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An ''ex officio'' member is a member of a body (notably a board, committee, council) who is part of it by virtue of holding another office. The term ''
ex officio An ''ex officio'' member is a member of a body (notably a board, committee, council) who is part of it by virtue of holding another office. The term ''ex officio An ''ex officio'' member is a member of a body (notably a board, committee, council) ...
'' is
Latin Latin (, or , ) is a classical language belonging to the Italic branch of the Indo-European languages. Latin was originally spoken in the area around Rome, known as Latium. Through the power of the Roman Republic, it became the dominant la ...

Latin
, meaning literally 'from the office', and the sense intended is 'by right of office'; its use dates back to the
Roman Republic The Roman Republic ( la, Rēs pūblica Rōmāna ) was a state of the , run through of the . Beginning with the of the (traditionally dated to 509 BC) and ending in 27 BC with the establishment of the , Rome's control rapidly expanded durin ...
. According to ''
Robert's Rules of Order ''Robert's Rules of Order Newly Revised'', commonly referred to as ''Robert's Rules of Order'', RONR, or simply ''Robert's Rules'', is a political book written by Henry Martyn Robert. It is the most widely used manual of parliamentary procedure i ...
'', the term denotes only how one becomes a member of a body. Accordingly, the rights of an ''ex officio'' member are exactly the same as other members unless otherwise stated in regulations or bylaws.It relates to the notion that the position refers to the position the ex officio holds, rather than the individual that holds the position. In some groups, ''ex officio'' members may frequently abstain from voting. Opposite notions are
dual mandate A dual mandate is the practice in which elected officials serve in more than one elected or other public position simultaneously. This practice is sometimes known as double jobbing in Britain and ''cumul des mandats'' in France; not to be confused ...
, when the same person happens to hold two offices (or more), although these offices are not in themselves associated; and
personal union A personal union is the combination of two or more states State may refer to: Arts, entertainment, and media Literature * ''State Magazine'', a monthly magazine published by the U.S. Department of State * The State (newspaper), ''The Stat ...

personal union
, when two states share the same monarch.


For profit and nonprofit use

Any ''ex officio'' membership (for example, of committees, or of the board) is as defined by the nonprofit association's
bylawsA by-law (bye-law, by(e)law, by(e) law) is a rule or law Law is a system A system is a group of Interaction, interacting or interrelated elements that act according to a set of rules to form a unified whole. A system, surrounded and influe ...
or other documents of authority. For example, the bylaws quite often provide that the organization's
president President most commonly refers to: *President (corporate title) A president is a leader of an organization, company, community, club, trade union, university or other group. The relationship between a president and a Chief Executive Officer, chi ...
will be ''ex officio'' a member of all committees, except the nominating committee.


Governmental examples


Brazil

In the
Empire of Brazil The Empire of Brazil was a 19th-century state that broadly comprised the territories which form modern Brazil Brazil ( pt, Brasil; ), officially the Federative Republic of Brazil (Portuguese: ), is the largest country in both South America ...
, some princes became members by right of the
Imperial Senate
Imperial Senate
once they turn 25.


China

According to the
Constitution of the Communist Party of China The Constitution of the Chinese Communist Party (CCP) has 53 Articles and includes contents of General Program, Membership, Organization System, Central Organizations, Local Organizations, Primary Organizations, Party Cadres, Party Discipline, ...
, the General Secretary of the Central Committee must be a member of
Politburo Standing Committee The Standing Committee of the Central Political Bureau of the Chinese Communist Party, usually known as the Politburo Standing Committee (PSC), is a committee consisting of the top leadership of the Chinese Communist Party The Communist Pa ...
.


Hong Kong

, the Executive Council of
Hong Kong Hong Kong (; , ), officially the Hong Kong Special Administrative Region of the People's Republic of China (HKSAR), is a and of China on the eastern in . With over 7.5 million residents of various nationalities in a territory, Hong ...
is still composed of ''ex officio'' members (official members since 1997) and unofficial members (non-official members since 1997). By practice the ''ex officio'' members include the secretaries of departments, i.e. the Chief Secretary, the
Financial Secretary Financial secretary is an administrative Administration may refer to: Management of organizations * Management Management (or managing) is the administration of an organization, whether it is a business, a not-for-profit organization, or ...
and the
Secretary for Justice A justice ministry, ministry of justice, or department of justice is a ministry or other government agency A government or state agency, sometimes an appointed commission, is a permanent or semi-permanent organization in the machinery of governme ...
. Since 2002 all secretaries of bureaux are also appointed by the
Chief Executive A chief executive officer (CEO), chief administrator officer, or just chief executive (CE), is one of a number of corporate executives A corporation is an organization—usually a group of people or a company A company, abbreviated as co ...
to be official members of the Executive Council. But since 2005 the secretaries of bureaux attend only when items on the agenda concern their portfolios.


Andorra

The
President of the French Republic The president of France, officially the president of the French Republic (french: Président de la République française), is the head of state A head of state (or chief of state) is the public persona who officially embodies a state ( ...
and the Catholic Bishop of Urgell are by virtue of office (''ex officio'') appointed Co-Princes of
Andorra Andorra (, ; ), officially the Principality of Andorra ( ca, Principat d'Andorra), is a sovereign Sovereign is a title which can be applied to the highest leader in various categories. The word is borrowed from Old French Old French ( ...

Andorra
.


India

The
Vice-President of India The vice president of India (IAST The International Alphabet of Sanskrit Transliteration (IAST) is a transliteration scheme that allows the lossless romanisation Romanization or romanisation, in linguistics Linguistics is the sci ...
is ''ex officio'' Chairman of
Rajya Sabha The Rajya Sabha, constitutionally A constitution is an aggregate of fundamental principles A principle is a proposition or value that is a guide for behavior or evaluation. In law, it is a rule Rule or ruling may refer to: Huma ...

Rajya Sabha
, the Upper House of the Indian Parliament. The
Prime Minister of India The prime minister of India (), officially the prime minister of the Republic of India is the head of government, head of the executive branch of the government of India. The prime minister is the presiding member of the Union Council of Mi ...

Prime Minister of India
is ''ex officio'' Chairman of
NITI Aayog The NITI Aayog (Hindi for ''Policy Commission'') (abbreviation for National Institution for Transforming India) is a policy think tank of the Government of India, established with the aim to achieve sustainable development goals with cooperative ...
. Other ''ex officio'' members of NITI Aayog are the
Minister of Home Affairs An interior ministry (sometimes called ministry of internal affairs or ministry of home affairs) is a ministry (government), government ministry responsible for internal affairs, particularly public security, emergency management, civil registrati ...
,
Minister of Finance A finance minister is an executive or cabinet position in charge of one or more of government finances, economic policy and financial regulation. A finance minister's portfolio Portfolio may refer to: Objects * Portfolio (briefcase), a ty ...
, Minister of Railways and the Minister of Agriculture & Farmers Welfare.


Philippines

In
Congress Congresses are formal meetings of the representatives of different countries A country is a distinct territorial body or political entity A polity is an identifiable political entity—any group of people who have a collective identity, ...
, the presiding officers and their deputies, and the majority and minority leaders are ''ex officio'' members of all committees. The chairman on each chamber's committee on rules is the majority leader. The
Senate President President of the Senate is a title often given to the presiding officer of a senate The Curia Julia in the Roman Forum ">Roman_Forum.html" ;"title="Curia Julia in the Roman Forum">Curia Julia in the Roman Forum A senate is a deliberative a ...
is the ''ex officio'' chairman of
Commission on Appointments The Commission on Appointments ( fil, Komisyon sa Paghirang, abbreviated as CA) is a constitutional body which confirms or rejects certain political appointments made by the President of the Philippines. The current commission was created by th ...
, but can only vote on ties. In the
Judicial and Bar Council The Judicial and Bar Council (JBC; fil, Sangguniang Panghukuman at Pang-abogasya) of the Philippines The Philippines (; fil, Pilipinas or ''Filipinas'' ), officially the Republic of the Philippines ( fil, Republika ng Pilipinas), * bik, ...
, several positions are due to occupying another office. In provincial boards, the provincial presidents of the League of Barangays (villages),
Sangguniang Kabataan Sangguniang Kabataan (abbreviated as SK; ) is a council meant to represent the youth in each barangay in the Philippines The Philippines (; fil, Pilipinas or ''Filipinas'' ), officially the Republic of the Philippines ( fil, Republika n ...
(youth councils) and of the Philippine Councilors League sit as ''ex officio'' board members. In
city A city is a large human settlement.Goodall, B. (1987) ''The Penguin Dictionary of Human Geography''. London: Penguin.Kuper, A. and Kuper, J., eds (1996) ''The Social Science Encyclopedia''. 2nd edition. London: Routledge. It can be defined as a ...
and municipal councils, the city and municipal presidents of the League of Barangays and the youth councils sit as ''ex officio'' councilors. In barangays, the youth council chairman is an ex officio member of the
barangay council The Sangguniang Barangay, also known as the Barangay Council, and formerly as the Rural Council and then the Barrio Council, is the legislative body of a barangay, the lowest form of government in the Philippines. The term is coined from the Taga ...
. The ex officio members have the same rights and privileges as the regular members of each legislature. The deputies of local chief executives (vice governors and vice mayors) are ''ex officio'' presiding officers of their respective legislatures, but can only vote when there is a tie.


United Kingdom

In the
House of Lords The House of Lords, formally The Right Honourable the Lords Spiritual and Temporal of the United Kingdom of Great Britain and Northern Ireland in Parliament assembled, is the of the . Membership is by , or . Like the , it meets in the . ar ...

House of Lords
, the bishops of the five Great Sees of
Canterbury Canterbury (, ) is a City status in the United Kingdom, cathedral city and UNESCO World Heritage Site, situated in the heart of the City of Canterbury, a local government district of Kent, England. It lies on the River Stour, Kent, River Stour ...

Canterbury
,
York York is a cathedral city City status in the United Kingdom is granted by the monarch of the United Kingdom The monarchy of the United Kingdom, commonly referred to as the British monarchy, is the constitutional monarchy of the United ...

York
,
London London is the capital Capital most commonly refers to: * Capital letter Letter case (or just case) is the distinction between the letters that are in larger uppercase or capitals (or more formally ''majuscule'') and smaller lowerc ...

London
,
Durham
Durham
and
Winchester Winchester is a cathedral city A city is a large human settlement.Goodall, B. (1987) ''The Penguin Dictionary of Human Geography''. London: Penguin.Kuper, A. and Kuper, J., eds (1996) ''The Social Science Encyclopedia''. 2nd edition. London ...

Winchester
, and the 21 next most senior
bishop A bishop is an ordained, consecrated, or appointed member of the Clergy#Christianity, Christian clergy who is generally entrusted with a position of authority and oversight. Within the Catholic, Eastern Orthodox, Oriental Orthodox, Moravian Chu ...

bishop
s of the
Church of England The Church of England (C of E) is a Christian church Christian Church is a Protestant Protestantism is a form of Christianity that originated with the 16th-century Reformation, a movement against what its followers perceived to be Critic ...
, are ''ex officio'' members, and are entitled to vote just as any other member.


Scotland

The
Lord President of the Court of Session The Lord President of the Court of Session and Lord Justice General is the most senior judge A judge is a person who wiktionary:preside, presides over court proceedings, either alone or as a part of a Judicial panel, panel of judges. A judge ...
is by virtue of office appointed as Lord Justice General of Scotland. As such, he is both head of the
judiciary of Scotland The judiciary of Scotland are the who sit in the and make decisions in both and cases. Judges make sure that and are within the parameters set by , and they must hand down appropriate and . is guaranteed in law, with a legal duty on , th ...
, president of the
Court of Session The Court of Session is the supreme civil Civil may refer to: *Civic virtue, or civility *Civil action, or lawsuit *Civil affairs *Civil and political rights *Civil disobedience *Civil engineering *Civil (journalism), a platform for indepen ...
(the most senior
civil court A lawsuit is a proceeding by a party or parties against another in the civil court of law A court is any person or institution, often as a government A government is the system or group of people governing an organized commun ...
in
Scotland Scotland ( sco, Scotland, gd, Alba Alba (Scottish Gaelic Scottish Gaelic ( gd, Gàidhlig or Scots Gaelic, sometimes referred to simply as Gaelic) is a Goidelic language (in the Celtic languages, Celtic branch of the Indo-European ...

Scotland
), and president of the
High Court of Justiciary The High Court of Justiciary is the supreme criminal court in Scotland Scotland ( sco, Scotland, gd, Alba ) is a Countries of the United Kingdom, country that is part of the United Kingdom. Covering the northern third of the island of ...

High Court of Justiciary
(the most senior criminal court in Scotland).


United States


Federal government

The
United States The United States of America (U.S.A. or USA), commonly known as the United States (U.S. or US) or America, is a country Continental United States, primarily located in North America. It consists of 50 U.S. state, states, a Washington, D.C., ...

United States
Vice President A vice president, also director in British English, is an officer An officer is a person who has a position of authority In the fields of sociology Sociology is the study of society, human social behaviour, patterns of social relationsh ...
, who also serves as President of the
Senate The Curia Julia in the Roman Forum ">Roman_Forum.html" ;"title="Curia Julia in the Roman Forum">Curia Julia in the Roman Forum A senate is a deliberative assembly, often the upper house or Debating chamber, chamber of a bicameral legislatu ...
, may vote in the Senate on matters decided by a
majority vote A majority, also called a simple majority to distinguish it from similar terms (see the "Related terms" section below), is the greater part, or more than half, of the total.See dictionary definitions of "majority" aMerriam-Webster
(as opposed to a three-fifths vote or
two-thirds vote A supermajority, supra-majority, qualified majority, or special majority is a requirement for a proposal to gain a specified level of support which is greater than the threshold of more than one-half used for a majority A majority, also calle ...
), if the votes for passage and rejection are equally divided. Also the leader of the parties in both houses are ''ex officio'' members of the
House A house is a single-unit residential building A building, or edifice, is a structure with a roof and walls standing more or less permanently in one place, such as a house A house is a single-unit residential building, which may range ...

House
and
Senate intelligence committees
Senate intelligence committees
. Many committee chairs in the House of Representatives are ''ex officio'' members of subcommittees.


Colorado

In most
Colorado Colorado (, other variants) is a state in the Mountain West The Mountain West Conference (MW) is one of the collegiate athletic conferences affiliated with the National Collegiate Athletic Association The National Collegiate Athletic ...

Colorado
counties, the county
sheriff A sheriff is a government official, with varying duties, existing in some countries with historical ties to England where the office originated. There is an analogous although independently developed office in Iceland that is commonly translated ...

sheriff
is elected by the citizens of the county. However, in the
City and County of Denver Denver (), officially the City and County of Denver, is the List of capitals in the United States#State capital, capital and List of U.S. states' largest cities by population, most populous city of the United States, U.S. Colorado, State of ...
, the mayor of Denver appoints a "Manager of Safety" who oversees the Department of Safety (including the Fire, Police, and Sheriff Departments) and is the ''ex officio'' sheriff of the jurisdiction. Similarly, in the
City and County of Broomfield, Colorado The City and County of Broomfield is a List of cities and towns in Colorado#Consolidated city and county, consolidated city and county located in the United States, U.S. Colorado, State of Colorado. Broomfield has a consolidated government which o ...
, near Denver, the police chief (an appointed position) also acts ''ex officio'' as the county sheriff.


New York City

The Speaker of the
New York City Council The New York City Council is the lawmaking Lawmaking is the process of crafting legislation. In its purest sense, it is the basis of governance. This form of law making is also applied in India. It is a process which works in India on the bas ...

New York City Council
, and its Majority and Minority Leaders, are all ''ex officio'' members of each of its committees. Furthermore, each member of the Council is a non-voting ''ex officio'' member of each community board whose boundaries include any of the council member's constituents.


References

{{reflist Bureaucratic organization Organizational structure