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To be in exile means to be forced away from one's home (i.e.
village A village is a clustered human settlement In geography Geography (from Greek: , ''geographia'', literally "earth description") is a field of science devoted to the study of the lands, features, inhabitants, and phenomena ...

village
,
town A town is a human settlement In geography Geography (from Greek: , ''geographia'', literally "earth description") is a field of science devoted to the study of the lands, features, inhabitants, and phenomena of the Earth an ...

town
,
city A city is a large human settlement.Goodall, B. (1987) ''The Penguin Dictionary of Human Geography''. London: Penguin.Kuper, A. and Kuper, J., eds (1996) ''The Social Science Encyclopedia''. 2nd edition. London: Routledge. It can be defined as a ...

city
,
state State may refer to: Arts, entertainment, and media Literature * ''State Magazine'', a monthly magazine published by the U.S. Department of State * The State (newspaper), ''The State'' (newspaper), a daily newspaper in Columbia, South Carolina, Un ...
,
province A province is almost always an administrative division Administrative division, administrative unitArticle 3(1). , country subdivision, administrative region, subnational entity, first-level subdivision, as well as many similar terms, are g ...

province
,
territory A territory is an administrative division Administrative division, administrative unitArticle 3(1). , country subdivision, administrative region, subnational entity, first-level subdivision, as well as many similar terms, are generic names ...

territory
or even
country A country is a distinct territorial body or political entity A polity is an identifiable political entity—any group of people who have a collective identity, who are organized by some form of Institutionalisation, institutionalized social ...

country
) and unable to return. People (or corporations and even
governments A government is the system or group of people governing an organized community, generally a state. In the case of its broad associative definition, government normally consists of legislature A legislature is a deliberative assemb ...
) may be in exile for legal or other reasons. In
Roman law Roman law is the system of , including the legal developments spanning over a thousand years of , from the (c. 449 BC), to the ' (AD 529) ordered by Eastern Roman emperor . Roman law forms the basic framework for , the most widely used legal s ...
, ''exsilium'' denoted both voluntary exile and banishment as a
capital punishment Capital punishment, also known as the death penalty, is the State (polity), state-sanctioned killing of a person as punishment for a crime. The sentence (law), sentence ordering that someone is punished with the death penalty is called a de ...

capital punishment
alternative to death.
Deportation Deportation is the expulsion of a person or group of people from a place or country. The term ''expulsion'' is often used as a synonym for deportation, though expulsion is more often used in the context of international law, while deportation ...
was forced exile, and entailed the lifelong loss of citizenship and property.
Relegation In sports league A sports league is a group of sports teams or individual athletes that compete against each other and gain points in a specific sport Sport pertains to any form of Competition, competitive physical activity or game that a ...
was a milder form of deportation, which preserved the subject's citizenship and property. The term
diaspora A diaspora () is a scattered population whose origin lies in a separate geographic locale. Historically, the word diaspora was used to refer to the mass dispersion of a population from its indigenous territories, specifically the dispersion ...

diaspora
describes group exile, both voluntary and forced. "
Government in exile A government in exile (abbreviated as GiE) is a political group which claims to be a Sovereign state, country or Federated state, semi-sovereign state's legitimate government, but is unable to exercise legal power and instead resides in another ...
" describes a government of a country that has relocated and argues its legitimacy from outside that country. Voluntary exile is often depicted as a form of protest by the person who claims it, to avoid persecution and prosecution (such as tax or criminal allegations), an act of shame or repentance, or isolating oneself to be able to devote time to a particular pursuit. Article 9 of the
Universal Declaration of Human Rights The Universal Declaration of Human Rights (UDHR) is an international document adopted by the United Nations General Assembly The United Nations General Assembly (UNGA or GA; french: link=no, Assemblée générale, AG) is one of the six p ...
states that "No one shall be subjected to arbitrary arrest, detention or exile."


For individuals


Exiled heads of state

In some cases the
deposed Deposition by political means concerns the removal of a politician or monarch.
ORB: The Online Reference for Medi ...
head of state A head of state (or chief of state) is the public persona A persona (plural personae or personas), depending on the context, can refer to either the public image of one's personality, or the social role that one adopts, or a fictional ch ...
is allowed to go into exile following a coup or other change of government, allowing a more peaceful transition to take place or to escape justice.


Avoiding tax or legal matters

A wealthy citizen who moves to a jurisdiction with lower taxes is termed a ''tax exile''. Creative people such as authors and musicians who achieve sudden wealth sometimes choose this solution. Examples include the British-Canadian writer
Arthur Hailey Arthur Frederick Hailey (5 April 1920 – 24 November 2004) was a British-Canadian novelist whose plot-driven storylines were set against the backdrops of various industries. His books, which include such best sellers as '' Hotel'' (1965), ''Air ...
, who moved to the Bahamas to avoid taxes following the runaway success of his novels ''Hotel'' and ''Airport'', and the English rock band the
Rolling Stones The Rolling Stones are an English rock Rock most often refers to: * Rock (geology) A rock is any naturally occurring solid mass or aggregate of minerals or mineraloid matter. It is categorized by the minerals included, its Chemical ...
who, in the spring of 1971, owed more in taxes than they could pay and left Britain before the government could seize their assets. Members of the band all moved to France for a period of time where they recorded music for the album that came to be called ''Exile on Main Street'', the Main Street of the title referring to the French Riviera. In 2012,
Eduardo Saverin Eduardo Luiz Saverin (; ; born 19 March 1982) is a Brazilian billionaire entrepreneur and based in . Saverin is one of the co-founders of . In 2012, he owned 53 million Facebook shares (approximately 2% of all outstanding shares), valued at app ...
, one of the founders of Facebook, made headlines by renouncing his U.S. citizenship before his company's
IPO An initial public offering (IPO) or stock launch is a public offering A public offering is the offering of securities A security is a tradable financial asset. The term commonly refers to any form of financial instrument Finance is the ...
. The dual Brazilian/U.S. citizen's decision to move to Singapore and renounce his citizenship spurred a bill in the U.S. Senate, the
Ex-PATRIOT Act The Ex-PATRIOT Act was a proposed Law of the United States, United States federal law to raise taxes and impose entry bans on certain list of former United States citizens who relinquished their nationality, former citizens and departing Permanent ...
, which would have forced such wealthy ''tax exiles'' to pay a special tax in order to re-enter the United States. In some cases a person voluntarily lives in exile to avoid legal issues, such as
litigation A lawsuit is a proceeding by a party or parties against another in the civil Civil may refer to: *Civic virtue, or civility *Civil action, or lawsuit *Civil affairs *Civil and political rights *Civil disobedience *Civil engineering *Civil ...
or
criminal prosecution A prosecutor is a legal representative of the prosecution in states with either the common law In law, common law (also known as judicial precedent or judge-made law, or case law) is the body of law created by judges and similar quasi-judicial ...
. An example of this is
Asil Nadir Asil Nadir (born 1 May 1941) is a British Turkish Cypriot Turkish Cypriots or Cypriot Turks ( tr, Kıbrıs Türkleri or ''Kıbrıslı Türkler''; el, Τουρκοκύπριοι, Tourkokýprioi) are mostly ethnic Turks originating from Cyprus ...
, who fled to the
Turkish Republic of Northern Cyprus Northern Cyprus ( tr, Kuzey Kıbrıs), officially the Turkish Republic of Northern Cyprus (TRNC; tr, Kuzey Kıbrıs Türk Cumhuriyeti, ''KKTC''), is a ''de facto'' state that comprises the northeastern portion of the Geography of Cyprus, isla ...
for 17 years rather than face
prosecution A prosecutor is a legal representative of the prosecution in states with either the common law In law, common law (also known as judicial precedent or judge-made law, or case law) is the body of law created by judges and similar quasi-judicial tr ...
in connection with the failed £1.7 bn company
Polly Peck Polly Peck International (PPI) was a small British textile company which expanded rapidly in the 1980s and became a constituent of the FTSE 100 Index before collapsing in 1991 with debts of £1.3bn, eventually leading to the flight of its CEO, A ...
in the
United Kingdom The United Kingdom of Great Britain and Northern Ireland, commonly known as the United Kingdom (UK) or Britain,Usage is mixed. The Guardian' and Telegraph' use Britain as a synonym for the United Kingdom. Some prefer to use Britain as shorth ...

United Kingdom
.


Avoiding violence or persecution, or in the aftermath of war

Examples include: :*
Iraq Iraq ( ar, الْعِرَاق, translit=al-ʿIrāq; ku, عێراق, translit=Êraq), officially the Republic of Iraq ( ar, جُمْهُورِيَّة ٱلْعِرَاق '; ku, کۆماری عێراق, translit=Komarî Êraq), is a country i ...

Iraq
i academics asked to return home "from exile" to help rebuild Iraq in 2009 :*
Jew Jews ( he, יְהוּדִים ISO 259-2ISO The International Organization for Standardization (ISO; ) is an international standard are technical standards developed by international organizations (intergovernmental organizations), suc ...

Jew
s who fled persecution from
Nazi Germany Nazi Germany, (lit. "National Socialist State"), ' (lit. "Nazi State") for short; also ' (lit. "National Socialist Germany") officially known as the German Reich from 1933 until 1943, and the Greater German Reich from 1943 to 1945, was ...

Nazi Germany
:* People undertaking a religious or
civil liberties Civil liberties are guarantees and freedoms that governments commit not to abridge, either by constitution, legislation Legislation is the process or product of enrolled bill, enrolling, enactment of a bill, enacting, or promulgation, promulgat ...
role in society may be forced into exile due to threat of persecution. For example,
nun A nun is a woman who vows to dedicate her life to religious service, typically living under vows of poverty, chastity, and obedience The three evangelical counsels or counsels of perfection in Christianity Christianity is an Abrahamic rel ...

nun
s were exiled following the
Communist Communism (from Latin Latin (, or , ) is a classical language belonging to the Italic branch of the Indo-European languages. Latin was originally spoken in the area around Rome, known as Latium. Through the power of the Roman Repu ...

Communist
coup d'état of 1948 in
Czechoslovakia , , yi, טשעכאסלאוואקיי, , common_name = Czechoslovakia , life_span = 1918–19391945–1992 , p1 = Austria-Hungary , image_p1 = , s1 = Czech Re ...

Czechoslovakia
.


Euphemism for convict

Exile, government man and assigned servant were all
euphemisms A euphemism () is an innocuous word or expression used in place of one that may be found offensive or suggest something unpleasant. Some euphemisms are intended to amuse, while others use bland, inoffensive terms for concepts that the user wishes t ...
used in the 19th century for convicts under sentence who had been
transported ''Transported'' is an Australian convict melodrama film directed by W. J. Lincoln. It is considered a lost film. Plot In England, Jessie Grey is about to marry Leonard Lincoln but the evil Harold Hawk tries to force her to marry him and she woun ...
from Britain to
Australia Australia, officially the Commonwealth of Australia, is a Sovereign state, sovereign country comprising the mainland of the Australia (continent), Australian continent, the island of Tasmania, and numerous List of islands of Australia, sma ...

Australia
.


For groups, nations and governments


Comfortable exile

Comfortable exile is an alternative theory recently developed by
anthropologistAn anthropologist is a person engaged in the practice of anthropology. Anthropology is the study of aspects of humans within past and present Society, societies. Social anthropology, cultural anthropology and philosophical anthropology study the norm ...

anthropologist
Binesh Balan in 2018. According to him, comfortable exile is a "social exile of people who have been excluded from the mainstream society. Such people are considered 'aliens' or internal 'others' on the grounds of their religious, racial, ethnic, linguistic or caste-based identity and therefore they migrate to a comfortable space elsewhere after having risked their lives to restore representation, identity and civil rights in their own country and often capture a comfortable identity to being part of a dominant religion, society or culture."


Nation in exile

When a large group, or occasionally a whole people or
nation A nation is a community A community is a social unit (a group of living things) with commonality such as Norm (social), norms, religion, values, Convention (norm), customs, or Identity (social science), identity. Communities may share a sense ...

nation
is exiled, it can be said that this nation is in exile, or "diaspora". Nations that have been in exile for substantial periods include the
Jew Jews ( he, יְהוּדִים ISO 259-2ISO The International Organization for Standardization (ISO; ) is an international standard are technical standards developed by international organizations (intergovernmental organizations), suc ...

Jew
s, who were deported by
Babylon ''Bābili(m)'' * sux, 𒆍𒀭𒊏𒆠 * arc, 𐡁𐡁𐡋 ''Babil'' * grc-gre, Βαβυλών ''Babylṓn'' * he, בָּבֶל ''Bavel'' * peo, 𐎲𐎠𐎲𐎡𐎽𐎢 ''Bābiru'' * elx, 𒀸𒁀𒉿𒇷 ''Babili'' *Kassite The Kassites ...

Babylon
ian king
Nebuchadnezzar II Nebuchadnezzar II (Babylonian cuneiform: ''Nabû-kudurri-uṣur'', meaning "Nabu, watch over my heir"; Biblical Hebrew: ''Nəḇūḵaḏneʾṣṣar''), also spelled Nebuchadrezzar II, was the second king of the Neo-Babylonian Empire, ruling f ...
in 586 BC and again following the destruction of the second
Temple in Jerusalem Two ancient Israelite The Israelites (; he, בני ישראל ''Bnei Yisra'el'') were a confederation of Iron Age ancient Semitic-speaking peoples, Semitic-speaking tribes of the ancient Near East, who inhabited a part of Canaan during the ...
in AD 70. Many Jewish prayers include a yearning to return to Jerusalem and the Jewish homeland. After the
partitions of Poland The Partitions of Poland were three partitions of the Polish–Lithuanian CommonwealthPolish–Lithuanian can refer to: * Polish–Lithuanian union (1385–1569) * Polish–Lithuanian Commonwealth (1569–1795) * Polish-Lithuanian identity as ...

partitions of Poland
in the late 18th century, and following the uprisings (like
Kościuszko Uprising The Kościuszko Uprising, also known as the Polish Uprising of 1794 and the Second Polish War, was an uprising against the Russian Empire The Russian Empire, . was a historical empire that extended across Eurasia Eurasia () is the l ...
,
November Uprising The November Uprising (1830–31), also known as the Polish–Russian War 1830–31 or the Cadet Revolution, was an armed rebellion in the heartland of partitioned Poland Partition may refer to: Computing Hardware * Disk partitioning 272x ...

November Uprising
and
January Uprising The January Uprising ( pl, powstanie styczniowe; lt, 1863 metų sukilimas; russian: Польское восстание) was an insurrection principally in Russian Empire, Russia's Congress Poland, Kingdom of Poland aimed at the restoration of ...

January Uprising
) against the partitioning powers (
Russia Russia ( rus, link=no, Россия, Rossiya, ), or the Russian Federation, is a country spanning Eastern Europe Eastern Europe is the eastern region of . There is no consistent definition of the precise area it covers, partly because th ...
,
Prussia Prussia, , Old Prussian Distribution of the Baltic tribes, circa 1200 CE (boundaries are approximate). Old Prussian was a Western Baltic language belonging to the Balto-Slavic branch of the Indo-European languages The Indo-Europ ...
and
Austria Austria (, ; german: Österreich ), officially the Republic of Austria (german: Republik Österreich, links=no, ), is a landlocked Eastern Alps, East Alpine country in the southern part of Central Europe. It is composed of nine States o ...

Austria
), many Poles have chosen – or been forced – to go into exile, forming large diasporas (known as Polonia), especially in France and
the United States The United States of America (U.S.A. or USA), commonly known as the United States (U.S. or US) or America, is a country Continental United States, primarily located in North America. It consists of 50 U.S. state, states, a Washington, D.C., ...
. The entire population of
Crimean Tatars Crimean Tatars ( crh, , ) or Crimeans ( crh, , ), are a Turkic peoples, Turkic ethnic group and nation who are an indigenous people of Crimea. The formation and ethnogenesis of Crimean Tatars occurred during the 13th–17th centuries, from C ...

Crimean Tatars
(numbering 200,000 in all) that remained in their homeland of
Crimea Crimea; crh, Къырым, translit=Kirim/Qırım; grc, Κιμμερία/Ταυρική, translit=Kimmería/Taurikḗ is a peninsula A peninsula ( la, paeninsula from ' "almost" and ' "island") is a landform surrounded by water on mos ...
was exiled on 18 May 1944 to Central Asia as a form of
ethnic cleansing Ethnic cleansing is the systematic forced removal of ethnic, racial, and religious groups from a given area, with the intent of making a region ethnically homogeneous Homogeneity and heterogeneity are concepts often used in the Science, science ...
and
collective punishment Collective punishment is a form of retaliation whereby a suspected perpetrator's family members, friends, acquaintances, sect, class, political affiliation, neighbors or entire ethnic group is targeted. The punished group may often have no dire ...
on false accusations. Since the
Cuban Revolution The Cuban Revolution ( es, Revolución cubana) was an armed revolt conducted by Fidel Castro Fidel Alejandro Castro Ruz (; ; 13 August 1926 – 25 November 2016) was a Cuban revolutionary, lawyer, and politician who was the leader of ...
, over a million
Cubans Cubans ( es, Cubanos) are people born in Cuba Cuba ( , ), officially the Republic of Cuba ( es, República de Cuba, links=no ), is a country comprising the island of Cuba, as well as Isla de la Juventud and several minor archipelagos. Cuba ...

Cubans
have left
Cuba Cuba ( , ), officially the Republic of Cuba ( es, República de Cuba, links=no ), is a country comprising the island of Cuba, as well as Isla de la Juventud Isla de la Juventud (; en, Isle of Youth) is the second-largest Cuban islan ...

Cuba
. Most of these self-identified as exiles as their motivation for leaving the island is political in nature. At the time of the Cuban Revolution, Cuba only had a population of 6.5 million, and was not a country that had a history of significant emigration, it being the sixth largest recipient of immigrants in the world as of 1958. Most of the exiles' children also consider themselves to be
Cuban exile A Cuban exile is a person who emigrated from Cuba in the Cuban exodus. Exiles have various differing experiences as emigrants depending on when they migrated during the exodus. Exiles Economics Cuban exiles would come from various economic bac ...
s. Under Cuban law, children of Cubans born abroad are considered Cuban citizens.


Government in exile

During a foreign
occupation Occupation commonly refers to: *Occupation or job, one's role in society, often a regular activity performed for payment *Occupation (protest) As an act of protest, occupation is a strategy often used by social movements and other forms of collec ...
or after a
coup d'état A coup d'état (; French for "blow of state"), often shortened to coup in English, (also known as an overthrow) is a seizure and removal of a government and its powers. Typically, it is an illegal, unconstitutional seizure of power by a politic ...
, a ''government in exile'' of a such afflicted country may be established abroad. One of the most well-known instances of this is the
Polish government-in-exile The Polish government-in-exile, officially known as the Government of the Republic of Poland in exile ( pl, Rząd Rzeczypospolitej Polskiej na uchodźstwie), was the government in exile of Poland formed in the aftermath of the Invasion of Polan ...
, a government in exile that commanded
Polish armed forces The Armed Forces of the Republic of Poland ( pl, Siły Zbrojne Rzeczypospolitej Polskiej, abbreviated ''SZ RP''; popularly called ''Wojsko Polskie'' in Poland Poland, officially the Republic of Poland, is a country located in . It is ...
operating outside Poland after German occupation during World War II. Other examples include the
Free French Forces Free France (french: France Libre) was the government-in-exile led by French general Charles de Gaulle during the World War II, Second World War. Established in London in June 1940 after the Fall of France, it continued fighting the Axis as ...
government of
Charles de Gaulle Charles André Joseph Marie de Gaulle (; ; 22 November 18909 November 1970) was a French army officer and statesman who led Free France against Nazi Germany in World War II and chaired the Provisional Government of the French Republic from 19 ...
of the same time, and the
Central Tibetan Administration The Central Tibetan Administration (, , translated as ''Exile Tibetan People's Organisation'') is Tibet's elected parliamentary government based in Dharamshala, India India (Hindi: ), officially the Republic of India (Hindi: ), is a cou ...
, commonly known as the Tibetan government-in-exile, and headed by the
14th Dalai Lama The 14th Dalai Lama (spiritual name Jetsun Jamphel Ngawang Lobsang Yeshe Tenzin Gyatso, known as Tenzin Gyatso; born Lhamo Dhondup), was born in the Wood-Pig Year, 5th month, 5th day of the , or 6 July 1935. Known as Gyalwa Rinpoche to the Tibet ...

14th Dalai Lama
.


In popular culture


Drama

Exile is an early motif in
ancient Greek Ancient Greek includes the forms of the Greek language Greek ( el, label=Modern Greek Modern Greek (, , or , ''Kiní Neoellinikí Glóssa''), generally referred to by speakers simply as Greek (, ), refers collectively to the diale ...
tragedy Tragedy (from the grc-gre, τραγῳδία, ''tragōidia'', ''tragōidia'') is a genre of drama Drama is the specific Mode (literature), mode of fiction Mimesis, represented in performance: a Play (theatre), play, opera, mime, ball ...

tragedy
. In the ancient Greek world, this was seen as a fate worse than death. The motif reaches its peak on the play ''
Medea In Greek mythology, Medea (; grc, Μήδεια, ''Mēdeia'' perhaps implying "planner / schemer") is the daughter of Aeëtes, King Aeëtes of Colchis, a niece of Circe and the granddaughter of the sun god Helios. Medea figures in the myth of Ja ...
'', written by
Euripides Euripides (; grc, Εὐριπίδης ''Eurīpídēs'', ; ) was a tragedian Tragedy (from the grc-gre, τραγῳδία, ''tragōidia'', ''tragōidia'') is a form of drama based on human suffering and, mainly, the terrible or sorrowfu ...

Euripides
in the fifth century BC, and rooted in the very old oral traditions of Greek mythology. Euripides’ ''Medea'' has remained the most frequently performed Greek tragedy through the 20th century.


Art

After
Medea In Greek mythology, Medea (; grc, Μήδεια, ''Mēdeia'' perhaps implying "planner / schemer") is the daughter of Aeëtes, King Aeëtes of Colchis, a niece of Circe and the granddaughter of the sun god Helios. Medea figures in the myth of Ja ...

Medea
was abandoned by
Jason Jason ( ; ) was an ancient Greek Ancient Greek includes the forms of the Greek language Greek ( el, label=Modern Greek Modern Greek (, , or , ''Kiní Neoellinikí Glóssa''), generally referred to by speakers simply as Greek ...

Jason
and had become a murderess out of revenge, she fled to Athens and married king Aigeus there, and became the stepmother of the hero
Theseus Theseus (, ; grc-gre, Θησεύς ) was the myth Myth is a folklore genre consisting of narratives that play a fundamental role in a society, such as foundational tales or origin myths. The main characters in myths are usually non-humans ...

Theseus
. Due to a conflict with him, she must leave the
Polis ''Polis'' (, ; grc-gre, πόλις, ), plural ''poleis'' (, , ), literally means "city A city is a large human settlement.Goodall, B. (1987) ''The Penguin Dictionary of Human Geography''. London: Penguin.Kuper, A. and Kuper, J., eds (199 ...

Polis
and go away into exile.
John William Waterhouse John William Waterhouse (6 April 184910 February 1917) was an English painter known for working first in the Academic art, Academic style and for then embracing the Pre-Raphaelite Brotherhood's style and subject matter. His artworks were known fo ...

John William Waterhouse
(1849–1917), the English
Pre-Raphaelite The Pre-Raphaelite Brotherhood (later known as the Pre-Raphaelites) was a group of English painters, poets, and art critics, founded in 1848 by William Holman Hunt, John Everett Millais, Dante Gabriel Rossetti, William Michael Rossetti, James ...

Pre-Raphaelite
painter’s famous picture '' Jason and Medea'' shows a key moment before, when Medea tries to poison Theseus.


Literature

In ancient Rome, the Roman Senate had the power to declare the exile to individuals, families or even entire regions. One of the Roman victims was the poet
Ovid Pūblius Ovidius Nāsō (; 20 March 43 BC – 17/18 AD), known in English as Ovid ( ), was a Augustan literature (ancient Rome), Roman poet who lived during the reign of Augustus. He was a contemporary of the older Virgil and Horace, with whom ...

Ovid
, who lived during the reign of
Augustus Caesar Augustus (23 September 63 BC19 August AD 14) was the first Roman emperor The Roman emperor was the ruler of the Roman Empire during the imperial period (starting in 27 BC). The emperors used a variety of different titles through ...

Augustus
. He was forced to leave Rome and move away to the city of Tomis on the Black Sea, now Constanta. There he wrote his famous work ''Tristia'' (Sorrows) about his bitter feelings in exile. Another, at least in a temporary exile, was
Dante Dante Alighieri (), probably baptized Durante di Alighiero degli Alighieri and often referred to Mononymous person, simply as Dante (, also ; – 14 September 1321), was an Italian Italian poetry, poet, writer and philosopher. His ''Divine Co ...

Dante
. The German-language writer
Franz Kafka Franz Kafka (3 July 1883 – 3 June 1924) was a German-speaking The German language (, ) is a West Germanic language mainly spoken in Central Europe Central Europe is the central region of Europe. Central Europe includes contigu ...
described the exile of Karl Rossmann in the posthumously published novel ''Amerika''. During the period of National Socialism in the first few years after 1933, many Jews, as well as a significant number of German artists and intellectuals fled into exile; for instance, the authors
Klaus Mann Klaus Heinrich Thomas Mann (18 November 1906 – 21 May 1949) was a German-born American writer and dissident. He was the son of Thomas Mann and brother of Erika Mann, with whom he maintained a lifelong close relationship, and Golo Mann. He is w ...

Klaus Mann
and
Anna Seghers Anna Seghers (; 19 November 1900 – 1 June 1983) was a German writer famous for depicting the moral experience of the Second World War. After living in Mexico City (1941–47) and West Berlin (1947-50), Anna Seghers eventually settled in the GDR ...
. So Germany's own exile literature emerged and received worldwide credit. Klaus Mann finished his novel ' (''The Volcano. A Novel Among Emigrants'') in 1939 describing the German exile scene, "to bring the rich, scattered and murky experience of exile into epic form", as he wrote in his literary balance sheet. At the same place and in the same year, Anna Seghers published her famous novel ''Das siebte Kreuz'' (''
The Seventh Cross ''The Seventh Cross'' (german: Das siebte Kreuz) is a novel by Anna Seghers Anna Seghers (; 19 November 1900 – 1 June 1983) was a German writer famous for depicting the moral experience of the Second World War World War II or th ...
'', published in the United States in 1942). Important exile literatures in recent years include that of the Caribbean, many of whose artists emigrated to Europe or the United States for political or economic reasons. These writers include Nobel Prize winners V. S. Naipaul and
Derek Walcott Sir Derek Alton Walcott (23 January 1930 – 17 March 2017) was a Saint Lucia Saint Lucia (, ; french: Sainte-Lucie) is an island country in the West Indies in the eastern Caribbean Sea on the boundary with the Atlantic Ocean. The island ...

Derek Walcott
as well as the novelists
Edwidge Danticat Edwidge Danticat (; born January 19, 1969) is a Haitian-American novelist and short story writer. Her first novel, '' Breath, Eyes, Memory'', was published in 1994 and went on to become an Oprah's Book Club selection. Danticat has since written or ...
and
Sam Selvon Samuel Selvon (20 May 1923 – 16 April 1994)"Samuel Selvon"
Encyclopædia Britan ...
.


See also

* Banishment in the Torah *
Ban (law) A ban is a formal or informal prohibition Prohibition is the act or practice of forbidding something by law; more particularly the term refers to the banning of the manufacture, storage (whether in barrel A barrel or cask is a hollow cy ...
*
Defection In politics Politics (from , ) is the set of activities that are associated with making decisions in groups, or other forms of power relations between individuals, such as the distribution of resources or status. The branch of social s ...
* Émigré * Minus six - form of exile in the Soviet Union *
Ostracism Ostracism ( el, ὀστρακισμός, ''ostrakismos'') was an Athenian democratic procedure in which any citizen Citizenship is a relationship between an individual and a state to which the individual owes allegiance and in turn is entitl ...
– procedure under the Athenian democracy *
Outlawry An outlaw is a person declared as outside the protection of the law. In pre-modern societies, all legal protection was withdrawn from the criminal, so that anyone was legally empowered to persecute or kill them. Outlawry was thus one of the hars ...
*
Penal colony A penal colony or exile colony is a settlement used to exile prisoners and separate them from the general population by placing them in a remote location, often an island or distant colonial territory. Although the term can be used to refer t ...
* Petalism *
Porcian Laws The Valerian and Porcian laws were Roman laws Law is a system A system is a group of Interaction, interacting or interrelated elements that act according to a set of rules to form a unified whole. A system, surrounded and influenced by i ...
, the Roman laws granting citizens the right to voluntary exile in place of capital punishment *
Refugee A refugee, generally speaking, is a displaced person Forced displacement (also forced migration) is an involuntary or coerced movement of a person or people away from their home or home region In geography, regions are areas that are broa ...

Refugee
*
Right of asylum The right of asylum (sometimes called right of political asylum; ) is an ancient jurisprudence, juridical concept, under which people persecution, persecuted by their own king, rulers might be protected by another sovereignty, sovereign auth ...
(political asylum) * Shimanagashi * :Exiles by nationality


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Without a Country
Varied experiences of American and British exiles in the 20th century. * * {{Authority control Exile, Punishments Literary motifs