of teach ...
. There is also the cost of moving a family and their belongings. Another problem can be government restrictions in the foreign country. Spouses may have trouble adjusting due to
culture shock Culture shock is an experience a person may have when one moves to a cultural environment which is different from one's own; it is also the personal disorientation a person may feel when experiencing an unfamiliar way of life due to immigration o ...
, loss of their usual social network, interruptions to their own career, and helping children cope with a new school. These are chief reasons given for foreign assignments ending early. However, a spouse can also act as a source of support for an expatriate professional. Families with children help to bridge the language and culture aspect of the host and home country, while the spouse plays a critical role in balancing the families integration into the culture. Some corporations have begun to include spouses earlier when making decisions about a foreign posting, and offer
coaching Coaching is a form of development in which an experienced person, called a ''coach'', supports a learner or client in achieving a specific personal or professional goal by providing training and guidance. The learner is sometimes called a ''coac ...

coaching
or adjustment training before a family departs. Research suggests that tailoring pre-departure cross-cultural training and its specific relevance positively influence the fulfilment of expectations in expatriates' adjustment. According to the 2012 Global Relocation Trends Survey Report, 88 per cent of spouses resist a proposed move. The most common reasons for refusing an assignment are family concerns and the spouse's career. ''Expatriate failure'' is a term which has been coined for an employee returning prematurely to their home country, or resigning. About 7% of expatriates return early, but this figure does not include those who perform poorly while on assignment or resign entirely from a company. When asked the cost of a premature expatriate's return, a survey of 57 multinational companies reported an average cost of about US$225,000.


Reasons and motivations for expatriation

People move abroad for many different reasons. The realisation of what makes people move is the first step in the expatriation process. People could be ‘pushed’ away as a reaction to specific socio-economic or political conditions in the home country, or ‘pulled’ towards a destination country because of better work opportunities/conditions. The ‘pull’ can also include personal preferences, such as climate, a better quality of life, or the fact that family/friends are living there.  For some people, moving abroad is a conscious, thoroughly planned decision, while for others it could be a ‘spur of the moment’, spontaneous decision. This decision, of course, is influenced by the individual’s geographic,
socioeconomic Socioeconomics (also known as social economics) is the social science that studies how economic activity affects and is shaped by social processes. In general it analyzes how modern society, societies social progress, progress, economic stagnation ...
and political environment; as well as their personal circumstances. The motivation for moving (or staying) abroad also gets adjusted with the different life changes the person experiences – for example, if they get married, have children, etc. Also, different personalities (or
personality type Personality type refers to the psychological classification of different types of individuals. Personality types are sometimes distinguished from personality traits, with the latter embodying a smaller grouping of behavioral tendencies. Types are s ...
s) have diverse reactions to the challenges of adjusting to a host-country culture; and these reactions affect their motivations to continue (or not) living abroad. In this era of international competition, it is important for companies, as well as for countries, to understand what is that motivates people to move to another country to work. Understanding expatriates’ motivations for international mobility allows organisations to tailor work packages to match expatriates’ expectations in order to attract and/or retain skilled workers from abroad.  


Recent trends

Trends in recent years among business expatriates have included: * Reluctance by employees to accept foreign assignments, due to spouses also having a career. * Reluctance by multinational corporations to sponsor overseas assignments, due to increased sensitivity both to costs and to local cultures. It is common for an expat to cost at least three times more than a comparable local employee. * Short-term assignments becoming more common. These are assignments of several months to a year which rarely require the expatriate family to move. They can include specific projects, technology transfer, or problem-solving tasks. In 2008, nearly two-thirds of international assignments consisted of long-term assignments (greater than one year, typically three years). In 2014, that number fell to just over half. * ''Self-initiated expatriation'', where individuals themselves arrange a contract to work overseas, rather than being sent by a parent company to a subsidiary. An 'SIE' typically does not require as big a compensation package as does a traditional business expatriate. Also, spouses of SIEs are less reluctant to interrupt their own careers, at a time when dual-career issues are arguably shrinking the pool of willing expatriates. * Local companies in
emerging markets An emerging market (or an emerging country or an emerging economy) is a market that has some characteristics of a developed market In investing, a developed market is a country that is most developed in terms of its economy and capital markets. The ...
hiring Western managers directly. * Commuter assignments which involve employees living in one country but travelling to another for work. This usually occurs on a weekly or biweekly rotation, with weekends spent at home. * ''Flexpatriates'', international business travellers who take a plethora of short trips to locations around the globe for negotiations, meetings, training and conferences. These assignments are usually of several weeks duration each. Their irregular nature can cause stress within a family. * Diversity is becoming more of an issue. Consulting firm
Mercer Mercer may refer to: Business * Mercer (car), a defunct American automobile manufacturer (1909–1925) * Mercer (consulting firm), a large human resources consulting firm headquartered in New York City * Mercer (occupation), a merchant or trader, ...
reported in 2017 that women made up only 14 per cent of the expatriate workforce globally. The Munich-based research firm InterNations conducts a survey of expat opinions and trends.


Academic research

There has been an increase in scholarly research into the field in recent years. For instance,
Emerald Group Publishing Emerald Publishing Limited is a academic publishing, scholarly publisher of academic journals and books in the fields of management, business, education, library studies, health care, and engineering. It was founded in the United Kingdom in 1967 an ...
in 2013 launched ''The Journal of Global Mobility: The home of expatriate management research''. S.K Canhilal and R.G. Shemueli suggest that successful expatriation is driven by a combination of individual, organizational, and context-related factors. Of these factors, the most significant have been outlined as: cross-cultural competences, spousal support, motivational questions, time of assignment, emotional competences, previous international experience, language fluency, social relational skills, cultural differences, and organizational recruitment and selection process.


Literary and screen portrayals


Fiction

Expatriate milieus have been the setting of many novels and short stories, often written by authors who spent years living abroad. The following is a list of notable works and authors, by approximate date of publication. 19th century: American author
Henry James Henry James ( – ) was an American-British author. He is regarded as a key transitional figure between literary realism Literary realism is a literary genre, part of the broader realism (arts), realism in arts, that attempts to represent subj ...

Henry James
moved to Europe as a young man and many of his novels, such as ''
The Portrait of a Lady ''The Portrait of a Lady'' is a novel by Henry James, first published as a serial (literature), serial in ''The Atlantic Monthly'' and ''Macmillan's Magazine'' in 1880–81 and then as a book in 1881. It is one of James's most popular novels and ...
'' (1881), ''
The Ambassadors ''The Ambassadors'' is a 1903 novel by Henry James, originally published as a serial in the '' North American Review'' (NAR). The novel is a dark comedy which follows the trip of protagonist Lewis Lambert Strether to Europe to bring the son of ...
'' (1903), and ''
The Wings of the Dove ''The Wings of the Dove'' is a 1902 novel by Henry James. It tells the story of Milly Theale, an American heiress stricken with a serious disease, and her effect on the people around her. Some of these people befriend Milly with honourable m ...
'' (1902), dealt with relationships between the New World and the Old. From the 1890s to 1920s, Polish-born
Joseph Conrad Joseph Conrad (born Józef Teodor Konrad Korzeniowski, ; 3 December 1857 – 3 August 1924) was a Polish-British writer regarded as one of the greatest novelists to write in the English language. Though he did not speak English fluently u ...

Joseph Conrad
wrote a string of English-language novels drawing on his seagoing experiences in farflung colonies, including ''
Heart of Darkness ''Heart of Darkness'' (1899) is a novella by Poles in the United Kingdom#18th–19th centuries, Polish-English novelist Joseph Conrad about a narrated voyage up the Congo River into the Congo Free State in the ''Heart of Africa''. Charles Marlo ...

Heart of Darkness
'' (1899), ''
Lord Jim ''Lord Jim'' is a novel by Joseph Conrad originally published as a serial in ''Blackwood's Magazine'' from October 1899 to November 1900. An early and primary event in the story is the abandonment of a passenger ship in distress by its crew, in ...
'' (1900) and ''
Nostromo ''Nostromo: A Tale of the Seaboard'' is a 1904 novel by Joseph Conrad, set in the fictitious South American republic of "Costaguana". It was originally published Serial (literature), serially in monthly instalments of ''T.P.'s Weekly''. In 1998 ...
'' (1904). 1900s/1910s: German-American writer Herman George Scheffauer was active from 1900 to 1925. English writer W. Somerset Maugham, a former spy, set many short stories and novels overseas, such as ''
The Moon and Sixpence ''The Moon and Sixpence'' is a novel by W. Somerset Maugham, first published on April 15, 1919. It is told in episodic form by a first-person narrator in a series of glimpses into the mind and soul of the central character, Charles Strickland, ...
'' (1919) in which an English stockbroker flees to Tahiti to become an artist, and ''
The Razor's Edge ''The Razor's Edge'' is a 1944 novel by W. Somerset Maugham. It tells the story of Larry Darrell, an American pilot traumatized by his experiences in World War I World War I or the First World War, often abbreviated as WWI or WW1, was ...
'' (1944) in which a traumatised American pilot seeks meaning in France and India.
Ford Madox Ford Ford Madox Ford (né Joseph Leopold Ford Hermann Madox Hueffer ( ); 17 December 1873 – 26 June 1939) was an English novelist, poet, critic and editor whose journals ''The English Review'' and ''The Transatlantic Review (1924), The Transatlant ...

Ford Madox Ford
used spa towns in Europe as the setting for his novel ''
The Good Soldier ''The Good Soldier: A Tale of Passion'' is a 1915 novel by the British writer Ford Madox Ford Ford Madox Ford (né Joseph Leopold Ford Hermann Madox Hueffer ( ); 17 December 1873 – 26 June 1939) was an English novelist, poet, critic and ed ...
'' (1915) about an American couple, a British couple, and their infidelities. 1920s: ''
A Passage to India ''A Passage to India'' is a 1924 novel by English author E. M. Forster set against the backdrop of the British Raj The British Raj (; from ''rāj'', literally, "rule" in Sanskrit and Hindustani language, Hindustani) was the rule by t ...
'' (1924), one of the best-known books by E.M. Forster, is set against the backdrop of the independence movement in India.
Ernest Hemingway Ernest Miller Hemingway (July 21, 1899 – July 2, 1961) was an American novelist, short-story writer, journalist, and sportsman. His economical and understated style—which he termed the iceberg theory—had a strong influence on 20th- ...
portrayed American men in peril abroad, beginning with his
debut novel A debut novel is the first novel a novelist publishes. Debut novels are often the author's first opportunity to make an impact on the publishing industry, and thus the success or failure of a debut novel can affect the ability of the author to p ...
, ''
The Sun Also Rises ''The Sun Also Rises'' is a 1926 novel by American writer Ernest Hemingway, his first, that portrays American and British expatriates who travel from Paris to the Festival of San Fermín in Pamplona to watch the running of the bulls and the bul ...
'' (1926). 1930s:
Graham Greene Henry Graham Greene (2 October 1904 – 3 April 1991) was an English writer and journalist regarded by many as one of the leading English novelists of the 20th century. Combining literary acclaim with widespread popularity, Greene acquire ...
was a keen traveller and another former spy, and from the 1930s to 1980s many of his novels and short stories dealt with Englishmen struggling to cope in exotic foreign places. ''
Tender is the Night ''Tender Is the Night'' is the fourth and final novel completed by American writer F. Scott Fitzgerald. It was first published in '' Scribner's Magazine'' between January and April 1934 in four issues. The title is taken from the poem " Ode t ...
'' (1934), the last complete novel by
F. Scott Fitzgerald Francis Scott Key Fitzgerald (September 24, 1896 – December 21, 1940) was an American novelist, essayist, short story writer and screenwriter. He was best known for his novels depicting the flamboyance and excess of the —a term . During ...
, was about a glamorous American couple unravelling in the South of France.
George Orwell Eric Arthur Blair (25 June 1903 – 21 January 1950) known by his pen name A pen name, also called a ''nom de plume'' () or a literary double, is a pseudonym (or, in some cases, a variant form of a real name) adopted by an author and printed ...

George Orwell
drew heavily on his own experiences as a colonial policeman for his novel ''
Burmese Days ''Burmese Days'' is the first novel by English writer George Orwell, published in 1934. Set in British Burma during the waning days of British Empire, Empire, when Burma was ruled from Delhi as part of British India, it is "a portrait of the dark ...
'' (1934).
Evelyn Waugh Arthur Evelyn St. John Waugh (; 28 October 1903 – 10 April 1966) was an English writer of novels, biographies, and travel books; he was also a prolific journalist and book reviewer. His most famous works include the early satires ''Decline ...
satirised foreign correspondents in ''
Scoop Scoop, Scoops or The scoop may refer to: Objects * Scoop (tool), a shovel-like tool, particularly one deep and curved, used in digging * Scoop (machine part), a component of machinery to carry things * Scoop stretcher, a device used for casualty l ...
'' (1938). 1940s: From the mid-1940s to the 1990s, American-born
Paul Bowles Paul Frederic Bowles (; December 30, 1910November 18, 1999) was an American expatriate An expatriate (often shortened to expat) is a person Residency (domicile), residing in a country other than their native country. In common usage, the te ...
set many short stories and novels in his adopted home of Morocco, including ''
The Sheltering Sky ''The Sheltering Sky'' is a 1949 novel of alienation and existential despair by American writer and composer Paul Bowles. Plot The story centers on Port Moresby and his wife Kit, a married couple originally from New York who travel to the Nort ...
'' (1949)..
Malcolm Lowry Clarence Malcolm Lowry (; 28 July 1909 – 26 June 1957) was an English poet and novelist who is best known for his 1947 novel ''Under the Volcano'', which was voted No. 11 in the Modern Library 100 Best Novels list.
in ''
Under the Volcano ''Under the Volcano'' is a novel by English writer Malcolm Lowry (1909–1957) published in 1947. The novel tells the story of Geoffrey Firmin, an alcoholic British Consulate general, consul in the small Mexican town of Cuernavaca, Quauhnahuac, ...
'' (1947) told the tale of an alcoholic British consul in Mexico on the Day of the Dead. 1950s: From the 1950s to the 1990s, American author
Patricia Highsmith Patricia Highsmith (January 19, 1921 – February 4, 1995) was an American novelist and short story writer widely known for her psychological thrillers, including her series of five novels featuring the character Tom Ripley. She wrote 22 novel ...
set many of her psychological thrillers abroad, including '' The Talented Mr. Ripley'' (1955). James Baldwin's novel''
Giovanni's Room ''Giovanni's Room'' is a 1956 novel by James Baldwin James Arthur Baldwin (August 2, 1924 – December 1, 1987) was an American novelist A novelist is an author or writer of novels, though often novelists also write in other genres of both fic ...
'' (1956) was about an American man having an affair in Paris with an Italian bartender.
Anthony Burgess John Anthony Burgess Wilson, (; 25 February 1917 – 22 November 1993), who published under the name Anthony Burgess, was an English writer and composer. Although Burgess was primarily a comic writer, his Utopian and dystopian fiction, dy ...
worked as a teacher in Malaya and made it the setting of '' The Malayan Trilogy'' (1956-1959). ''
The Alexandria Quartet ''The Alexandria Quartet'' is a tetralogy of novels by British writer Lawrence Durrell, published between 1957 and 1960. A critical and commercial success, the first three books present three perspectives on a single set of events and characters i ...
'' (1957-1960) was the best-known work of
Lawrence Durrell Lawrence George Durrell (; 27 February 1912 – 7 November 1990) was an expatriate British novelist, poet, dramatist, and travel writer. He was the eldest brother of naturalist and writer Gerald Durrell. Born in British India, India to British c ...

Lawrence Durrell
, who was born in India to British parents and lived overseas for most of his life. 1960s: English writer Paul Scott is best known for ''
The Raj Quartet ''The Raj Quartet'' is a four-volume novel sequence A book series is a sequence of books having certain characteristics in common that are formally identified together as a group. Book series can be organized in different ways, such as written ...
'' (1965-1975) dealing with the final years of the British Empire in India.
John le Carré David John Moore Cornwell (19 October 193112 December 2020), better known by his pen name A pen name, also called a ''nom de plume'' () or a literary double, is a pseudonym (or, in some cases, a variant form of a real name) adopted by an autho ...
made use of overseas settings for ''
The Spy Who Came in from the Cold ''The Spy Who Came in from the Cold'' is a 1963 Cold War spy fiction, spy novel by the British author John le Carré. It depicts Alec Leamas, a United Kingdom, British agent, being sent to East Germany as a faux Defection, defector to sow disinf ...
'' (1963) and many of his subsequent novels about British spies. 1970s: In '' The Year of Living Dangerously'' (1978),
Christopher Koch :''For the film and television director, see Chris Koch.'' Christopher John Koch Order of Australia, AO (16 July 1932 – 23 September 2013) was an Australian novelist, known for his 1978 novel ''The Year of Living Dangerously (novel), The Year of ...
portrayed the lead-up to a 1965 coup in Indonesia through the eyes of an Australian journalist and a British diplomat. ''A Cry in the Jungle Bar'' (1979) by
Robert Drewe Robert Duncan Drewe (born 9 January 1943) is an Australian novelist, non-fiction and short story writer. Biography Robert Drewe was born on 9 January 1943 in Melbourne Melbourne ( ; wyi, Naarm) is the List of Australian capital cities, ...
portrayed an Australian out of his depth while working for the UN in South-East Asia. 1990s: In both '' Cocaine Nights'' (1996) and '' Super-Cannes'' (2000), J.G. Ballard's English protagonists uncover dark secrets in luxurious gated communities in the South of France. 2000s: ''
Platform Platform may refer to: Technology * Computing platform, a framework on which applications may be run * Platform game, a genre of video games * Car platform, a set of components shared by several vehicle models * Weapons platform, a system or s ...
'' (2001) was French author Michel Houellebecq's novel of European sex tourists in Thailand. ''
Prague Prague ( ; cs, Praha ; german: Prag, ; la, Praga) is the capital and largest city A city is a large human settlement In geography, statistics and archaeology, a settlement, locality or populated place is a community in which people ...
'' (2002) was a debut novel by Arthur Phillips which dealt with Americans and Canadians in Hungary towards the end of the Cold War. '' Shantaram'' (2003) was a bestselling novel by
Gregory David Roberts Gregory David Roberts (born Gregory John Peter Smith; 21 June 1952) is an Australian author best known for his novel ''Shantaram (novel), Shantaram''. He is a former opioid use disorder, heroin addict and convicted bank robber who escaped from ...
about an Australian criminal who flees to India. 2010s: American novelist
Chris Pavone Chris Pavone (born 1968) is an American novelist. He has written four novels, ''The Expats'', ''The Accident'', ''The Travelers,'' and ''The Paris Diversion.'' Background Pavone attended Cornell University. Before writing his first novel, Pavone ...
has set several thrillers overseas since his debut '' The Expats'' (2012). Janice Y. K. Lee in ''The Expatriates'' (2016) dealt with Americans in Hong Kong. Tom Rachman in his debut novel ''The Imperfectionists'' (2010) wrote of journalists working for an English-language newspaper in Rome.


Memoirs

Memoirs of expatriate life can be considered a form of
travel literature The genre of travel literature encompasses outdoor literature Outdoor literature is a literature genre about or involving the outdoors. Outdoor literature encompasses several different literature, subgenres including exploration literature, adve ...
with an extended stay in the host country. Some of the more notable examples are listed here in order of their publication date, and recount experiences of roughly the same decade unless noted otherwise. Medieval: In ''
The Travels of Marco Polo ''Book of the Marvels of the World'' (Italian language, Italian: ''Il Milione'', lit. "The Million", deriving from Polo's nickname "Emilione"), in English commonly called ''The Travels of Marco Polo'', is a 13th-century travelogue written down by ...
'' (c.1300),
Rustichello da Pisa Rustichello da Pisa, also known as Rusticiano (fl. late 13th century), was an Italian romance writer in Franco-Italian language. He is best known for co-writing Marco Polo Marco Polo (; ; ; September 15, 1254January 8, 1324) was a Republ ...
recounted the tales of Italian merchant
Marco Polo Marco Polo (, , ; September 15, 1254January 8, 1324) was a merchant, explorer, and writer who travelled through Asia along the between 1271 and 1295. His travels are recorded in ' (also known as ''Book of the Marvels of the World '' and '' ...

Marco Polo
about journeying the
Silk Road The Silk Road () was and is a network of trade routes connecting the Eastern world, East and Western culture, West, from the 2nd century BCE to the 18th century CE. It was central to the economic, cultural, political, and religious interactions ...

Silk Road
to China. 1930s-1960s: In the first half of ''
Down and Out in Paris and London ''Down and Out in Paris and London'' is the first full-length work by the English author George Orwell Eric Arthur Blair (25 June 1903 – 21 January 1950) known by his pen name A pen name, also called a ''nom de plume'' () or a literary ...
'' (1933),
George Orwell Eric Arthur Blair (25 June 1903 – 21 January 1950) known by his pen name A pen name, also called a ''nom de plume'' () or a literary double, is a pseudonym (or, in some cases, a variant form of a real name) adopted by an author and printed ...

George Orwell
described a life of low-paid squalor while working in the kitchens of Parisian restaurants. In ''The America That I Have Seen'' (1949), Egyptian Islamist
Sayyid Qutb Sayyid 'Ibrāhīm Ḥusayn Quṭb ( or ; , ; ar, سيد قطب إبراهيم حسين ''Sayyid Quṭb''; 9 October 1906 – 29 August 1966), known popularly as Sayyid Qutb ( ar, سيد قطب), was an Egyptian Egyptian describes someth ...

Sayyid Qutb
denounced the United States after studying there. In ''
My Family and Other Animals ''My Family and Other Animals'' (1956) is an autobiographical work by British naturalist Gerald Durrell. It tells in an exaggerated and sometimes fictionalised way of the years that he lived as a child with his siblings and widowed mother on ...
'' (1956) and its sequels, Gerald Durrell described growing up as the budding naturalist in an eccentric English family on the Greek island of Corfu during the late 1930s. In ''As I Walked Out One Midsummer Morning'' (1969), Laurie Lee told of busking and tramping in his youth across 1930s Spain. 1970s-1990s: In ''Letters from Hollywood'' (1986), Michael Moorcock corresponded with a friend about the life of an English writer in Los Angeles. In ''A Year in Provence'' (1989), Peter Mayle and his English family adapt to life in Southern France while renovating an old farmhouse. In ''Notes from a Small Island'' (1995), American writer Bill Bryson described a farewell tour of Britain. 2000s: In ''A Year in the Merde'' (2004) English bachelor Stephen Clarke (writer), Stephen Clarke recounted comic escapades while working in Paris. In ''Eat, Pray, Love'' (2006), divorced American Elizabeth Gilbert searched for meaning in Italy, India and Indonesia. In the early chapters of ''Miracles of Life'' (2008), J.G. Ballard told of his childhood and early adolescence in Shanghai during the 1930s and 1940s.


Film

Films about expatriates often deal with issues of culture shock. They include dramas, comedies, thrillers, action/adventure films and romances. Examples, grouped by host country, include: Argentina: Happy Together (1997 film), Happy Together


Television

Reality television has dealt with overseas real estate (''House Hunters, House Hunters International'' and ''A Place in the Sun (British TV series), A Place in the Sun''), wealthy Russians in London (''Meet the Russians''), British expat couples (''No Going Back (TV series), No Going Back)'' and mismanaged restaurants (''Ramsay's Kitchen Nightmares#Costa del Nightmares, Ramsay's Costa del Nightmares''). The final decades of the British Raj have been portrayed in dramas (''The Jewel in the Crown (TV series), The Jewel in the Crown'' and ''Indian Summers''). Diplomats on a foreign posting have been the basis for drama (''Embassy (TV series), Embassy''), documentary (''The Embassy (TV series), The Embassy'') and comedy (''Ambassadors (TV series), Ambassadors''). British writers in Hollywood have been the subject of comedy (''Episodes (TV series), Episodes''). Other settings include British doctors in contemporary India (''The Good Karma Hospital'') and a series of British detectives posted to an idyllic Caribbean island (''Death in Paradise (TV series), Death in Paradise'').


See also


References


External links

*{{curlie, Society/People/Expatriates/ Expatriates, Nationality Residency Diaspora studies Employment of foreign-born