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Escheat is a
common law In law, common law (also known as judicial precedent or judge-made law, or case law Case law is the collection of past legal decisions written by courts and similar tribunal A tribunal, generally, is any person or institution with authority ...
doctrine that transfers the
real property In England, English common law, real property, real estate, realty, or immovable property is land which is the property of some person and all structures (also called Land improvement, improvements or Fixture (property law), fixtures) integr ...
of a person who has died without heirs to the crown or state. It serves to ensure that property is not left in "limbo" without recognized ownership. It originally applied to a number of situations where a legal interest in land was destroyed by
operation of law The phrase "by operation of law" is a legal term that indicates that a right or liability has been created for a party, irrespective of the intent of that party, because it is dictated by existing legal principles. For example, if a person dies with ...
, so that the ownership of the land reverted to the immediately superior
feudal Feudalism, also known as the feudal system, was the combination of the legal, economic, military, and cultural customs that flourished in Medieval Europe between the 9th and 15th centuries. Broadly defined, it was a way of structuring society ...
lord.


Etymology

The term "escheat" derives ultimately from the Latin ''ex-cadere'', to "fall-out", via mediaeval French ''escheoir''. The sense is of a feudal
estate in land An estate in land is an interest in real property that is or may become possessory. It is a type of personal property and encompasses land ownership, rental and other arrangements that give people the right to use land. This is distinct from sovere ...
falling-out of the possession by a tenant into the possession of the lord.


Origins in feudalism

In feudal England, escheat referred to the situation where the tenant of a
fee A fee is the price A price is the (usually not negative) quantity Quantity is a property that can exist as a multitude or magnitude, which illustrate discontinuity and continuity. Quantities can be compared in terms of "more", "l ...
(or "fief") died without an heir or committed a
felony A felony is traditionally considered a crime of high seriousness Seriousness (noun; adjective: ''serious'') is an attitude of gravitas, gravity, :wikt:solemnity, solemnity, persistence, and :wikt:earnest, earnestness toward something considered t ...
. In the case of such demise of a
tenant-in-chief In Middle Ages, medieval and early modern Europe, the term ''tenant-in-chief'' (or ''vassal-in-chief'') denoted a person who held his lands under various forms of feudal land tenure directly from the king or territorial prince to whom he did Hom ...
, the fee reverted to the King's
demesne A demesne ( ) or domain was all the land retained and managed by a lord of the manor Lord of the manor is a title that, in Anglo-Saxon England Anglo-Saxon England or Early Medieval England, existing from the 5th to the 11th centuries f ...
permanently, when it became once again a mere tenantless plot of land, but could be re-created as a fee by enfeoffment to another of the king's followers. Where the deceased had been
subinfeudated In English law, subinfeudation is the practice by which Tenement (law), tenants, holding land under the king or other superior lord, carved out new and distinct tenures in their turn by sub-letting or Alienation (property law), alienating a part of ...
by a tenant-in-chief, the fee reverted temporarily to the crown for one year and one day by right of '' primer seisin'' after which it escheated to the over-lord who had granted it to the deceased by enfeoffment. From the time of
Henry IIIHenry III may refer to: * Henry III, Duke of Bavaria (940–989) * Henry III, Holy Roman Emperor (1017–1056) * Henry III, Count of Louvain (died 1095) * Henry III, Count of Luxembourg (died 1096) * Henry III, Duke of Carinthia (1050–1122) * Henr ...

Henry III
, the monarchy took particular interest in escheat as a source of revenue.


Background

At the
Norman conquest of England The Norman Conquest (or the Conquest) was the 11th-century invasion and occupation of England England is a that is part of the . It shares land borders with to its west and to its north. The lies northwest of England and the to ...
, all the land of England was claimed as the personal possession of
William the Conqueror William I (c. 1028Bates ''William the Conqueror'' p. 33 – 9 September 1087), usually known as William the Conqueror and sometimes William the Bastard, was the first House of Normandy, Norman List of English monarchs, monarch of Engl ...

William the Conqueror
under
allodial title Allodial title constitutes ownership of real property In England, English common law, real property, real estate, realty, or immovable property is land which is the property of some person and all structures (also called Land improvemen ...
. The monarch thus became the sole "owner" of all the land in the kingdom, a position which persists to the present day. He then granted it out to his favoured followers, who thereby became
tenants-in-chief In medieval In the history of Europe The history of Europe concerns itself with the discovery and collection, the study, organization and presentation and the interpretation of past events and affairs of the people of Europe since the ...
, under various contracts of
feudal land tenure Under the English feudal system several different forms of land tenure existed, each effectively a contract with differing rights and duties attached thereto. Such tenures could be either free-hold, signifying that they were hereditable or perpet ...
. Such tenures, even the highest one of "
feudal barony A feudal baron is a vassal holding a heritable fief called a ''barony'', comprising a specific portion of land, granted by an lord, overlord in return for allegiance and service. Following the end of European feudalism, feudal baronies have largely ...
", never conferred ownership of land but merely ownership of rights over it, that is to say ownership of an
estate in land An estate in land is an interest in real property that is or may become possessory. It is a type of personal property and encompasses land ownership, rental and other arrangements that give people the right to use land. This is distinct from sovere ...
. Such persons are therefore correctly termed "land-holders" or "tenants" (from Latin ''teneo'' to hold), not owners. If held freely, that is to say by
freehold Freehold may refer to: In real estate * Freehold (law), the tenure of property in fee simple * Customary freehold, a form of feudal tenure of land in England *Parson's freehold, where a Church of England rector or vicar of holds title to benefice ...
, such holdings were heritable by the holder's legal heir. On the payment of a premium termed
feudal reliefFeudal relief was a one-off "fine" or form of tax A tax is a compulsory financial charge or some other type of levy imposed on a taxpayer (an individual or legal entity In law, a legal person is any person A person (plural people or person ...
to the
treasury A treasury is either *A government department related to finance and taxation, a Finance minister, finance ministry. *A place or location where treasure, such as currency or precious items are kept. These can be State ownership, state or roy ...

treasury
, such heir was entitled to demand re-enfeoffment by the king with the
fee A fee is the price A price is the (usually not negative) quantity Quantity is a property that can exist as a multitude or magnitude, which illustrate discontinuity and continuity. Quantities can be compared in terms of "more", "l ...
concerned. Where no legal heir existed, the logic of the situation was that the fief had ceased to exist as a legal entity, since being tenantless no one was living who had been enfeoffed with the land, and the land was thus technically owned by either the crown or the immediate overlord (where the fee had been
subinfeudated In English law, subinfeudation is the practice by which Tenement (law), tenants, holding land under the king or other superior lord, carved out new and distinct tenures in their turn by sub-letting or Alienation (property law), alienating a part of ...
by the
tenant-in-chief In Middle Ages, medieval and early modern Europe, the term ''tenant-in-chief'' (or ''vassal-in-chief'') denoted a person who held his lands under various forms of feudal land tenure directly from the king or territorial prince to whom he did Hom ...
to a
mesne lord A mesne lord () was a lord Lord is an appellation for a person or deity who has authority, control, or power (social and political), power over others, acting as a master, a chief, or a ruler. The appellation can also denote certain persons ...
, and perhaps the process of subinfeudation had been continued by a lower series of mesne-lords) as
ultimus haeres ''Ultimus haeres'' (Latin for ''ultimate heir'') is a concept in Scots law where if a person in Scotland who dies without leaving a will (i.e. intestate) and has no blood relative who can be easily traced, the estate is claimed by the Queen's and L ...
. Logically therefore it was in the occupation of the crown alone, that is to say in the royal
demesne A demesne ( ) or domain was all the land retained and managed by a lord of the manor Lord of the manor is a title that, in Anglo-Saxon England Anglo-Saxon England or Early Medieval England, existing from the 5th to the 11th centuries f ...
. This was the basic operation of an escheat ( excadere), a failure of heirs. Escheat could also take place if a tenant was outlawed or convicted of a felony, when the King could exercise the ancient right of wasting the criminal's land for a year and a day, after which the land would revert to the overlord. (However, one guilty of treason (rather than mere felony) forfeited all lands to the King. John and his heirs frequently insisted on seizing as ''terrae Normannorum'' (i.e. "lands of the Normans") the English lands of those lords with holdings in Normandy who preferred to be Normans rather than Englishmen, when the victories of
Philip II of France Philip II (21 August 1165 – 14 July 1223), byname Philip Augustus (french: Philippe Auguste), was King of France The monarchs of the Kingdom of France The Kingdom of France ( fro, Reaume de France, frm, Royaulme de France, french: l ...

Philip II of France
forced them to make a proclamation of allegiance to France.) Since disavowal of a feudal bond was a felony, lords could escheat land from those who refused to perform their feudal services. On the other hand, there were also tenants who were merely sluggish in performing their duties, while not being outright rebellious against the lord. Remedies in the courts against this sort of thing, even in
Bracton Henry of Bracton, also Henry de Bracton, also Henricus Bracton, or Henry Bratton also Henry Bretton (c. 1210 – c. 1268) was an English cleric Clergy are formal leaders within established religion Religion is a - of designated and ...
's day, were available, but were considered laborious and were frequently ineffectual in compelling the desired performance. The commonest mechanism was
distraint Distraint or distress is "the seizure of someone’s property in order to obtain payment of rent ''Rent'' (stylized as ''RENT'') is a rock musical with music, lyrics, and book by Jonathan Larson Jonathan David Larson (February 4, 196 ...
, also known as distress (districtio), whereby the lord would seize chattels or goods belonging to the tenant, to hold until performance was achieved. This practice had been addressed in the 1267
Statute of Marlborough The Statute of Marlborough (52 Hen 3) is a set of laws passed by the Parliament of England The Parliament of England was the legislature of the Kingdom of England from the mid 13th to 17th century. The first English Parliament was convened ...
. Even so, it remained the most common extrajudicial method applied by overlords at the time of Quia Emptores. Thus, under English common law, there were two main ways an escheat could happen: # A person's lands escheated to the immediate overlord if he was convicted of a
felony A felony is traditionally considered a crime of high seriousness Seriousness (noun; adjective: ''serious'') is an attitude of gravitas, gravity, :wikt:solemnity, solemnity, persistence, and :wikt:earnest, earnestness toward something considered t ...
(but not
treason Treason is the crime In ordinary language, a crime is an unlawful act punishable by a state or other authority. The term ''crime'' does not, in modern criminal law, have any simple and universally accepted definition,Farmer, Lindsay: "Cr ...
, in that event the land was
forfeit Forfeit or forfeiture may refer to: Arts, entertainment, and media * ''Forfeit'', a 2007 thriller film starring Billy Burke (actor), Billy Burke * "Forfeit", a song by Chevelle from ''Wonder What's Next'' * ''Forfeit/Fortune'', a 2008 album by ...
ed to the Crown). If the person was
executed Capital punishment, also known as the death penalty, is the State (polity), state-sanctioned killing of a person as punishment for a crime. The sentence (law), sentence ordering that someone is punished with the death penalty is called a dea ...

executed
for felony, his heirs were
attainted In English criminal law Criminal law is the body of law Law is a system A system is a group of Interaction, interacting or interrelated elements that act according to a set of rules to form a unified whole. A system, surrounded and i ...
, i.e. were ineligible to inherit. In most common-law jurisdictions, this type of escheat has been abolished outright, for example in the
United States The United States of America (U.S.A. or USA), commonly known as the United States (U.S. or US) or America, is a country Continental United States, primarily located in North America. It consists of 50 U.S. state, states, a Washington, D.C., ...

United States
under Article 3 § 3 of the
United States Constitution The Constitution of the United States is the supreme law A constitution is an aggregate of fundamental principles or established precedents that constitute the legal basis of a polity, organisation An organization, or orga ...

United States Constitution
, which states that attainders for
treason Treason is the crime In ordinary language, a crime is an unlawful act punishable by a state or other authority. The term ''crime'' does not, in modern criminal law, have any simple and universally accepted definition,Farmer, Lindsay: "Cr ...
do not give rise to posthumous forfeiture, or "corruption of blood". # If a person had no
heir Inheritance is the practice of passing on private property Private property is a legal designation for the ownership of property by non-governmental legal entities. Private property is distinguishable from public property Public property i ...
to receive his lands under his
Will Will may refer to: Common meanings * Will and testament A will or testament is a legal document that expresses a person's (testator A testator () is a person A person (plural people or persons) is a being that has certain capacities or at ...
, or under the laws of
intestacy Intestacy is the condition of the estate Estate or The Estate may refer to: Law * Estate (law), a term in common law for a person's property, entitlements and obligations * Estates of the realm, a broad social category in the histories of cer ...
, then any land he owned at death would escheat. This rule has been replaced in most common-law jurisdictions by ''
bona vacantia Unowned property refers to tangible, physical things which are capable of being reduced to being property Property (''latin: Res Privata'') in the Abstract and concrete, abstract is what belongs to or with something, whether as an attribute or as ...
'' or a similar concept.


Procedure

From the 12th century onward, the Crown appointed ''escheators'' to manage escheats and report to the
Exchequer In the civil service The civil service is a collective term for a sector of government composed mainly of career civil servants hired on professional merit rather than appointed or elected, whose institutional tenure typically survives transi ...
, with one escheator per
county A county is a geographical region In geography, regions are areas that are broadly divided by physical characteristics (physical geography), human impact characteristics (human geography), and the interaction of humanity and the environment ...
established by the middle of the 14th century. Upon the death of a tenant-in-chief, the escheator would be instructed by a writ of ''diem clausit extremum'' ("he has closed his last day", i.e. he is dead) issued by the king's
chancery Chancery may refer to: * Chancery (diplomacy), the building that houses a diplomatic mission, such as an embassy * Chancery (medieval office), a medieval writing office * Chancery (Scotland) (also called The office of Director of Chancery, or Chan ...

chancery
, to empanel a jury to hold an " inquisition ''post mortem''" to ascertain who the legal heir was, if any, and what was the extent of the land held. Thus it would be revealed whether the king had any rights to the land. It was also important for the king to know who the heir was, and to assess his personal qualities, since he would thenceforth form a constituent part of the royal army, if he held under military tenure. If there was any doubt, the escheator would seize the land and refer the case to the king's court where it would be settled, ensuring that not one day's revenue would be lost. This would be a source of concern with land-holders when there were delays from the court.


Current operation

Most common-law jurisdictions have abolished the concept of
feudal land tenure Under the English feudal system several different forms of land tenure existed, each effectively a contract with differing rights and duties attached thereto. Such tenures could be either free-hold, signifying that they were hereditable or perpet ...
of property, and so the concept of escheat has lost something of its meaning. In
England and Wales England and Wales () is a legal jurisdiction covering England and Wales, two of the four countries of the United Kingdom, parts of the United Kingdom. England and Wales forms the constitutional successor to the former Kingdom of England and follows ...

England and Wales
, the possibility of escheat of a deceased person's property to the feudal overlord was abolished by the
Administration of Estates Act 1925 The Administration of Estates Act 1925 is an Act passed in 1925 by the British Parliament The Parliament of the United Kingdom is the Parliamentary sovereignty in the United Kingdom, supreme Legislature, legislative body of the United King ...
; however, the concept of
Bona vacantia Unowned property refers to tangible, physical things which are capable of being reduced to being property Property (''latin: Res Privata'') in the Abstract and concrete, abstract is what belongs to or with something, whether as an attribute or as ...
means that the crown (or
Duchy of Cornwall The Duchy of Cornwall ( kw, Duketh Kernow) is one of two royal duchies in England Currently, there are two duchies in England; the royal Duchy of Lancaster and the royal Duchy of Cornwall. Unlike historic duchy, duchies in England, these are no ...

Duchy of Cornwall
or
Duchy of Lancaster The Duchy of Lancaster is the private estate of the Monarchy of the United Kingdom, British sovereign as Duke of Lancaster. The principal purpose of the estate is to provide a source of independent income to the sovereign. The estate consists of ...
) can still receive such property if no one else can be found who is eligible to inherit it. The term is often now applied to the transfer of the title to a person's property to the state when the person dies
intestate Intestacy is the condition of the estate Estate or The Estate may refer to: Law * Estate (law), a term in common law for a person's property, entitlements and obligations * Estates of the realm, a broad social category in the histories of cer ...
without any other person capable of taking the property as
heir Inheritance is the practice of passing on private property Private property is a legal designation for the ownership of property by non-governmental legal entities. Private property is distinguishable from public property Public property i ...
. For example, a common-law jurisdiction's intestacy statute might provide that when someone dies without a
will Will may refer to: Common meanings * Will and testament A will or testament is a legal document that expresses a person's (testator A testator () is a person A person (plural people or persons) is a being that has certain capacities or at ...
, and is not survived by a spouse, descendants, parents, grandparents, descendants of parents, children or grandchildren of grandparents, or great-grandchildren of grandparents, then the person's estate will escheat to the state. Similarly, under Napoleonic law if someone dies intestate without natural heirs, then after all creditors are paid the remainder (if any) of his or her real and personal goods are inherited by the State. In some jurisdictions, escheat can also occur when an entity, typically a bank, credit union or other financial institution, holds money or property which appears to be unclaimed, for instance due to a lack of activity on the account by way of deposits, withdrawals or any other transactions for a lengthy time in a cash account. In many jurisdictions, if the owner cannot be located, such property can be revocably escheated to the state. In commerce, it is the process of reassigning legal title in unclaimed or abandoned payroll checks, insurance payouts, or stocks and shares whose owners cannot be traced, to a state authority (in the United States). A company is required to file unclaimed property reports with its state annually and, in some jurisdictions, to make a good-faith effort to find the owners of their dormant accounts. The escheating criteria are set by individual state regulations.


England and Wales


Bankruptcies and liquidations

Escheat can still occur in
England and Wales England and Wales () is a legal jurisdiction covering England and Wales, two of the four countries of the United Kingdom, parts of the United Kingdom. England and Wales forms the constitutional successor to the former Kingdom of England and follows ...

England and Wales
, if a person is made
bankrupt Bankruptcy is a legal process through which people or other entities who cannot repay debts to creditor A creditor or lender is a party 300px, '' Hip, Hip, Hurrah!'' (1888) by Peder Severin Krøyer, a painting portraying an artists' par ...

bankrupt
or a
corporation A corporation is an organization—usually a group of people or a company—authorized by the State (polity), state to act as a single entity (a legal entity recognized by private and public law "born out of statute"; a legal person in legal ...

corporation
is
liquidated Liquidation is the process in accounting by which a company (law), company is brought to an end in Canada, United Kingdom, Republic of Ireland, Ireland, Australia, New Zealand, and Italy, and many other countries. The assets and property of th ...
. Usually this means that all the property held by that person is 'vested in' (transferred to) the Official Receiver or
Trustee in Bankruptcy A trustee in bankruptcy is an entity, often an individual, in charge of administering a bankruptcy Bankruptcy is a legal process through which people or other entities who cannot repay debts to creditors may seek relief from some or all of the ...
. However, it is open to the Receiver or Trustee to refuse to accept that property by
disclaiming
disclaiming
it. It is relatively common for a trustee in bankruptcy to disclaim freehold property which may give rise to a liability, for example the common parts of a block of
flats Flat or flats may refer to: Architecture * Flat (housing), an apartment in the United Kingdom, Ireland, Australia and other Commonwealth countries Arts and entertainment * Flat (music), a symbol () which denotes a lower pitch * Flat (soldier), a ...

flats
owned by the bankrupt would ordinarily pass to the trustee to be realised in order to pay his debts, but the property may give the landlord an obligation to spend money for the benefit of lessees of the flats. The bankruptcy of the original owner means that the freehold is no longer the bankrupt's legal property, and the disclaimer destroys the freehold
estate Estate or The Estate may refer to: Law * Estate (law), a term in common law for a person's property, entitlements and obligations * Estates of the realm, a broad social category in the histories of certain countries. ** The Estates, representative ...
, so that the land ceases to be owned by anyone and effectively escheats to become land held by the Crown in
demesne A demesne ( ) or domain was all the land retained and managed by a lord of the manor Lord of the manor is a title that, in Anglo-Saxon England Anglo-Saxon England or Early Medieval England, existing from the 5th to the 11th centuries f ...
. This situation affects a few hundred properties each year. Although such escheated property is owned by the Crown, it is not part of the
Crown Estate The Crown Estate is a collection of lands and holdings in the United Kingdom belonging to the British monarch as a Corporation sole#The Crown, corporation sole, making it "the sovereign's public estate", which is neither government property nor ...
, unless the Crown (through the Crown Estate Commissioners) 'completes' the escheat, by taking steps to exert rights as owner. However, usually, in the example given above, the tenants of the flats, or their mortgagees would exercise their rights given by the
Insolvency Act 1986 The Insolvency Act 1986c 45 is an Act of the Parliament of the United Kingdom The Parliament of the United Kingdom is the supreme legislative body A legislature is an assembly Assembly may refer to: Organisations and meetings * Delib ...
to have the freehold property transferred to them. This is the main difference between escheat and ''bona vacantia'', as in the latter, a grant takes place automatically, with no need to 'complete' the transaction.


Registration of Crown land

One consequence of the
Land Registration Act 1925 The Land Registration Act 1925 (LRA) was an act of Parliament in the United Kingdom that codified, prioritised and extended the system of land registration in England and Wales. It has largely been repealed, and updated in the Land Registration Act ...
was that only
estates in land An estate in land is an interest in real property In England, English common law, real property, real estate, realty, or immovable property is land which is the property of some person and all structures (also called Land improvement, impr ...
(freehold or leasehold) could be registered. Land held directly by the Crown, known as property in the "royal
demesne A demesne ( ) or domain was all the land retained and managed by a lord of the manor Lord of the manor is a title that, in Anglo-Saxon England Anglo-Saxon England or Early Medieval England, existing from the 5th to the 11th centuries f ...
", is not held under any
vestigial Vestigiality is the retention, during the process of evolution Evolution is change in the heritable Heredity, also called inheritance or biological inheritance, is the passing on of Phenotypic trait, traits from parents to their off ...

vestigial
feudal tenure (the crown has no historical overlord other than, for brief periods, the papacy) and there is therefore no estate to register. This had the consequence that freeholds which escheated to the Crown ceased to be registrable. This created a slow drain of property out of registration, amounting to some hundreds of freehold titles in each year. The problem was noted by the
Law Commission A law commission, law reform commission, or law revision commission is an independent body set up by a government to conduct law reform Law reform or legal reform is the process of examining existing law Law is a system A system is a gr ...
in their report "Land Registration for the Twenty-First Century". The
Land Registration Act 2002 The Land Registration Act 2002c 9 is an Act of the Parliament of the United Kingdom The Parliament of the United Kingdom is the supreme legislative body A legislature is an assembly Assembly may refer to: Organisations and meetings * ...
was passed in response to that report. It provides that land held in demesne by the Crown may be registered.


United States


Transfer agents and escheatment

Escheatment is the process of returning lost or unclaimed property to the government of a State, for safekeeping until the owner(s) is identified. Geographic jurisdiction of the State is determined by the last known address of the original owner. Each of the United States has laws regulating escheatment, with holding periods typically ranging around five years. The legal principle behind escheatment is that all property has a legally recognized owner; therefore, if the original owner cannot be found within a specified time, government is presumed to be the owner. Escheats are performed on a revocable basis. Thus, if property has escheated to a State but the original owner subsequently is found, escheatment is revoked and ownership of the property reverts to that original owner.


Lost shareholders

According to SEC Rule 17 CFR 240.17f-1: Transfer Agents are obligated by the SEC to report to Commission (specifically to its designee; the SEC's Securities Information System) anytime a certificate is known to be lost or missing for at least 2 days. Transfer Agents must search for the holder's SSN or EIN utilizing an information database system, or if not available, exercise their best effort to match the holder's name and address through these systems. ''All'' Transfer Agents ''must'' report ''all'' lost or missing certificates/shareholders on their own annual filings.{{Cite web , url= https://westcoaststocktransfer.com/escheatment , title= Escheatment , language=en , access-date= 2018-01-26


See also

*
Bona vacantia Unowned property refers to tangible, physical things which are capable of being reduced to being property Property (''latin: Res Privata'') in the Abstract and concrete, abstract is what belongs to or with something, whether as an attribute or as ...
* Breakage *
Doctrine of lapse The doctrine of lapse was a policy of annexation initiated by the British East India Company in India India (Hindi: ), officially the Republic of India (Hindi: ), is a country in South Asia. It is the List of countries and dependencies ...
*
History of the English fiscal system The history of the English fiscal system affords the best known example of continuous financial development in terms of both institutions and methods. Although periods of great upheaval occurred from the time of the Norman Conquest The N ...
*
Intestacy Intestacy is the condition of the estate Estate or The Estate may refer to: Law * Estate (law), a term in common law for a person's property, entitlements and obligations * Estates of the realm, a broad social category in the histories of cer ...
*
Quia Emptores ''Quia Emptores'' is a statute passed by the Parliament of England The Parliament of England was the legislature of the Kingdom of England from the mid 13th to 17th century. The first English Parliament was convened in 1215, with the cr ...


Sources

*S.T. Gibson, "The Escheatries, 1327–1341", ''English Historical Review'', 36(1921). *John Bean, ''The Decline of English Feudalism, 1215–1540'', 1968.


References

Common law Feudalism in England Property law Real property law Time in government